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You are on page 1of 11

RUDIN

DAVID SEAL

cided to review some of my analysis, by reading my old analysis

book[1] from Junior year. While I’m at it, I decided to type up

some solutions to a few problems that I scratched out solutions

to on notepaper in order to pick up some LATEXpractice along the

way. This paper has solutions to some of the problems I was able

to solve, indeed many of the problems in this book were too chal-

lenging to solve in a weekend. All of these problems were selected

from Principles of Mathematical Analysis[1] by Walter Rudin.

Contents

1. The Real and Complex Number System 1

2. Basic Topology 1

3. Numerical Sequences and Series 3

4. Continuity 8

5. Differentiation 10

References 11

Ok, now the real work. But, first a definition. A metric space is

called separable if it contains a countable dense subset. Problem #21

on page 45 asks you to prove that Rk is separable. The second definition

on this page is given in the following problem.

OK fine, I didn’t write up any of these. I just wanted the numbers

to line up.

2. Basic Topology

Problem 1 (pg. 45, #23). A collection {Vα } of open subsets of X is

said to be a base for X if the following is true: For every x ∈ X and

every open set G ⊂ X such that x ∈ G, we have x ∈ Vα ⊂ G for some

1

2 DAVID SEAL

of {Vα }.

Prove that every separable metric space has a countable base. Hint:

Take all neighborhoods with rational radius and center in some count-

able dense subset of X.

The hint tells us exactly what to do. The set

V := Br (x) : r ∈ Q+ , x ∈ C

(1)

where C is the countable dense subset gives the desired result.

Solution. Set V as in (1). This set is countable since both Q and C

are countable. Suppose G ⊂ X is open. Let x ∈ G and find an ǫ > 0

such that B2ǫ (x) ⊂ G. Since C is dense, there exists a p ∈ C, where

d(p, x) < ǫ. In addition, the density of the rationals on the real line

provides an r ∈ Q where ǫ > r > d(p, x) > 0. Therefore, x ∈ Br (p).

Furthermore, if y ∈ Br (p), we have that

d(y, x) ≤ d(y, p) + d(p, x) < 2r < 2ǫ,

so that Br (p) ⊂ G, the desired result.

This problem set continues in the next one. Rudin[1] sure does like

to give important definitions and theorems in the problem sets!

Problem 2 (pg. 45, #24). Let X be a metric space in which every

infinite subset has a limit point. Prove that X is separable. (A hint is

given in the book. I won’t type it here, but I will follow it).

The best course of action is to follow the hint.

Solution. Fix 1/n > 0. Start with any x1 ∈ X. Having chosen

x1 , x2 , . . . , xj ∈ X, choose xj+1 ∈ X, if possible, so that d(xi , xj+1 ) ≥

1/n for i = 1, . . . , j. Assume this course of action is infinite, and we’ll

show a contradiction from this assumption. The set defined as

X1/n := {xk }∞

k=1

is infinite because each xk is distinct; it therefore has a limit point due

to the hypothesis. Let’s say xN ∈ {xk }∞ k=1 is the limit point. However,

xN cannot be a limit point, for

B 1 (x) ∩ {xk }∞k=1 \ {xN } = ∅.

2n

because this set has the property that each xi ∈ X1/n is at least 1/n

away from every other point in the set. Therefore, the process of

choosing the xi ’s is a finite

S one for any positive 1/n; we also have

the nice property that k B 1 (xk ) ⊃ X for every positive 1/n, (oth-

n

erwise we would have been able to choose an additional xi ). The set

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 3

n=1 X n

arable (see pbm. #22) which shows that it has a countable base (see

pbm #23).

Gee, that was fun. I see it takes a lot longer to type these problems

up in LATEXrather than by hand, but I think it’ll be a useful tool for

me to learn anyway. OK, on to the next problem.

P

Problem 3 (pg.78, #7). Prove that the convergence of an implies

the convergence of

X √an

,

n

if an > 0.

I’ll define a sequence

bn := max 1/n2 , an ,

Proof of

P claim: Let

P ǫ > 0. From the Cauchy criterion of convergence,

1

(both n2

and an converge absolutely), there exists an N ∈ N such

that

N +j

X 1

2

< ǫ/2 and

k=N

n

N +j

X

an < ǫ/2

k=N

fairly imminent. We will replace any missing terms with the remaining

terms in the convergent sequences:

N

X +j N

X +j N

X +j

2

bk ≤ 1/n + ak < ǫ/2 + ǫ/2 = ǫ.

k=N k=N k=N

P

By the cauchy criterion for convergence, bn must converge.

With that bit out of the way, we can provide the solution.

Solution. Starting with bn ≥ 1/n2 and bn ≥ an , we have that b2n ≥ ann2

after multiplying these

√ inequalities together. After taking square roots,

an

we have that bn ≥ n and the comparison test implies the convergence

P √an

of n

.

4 DAVID SEAL

√ √

Theorem 1. If 0 < a ≤ b for some a, b ∈ R, then a≤ b.

Proof. √

Suppose

√ not. That is, suppose there exist an 0 < a < b for

which a b. I.e.

√ √

a > b.

If we multiply the previous inequality together by itself, we obtain

√ √ √ √

a a > b b,

In other words,

a > b.

This is a contradiction.

P

Problem 4 (pg. 79, #12). Suppose an > 0 and an converges. Put

∞

X

rn := am .

m=n

am an rn

+···+ >1−

rm rn rm

P an

if m < n, and deduce that rn

diverges.

(2) Prove that

an √ √

√ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 )

rn

P an

and deduce that √

rn

converges.

Solution (Part (1)). Rather than follow the books use of an m < n,

I will choose to fix an m, j ∈ N, and prove this with a m < m + j.

I believe this is much more explicit. Hence, the equation we seek to

prove can be reformulated as

am am+j rm+j

(2) +···+ > 1− .

rm rm+j rm

Since an > 0 for every n, we must have that rn is a decreasing sequence:

rm > rm+i for any i ∈ N. Hence, for any i ∈ N,

rm

(3) > 1.

rm+i

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 5

Applying equation (3) a few times, in addition to the fact am+j > 0,

we have that

rm − rm+j = am + · · · + am+j−1

< am + · · · + am+j

rm rm

< am + am+1 + · · · + am+j .

rm+1 rm+j

Whence,

rm+j am am+1 am+j

1− < + +···+ ;

rm rm rm+1 rm+j

result for half the problem.

an

In order to show rn

diverges, it is enough show that it fails the

cauchy criterion for convergence. Fix ǫ = 1/2 and let N ∈ N. There

r

exists a j ∈ N such that rN +j ≤ r2N , whence 1 − N+j rN

≥ 1/2. If we

apply the inequality just shown, we have

N +j

X ak rN +j

>1− ≥ 1/2.

k=N

rk rN

P an

This shows that rn

will never pass the cauchy criterion for conver-

gence, which means it must be divergent.

Solution (Part (2)). We will start by proving the inequality asked for.

The following inequalities each proceed from the previous one:

√ √ 2

0 < ( rn − rn+1 ) ;

√

0 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn + rn+1 ;

√

−rn+1 < rn − 2 rn+1 rn ;

√

rn − rn+1 < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) ;

√

an < 2 (rn − rn+1 rn ) .

√

rn − rn+1 . The desired result comes after dividing by rn ;

an √ √

(4) √ < 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) .

rn

6 DAVID SEAL

To

P prove the second part for this question; namely the convergence of

√an , we might ask: what if we add up a bunch of these √an ’s?

rn rn

an an+1 an+j

√ + √ +···+ √

rn rn+1 rn+j

√ √ √ √

< 2 ( rn − rn+1 ) + · · · + ( rn+j − rn+j+1 )

√ √

= 2 rn − rn+j+1

√

< 2 rn .

√

The sequence sn := nk=1 √arkk is bounded above by r1 , and monoton-

P

P

n=1 rn converges.

The next problem is a multi-series problem.

Problem 5 (pg. 82, #24). Let X be a metric space.

(1) Call two Cauchy sequences {pn }, {qn } in X equivalent if

lim d(pn , qn ) = 0.

n→∞

(2) Let X ∗ be the set of all equivalence classes so obtained. If P ∈

X ∗ , Q ∈ X ∗ , {pn } ∈ P , {qn } ∈ Q, define

∆(P, Q) := lim d(pn , qn );

n→∞

by excercise 23, this limit exists. Show that the number ∆(P, Q)

is unchanged if {pn } and {qn } are replaced by equivalent se-

quences, and hence that ∆ is a distance function in X ∗ .

(3) Prove that the resulting metric space X ∗ is complete.

**I FIND THIS QUESTION DIFFICULT, AND HAVEN’T

SOLVED IT YET; BUT I HAVE WRITTEN SOME IDEAS

DOWN**

(4) for each p ∈ X, there is a Cauchy sequence all of whose terms

are p; let Pp be the element of X ∗ which contains this sequence.

Prove that

∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q)

for all p, q ∈ X. In other words, the mapping ϕ : X → X ∗

defined by p 7→ Pp is an isometry.

Solution (Part (1)). There are three items we need for an equivalence

relation.

(1) {pn } ∼ {pn } since

lim d(pn , pn ) = lim 0 = 0.

n→∞ n→∞

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 7

d(qn , pn ), so the limit still goes to 0.

(3) Suppose {pn } ∼ {qn } and {qn } ∼ {xn } for some {xn }. Then

d(pn , xn ) ≤ d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , xn ). After taking limits, the right

hand side goes to zero, so we have that {pn } ∼ {xn }.

Solution (Part (2)). Suppose both {pn }, {pn ′ } ∈ P and that {qn },

{qn ′ } ∈ Q. Set the following values:

a := lim d(pn , qn );

n→∞

a := lim d(p′n , qn′ ).

′

n→∞

These values exist (from problem #23), and we desire to show that

a = a′ in order for ∆(P, Q) to be well defined.

Two applications of the triangle inequality give

0 ≤ d(pn , qn ) ≤ d(pn , p′n ) + d(p′n , qn′ ) + d(qn′ , qn ).

Sending n → ∞, we obtain

(5) 0 ≤ a ≤ a′ .

Applying the triangle inequality again:

0 ≤ d(p′n , qn′ ) ≤ d(p′n , pn ) + d(pn , qn ) + d(qn , qn′ );

so sending n → ∞, we obtain

(6) 0 ≤ a′ ≤ a.

Together, (5) and (6) show a = a′ .

Solution (Part (3)). In order to show that X ∗ is complete, we must

show that given a cauchy sequence {Pn } ∈ X ∗ , (under the ∆ metric),

there is a set P ∈ X ∗ such that limn→∞ Pn = P .

Suppose {Pn } ∈ X ∗ is cauchy. For every ǫ > 0 there exists a corre-

sponding N ∈ N such that for every j ∈ N, and every n ≥ N

∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.

(n) (n+j)

Refering to the definition for ∆, if {pk } ∈ Pn and {pk } ∈ Pn+j ,

(n) (n+j)

lim d pk , pk = ∆(Pn , Pn+j ) < ǫ.

k→∞

Let’s start by defining P to be the set which would have the desired

property for which Pn 7→ P . Define:

n

(n)

(7) P := {pk }∞ k=1 : ∀ǫ > 0, ∃N ∈ N, ∀n ≥ N, ∃{qk } ∈ Pn ,

o

(n)

lim d pk , qk <ǫ .

k→∞

8 DAVID SEAL

The first task is to show this set is non-empty. To start, there exists

an N1 < N2 such that every n1 ≥ N1 , n2 ≥ N2 ,

∆(Pn1 , Pn1 +j ) < 2−1 ;

(8) ∆(Pn2 , Pn2 +j ) < 2−2 .

In order to fill in the whole sequence, take any p1 , p2 , . . . , pN1 −1 ∈ X.

(j )

According to (8), for N1 ≤ j1 ≤ N2 there are sequences {pk 1 } such

that

(j ) (N )

lim d(pk 1 , pk 1 ) < 2−1 .

k→∞

(N )

For these values, N1 ≤ k ≤ N2 , set pk = pk 1 . We proceed by in-

duction. Let i ∈ N, and suppose pk has been chosen for each k = 1,

2, . . . , Ni . There exists an Ni+1 , Ni < Ni+1 such that

(9) ∆(PNi , Pki ) < 2−(i+1) forNi ≤ ki ;

THIS ISN’T QUITE RIGHT. I’M INDEXING ON THE WRONG

VARIABLE...

The final part (4) will not be proven. We’re taking the limit of a

constant, so ∆(Pp , Qq ) = d(p, q) is obvious. This is pretty cool nonethe-

less! OK - these problems are taking SUPER long to type up. Maybe

I should start defining keyboard macros? Ok, I have a few defined, but

a lot of the keys are already being used...

4. Continuity

Problem 6 (pg. 101 #20). If E is a nonempty subset of a metric

space X, define the distance from x ∈ X to E by

pE (x) := inf (x, z).

d

(2) Prove that pE is a uniformly continuous function on X, by

showing that

|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y)

for all x, y ∈ X.

The book gives a hint. We’ll solve this problem by following it.

Solution (Part (1)). First, a proof of ⇐.

Proof (⇐). Suppose x ∈ Ē. For all r > 0, there exists a

y ∈ (Br (x) \ {x}) ∩ E 6= ∅.

If pE (x) > 0, there exists a y, d(x, y) < pE (x)/2, so pE (x) is not a

lower bound of {d(x, z) : z ∈ E}.

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 9

/ Ē, then there exists an r > 0, Br (x) ⊂ Ē c . (Since

Proof (⇒). If x ∈

c

Ē is open). This implies that

pE (x) = inf ≥ r > 0.

z∈E

Solution (Part (2)). Let x, y ∈ X, and take any ǫ > 0. There exists a

z ∈ E such that

(10) d(y, z) ≤ pE (y) + ǫ.

(Use the greatest lower bound property). Since z ∈ E, we have, after

one application of the triangle inequality, as well as an application of

equation (10):

pE (x) ≤ d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z)

≤ d(x, y) + pE (y) + ǫ.

Sending ǫ ↓ 0, we obtain that

pE (x) − pE (y) ≤ d(x, y).

Since d(x, y) = d(y, x), we can exchange the roles of x, y in all the

previous lines in order to obtain the desired result. Namely, that

|pE (x) − pE (y)| ≤ d(x, y).

Problem 7 (pg. 101, #21). Suppose K and F are disjoint sets in

a metric space X, K is compact, F is closed. Prove that there exists

δ > 0 such that d(p, q) > δ if p ∈ K, q ∈ F .

Show that the conclusion may fail for two disjoint closed sets.

Solution. By problem #20, we know pF : K → R is uniformly contin-

uous. Since K compact, we may apply the Max/Min theorem. There

exists an x0 ∈ K, pF (x0 ) ≥ pF (x) for every x ∈ K. Whence, if we set

δ = pF (x0 )/2 we have for x ∈ K, y ∈ F ,

d(x, y) ≥ pF (x) ≥ pF (x0 ) > δ.

The conclusion fails if we consider subsets of R2 :

K := {(x, 0) : x ∈ R} ;

F := (x, 1/(1 + x2 ) : x ∈ R ;

both of which are closed sets, and fail to meet the criterion displayed

in the problem.

10 DAVID SEAL

5. Differentiation

Problem 8 (pg. 114, #4). If

C1 Cn−1 Cn

C0 + +···+ + ,

2 n n+1

where C0 , C1 , . . . , Cn are real constants, prove that the equation

C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1 xn−1 + Cn xn = 0

has at least one real root between 0 and 1.

Solution. Consider the function, defined by

Z x

F (x) := f (t) dt,

0

where f (x) := C0 + C1 x + · · · + Cn−1xn−1 + Cn xn . Apply the mean

value theorem to F on the interval [0, 1].

Problem 9. Suppose f ′ is continuous on [a, b] and ǫ > 0. Prove that

there exists a δ > 0 such that

f (t) − f (x) ′

t−x − f (x) <ǫ

whenever 0 < |t − x| < δ, a ≤ x ≤ b, a ≤ t ≤ b.

Solution. Let ǫ > 0. As f ′ is a continuous function on a compact set,

f ′ is uniformly continuous. There exists a δ > 0, for every x, y ∈ [a, b],

|f ′ (x) − f ′ (y)| < ǫ if |x − y| < δ. Using this δ, apply the mean value

theorem to the interval [min{t, x}, max{t, x}].

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS FROM RUDIN 11

References

[1] Rudin, Walter “Principles of Mathematical Analysis,” McGraw Hill, 1990.

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