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SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM

RUDIN

DAVID SEAL

Abstract. I became bored sometime this August 2006, and de-


cided to review some of my analysis, by reading my old analysis
book[1] from Junior year. While I’m at it, I decided to type up
some solutions to a few problems that I scratched out solutions
to on notepaper in order to pick up some LATEXpractice along the
way. This paper has solutions to some of the problems I was able
to solve, indeed many of the problems in this book were too chal-
lenging to solve in a weekend. All of these problems were selected
from Principles of Mathematical Analysis[1] by Walter Rudin.

Contents
1. The Real and Complex Number System 1
2. Basic Topology 1
3. Numerical Sequences and Series 3
4. Continuity 8
5. Differentiation 10
References 11

Ok, now the real work. But, first a definition. A metric space is
called separable if it contains a countable dense subset. Problem #21
on page 45 asks you to prove that Rk is separable. The second definition
on this page is given in the following problem.

1. The Real and Complex Number System


OK fine, I didn’t write up any of these. I just wanted the numbers
to line up.

2. Basic Topology
Problem 1 (pg. 45, #23). A collection {Vα } of open subsets of X is
said to be a base for X if the following is true: For every x ∈ X and
every open set G ⊂ X such that x ∈ G, we have x ∈ Vα ⊂ G for some
1
2 DAVID SEAL

α. In other words, every open set in X is the union of a subcollection


of {Vα }.
Prove that every separable metric space has a countable base. Hint:
Take all neighborhoods with rational radius and center in some count-
able dense subset of X.
The hint tells us exactly what to do. The set
V := Br (x) : r ∈ Q+ , x ∈ C

(1)
where C is the countable dense subset gives the desired result.
Solution. Set V as in (1). This set is countable since both Q and C
are countable. Suppose G ⊂ X is open. Let x ∈ G and find an ǫ > 0
such that B2ǫ (x) ⊂ G. Since C is dense, there exists a p ∈ C, where
d(p, x) < ǫ. In addition, the density of the rationals on the real line
provides an r ∈ Q where ǫ > r > d(p, x) > 0. Therefore, x ∈ Br (p).
Furthermore, if y ∈ Br (p), we have that
d(y, x) ≤ d(y, p) + d(p, x) < 2r < 2ǫ,
so that Br (p) ⊂ G, the desired result. 
This problem set continues in the next one. Rudin[1] sure does like
to give important definitions and theorems in the problem sets!
Problem 2 (pg. 45, #24). Let X be a metric space in which every
infinite subset has a limit point. Prove that X is separable. (A hint is
given in the book. I won’t type it here, but I will follow it).
The best course of action is to follow the hint.
Solution. Fix 1/n > 0. Start with any x1 ∈ X. Having chosen
x1 , x2 , . . . , xj ∈ X, choose xj+1 ∈ X, if possible, so that d(xi , xj+1 ) ≥
1/n for i = 1, . . . , j. Assume this course of action is infinite, and we’ll
show a contradiction from this assumption. The set defined as
X1/n := {xk }∞
k=1
is infinite because each xk is distinct; it therefore has a limit point due
to the hypothesis. Let’s say xN ∈ {xk }∞ k=1 is the limit point. However,
xN cannot be a limit point, for

B 1 (x) ∩ {xk }∞k=1 \ {xN } = ∅.
2n

because this set has the property that each xi ∈ X1/n is at least 1/n
away from every other point in the set. Therefore, the process of
choosing the xi ’s is a finite
S one for any positive 1/n; we also have
the nice property that k B 1 (xk ) ⊃ X for every positive 1/n, (oth-
n
erwise we would have been able to choose an additional xi ). The set
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 3

X ∗ := ∪∞ 1 yields a countable dense subset. Therefore, X is sep-


n=1 X n
arable (see pbm. #22) which shows that it has a countable base (see
pbm #23). 
Gee, that was fun. I see it takes a lot longer to type these problems
up in LATEXrather than by hand, but I think it’ll be a useful tool for
me to learn anyway. OK, on to the next problem.

3. Numerical Sequences and Series


P
Problem 3 (pg.78, #7). Prove that the convergence of an implies
the convergence of
X √an
,
n
if an > 0.
I’ll define a sequence
bn := max 1/n2 , an ,


and claim that this sequence converges.


Proof of
P claim: Let
P ǫ > 0. From the Cauchy criterion of convergence,
1
(both n2
and an converge absolutely), there exists an N ∈ N such
that
N +j
X 1
2
< ǫ/2 and
k=N
n
N +j
X
an < ǫ/2
k=N

for any j ∈ N. From the definition of bn , the following inequalities are


fairly imminent. We will replace any missing terms with the remaining
terms in the convergent sequences:
N
X +j N
X +j N
X +j
2
bk ≤ 1/n + ak < ǫ/2 + ǫ/2 = ǫ.
k=N k=N k=N
P
By the cauchy criterion for convergence, bn must converge. 
With that bit out of the way, we can provide the solution.
Solution. Starting with bn ≥ 1/n2 and bn ≥ an , we have that b2n ≥ ann2
after multiplying these
√ inequalities together. After taking square roots,
an
we have that bn ≥ n and the comparison test implies the convergence
P √an
of n
. 
4 DAVID SEAL

GWEN, HERE IS MY PROOF:


√ √
Theorem 1. If 0 < a ≤ b for some a, b ∈ R, then a≤ b.
Proof. √
Suppose
√ not. That is, suppose there exist an 0 < a < b for
which a  b. I.e.
√ √
a > b.
If we multiply the previous inequality together by itself, we obtain
√ √ √ √
a a > b b,
In other words,
a > b.
This is a contradiction. 
P
Problem 4 (pg. 79, #12). Suppose an > 0 and an converges. Put

X
rn := am .
m=n

(1) Prove that


am an rn
+···+ >1−
rm rn rm
P an
if m < n, and deduce that rn
diverges.
(2) Prove that
an √ √
√ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 )
rn
P an
and deduce that √
rn
converges.

Solution (Part (1)). Rather than follow the books use of an m < n,
I will choose to fix an m, j ∈ N, and prove this with a m < m + j.
I believe this is much more explicit. Hence, the equation we seek to
prove can be reformulated as
am am+j rm+j
(2) +···+ > 1− .
rm rm+j rm
Since an > 0 for every n, we must have that rn is a decreasing sequence:
rm > rm+i for any i ∈ N. Hence, for any i ∈ N,
rm
(3) > 1.
rm+i
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 5

Applying equation (3) a few times, in addition to the fact am+j > 0,
we have that

rm − rm+j = am + · · · + am+j−1
< am + · · · + am+j
   
rm rm
< am + am+1 + · · · + am+j .
rm+1 rm+j

Whence,
rm+j am am+1 am+j
1− < + +···+ ;
rm rm rm+1 rm+j

which is the desired P


result for half the problem.
an
In order to show rn
diverges, it is enough show that it fails the
cauchy criterion for convergence. Fix ǫ = 1/2 and let N ∈ N. There
r
exists a j ∈ N such that rN +j ≤ r2N , whence 1 − N+j rN
≥ 1/2. If we
apply the inequality just shown, we have

N +j
X ak rN +j
>1− ≥ 1/2.
k=N
rk rN

P an
This shows that rn
will never pass the cauchy criterion for conver-
gence, which means it must be divergent. 

Solution (Part (2)). We will start by proving the inequality asked for.
The following inequalities each proceed from the previous one:
√ √ 2
0 < ( rn − rn+1 ) ;

0 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn + rn+1 ;

−rn+1 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn ;

rn − rn+1 < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) ;

an < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) .

The final inequality is a restatement of the previous one since an =



rn − rn+1 . The desired result comes after dividing by rn ;

an √ √
(4) √ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) .
rn
6 DAVID SEAL

To
P prove the second part for this question; namely the convergence of
√an , we might ask: what if we add up a bunch of these √an ’s?
rn rn
an an+1 an+j
√ + √ +···+ √
rn rn+1 rn+j
√ √ √ √ 
< 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) + · · · + ( rn+j − rn+j+1 )
√ √ 
= 2 rn − rn+j+1

< 2 rn .

The sequence sn := nk=1 √arkk is bounded above by r1 , and monoton-
P

ically increasing. Therefore the sum, ∞ √an


P
n=1 rn converges. 
The next problem is a multi-series problem.
Problem 5 (pg. 82, #24). Let X be a metric space.
(1) Call two Cauchy sequences {pn }, {qn } in X equivalent if
lim d(pn , qn ) = 0.
n→∞

Prove this is an equivalence relation.


(2) Let X ∗ be the set of all equivalence classes so obtained. If P ∈
X ∗ , Q ∈ X ∗ , {pn } ∈ P , {qn } ∈ Q, define
∆(P, Q) := lim d(pn , qn );
n→∞

by excercise 23, this limit exists. Show that the number ∆(P, Q)
is unchanged if {pn } and {qn } are replaced by equivalent se-
quences, and hence that ∆ is a distance function in X ∗ .
(3) Prove that the resulting metric space X ∗ is complete.
**I FIND THIS QUESTION DIFFICULT, AND HAVEN’T
SOLVED IT YET; BUT I HAVE WRITTEN SOME IDEAS
DOWN**
(4) for each p ∈ X, there is a Cauchy sequence all of whose terms
are p; let Pp be the element of X ∗ which contains this sequence.
Prove that
∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q)
for all p, q ∈ X. In other words, the mapping ϕ : X → X ∗
defined by p 7→ Pp is an isometry.
Solution (Part (1)). There are three items we need for an equivalence
relation.
(1) {pn } ∼ {pn } since
lim d(pn , pn ) = lim 0 = 0.
n→∞ n→∞
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 7

(2) Suppose {pn } ∼ {qn }. Then {qn } ∼ {pn } because d(pn , qn ) =


d(qn , pn ), so the limit still goes to 0.
(3) Suppose {pn } ∼ {qn } and {qn } ∼ {xn } for some {xn }. Then
d(pn , xn ) ≤ d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , xn ). After taking limits, the right
hand side goes to zero, so we have that {pn } ∼ {xn }. 
Solution (Part (2)). Suppose both {pn }, {pn ′ } ∈ P and that {qn },
{qn ′ } ∈ Q. Set the following values:
a := lim d(pn , qn );
n→∞
a := lim d(p′n , qn′ ).

n→∞

These values exist (from problem #23), and we desire to show that
a = a′ in order for ∆(P, Q) to be well defined.
Two applications of the triangle inequality give
0 ≤ d(pn , qn ) ≤ d(pn , p′n ) + d(p′n , qn′ ) + d(qn′ , qn ).
Sending n → ∞, we obtain
(5) 0 ≤ a ≤ a′ .
Applying the triangle inequality again:
0 ≤ d(p′n , qn′ ) ≤ d(p′n , pn ) + d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , qn′ );
so sending n → ∞, we obtain
(6) 0 ≤ a′ ≤ a.
Together, (5) and (6) show a = a′ . 
Solution (Part (3)). In order to show that X ∗ is complete, we must
show that given a cauchy sequence {Pn } ∈ X ∗ , (under the ∆ metric),
there is a set P ∈ X ∗ such that limn→∞ Pn = P .
Suppose {Pn } ∈ X ∗ is cauchy. For every ǫ > 0 there exists a corre-
sponding N ∈ N such that for every j ∈ N, and every n ≥ N
∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.
(n) (n+j)
Refering to the definition for ∆, if {pk } ∈ Pn and {pk } ∈ Pn+j ,
 
(n) (n+j)
lim d pk , pk = ∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.
k→∞

Let’s start by defining P to be the set which would have the desired
property for which Pn 7→ P . Define:
n
(n)
(7) P := {pk }∞ k=1 : ∀ǫ > 0, ∃N ∈ N, ∀n ≥ N, ∃{qk } ∈ Pn ,
  o
(n)
lim d pk , qk <ǫ .
k→∞
8 DAVID SEAL

The first task is to show this set is non-empty. To start, there exists
an N1 < N2 such that every n1 ≥ N1 , n2 ≥ N2 ,
∆(Pn1 , Pn1 +j ) < 2−1 ;
(8) ∆(Pn2 , Pn2 +j ) < 2−2 .
In order to fill in the whole sequence, take any p1 , p2 , . . . , pN1 −1 ∈ X.
(j )
According to (8), for N1 ≤ j1 ≤ N2 there are sequences {pk 1 } such
that
(j ) (N )
lim d(pk 1 , pk 1 ) < 2−1 .
k→∞
(N )
For these values, N1 ≤ k ≤ N2 , set pk = pk 1 . We proceed by in-
duction. Let i ∈ N, and suppose pk has been chosen for each k = 1,
2, . . . , Ni . There exists an Ni+1 , Ni < Ni+1 such that
(9) ∆(PNi , Pki ) < 2−(i+1) forNi ≤ ki ;
THIS ISN’T QUITE RIGHT. I’M INDEXING ON THE WRONG
VARIABLE... 
The final part (4) will not be proven. We’re taking the limit of a
constant, so ∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q) is obvious. This is pretty cool nonethe-
less! OK - these problems are taking SUPER long to type up. Maybe
I should start defining keyboard macros? Ok, I have a few defined, but
a lot of the keys are already being used...
4. Continuity
Problem 6 (pg. 101 #20). If E is a nonempty subset of a metric
space X, define the distance from x ∈ X to E by
pE (x) := inf (x, z).
d

(1) Prove that pE (x) = 0 iff x ∈ E.


(2) Prove that pE is a uniformly continuous function on X, by
showing that
|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y)
for all x, y ∈ X.
The book gives a hint. We’ll solve this problem by following it.
Solution (Part (1)). First, a proof of ⇐.
Proof (⇐). Suppose x ∈ Ē. For all r > 0, there exists a
y ∈ (Br (x) \ {x}) ∩ E 6= ∅.
If pE (x) > 0, there exists a y, d(x, y) < pE (x)/2, so pE (x) is not a
lower bound of {d(x, z) : z ∈ E}. 
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 9

Now, a proof of (⇒).


/ Ē, then there exists an r > 0, Br (x) ⊂ Ē c . (Since
Proof (⇒). If x ∈
c
Ē is open). This implies that
pE (x) = inf ≥ r > 0.
z∈E

Therefore, by the contrapositive, pE (x) = 0 implies x ∈ Ē. 


Solution (Part (2)). Let x, y ∈ X, and take any ǫ > 0. There exists a
z ∈ E such that
(10) d(y, z) ≤ pE (y) + ǫ.
(Use the greatest lower bound property). Since z ∈ E, we have, after
one application of the triangle inequality, as well as an application of
equation (10):
pE (x) ≤ d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z)
≤ d(x, y) + pE (y) + ǫ.
Sending ǫ ↓ 0, we obtain that
pE (x) − pE (y) ≤ d(x, y).
Since d(x, y) = d(y, x), we can exchange the roles of x, y in all the
previous lines in order to obtain the desired result. Namely, that
|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y).

Problem 7 (pg. 101, #21). Suppose K and F are disjoint sets in
a metric space X, K is compact, F is closed. Prove that there exists
δ > 0 such that d(p, q) > δ if p ∈ K, q ∈ F .
Show that the conclusion may fail for two disjoint closed sets.
Solution. By problem #20, we know pF : K → R is uniformly contin-
uous. Since K compact, we may apply the Max/Min theorem. There
exists an x0 ∈ K, pF (x0 ) ≥ pF (x) for every x ∈ K. Whence, if we set
δ = pF (x0 )/2 we have for x ∈ K, y ∈ F ,
d(x, y) ≥ pF (x) ≥ pF (x0 ) > δ.

The conclusion fails if we consider subsets of R2 :
K := {(x, 0) : x ∈ R} ;
F := (x, 1/(1 + x2 ) : x ∈ R ;


both of which are closed sets, and fail to meet the criterion displayed
in the problem.
10 DAVID SEAL

5. Differentiation
Problem 8 (pg. 114, #4). If
C1 Cn−1 Cn
C0 + +···+ + ,
2 n n+1
where C0 , C1 , . . . , Cn are real constants, prove that the equation
C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1 xn−1 + Cn xn = 0
has at least one real root between 0 and 1.
Solution. Consider the function, defined by
Z x
F (x) := f (t) dt,
0
where f (x) := C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1xn−1 + Cn xn . Apply the mean
value theorem to F on the interval [0, 1].
Problem 9. Suppose f ′ is continuous on [a, b] and ǫ > 0. Prove that
there exists a δ > 0 such that

f (t) − f (x) ′


t−x − f (x) <ǫ

whenever 0 < |t − x| < δ, a ≤ x ≤ b, a ≤ t ≤ b.
Solution. Let ǫ > 0. As f ′ is a continuous function on a compact set,
f ′ is uniformly continuous. There exists a δ > 0, for every x, y ∈ [a, b],
|f ′ (x) − f ′ (y)| < ǫ if |x − y| < δ. Using this δ, apply the mean value
theorem to the interval [min{t, x}, max{t, x}]. 
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 11

References
[1] Rudin, Walter “Principles of Mathematical Analysis,” McGraw Hill, 1990.