GR Susskind 11

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GR Susskind 11

© All Rights Reserved

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Professor Susskind

Session 11, December 1, 2008

Summary of Concepts

Space-Time Diagrams

Can unfold space if and only if after the unfolding the distances

between all points of the space remain the same as prior to the

unfolding.

the tangent vector is 0 and for which proper time is an extremum

(principle of least time). Geodesic maximizes proper time and

minimizes kinetic energy.

d! = g µ" # dx µ # dx"

which the accelerating observer feels constant acceleration. For

Newtonian relativity, the world lines are parabolas.

1 2

! a! t " x k

2

the speed of light. The Lorentz invariant is x 2 ! t 2 = c 2 (invariant

over the Loretz transformation), which insures that the observer

never exceeds the speed of light. The path of constant acceleration

changes from a parabola to a hyperbola. Consider the family of

curves in the time-space diagram whereby

2 2 2

t t t

x ! 2 = 1, x 2 ! 2 = 4, x 2 ! 2 = 9, etc...

2

c c c

Lorentzian Space-time with Constant Acceleration

Light Cone

World Line 2

t ' !"

2 x$

World Line % k

#c&

World Line

World Line

t (time)

x (space)

inverse of the distance from the origin. Suppose such an observer

release a rock such that is stops where it is dropped (line with

arrow). The observer accelerates away from the rock. The

observer sees the rock move ever more slowly toward the light

cone, but never sees it cross as it takes an infinite amount of time

because the rock approaches the cone asymptotically. Objects that

are above the light cone cannot communicate with objects below

the line because light cannot exceed c. So the light cone is like an

event horizon.

x = r !cosh "( )

t = r !sinh (" )

whereby d! = r " d# . The metric is

( )

dx = dr !cosh " + r !sinh " ( )

dt = dr !sinh y (" ) + r !cosh (" )

d! 2 = dt 2 " dx 2 = r 2 # d$ 2 " dr 2

" 2 0 %

g=$ r '

# 0 !1 &

space, and ! is Rindler time. The light cone is given by r = 0 .

Now consider 3-D space.

= dR 2 + R 2 ! d$2

The solution to Einstein’s equation at a point outside of a

spherically symmetric mass is as follows.

$ 2 # M #G ' 2 1

d! 2 = & 1" # dt " # dR 2 " R 2 # d*2

% R )( 2 # M #G

1"

R

end lecture #11

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