These GATE 2018 notes will help you understand Maxima and Minima in functions. This is an important concept in Engineering Mathematics. Boost your Exam Preparation for GATE EE & GATE ECE. Download the PDF now!

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These GATE 2018 notes will help you understand Maxima and Minima in functions. This is an important concept in Engineering Mathematics. Boost your Exam Preparation for GATE EE & GATE ECE. Download the PDF now!

© All Rights Reserved

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in PDF

If you have learnt some of the basics of Calculus so far, then you must now learn all

about Maxima and Minima. These free GATE 2018 Notes help you understand

Maxima and Minima in functions. You can have these study material downloaded as

PDF so that your exam preparation is made easy and you ace your paper.

These are useful for GATE EC, GATE EE, GATE ME, GATE CE, GATE CS as well as

other exams like BARC, BSNL, DRDO, IES etc. Before you get going with this article,

make sure your basics are covered.

Recommended Reading –

Types of Matrices

Properties of Matrices

Laplace Transforms

1|Page

Differentiation

Partial Differentiation

1. The function f is said to have a maximum value in I, if there exists a point c in such

that f(c) > f(x), for all x ∈ I. The value f(c) is called the maximum value of f(x) in I and

the point c is called a point of maximum value of f(x) in I.

such that f(c) < f(x), for all x ∈ I. The value f(c), in this case, is called the minimum

value of f(x) in I and the point c, in this case is called a point of minimum value of

f(x) in I.

3. The function f is said to have an extreme value in I if there exists a point c in I such

that f(c) is either maximum value or a minimum value of f(x) in I.

4. The number f(c) in this case, is called an extreme value of f(x) in I and the point c

is called an extreme point.

2|Page

Note:

3. If f ‘(x) does not change sign as x increases through c, then c is neither a point of

Local maxima nor a point of local minima. In fact, such a point is called point of

inflection. So the condition for point of inflection is f ‘’(x) = 0

4. Similarly the necessary condition for the existing of either Maxima or Minima is f

‘(x) = 0.

Example 1:

Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function f given by

Solution:

3|Page

Given that f(x) = 2x3 - 6x2 + 6x + 5

f ‘(x) = 0 at x = 1

Observe that f ‘(x) > 0 for all x ∈ R and in particular f ‘(x) > 0, for values close to 1

and to the left and right of 1.

Then

1. x = c is a point of local maxima if f ‘(c)=0 and f ‘'(c) < 0. Then the value f(c) is local

maximum value of f(x).

2. x = c is a point of local minima if f ‘(c)=0 and f ‘'(c)>0. In this case, f(c) is local

minimum value of f(x).

Example 2:

Find local maximum and local minimum values of the function f given by

Solution:

f ‘(x) = 0 at x = 0, x = 1 and x = –2

4|Page

f ‘'(x) = 36x2 +24x – 24

f ‘'(1) = 36 > 0

while x = 1 and x = –2 are local minimum points.

1. The graph gives a continuous function defined on a closed interval [a, d]. Observe

that the function f has a local minima at x = b and local minimum vales is f(b), the

function also has a local maxima at x = c and local maximum values is f(c).

2. Also form the graph, it is evident that f has absolute maximum value f(a) and

absolute minimum value f(d). Further note that absolute maximum (minimum)

value of f(x) is different from local maximum (minimum) value of f(x).

3. This absolute maximum value is nothing but global maxima and absolute

minimum value is nothing but global minima.

5|Page

Method to Find Global Maxima and Minima

Step 1: -

Find the all critical points of the function f(x) in the interval i.e. find points x where

either f ‘(x) = 0 or f is not differentiable.

Step 2: -

Step 3: -

At all these points (listed in step 1 and step 2) calculate the values of f(x).

Step 4: -

Identity the maximum and minimum values of f(x) out of the values will be the

absolute maximum (greatest) value of f(x) and the minimum (least) value of f(x).

Example 3:

Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of a function f(x) given by

f(x) = 2x3 – 15x2 + 36x + 1 in the interval [1, 5]

Solution:

f '(x) = 0 gives x = 2, x = 3

f (1) = 24

f(2) = 29

6|Page

f(3) = 28

f(5) = 56

Did you like this article on Maxima and Minima? Let us know in the comments? You may

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