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Question1:Describe the scope and domain of public administration

Ans:
Scope of Public Administration:
There are two views  of public administration namely,  Integral and managerial views. Public
administration, being a part of the more general term administration, is subject to these two views
of administration also. The differences of opinion about the scope of study of public administration
thus centers around the crucial or vital points whether public administration is only the managerial
part of the government work or the entire complex of the activities or only the executive branch of
the government or of all branches and finally whether administration is mere execution or
application of policy or is a factor in the formulation of policy also.

Here is now an attempt to discuss the nature & scope of the discipline of Public Administration. The
nature and scope can be described bellow under two heads:

Integral Views:
All of the difficulties and problems which are commonly related in achieving the common purposes
are concerned with the integral views of the Public Administration. According to this view, public
administration is a sum total of all activities manual, technical, managerial and secretarial which is
undertaken in pursuit of and in fulfillment of public policy. Therefore, it can be said that the activities
of all the persons from top to bottom constitute administration although they are of varying
significance to the running of administration machinery. Thus all the acts of the officials of the
government from the peon to the secretaries and head of the state constitute public administration.
Leonardo D. White supports this integral view, according to him; “Public administration consists of
all those operations, having for their purpose of fulfillment or enforcement of public policy.”
  

Managerial Views:
Luther Gullick is an important champion of the managerial view of administration. He writes,
“Administration has to do with getting things done with the accomplishment of defined objectives”.

The managerial view gives unity to administration. It lays emphasis on managerial techniques,
which are common to all types of administration. This view regards public administration as
consisting of the managerial functions of top public administrators who are engaged in getting the
work of government done. Thus, the managerial view denotes the work of the chief executive as a
general manager. It, therefore, emphasizes the basic POSDCORB functions of managers, namely:
planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.
                     
1.       P Stands for Planning: Working out in broad outline the things that need to be done and the
methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose which is set for the enterprise.
2.             O Stands for Organization: The establishment of the formal structure of authority through
which work subdivisions are arranged, defined and co ordinate for the defined objective of the
organization.
3.       S Stands for Staffing: The whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and
maintaining favorable conditions of work both in qualitative and quantitative.
4.              D Stands for Directing:  The continuous task of making decisions and embodying them
in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise.
5.       CO Stands for Coordinating. Interrelating the various entities and processes of the work.
6.             R Reporting: Keeping those to whom the executive is responsible as well as subordinates
informed through records, research and inspections.
7.       B Stands for Budgeting: Fiscal planning, accounting and control.

The Importance of Public Administration


The benefits or the advantages of the study of public administration may be briefly stated as
follows.
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1.       The study of public administration helps the student learn the basic concepts, principles and
theories of public administration.
2.       The study of public administration helps to explain the purposes, functions, and continuation
of government bureaucracy.
3.              The study of public administration provides knowledge of public organizations and the
context in which and the methods by which they operate.
4.       The study of public administration promotes a superior understanding of government and its
relationship with the society it governs and thus it enables us to learn more about how our country
is governed.
5.              The study of public administration is useful as training for citizenship and for preparing
citizens for an active participation in the process of democratic governance.
6.       The study of public administration makes us learn how to promote the public interest more
effectively.
7.              The study of public administration promotes among the people an awareness of the
importance of the administrative activities in their lives.
8.              The study of public administration is useful to make public policies, which are more
responsive to public needs.
9.               As an applied discipline, the study of public administration provides knowledge which is
helpful to the policy makers to implement policies, and Prepares students for employment in the
government services and makes them aware of the opportunities and challenges of the public
service.
10.   The study of public administration is useful as a self- serving investment.
Conclusion: The above analyses show that the study of public administration as a field of activity
and an area of intellectual inquiry have both utilitarian objectives. The original purpose of the study
of public administration was not to cultivate knowledge for its own sake. The study of public
administration was directed at the twin pursuits of reforming governmental institution and training
civil servants. Thus, administrative theory grew in the late nineteenth century and the early
twentieth century with the primary objective of making government more effective and economical
in its working. This goal is still important. However, gradually, the study of public administration has
also acquired certain intellectual objectives.

2) Write a note on Hawthorne Studies done by Elton Mayo

Ans:

Part I - Illumination Experiments (1924-27)


These experiments were performed to find out the effect of different levels of illumination (lighting)
on productivity of labour. The brightness of the light was increased and decreased to find out the
effect on the productivity of the test group. Surprisingly, the productivity increased even when the
level of illumination was decreased. It was concluded that factors other than light were also
important.

Part II - Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1929)


Under these test two small groups of six female telephone relay assemblers were selected. Each
group was kept in separate rooms. From time to time, changes were made in working hours, rest
periods, lunch breaks, etc. They were allowed to choose their own rest periods and to give
suggestions. Output increased in both the control rooms. It was concluded that social relationship
among workers, participation in  decision-making, etc. had a greater effect on productivity than
working conditions.

Part III - Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-1930)


21,000 employees were interviewed over a period of three years to find out reasons for increased
productivity. It was concluded that productivity can be increased if workers are allowed to talk freely
about matters that are important to them.

Part IV - Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment (1932)


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A group of 14 male workers in the bank wiring room were placed under observation for six months.
A worker's pay depended on the performance of the group as a whole. The researchers thought
that the efficient workers would put pressure on the less efficient workers to complete the work.
However, it was found that the group established its own standards of output, and social pressure
was used to achieve the standards of output.

Conclusions of Hawthorne Studies / Experiments

The conclusions derived from the Hawthorne Studies were as follows :-


1. The social and psychological factors are responsible for workers' productivity and
job satisfaction. Only good physical working conditions are not enough to increase productivity.
2. The informal relations among workers influence the workers' behaviour and
performance more than the formal relations in the organisation.
3. Employees will perform better if they are allowed to participate in decision-making
affecting their interests.
4. Employees will also work more efficiently, when they believe that the management
is interested in their welfare.
5. When employees are treated with respect and dignity, their performance will
improve.
6. Financial incentives alone cannot increase the performance. Social and
Psychological needs must also be satisfied in order to increase productivity.
7. Good communication between the superiors and subordinates can improve the
relations and the productivity of the subordinates.
8. Special attention and freedom to express their views will improve the performance
of the workers.

3) Explain the characteristics of bureaucracy as propounded by Max


Weber

Ans:

Before covering Weber's Six Major Principles, I want to describe the various multiple meanings
of the word "bureaucracy."

1. A group of workers (for example, civil service employees of the U. S. government), is


referred to as "the bureaucracy." An example: "The threat of Gramm-Rudman-Hollings cuts
has the bureaucracy in Washington deeply concerned."

2. Bureaucracy is the name of an organizational form used by sociologists and organizational


design professionals.

3. Bureaucracy has an informal usage, as in "there's too much bureaucracy where I work."
This informal usage describes a set of characteristics or attributes such as "red tape" or
"inflexibility" that frustrate people who deal with or who work for organizations they perceive
as "bureaucratic."

As you read about the bureaucratic form, note whether your organization matches the
description. The more of these concepts that exist in your organization, the more likely you will
have some or all of the negative by-products described in the book "Busting Bureaucracy."

In the 1930s Max Weber, a German sociologist, wrote a rationale that described the
bureaucratic form as being the ideal way of organizing government agencies.
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Max Weber's principles spread throughout both public and private sectors. Even though
Weber's writings have been widely discredited, the bureaucratic form lives on.

Weber noted six major principles.

1. A formal hierarchical structure

Each level controls the level below and is controlled by the level above. A formal hierarchy is
the basis of central planning and centralized decision making.

2. Management by rules

Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be executed consistently by all
lower levels.

3. Organization by functional specialty

Work is to be done by specialists, and people are organized into units based on the type of
work they do or skills they have.

4. An "up-focused" or "in-focused" mission

If the mission is described as "up-focused," then the organization's purpose is to serve the
stockholders, the board, or whatever agency empowered it. If the mission is to serve the
organization itself, and those within it, e.g., to produce high profits, to gain market share, or to
produce a cash stream, then the mission is described as "in-focused."

5. Purposely impersonal

The idea is to treat all employees equally and customers equally, and not be influenced by
individual differences.

6. Employment based on technical qualifications

(There may also be protection from arbitrary dismissal.)

The bureaucratic form, according to Parkinson, has another attribute.

7. Predisposition to grow in staff "above the line."

Weber failed to notice this, but C. Northcote Parkinson found it so common that he made it the
basis of his humorous "Parkinson's law." Parkinson demonstrated that the management and
professional staff tends to grow at predictable rates, almost without regard to what the line
organization is doing.

The bureaucratic form is so common that most people accept it as the normal way of
organizing almost any endeavor. People in bureaucratic organizations generally blame the ugly
side effects of bureaucracy on management, or the founders, or the owners, without
awareness that the real cause is the organizing form.
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4) Discuss the characteristics of a formal organisation.

Definition

According to Chester Banard “an organization is formal when the activities are coordinated towards a
common objective”. He found that the essence of formal organization is conscious common purpose and that
formal organization comes into being when persons:

. Are able to communicate with each other


. Are willing to act, and
. Share a purpose

In this way, all business organizations are formal organizations they have a system of well defined jobs
bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility and accountability. All this is designed to enable the
people working within the enterprise to work more effectively for achieving objectives.

Following are the main characteristics of formal organization

. Organization structure stands on division of labor which brings efficiency in organizations’


operations.
. Policies and Objectives of organizations are determined
. Individual activities are limited
. Organizations communicate messages through straight chain of command
. Arbitrary structure of organization
Example of Formal Organization

A main feature of such interrelationships is that they can be shown in organization charts or manuals as one
shown below. Example of formal organization with the help of an organizational chart of an electrical Co

Formal Organization Chart


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5) There are several hindrances to delegation” Elaborate


Ans: • According to Baker certain specific ideas of practical value have emerged from classical
theory. They are enumerated below: * The first was the identification of organisation or administration as
a'distinct function to be studied and practised. The practical achievement was to make people think and
apply themselves to the problem of management and organisation. * Secondly it introduced some clear
thinking about authority, responsibility, delegation. Thirdly it propounded the idea that administration is a
separate activity which deserves intellectual investigation. 8 Fourthly it played a significant role in
rationalising and stimulating production in the industriill organisation, to some extent.. * ina all^, the very
limitations of the theory instigated further investigations in organisational behaviour. Thus, classicai theory
despite its shortcomings made signifidant contribution to the development of the organisation theories.

CRITICISM OF CLASSICAL THEORY Herbert Simon attacked some of the accepted principles of
administration of classical organisation theory, particularly its principles of division of functions, unity of
command and span of control. Referring to the.4 'P's, he asserts that division of responsibility and
specialisation can be either by function, or by process, or by objective or by place. Classical theory, he points
ON has not given any clue as to which basis is preferable in any particular circumstance. For him the
principle of unity of command is also ambiguous in terms of sphere. Thus, Simon described the "Principles of
Administration" as themere "Proverbs of Administration", each paired with a mutually contradictory proverb--
as Span 'of Control should be narrow, but chains of command should be short, Gulick's line and staff
functions in large and complex organisations are simply out of touch with realityS1The 'spap of control'
doctrine is even more confusing and misleading. The responsibility for this confusion rests mainly with
Graicuna mathematical formula of 'five or niost probably four'. The basic fallacy is the authoritarian
assumption that the top executive needs to have some sort of relationship with every one below him in the
organisation. The principles of administration,of ~ u l i c k and Urwick were severely criticised as they
have .not made clear as to what they meant by the universal validity of the 'principles'. Simon considered
that'"the pri'nciples of administration are at best criteria for describing and diagnosing administrative
situations". They suggest only working rules of conduct which wide experience seems to have validated. It
has been pointed out that all the classical theorists have displayed a pro-management bins in their theories.
They were concerned with the problems of manaemefit and not the I0 other organisational problems that
concern the other levels of management and men. I
• The theory is criticised as atomistic, which looks a$ the individuals in isolation from the 6'lassical
~p~rclach-~t i ther fellowmen in the organisation. It is mechanistic as it fails to explain the dynanlics
of (iuiick and Lyndall Uswick organisational behaviour. It is static and rational. It also does not take
any note of non- ' economic incentives. It is Inore concerned with the work than the hurnan being
who does the work. It underestimated the human element and human behaviour

6) Describe the functions of chief executive.

The Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) is responsible for leading the development and execution of
the Company’s long term strategy with a view to creating shareholder value. The CEO’s leadership
role also entails being ultimately responsible for all day-to-day management decisions and for
implementing the Company’s long and short term plans. The CEO acts as a direct liaison between
the Board and management of the Company and communicates to the Board on behalf of
management. The CEO also communicates on behalf of the Company to shareholders, employees,
Government authorities, other stakeholders and the public. More specifically, the duties and
responsibilities of the CEO include the following:
1. to lead, in conjunction with the Board, the development of the Company’s strategy;
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2. to lead and oversee the implementation of the Company’s long and short term plans in
accordance with its strategy;
3. to ensure the Company is appropriately organized and staffed and to have the authority to hire
and terminate staff as necessary to enable it to achieve the approved strategy;
4. to ensure that expenditures of the Company are within the authorized annual budget of the
Company;
5. to assess the principal risks of the Company and to ensure that these risks are being monitored
and managed;
6. to ensure effective internal controls and management information
7. to ensure that the Company has appropriate systems to enable it to conduct its activities both
lawfully and ethically;
8. to ensure that the Company maintains high standards of corporate citizenship and social
responsibility wherever it does business;
9. to act as a liaison between management and the Board;
10. to communicate effectively with shareholders, employees, Government authorities, other
stakeholders and the public

7) Summarise the features of Sala model of administration

In administration in developing countries (1964) Riggs presented the concept of "prismatic


society" to explain the unique conditions and the dynamics of politics and administration in
developing countries.

As an alternative model for conceptualizing developing countries Riggs offered his "prismatic model “based
on the metaphor of a prism. When white light (that is light made up of all visible wavelengths) passes
through a prism it is diffracted broken into a variety of colors—a rainbow. Similarly Riggs contended
societies in the process of development move from a fused mode in which little or no differentiation exists to
a diffracted condition in which there is a high degree of functional specialization.

In administrative terms, this means a change from a situation in which a few structures perform a variety of
functions, as in very underdeveloped conditions, to one in which many specific structures perform specific
functions, as in highly developed societies like the industrial countries of the west.

When the system begins to assign specific functions to specific structures, then it is evolving into a higher
mode of differentiation. This phase is also referred to as transitional to the ultimate position of a complete
differentiation.

8) Explain the significance of leadership

Significance of Leadership

Leadership is a process of influencing others. The mere use of authority by managers may not lead to
results. But when managerial authority is enriched with good leadership, employees start cooperating.

We can list the benefits of leadership as under:


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1. It improves motivation and morale of employees:

A successful leader influences the behaviour of individuals. He/she enhances the levels of involvement of the
individual employees in their work. The leader creates self-confidence in employees, sustains their
enthusiasm and involvement in their work, enhances the motivation and morale of employees and thus helps
greatly in the achievement of organizational goals by the employees.

Even in a situation of crisis (namely, when an organization is facing a bad phase in terms of profitability due
to market slowdown or other reasons), a leader can sustain high levels of commitment and motivation from
employees, which may ultimately help an organization to turn around. That is why good leaders are
considered as turnaround agents in an organization.

2. It leads to higher performance:

Leadership motivates the group to strive for achieving the results that is achieving the organizational goals.
By increasing the levels of commitment and motivation, a good leader leads the employees to higher levels
of performance. Higher performance leads to increased productivity, which results in increased profitability,
even in a competitive market.

3. It is an aid to authority:

Leadership is a process of influencing others. The mere use of authority by managers may not lead to
results. But when managerial authority is enriched with good leadership, employees start cooperating.
Therefore, formal exercise of authority may not result in success. Authority, when combined with leadership,
brings success to an organization.

4. It determines organizational success:

In the process of unification of group efforts to achieve organizational goals, leadership enhances
organizational efficiency. Good managers alone cannot achieve this.