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# SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM

RUDIN

DAVID SEAL

## Abstract. I became bored sometime this August 2006, and de-

cided to review some of my analysis, by reading my old analysis
book[1] from Junior year. While I’m at it, I decided to type up
some solutions to a few problems that I scratched out solutions
to on notepaper in order to pick up some LATEXpractice along the
way. This paper has solutions to some of the problems I was able
to solve, indeed many of the problems in this book were too chal-
lenging to solve in a weekend. All of these problems were selected
from Principles of Mathematical Analysis[1] by Walter Rudin.

Contents
1. The Real and Complex Number System 1
2. Basic Topology 1
3. Numerical Sequences and Series 3
4. Continuity 8
5. Differentiation 10
References 11

Ok, now the real work. But, first a definition. A metric space is
called separable if it contains a countable dense subset. Problem #21
on page 45 asks you to prove that Rk is separable. The second definition

## 1. The Real and Complex Number System

OK fine, I didn’t write up any of these. I just wanted the numbers
to line up.

2. Basic Topology
Problem 1 (pg. 45, #23). A collection {Vα } of open subsets of X is
said to be a base for X if the following is true: For every x ∈ X and
every open set G ⊂ X such that x ∈ G, we have x ∈ Vα ⊂ G for some
1
2 DAVID SEAL

## α. In other words, every open set in X is the union of a subcollection

of {Vα }.
Prove that every separable metric space has a countable base. Hint:
Take all neighborhoods with rational radius and center in some count-
able dense subset of X.
The hint tells us exactly what to do. The set
V := Br (x) : r ∈ Q+ , x ∈ C

(1)
where C is the countable dense subset gives the desired result.
Solution. Set V as in (1). This set is countable since both Q and C
are countable. Suppose G ⊂ X is open. Let x ∈ G and find an ǫ > 0
such that B2ǫ (x) ⊂ G. Since C is dense, there exists a p ∈ C, where
d(p, x) < ǫ. In addition, the density of the rationals on the real line
provides an r ∈ Q where ǫ > r > d(p, x) > 0. Therefore, x ∈ Br (p).
Furthermore, if y ∈ Br (p), we have that
d(y, x) ≤ d(y, p) + d(p, x) < 2r < 2ǫ,
so that Br (p) ⊂ G, the desired result. 
This problem set continues in the next one. Rudin[1] sure does like
to give important definitions and theorems in the problem sets!
Problem 2 (pg. 45, #24). Let X be a metric space in which every
infinite subset has a limit point. Prove that X is separable. (A hint is
given in the book. I won’t type it here, but I will follow it).
The best course of action is to follow the hint.
Solution. Fix 1/n > 0. Start with any x1 ∈ X. Having chosen
x1 , x2 , . . . , xj ∈ X, choose xj+1 ∈ X, if possible, so that d(xi , xj+1 ) ≥
1/n for i = 1, . . . , j. Assume this course of action is infinite, and we’ll
show a contradiction from this assumption. The set defined as
X1/n := {xk }∞
k=1
is infinite because each xk is distinct; it therefore has a limit point due
to the hypothesis. Let’s say xN ∈ {xk }∞ k=1 is the limit point. However,
xN cannot be a limit point, for

B 1 (x) ∩ {xk }∞k=1 \ {xN } = ∅.
2n

because this set has the property that each xi ∈ X1/n is at least 1/n
away from every other point in the set. Therefore, the process of
choosing the xi ’s is a finite
S one for any positive 1/n; we also have
the nice property that k B 1 (xk ) ⊃ X for every positive 1/n, (oth-
n
erwise we would have been able to choose an additional xi ). The set
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 3

## X ∗ := ∪∞ 1 yields a countable dense subset. Therefore, X is sep-

n=1 X n
arable (see pbm. #22) which shows that it has a countable base (see
pbm #23). 
Gee, that was fun. I see it takes a lot longer to type these problems
up in LATEXrather than by hand, but I think it’ll be a useful tool for
me to learn anyway. OK, on to the next problem.

## 3. Numerical Sequences and Series

P
Problem 3 (pg.78, #7). Prove that the convergence of an implies
the convergence of
X √an
,
n
if an > 0.
I’ll define a sequence
bn := max 1/n2 , an ,


## and claim that this sequence converges.

Proof of
P claim: Let
P ǫ > 0. From the Cauchy criterion of convergence,
1
(both n2
and an converge absolutely), there exists an N ∈ N such
that
N +j
X 1
2
< ǫ/2 and
k=N
n
N +j
X
an < ǫ/2
k=N

## for any j ∈ N. From the definition of bn , the following inequalities are

fairly imminent. We will replace any missing terms with the remaining
terms in the convergent sequences:
N
X +j N
X +j N
X +j
2
bk ≤ 1/n + ak < ǫ/2 + ǫ/2 = ǫ.
k=N k=N k=N
P
By the cauchy criterion for convergence, bn must converge. 
With that bit out of the way, we can provide the solution.
Solution. Starting with bn ≥ 1/n2 and bn ≥ an , we have that b2n ≥ ann2
after multiplying these
√ inequalities together. After taking square roots,
an
we have that bn ≥ n and the comparison test implies the convergence
P √an
of n
. 
4 DAVID SEAL

## GWEN, HERE IS MY PROOF:

√ √
Theorem 1. If 0 < a ≤ b for some a, b ∈ R, then a≤ b.
Proof. √
Suppose
√ not. That is, suppose there exist an 0 < a < b for
which a  b. I.e.
√ √
a > b.
If we multiply the previous inequality together by itself, we obtain
√ √ √ √
a a > b b,
In other words,
a > b.
P
Problem 4 (pg. 79, #12). Suppose an > 0 and an converges. Put

X
rn := am .
m=n

## (1) Prove that

am an rn
+···+ >1−
rm rn rm
P an
if m < n, and deduce that rn
diverges.
(2) Prove that
an √ √
√ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 )
rn
P an
and deduce that √
rn
converges.

Solution (Part (1)). Rather than follow the books use of an m < n,
I will choose to fix an m, j ∈ N, and prove this with a m < m + j.
I believe this is much more explicit. Hence, the equation we seek to
prove can be reformulated as
am am+j rm+j
(2) +···+ > 1− .
rm rm+j rm
Since an > 0 for every n, we must have that rn is a decreasing sequence:
rm > rm+i for any i ∈ N. Hence, for any i ∈ N,
rm
(3) > 1.
rm+i
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 5

Applying equation (3) a few times, in addition to the fact am+j > 0,
we have that

rm − rm+j = am + · · · + am+j−1
< am + · · · + am+j
   
rm rm
< am + am+1 + · · · + am+j .
rm+1 rm+j

Whence,
rm+j am am+1 am+j
1− < + +···+ ;
rm rm rm+1 rm+j

## which is the desired P

result for half the problem.
an
In order to show rn
diverges, it is enough show that it fails the
cauchy criterion for convergence. Fix ǫ = 1/2 and let N ∈ N. There
r
exists a j ∈ N such that rN +j ≤ r2N , whence 1 − N+j rN
≥ 1/2. If we
apply the inequality just shown, we have

N +j
X ak rN +j
>1− ≥ 1/2.
k=N
rk rN

P an
This shows that rn
will never pass the cauchy criterion for conver-
gence, which means it must be divergent. 

Solution (Part (2)). We will start by proving the inequality asked for.
The following inequalities each proceed from the previous one:
√ √ 2
0 < ( rn − rn+1 ) ;

0 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn + rn+1 ;

−rn+1 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn ;

rn − rn+1 < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) ;

an < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) .

## The final inequality is a restatement of the previous one since an =

rn − rn+1 . The desired result comes after dividing by rn ;

an √ √
(4) √ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) .
rn
6 DAVID SEAL

To
P prove the second part for this question; namely the convergence of
√an , we might ask: what if we add up a bunch of these √an ’s?
rn rn
an an+1 an+j
√ + √ +···+ √
rn rn+1 rn+j
√ √ √ √ 
< 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) + · · · + ( rn+j − rn+j+1 )
√ √ 
= 2 rn − rn+j+1

< 2 rn .

The sequence sn := nk=1 √arkk is bounded above by r1 , and monoton-
P

## ically increasing. Therefore the sum, ∞ √an

P
n=1 rn converges. 
The next problem is a multi-series problem.
Problem 5 (pg. 82, #24). Let X be a metric space.
(1) Call two Cauchy sequences {pn }, {qn } in X equivalent if
lim d(pn , qn ) = 0.
n→∞

## Prove this is an equivalence relation.

(2) Let X ∗ be the set of all equivalence classes so obtained. If P ∈
X ∗ , Q ∈ X ∗ , {pn } ∈ P , {qn } ∈ Q, define
∆(P, Q) := lim d(pn , qn );
n→∞

by excercise 23, this limit exists. Show that the number ∆(P, Q)
is unchanged if {pn } and {qn } are replaced by equivalent se-
quences, and hence that ∆ is a distance function in X ∗ .
(3) Prove that the resulting metric space X ∗ is complete.
**I FIND THIS QUESTION DIFFICULT, AND HAVEN’T
SOLVED IT YET; BUT I HAVE WRITTEN SOME IDEAS
DOWN**
(4) for each p ∈ X, there is a Cauchy sequence all of whose terms
are p; let Pp be the element of X ∗ which contains this sequence.
Prove that
∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q)
for all p, q ∈ X. In other words, the mapping ϕ : X → X ∗
defined by p 7→ Pp is an isometry.
Solution (Part (1)). There are three items we need for an equivalence
relation.
(1) {pn } ∼ {pn } since
lim d(pn , pn ) = lim 0 = 0.
n→∞ n→∞
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 7

## (2) Suppose {pn } ∼ {qn }. Then {qn } ∼ {pn } because d(pn , qn ) =

d(qn , pn ), so the limit still goes to 0.
(3) Suppose {pn } ∼ {qn } and {qn } ∼ {xn } for some {xn }. Then
d(pn , xn ) ≤ d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , xn ). After taking limits, the right
hand side goes to zero, so we have that {pn } ∼ {xn }. 
Solution (Part (2)). Suppose both {pn }, {pn ′ } ∈ P and that {qn },
{qn ′ } ∈ Q. Set the following values:
a := lim d(pn , qn );
n→∞
a := lim d(p′n , qn′ ).

n→∞

These values exist (from problem #23), and we desire to show that
a = a′ in order for ∆(P, Q) to be well defined.
Two applications of the triangle inequality give
0 ≤ d(pn , qn ) ≤ d(pn , p′n ) + d(p′n , qn′ ) + d(qn′ , qn ).
Sending n → ∞, we obtain
(5) 0 ≤ a ≤ a′ .
Applying the triangle inequality again:
0 ≤ d(p′n , qn′ ) ≤ d(p′n , pn ) + d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , qn′ );
so sending n → ∞, we obtain
(6) 0 ≤ a′ ≤ a.
Together, (5) and (6) show a = a′ . 
Solution (Part (3)). In order to show that X ∗ is complete, we must
show that given a cauchy sequence {Pn } ∈ X ∗ , (under the ∆ metric),
there is a set P ∈ X ∗ such that limn→∞ Pn = P .
Suppose {Pn } ∈ X ∗ is cauchy. For every ǫ > 0 there exists a corre-
sponding N ∈ N such that for every j ∈ N, and every n ≥ N
∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.
(n) (n+j)
Refering to the definition for ∆, if {pk } ∈ Pn and {pk } ∈ Pn+j ,
 
(n) (n+j)
lim d pk , pk = ∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.
k→∞

Let’s start by defining P to be the set which would have the desired
property for which Pn 7→ P . Define:
n
(n)
(7) P := {pk }∞ k=1 : ∀ǫ > 0, ∃N ∈ N, ∀n ≥ N, ∃{qk } ∈ Pn ,
  o
(n)
lim d pk , qk <ǫ .
k→∞
8 DAVID SEAL

The first task is to show this set is non-empty. To start, there exists
an N1 < N2 such that every n1 ≥ N1 , n2 ≥ N2 ,
∆(Pn1 , Pn1 +j ) < 2−1 ;
(8) ∆(Pn2 , Pn2 +j ) < 2−2 .
In order to fill in the whole sequence, take any p1 , p2 , . . . , pN1 −1 ∈ X.
(j )
According to (8), for N1 ≤ j1 ≤ N2 there are sequences {pk 1 } such
that
(j ) (N )
lim d(pk 1 , pk 1 ) < 2−1 .
k→∞
(N )
For these values, N1 ≤ k ≤ N2 , set pk = pk 1 . We proceed by in-
duction. Let i ∈ N, and suppose pk has been chosen for each k = 1,
2, . . . , Ni . There exists an Ni+1 , Ni < Ni+1 such that
(9) ∆(PNi , Pki ) < 2−(i+1) forNi ≤ ki ;
THIS ISN’T QUITE RIGHT. I’M INDEXING ON THE WRONG
VARIABLE... 
The final part (4) will not be proven. We’re taking the limit of a
constant, so ∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q) is obvious. This is pretty cool nonethe-
less! OK - these problems are taking SUPER long to type up. Maybe
I should start defining keyboard macros? Ok, I have a few defined, but
a lot of the keys are already being used...
4. Continuity
Problem 6 (pg. 101 #20). If E is a nonempty subset of a metric
space X, define the distance from x ∈ X to E by
pE (x) := inf (x, z).
d

## (1) Prove that pE (x) = 0 iff x ∈ E.

(2) Prove that pE is a uniformly continuous function on X, by
showing that
|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y)
for all x, y ∈ X.
The book gives a hint. We’ll solve this problem by following it.
Solution (Part (1)). First, a proof of ⇐.
Proof (⇐). Suppose x ∈ Ē. For all r > 0, there exists a
y ∈ (Br (x) \ {x}) ∩ E 6= ∅.
If pE (x) > 0, there exists a y, d(x, y) < pE (x)/2, so pE (x) is not a
lower bound of {d(x, z) : z ∈ E}. 
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 9

## Now, a proof of (⇒).

/ Ē, then there exists an r > 0, Br (x) ⊂ Ē c . (Since
Proof (⇒). If x ∈
c
Ē is open). This implies that
pE (x) = inf ≥ r > 0.
z∈E

## Therefore, by the contrapositive, pE (x) = 0 implies x ∈ Ē. 

Solution (Part (2)). Let x, y ∈ X, and take any ǫ > 0. There exists a
z ∈ E such that
(10) d(y, z) ≤ pE (y) + ǫ.
(Use the greatest lower bound property). Since z ∈ E, we have, after
one application of the triangle inequality, as well as an application of
equation (10):
pE (x) ≤ d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z)
≤ d(x, y) + pE (y) + ǫ.
Sending ǫ ↓ 0, we obtain that
pE (x) − pE (y) ≤ d(x, y).
Since d(x, y) = d(y, x), we can exchange the roles of x, y in all the
previous lines in order to obtain the desired result. Namely, that
|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y).

Problem 7 (pg. 101, #21). Suppose K and F are disjoint sets in
a metric space X, K is compact, F is closed. Prove that there exists
δ > 0 such that d(p, q) > δ if p ∈ K, q ∈ F .
Show that the conclusion may fail for two disjoint closed sets.
Solution. By problem #20, we know pF : K → R is uniformly contin-
uous. Since K compact, we may apply the Max/Min theorem. There
exists an x0 ∈ K, pF (x0 ) ≥ pF (x) for every x ∈ K. Whence, if we set
δ = pF (x0 )/2 we have for x ∈ K, y ∈ F ,
d(x, y) ≥ pF (x) ≥ pF (x0 ) > δ.

The conclusion fails if we consider subsets of R2 :
K := {(x, 0) : x ∈ R} ;
F := (x, 1/(1 + x2 ) : x ∈ R ;


both of which are closed sets, and fail to meet the criterion displayed
in the problem.
10 DAVID SEAL

5. Differentiation
Problem 8 (pg. 114, #4). If
C1 Cn−1 Cn
C0 + +···+ + ,
2 n n+1
where C0 , C1 , . . . , Cn are real constants, prove that the equation
C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1 xn−1 + Cn xn = 0
has at least one real root between 0 and 1.
Solution. Consider the function, defined by
Z x
F (x) := f (t) dt,
0
where f (x) := C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1xn−1 + Cn xn . Apply the mean
value theorem to F on the interval [0, 1].
Problem 9. Suppose f ′ is continuous on [a, b] and ǫ > 0. Prove that
there exists a δ > 0 such that

f (t) − f (x) ′

t−x − f (x) <ǫ

whenever 0 < |t − x| < δ, a ≤ x ≤ b, a ≤ t ≤ b.
Solution. Let ǫ > 0. As f ′ is a continuous function on a compact set,
f ′ is uniformly continuous. There exists a δ > 0, for every x, y ∈ [a, b],
|f ′ (x) − f ′ (y)| < ǫ if |x − y| < δ. Using this δ, apply the mean value
theorem to the interval [min{t, x}, max{t, x}]. 
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 11

References
[1] Rudin, Walter “Principles of Mathematical Analysis,” McGraw Hill, 1990.