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What is APA Style?
American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of several styles for academic writing. This guide covers frequently used citation forms. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (BF 76.7 .P83 2010) is a comprehensive resource, available at most UBC Libraries.
• Formatting: The preferred APA font is a serif typeface such as Times New Roman with 12-point size. Doublespace between all lines of text, including the reference list. Have uniform margins of at least 1 in. (2.54 cm) on all sides. • Hanging indents should be used for the reference list entries. This means that all lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one half inch from the left margin (in Word 2007 use Paragraph>Special>Hanging). • Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author. Use only the initial(s) of the author's given name, not the full name, with a space between the initials. • If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order (oldest first). Add a lower case letter (a, b, etc.) after the year, within the parentheses. • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article or book title. Proper nouns are also capitalized as well as the word following a colon (subtitle). Journal titles should have every major word capitalized. • Italicize journal titles, volume numbers and even the comma following the journal title. Do not italicize issue numbers (i.e., the number which appears in parentheses after the volume number). • References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and secondary sources, which are cited in the text only and are not included in the reference list.
Citations in Text
1. When using a direct quotation, include the page number of the quote. • Stereotypes have been defined as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one’s social group uses in characterizing members of another group” (Lindgren, 2001, p. 1617). 2. When paraphrasing an idea, the citation will include author(s) and date. • Author’s name given in the body of your paper: • Lindgren (2001) reported… • Author’s name not given in the body of your paper: • A study of the comparison process (Lindgren, 2001)
3. For electronic sources without page numbers, use the abbreviation para. If the paragraph number is not apparent, cite the section heading and the paragraph number following it. • (Myers, 2000, para. 5) • (Butler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)
4. Order two or more works within the same parentheses as they would appear in the reference list.
• Past research (Heschl, 2001, 2005; Noonan & Johnson, 2002a, 2002b; Wolchuk et al., 2000) has shown…
more . . .
then insert three spaced dots (an ellipsis - p.bandc. 6. 6.1016/j.0228 First and subsequent citations in text: (Robinson et al. 55-63. P.healthplace. or not available in English” (p. include the first six authors’ names in the reference. Retrieved from http:/ /cogprints. B. v “Use secondary sources sparingly.007 . 2007. doi:10.2005 07. . Retrieved from http://www. 198 #1 of the Manual) Direct quotation in text: (Rutherford. Waldrop. & Gurevich. Wardman.05) Gabora. Journal article: Retrieved online with no DOI: Posted to preprint archive: No pagination (p.005 First and subsequent citations in text: (Bottorff et al. 2006.tandf. pp. Journal of Professional Nursing. J. (2009). Absence of recovery or dendritic reorganization after neonatal posterior parietal lesions. (2006).1016/j. doi:10. Health care services for lesbian and bisexual women: Some Canadian data. 177 table 6.. continued . C. 177 table 6. J.2008. Health Care for Women International. M... for instance. C. 134-142. & Dyches.. 198 #2 & p. unavailable through usual sources.17) Kolb. 198 #1 & p. doi:10. Journal article: Retrieved online with no DOI: Give URL of the journal home page (even if retrieved from a database) (p.1089/jpm.htm Direct quotation in text: (Gabora. Reading disability and hemispheric interaction on a lexical Retrieved online with decision task.1016/j. (2002). L. C. Bottorff. 200 #6 & p. Mitchell.04. Varcoe. L. (2009). 199 #3) Mathieson. & Dyches. B. Hutchinson. 178). para. Carey. 198). Direct quotation in text (from a passage that spans two pages): First citation: (Rush... . S. Advance online publication. (1998). J. 2005. 171 sec.2009. 199 #3 & p. & Cioe.JOURNAL ARTICLES Journal article: Rutherford. 26... give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number (p... Journal of Theoretical Biology. Citation in text: Diamattia and Kesner’s study (as cited in Kolb & Cioe. (2005). Bailey. C. S. J. (2007). 199 #5) Bottorff.. & Fyles. . Mowry. and add the last author’s name (p.co. 184).. 253-258. R. 198 # 1 & p. 1998) . p. Journal article: Not retrieved online (print version) with no DOI: Discussed in a secondary source (p. G.profnurs. 5) v The exact URL is used because the article is “informally published” (p. . doi:10. C.. Mowatt. J. L..asp Citation in text: (Mathieson. 12. 283-292.1) Journal article: Retrieved online with DOI: Eight or more authors: Advance online publication (p. 2009) v When authors number eight or more. J. . B. . Bailey.. Johnson. 291) Robinson. Health & Place. Pesut. M.org /5583/01/soo. 21. N.2005 09. 2005. 2002) v Hint: Google journal title to locate URL. Mitchell. A.. 283-284) Subsequent citation to a different passage from the same source: (Rush et al. Bingo halls and smoking: Perspectives of First Nations women.uk /journals/titles/07399332. The RN-BSN distance education experience: From educational limbo to more than an elusive degree. 178 sec. p. 56) v If each issue of a journal begins on page 1. . Journal article: Retrieved online with DOI: Three to five authors (p.. Waldrop. 2009) Journal article: Retrieved online with DOI: Six or seven authors (p. L. Journal of Palliative Medicine. & Gurevich. 60. 171) Rush. Brain and Cognition. 23. 172). Self-other organization: Why early life did not evolve through natural selection. K.. 185-196.. Broughton.013 . L.1) Citation spanning two pages: (p. when the original work is out of print.. Psychobiology. D. . 200). Rural palliative care: A comprehensive review. digital object identifier (DOI) (Example on p.
Sheldon (Eds. DC: Author. 2007) Chapter in an edited book: English translation: Reprinted from another source (p. (1978).. 203 sec. Washington. The Vancouver Sun. J. Kelowna. C.com/ Citations in text: (Cernetig. & Sookraj. D. H. 201).. (1997). Woodworth.macleans. 2010) Subsequent: (APA. 1970/1988) Encyclopedia article (p. NY: Wiley.vancouversun. The mental and emotional life of teenagers. . 2001) Book with no author or editor (p. (2001). Calgary. 3-18). S. Memory for murder: The qualities and credibility of homicide narratives by perpetrators. 2001) Murphy. (1988). A. D. Lai. J. Citation in text: (Porter. BOOKS & BOOK SECTIONS Book: 1-2 authors (p.. Our universities can be smarter. (2009. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.. Retrieved from http:/ /www. BC: Kelowna Home Support Society. Trans. (1993).).02) . Springfield. (2010). 202 sec. NY: Wiley. 203 #18) Edited book (p. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology. AB: Detselig Enterprises. In K. Langer. (2009. D. J. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (Vol. N. 703-732. Richardson & S. Mussen.. (Eds. New York. 7. Stereotyping. New York. M. Retrieved from http:/ /www2. & Doucette. 2009) v “Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid non working URLs” (p. Maclean’s. Citation in text: (Lindgren. August 11). Citations in text: First Citation: (Murphy. M.02 & p. Evaluation of the neighborhood (congregate) meal program: Final report. Citations in text: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA]. Citation in text: (Merriam-Webster’s. pp. 1970. 2010) Hare. Book: 3-5 authors (p. Gellerier & J. 7. 1617-1618).JOURNAL ARTICLES (continued) Online magazine article (p. & Doucette. Lai. NJ: Erlbaum. P. by P. 2009) Online newspaper article: Give URL (even if retrieved from a database): No author (p.). Psychopathic behaviour: Approaches to research. Christianson (Ed. 200 #11) Cernetig..). Citation in text: (Hare & Schalling. New York.). 203 #18) Mitchell. Opinion: Crafty Campbell knew the dangers of HST. (2001). July 28). & Sookraj. 177 table 6. NY: Wiley. NY: Wiley) Citation in text: (Piaget. Citation in text: (Mitchell. M.). 205 #29) Lindgren. 200 #8) Wells. pp. 1997) Subsequent: (Murphy et al. H. R. 1978) Chapter in an edited book book (p. MA: Merriam-Webster. Hillsdale. 1993) continued . Ed. 1997) Book: Group author: Author as publisher: 6th edition (p. Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 204 #26) Piaget. 115-134). 4. .. 204 #25) Porter. Woodworth. & Schalling. 205 #30) Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed. In S.1) American Psychological Association. Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G. 203 2nd bullet & p. (2007). Offenders’ memories of violent crimes (pp.). D. Chichester.ca/ Citation in text: (Wells.
(1999). Marshall (Eds. Medically unexplained illness: Gender and biopsychosocial implications [Monograph]. 204 #23) Koch. Citation in text: (Rasmussen. K. L. 1999) Aguiar. M. Rust & S. 209 #45) Dissertation: Retrieved from a database ((p.ubc. by J. S. 207 #39) Deci. Casement]. 1-6). R. Citation in text: (Deci & Ryan. . 208 #41) Gibson. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Citation in text: (Koch. S. 209 #45) O’Grady. (2006). Perspectives on motivation (pp. .).com Citation in text: (“Globalization”. B. 2005) Dutton.). Scott & G. 208 #40) . 6. 205 #29 & #30 & p. 1991) v “If the publisher is a university and the name of the state or province is included in the name of the university.BOOKS AND BOOK SECTIONS (continued) Published conference proceedings: No DOI (p. (1991). [Review of the test Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. do not repeat the name in the publisher location” (p. Retrieved from https:/ /circle. by P. (2005). Golombok]. 1959-1963) Globalization. L.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (2007). (2005). E. . Have we learned from our mistakes? [Review of the book Learning from our mistakes: Beyond dogma in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. 2007) continued .). S. A dictionary of sociology. The ‘dirt’ on the contract cleaning industry in Toronto: Cleanliness and work reorganization (Doctoral dissertation). In J. (2001).ca/books Citation in text: (Dutton. doi:10. 2006) Johnson. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. Citation in text: (Johnson.15) Electronic version of a print book (p. 38. & Ryan. Retrieved from http:/ /books. 212 #62) Peterson. Transforming the daily life of the classroom: The District Six laptop project. (2008). (1986). 2001) Master’s thesis: Retrieved from an institutional database (p. The abusive personality: Violence and control in intimate relationships (2nd ed.). Retrieved from Mental Measurements Yearbook database Citation in text: (O’Grady. 202 ERIC document: Retrieved online (p. Psychoanalytic Social Work. 187) Multi-volume work (p. Retrieved from http:/ /www.google. E. Dienstbier (Ed. NY: McGraw-Hill. Mental measurements yearbook (10th ed. In R. (Ed. 1986) v “Database names . L. (AAT NQ67931) Citation in text: (Aguiar. (ED437028) Citation in text: (Peterson.oxfordreference. 203 #19 & 21) Limited-circulation book or monograph: Retrieved from a database (p.1300/J032v12n01_06.ca/ Citation in text: (Gibson. (1959-1963). 12(1). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database. A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. Entry in an online reference work: No author: (p. 2008) Rasmussen. 2006) Test review: Retrieved from a database (p. D. 204 #22) Book review: Retrieved from a journal online (p. Considering critical thinking and History 12: One teacher’s story (Master’s thesis). may be given for material of limited circulation” (p. 73-79.. 176 sec. 237-288). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. New York. . L. Retrieved from ERIC database.
c. 2007) LEGAL DOCUMENTS Legislation: Revised Statutes of Canada: Retrieved from the internet (p. . Retrieved from QP LegalEze database.umontreal.ca/cihiweb/products /NHSRep06_ENG.g. 217 #1) Criminal Code. G. Latimer. 7. & Wilkins.03) so identify publisher as part of retrieval statement (p.. 205 sec. 2004) Web report: Author different from the publisher (p. 1996) R.C.asp?id=1514 Citation in text: (National Defense and the Canadian Forces.WEB DOCUMENTS Webpage (p. v. Retrieved from http:/ /psychcentral.statcan.html Citation in text: (Criminal Code.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs Citation in text: (Norton..lexum. . Loneliness isn’t good [Web log message].ca/site/news-nouvelles/view-news afficher-nouvelles-eng. 82-575-XIE). Backgrounder: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). C-34 (1985).g.com/types/cognitive-therapy/ Citation in text: (Mulhauser.B. (2009).ca/en/2001/ 2001scc1/2001scc1.com/blog/archives/2007/08/17/loneliness-isnt-good/ Citation in text: (Kiume. 1 S. August 17). (2004). (2006). R. (2005). 83-003-XPE). 192). Retrieved from Canadian Institute for Health Information website: http:/ /secure.youtube. R. Retrieved from http:/ /www. Citation in text: (University Act. 215 #76) Kiume. 1985) University Act. K. An introduction to cognitive therapy & cognitive behavioural approaches.ca/en/C-46/index. (2006.ca/english/freepub/82-575-XIE /82-575 XIE2006002.forces. 220 #10) Case law: Supreme Court of Canada Reports: Retrieved from the internet (p. November 4). (2007.R.html Citation in text: (R. Retrieved from http:/ /www. S.pdf Citation in text: (Shields & Wilkins. Retrieved from http:/ /www.htm Citation in text: (Statistics Canada. 205 #31) Shields.justice. e.S. 2009) “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.gc.. Retrieved from http:/ /counsellingresource. Webpage: Corporate author (p 205 #31) National Defense and the Canadian Forces.S. 2006) Statistics Canada. Latimer. 2001) MEDIA Video clip.cihi. 212 #61) Mulhauser. c. Retrieved from http:/ /laws.C.gc. 2006) continued . 3 (2001). 2005) Blog posting (p. YouTube: Retrieved from the internet (p. R. Wikis)” (p. Findings from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (Report No. v. . 206 #33) Web report: Author same as publisher (p. Retrieved from http:/ /scc. 468 (1996). 215 #77) Norton. Access to health care services in Canada (Report No. 220 #11) Legislation: Revised Statutes of British Columbia: Retrieved from a database (p. How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. M.
ubc. Retrieved from https:/ /www. (Producer).).05) Janke. 2006) Redfield. Money. 56-71). (1997). (2006). Professor Davies said… Class handout: Has title (p. Citation in text: (Davidson. 211 #58) Woodworth. Bookstore.elearning. 210 #51) MacIntyre.20) Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay. Citation in text: M. M.MEDIA (continued) Audio clip [podcast]: Retrieved from the internet (p. 2008. HANDOUTS & YOUR ESSAYS FROM LAST YEAR Personal communication (p. University of British Columbia Okanagan. (Director). R. 52(4). Biological foundations of sexuality [PowerPoint slides]. J. F.yorku. Thomas Blass on Stanley Milgram’s shocking studies of obedience [Audio podcast]. to a PSYO 235 class. The folk society. Custom course materials SOCI 355 (pp.ubc.07) Davidson. Cashore (Producer). University of British Columbia. Librarians are novel lovers: An exploration of our risqué professional stereotypes (Unpublished graduate essay). Retrieved from https:/ /www. F. In N. Toronto. 209 section 7. (2006). phone calls. 293-308. 212 # 61) Custom course materials: Reprinted from another source (p. 2006) Motion picture (p. Kelowna. D. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. 1997) Lecture notes posted to WebCT Vista (p.ca Citation in text: (Cioe.ca/christo/ podcasts/ Citation in text: (Green. Because they include “unrecoverable data. October 9-15). 204 #26) . J. (2006). B. Citation in text: (Janke. Department of Psychology. 1947). 1999) Single episode from a television series ((p. Retrieved from http:/ /www. 1947/2007) Essay: Self-citation (template on p. 2006) NOTES. (Reprinted from American Journal of Sociology. Citation in text: (MacIntyre. 2006) Cioe. United States: Davidson Films. & Davidson. (2006). 210 #50) Green. (2006. email messages. (Producer). ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. J. 179 section 6. Vancouver. The fifth estate. Canada. Burton (personal communication. and interviews. 2006) Cioe. 207 section 7. L. Citation in text: In a lecture on November 16. truth and spin [Television series episode].20) Includes letters.elearning. Canada. C. (1999). Netting (Ed. Citation in text: (Redfield. Kelowna. R. 2006)… Class notes (p.” they are NOT included in the reference list. 179 section 6. August 1. Psychopaths [Class handout]. Citation in text: (Woodworth. (2007). In H. (Reporter).ca Citation in text: (Cioe. BC: University of British Columbia Okanagan. The normal distribution [Lecture notes]. 212 #61) PowerPoint presentation posted to WebCT Vista (p.
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