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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.2.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.2.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B. large deformation dynamics. and complex contact/impact problems. you can model your structure in ANSYS..6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2004 . 1.1.. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B.2.2.2.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.2.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B.2.2.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B.2 Material Model Examples B.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B.2.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B. 20. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.2.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.2.2.05.2.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B.2.2. such as those required for droptest.2.2. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time.2.2.2.2. springback and other applications. Using this integrated product. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.2.2.

. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Many times.2. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1. If you have not used ANSYS before. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. Likewise. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3.. 20. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis. However. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above.05. The three main steps are: 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program.2004 . and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. you already know how to perform these steps. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2.

RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. updates. 20...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output.2004 .05. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the . ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates.

05. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis.. but that may be useful in some situations.. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command). see the ANSYS Commands Reference. You may choose to read through it from front to back. you are ready to build the model.2004 . Before you build a model. The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information. are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. 20. you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system.

For detailed information on explicit elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally.4...2004 . Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1.05. see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure.5. Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For detailed theoretical information. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem. 20. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1.

and elastic modulus. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements.e. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density. higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. Wedge. midside nodes. Therefore. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities.2004 .1. Solid and Shell Elements 2. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements)..3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required. rubber. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. including elastic.1. For additional details.. or p-elements. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation. plastic. and foam models. pyramid. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements.. 2. A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. including details of input and output quantities.05.1. Therefore. such as with foams. 20. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. These elements assume a linear displacement function. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. For example. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. By default. Poisson's ratio. The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.

.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated)..2004 . You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Therefore. These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations. 20. these degenerate shapes should be avoided.05.

2. 6. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations.3. 2. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163. As with solid elements.05. 7. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu.1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended. Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2.1.2004 . SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay... Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. Therefore. for general analyses. 20.

2. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell..5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element.1. Has four integration points with no hourglassing. so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2.2004 . Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff. 20.1. 2.5. 8. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu.e.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05..4.

You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. 20. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1). provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default).05.. therefore. C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented. Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set.2004 . All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material.

The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The distribution of strain is always linear..9062 1. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. Typically. stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces.2004 . Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials.. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point).e. 20. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes.. as shown in Integration Points.8611 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used.NSET. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior. so care is needed in interpretation of results. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled.5774 0. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). while more points are required for nonlinear materials.05. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero. For elastic materials. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors.7746 0.. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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For the plane stress option (KEYOPT(3) = 0), you can also choose the following materials:
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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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05. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis. 20. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element. 2.. In an automobile impact analysis. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165.they do not pin the nodes together. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). For example. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. However. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length). When the element rotates. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. To represent a spring/mass system. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. ET. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. and material properties (R. The force is applied along the element axis.. for example. because it does not have mass. However. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution. By default. and TB commands.3. the line of action of the force also rotates. element type.2. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements.2004 . you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants. Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes .

05. In the case of shell and beam elements. To use this option. IXY. IZZ) via the element real constants. SOLID164. (Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. IXZ. You can not input a mass value for this option. The mass of each solid. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. 20.2004 . a rotational inertia is also added to each node. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3. PLANE162. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX. BEAM161. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. a single value is used. shell. and LINK167.. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. To do so.) Once you have set the analysis preference. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. IYZ.4. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. SHELL163. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. therefore. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. IYY.

Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model.) For some material models. review Material Models of this document.1. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system. To do so in batch or command mode. In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models).. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . TB. 3. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. Also. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. you typically use the MP.2. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis. In the GUI. the EDMP command). 20. After you select the appropriate material model.05. Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before.. More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS.

Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI. Use the TYPE. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. you specify which previously defined element type. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly. Mesh the Model After building the solid model.3. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. line elements only).g.4. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. real constant set. Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements.g. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e.. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing. By this method. For simple models (e. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model.. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter.05..2004 . you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method.) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3.. and REAL commands. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. 20. a stress-strain curve). MAT.

5.2004 . Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). or EDASMP commands. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls. a long run time. etc. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. A brief overview of that procedure is given here. In the GUI.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. If hourglassing is a problem. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used.e. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes. Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM.).. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry.05. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). In the GUI.. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above). Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. therefore. avoid areas with relatively small elements). VMESH. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing. Instead. Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. or elements may experience hourglassing.. mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. 20. with the EDCGEN command. Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. or EDPART. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh.

For the single surface contact algorithms. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i. If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART). Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Use realistic values for material properties. unyielding objects in the model.2004 . You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used.e.. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter. EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff.) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. For example. node components)..6. 20. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body.05.. Once these components are created. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response. Another command.

not overwrite it. these latter commands will only update the list. EDLOAD.. EDCRB. EDCGEN . and MAT IDs. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LIST command..K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. For example.UPDATE).05. And so on. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2. and listed with the EDPART command. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. issue the EDPART. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE.7.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. If the EDPART.UPDATE command. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. They can also be created.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. updated. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. If any of the TYPE. 20. EDDAMP. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs.CREATE creates new PART IDs. Any combination of TYPE. these elements will be assigned PART number 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. REAL. and EDREAD). REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. the PART list is overwritten. The PART list can be created. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2. EDDC. EDPART. For more information on the EDPART command.2004 . the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. If the PART list already exists.

. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5.LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list). TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3. e. 20. b. issuing EDPART. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s). The following procedure is recommended: a. Update the PART list (EDPART. The PART list is shown below (EDPART. etc. PART number 4 remains.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2.. which includes the addition of new elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. However. Create the PART list (EDPART.2004 . Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6. but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART. contact specifications. d. c. Therefore. Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts.05. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading. issuing EDPART. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command.CREATE).CREATE) and list it (EDPART.LIST). Continue modeling.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated.RS02. Jobname.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..RS01 and Jobname. delete. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval. In order to properly model your structure’s behavior. Therefore. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. Note A new results file will be created for each loop. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. Loading After building the model..05. . even if the mesh does not change. In addition. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt".ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. see Postprocessing. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL. however.

20.. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. the F. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. for certain kinds of loads. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. expected behavior. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. etc. To apply these nodal loads. Please refer to Birth Time. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. To apply a load to your model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4.1. Death Time. For this reason. VY.2004 .1. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies.. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. SF. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. In particular. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition. For example. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4. Therefore. position in the model. VX) appear as degrees of freedom. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature. Additionally. use the EDLOAD command. AY. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. all loads are applied in one load step. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. Hence. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time).05. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes.

You may define as many components as you wish. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components. etc. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal.2. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. ROTZ. For the case of rigid bodies. ROTY. Or.. 20. FZ. Otherwise. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters.). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Therefore.2004 . However. ROTX. Therefore.RIGID.. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. consider the baseball example mentioned previously.1. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. with each entry of the first array specifying a time value.) To define a component. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. and then apply loads to each of them. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. FY. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.MAT. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. In the GUI. the nodes on the bat as another component.05. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. and the nodes on the wall as a third component.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. To illustrate the use of array parameters. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP.

node nsel.s...0.node.s. as listed below. cm. 20. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You also need to define a third component named batsurf. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces. This component will be used later in the contact specification.. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. dimensions.4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.ydisp. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads.-2..node nsel..ball.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0. etc.time.s.3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0. cm.4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim.zdisp.node..3. In a more accurate simulation..node ! define the component bathand nsel. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different.-1..9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon.node nsel.0.bathand.. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers. Finally..all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied.2004 .1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0. 4.node.4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim. moments. nodal accelerations. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball.3. Further.s. Define an array named time to store the time values. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter).6..xdisp. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces..5.all *dim.75. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads.batsurf. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle. Next. Likewise.3. nsel. and material properties in your model. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand..0. cm. It is important to note.-1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces.node.. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm.2. nsel.1.. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined.1.8.. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads.05.ballsurf.. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load..25. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command]. surface pressures.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command). Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS.05. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command. 20.PHASE. the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command.11.LCID.300. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.5yforce(1)=0.075..DTIME). The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.100. Lab.Par2.BTIME.fy.Par1.2004 .. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems.200.. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command.Z1.1. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.Cname .yforce.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.4.. Some load types do not support birth and death time. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.2. see Birth Time.5.comp..KEY.ADD..400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve. The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.Y1.. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession..add. see Birth Time. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. Death Time.6.add. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command.0 As shown above.1.SCALE.025. If CID is not specified.5 time(1)=0.Z2)..X1.time. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values.05.X2. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD .ADD. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction.1. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time..11. Death Time. 4.1 *dim. CID... the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts.Y2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4. 4. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined.1. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels.time.

you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry.ADD. For a rigid joint. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS).. 4.e. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . In the GUI.STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body. Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution.ADD. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. The ENS option has many potential applications. nodal rigid body (NRB).05. defining nodes where point loads will be applied.1.. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). However. i. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. and rivet (RIVET). It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ADD.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4. but are based on a node component. No other values are valid. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies. The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. the value specified must always be 0 (zero).2. shell edge to solid (STS).ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command.2004 . see earlier discussion in this chapter). you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. Additionally. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. you will need to apply constraints to your model..2. The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. 20. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects.NRB command are not associated with a part number.

however. However. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above. if you use coincident nodes. it is common to model components that are physically welded together.2. For a massless spotweld. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way.05. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model. In the GUI. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. For a generalized weld. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR .RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command.. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. you must specify a valid nodal component. When a rivet is defined. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation.. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. failure cannot be specified for a rivet. In such cases. Unlike a spotweld.ADD. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command. Coincident nodes are permitted. 20.2004 . 4.2.

For the VELO option. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e.g. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. To define an initial velocity. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. YC. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. use the following procedure: 1. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO. Note To model a rotating body. OMEGAY. EDPVEL. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application.3.g. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX.VGEN. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. with or without translations. cannot be used in the same analysis. PID). (e. or a part assembly [EDASMP]. a part [EDPART]. Y. and OMEGAZ fields). 3. EDVEL. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. Due to the LS-DYNA architecture. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX.. and Z axes. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4. part. initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. a nodal component [CM]. VY. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity. etc.. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. For the VGEN option.VGEN.2. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. This may be a single node. the two methods for defining initial velocities. ANGY.) around a specified axis. For both the VGEN and VELO methods.. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. 2. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X.. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option.2004 . The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC. Likewise.05. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations. and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command).

use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete). the CE-family of commands (CE. CPINTF. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program. This means that if the structure rotates. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed). If CP is used in this manner.ball. modify. CEINTF. CEDELE. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly. use the EDVEL.-1600. CPDELE.DELE commands (in the GUI. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel. CELIST. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number.1. UY.3.LIST and EDVEL. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete). CPLIST. modify. ROTY. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX.. CPSGEN) can be used to define..velo.2004 .. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model.. Also. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint. delete. delete. it could lead to nonphysical responses. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies. CERIG) can be used to define. For our baseball example.-1600. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. list. ROTZ) are not allowed.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4.. CPNGEN. 20. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or.05.velo. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel.DELE commands (in the GUI. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. For each node in the coupled set. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. Similarly.. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. CPLGEN. use the EDPVEL. Similarly. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure.LIST and EDPVEL.

. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model. 20. LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body.1. For this type of analysis. and SOLID164 element types. respectively. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162.2004 .. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases.05. For example. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain.ADD.GROUND. the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials. Therefore.5. use the commands EDNB .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment. To define a nonreflecting boundary. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model.4. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. SHELL163. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component.DELE. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LIST and EDNB. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND.

. or BFUNIF. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. In addition. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command. When LDREAD is issued. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load.05. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. For all three methods of temperature loading. In the explicit phase. use the BFLIST command. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname.. use the BFDELE command. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. 20. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. TUNIF.2004 . This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. To use this method.. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined. it defaults to zero. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes).

. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. 3. ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label. except that the termination time is set to the desired value.OFF): In this case.ANSYS). Therefore. Cname.6. 4. if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution. 2. 20. Lab.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS.. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command). the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. They are discussed below: 1. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again.e. Par2. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX. Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. a slightly different approach is taken. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. True dynamic relaxation is used. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve.05. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload. ADD. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands.DYNA): This is similar to the previous case.2004 . .. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one. At time zero. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. In this latter case. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i. PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. Par1.EDDRELAX. This is the default setting.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case. In the former case. the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. EDLOAD .

HIS.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. modeling. and termination controls)..05.RST and Jobname. 3.) 2.1. Before issuing the SOLVE command. Jobname. are written on the two results files Jobname. meshing. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero. loading. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used. To work around this limitation. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements).. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve). is written using all information that has been entered so far. The header records.e.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command.RST and Jobname. If the EDOPT. real constant and material property specifications. At this point. 20. you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI. Solution Process After the model has been built (i. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label.. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load.DB. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname. (At this point. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program. boundary/initial conditions.ADD. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide. after completing element definitions.HIS.K. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX.2004 . Solution Features 5. The input file for the LS-DYNA program.) 5. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname. Consequently.

05. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds).You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position. 20.2. (See the EDTERM command for details. To use this feature. You may set up multiple criteria using this command. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model.3) analysis. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis. If errors or warnings are produced. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM. These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. The other termination controls are optional. The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis.3. you must have a machine with at least two processors. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately.. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time . Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. CPU time limit . messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window. Termination criteria . where details of the errors and warnings are written.2004 .2) or a full restart ( EDSTART.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings.. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done.

you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses. For more information on all of these methods.... Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly..) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5. You can set this value via the config60. To avoid these differences.) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time... you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN... the larger the problem. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1.e.... via the /CONFIG command. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors. This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i... switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 0... 2.1).....2004 ... or via the SETNPROC macro... nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect. (Unlike in ANSYS. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program... If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available). depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU..SMP..05. 20... If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status.. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls.. you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt. please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.....ans file.... Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses. Because of this. Specify the number of processors to be used.. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background.78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.00000E+00 time step. When used with more than 8 processors.. the calculations may be executed in different order. the higher the potential for scalability.4. When you are using shared memory parallel processing... you should close all other applications on those CPUs.. 2. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run... you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP.. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time.. any additional scalability is minimal..

.. On a UNIX system. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run. use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started.............00000E-20 system damping energy.2004 . you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates.. you can determine the progress of the solution...00000E+00 sliding interface energy..00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718........ 1........00000E+03 total energy / initial energy. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718.. 1.... By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.... the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files...) The files d3hsp..... glstat and matsum are ASCII files. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run.. A restart file is written... these files are written at requested time points........00000E+03 internal energy. warnings. To do so........ 0.. contact problems...... Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum...00000E-20 spring and damper energy.... As the solution progresses... You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver.....MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used... -1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy... 1. For m (the number of lines to be viewed).00000E+00 total energy. 1.....00000E+00 global x velocity. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point....00000E+00 external work. failed elements.) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp. The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT..... etc..00000E+00 global y velocity..... 0. 0........ ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run.. The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors. The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above). a value of 30 should be sufficient.... file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.GLSTAT EDOUT.... 1. This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed. 0....28205E+01 global z velocity.... 0......05.... 20. The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA.. then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers..

20. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods.This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. This option produces the same plot as Option 1. There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size. ? Option 1 . or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes. It should be noted. This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5.. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest).6. Option 2 . however.. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. yellow (intermediate). You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes. except that all selected elements are plotted.Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.2004 .5. Option 3 .

(Remember. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. certain element types.6. the input file will be named Jobname. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files. 3.RST and Jobname. Method B 1.2004 . Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 2. Jobname. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.1.. Jobname. After issuing EDWRITE. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.HIS. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.6. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files. go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. That is.k. and if it is a full restart. 5. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. reside). Using another window. Method A 1. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart. reside. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command.R.RST and Jobname. 2.K.05. the input file will be named Jobname_nn. Jobname. 20. After modeling has been completed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. (In the GUI. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26). users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. etc.K. For both Method A and Method B. soil. such as fabric. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window.) 4. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. 3. 4.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed. 5.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files)..2.HIS.

the argument “m=drelax” is also required. For a restart analysis. the original version. and not the modified version. you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors.K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files.k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. Next. For any type of analysis. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. To use this method.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. (For these reasons.RST and . 99) to be used as a starting point. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26.) will not be available in the results files.K. 5..K. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. see Restarting).K. (EDSTART command. Jobname. Also. nodes and elements must not be changed.k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example. However. . element attributes (material properties. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE). If you requested LS-DYNA results files. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. When using these methods to modify the file Jobname.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support. where n is the desired amount of memory in words.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis. 20.k”. Then edit the . you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”. run the lsdynaxx script as described above.. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). depending on what type of analysis you are running. first make sure that the model defined in the .2004 . etc.0 and your input file is “crashtest. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete.K. solve it using LS-DYNA.HIS results file headers when only a file. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command). This allows you to take a pre-existing file. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands.K input file exists.05. Thus. will be shown. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST.) In all cases. 02. real constants..6. However. Using a Pre-existing File. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the ..

This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis. which include node-to-surface.. and/or part assembly ID definitions. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM.NODE..NTS. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.BALLSURF.S. and ESS). STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended. and rigid contact options. SS. You simply indicate the contact surfaces. automatic single surface (ASSC). For most typical analyses. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible. surface-tosurface. These contact types.BALLSURF. single surface.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. as shown in the sample input listing below.25. STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type. In other analyses... use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid). are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”.05. drawbead.1. single edge. 6. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. STEP 2: Identify contact entities. and single edge contact (SE). automatic general (AG). STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC. You can do this by using nodal components. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur.. PART ID definitions. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses.2004 . When using contact or target components.BATSURF. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult. there are no contact elements.. 20... automatic general (AG). For this reason. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. the type of contact between them. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. and other parameters related to the contact type..NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL.” For explicit dynamics.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact. tied. eroding. nodes-to-surface (NTS).S. tiebreak.NODE.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... Then. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements. STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition.BATSURF. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis..

5. as illustrated below: EDCGEN. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. N1. and SS). use great care when defining contact components. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command. Therefore. Vrel... (FS.34.STS.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions.28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC.. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD). Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command.2. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model. A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN.34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis...05.2.1.1.ASSC.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN. VC (also input on EDCGEN ).1. no contact or target surface definitions are required..25. 20..15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN. and the exponential decay coefficient (DC)...15.2004 .STS... single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis.1.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS)... AG.3. no initial penetrations are allowed.N2. ESS. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction.3..NTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively.. As explained later in this section. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum.ESTS.6.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally. FD.STS.1..

rigid. a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements.. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.g. ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. e.. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness.2004 . For rigid body contact. and an unloading stiffness value (V3). Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics. ESS. for rigid body contact.. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. 20.05. for sheet forming simulation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. tiebreak.g. and drawbead contact. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. This information varies with contact type. as outlined below. For eroding contact. For both types of tiebreak contact. e.. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material. Therefore. you must specify a data curve ID (V1). the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries.

DELE. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2).DELE.00000 VDC = 0. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads. Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. Listing. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis. Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command. components or parts).00000 VC = 0. 20.2. The plot will consist of nodes or elements.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0.00000 VC = 0. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted. you can delete it using the EDDC command.05.Targ.2).15000 DC = 0. You can specify a minimum contact entity number.2004 . issue the command EDDC. Hence. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN.1. and INC fields of the EDPC command. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0. In drawbead contact. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is.ALL and ESEL.20000 FD = 0. you must input a load curve ID (V1).ALL. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead. then deactivate it at a later time. Use the NSEL.08000 DC = 0. If contact has been incorrectly specified. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. issue the command EDDC.. and a drawbead depth (V3).1. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. To delete all current contact definitions. plot.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. 6. To delete a specific contact definition. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. after plotting the contact entities.1 for the above listing.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. MAX. or delete contact definitions.1. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. Therefore.10000 FD = 0. A sample listing is shown below. However. you can list. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions.. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. by issuing the command EDPC.00000 VDC = 0. maximum contact entity number. Ctype. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact.Cont. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). which help restrain a blank during drawing operations. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ).

or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis.Ctype.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC ..2. With such a large number of contact options.Cont.Ctype. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FOSS 6.DACT. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS.DELE. and you must perform at least one small restart. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur.2. Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis. Thus.05.RACT. nodes-to-surface contact. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon.Cont. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). you can achieve significant CPU time savings. AG.1. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1. in this section.Targ) contact in a small restart. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact. Once a contact specification is defined.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC . ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6. 20. By considering contact only when it is needed. Therefore. you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed. deactivate. you cannot delete. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed.2004 .3). (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC.. and surface-to-surface contact.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART .

2. TSTS. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. there are often several contact options available. In single surface contact. ROTR. 6. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options.05. When using solid elements. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. Unlike implicit modeling. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. 3. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact. AG. RNTR. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body.. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand.2004 . In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. SE. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA. 20. NTS. Single Surface Contact (SS. Therefore. the following options may be used: 1. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. General (Normal) Contact (SS. STS. The coarser mesh is the target surface. The finer mesh is the contact surface. When it is defined. FOSS. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. ASSC.. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. FSTS. DRAWBEAD. ASTS. The convex surface is the contact surface. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. TDSS. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target.2. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. they still are used for a wide range of applications. OSTS. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. however. TNTS. ESTS. ASS2D. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. TDNS. ENTS. In fact. 2. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. ANTS. For shell elements.

5. ANTS. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. force calculation method (V2). or separate from. When defining tied contact. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. Eroding Contact (ESS. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command.2004 . a symmetry plane option (V1). ASTS) Along with the general contact family. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. 6. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. In automatic contact. TDSS. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. 3.. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). UY. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. ENTS. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. 2. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. the target surface. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. 4. However. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. upon application of loads or initial velocities. Tied Contact (TDNS. ASS2D. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. AG. 20. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. rigid body contact (RNTR. For the rigid options. the data curve ID (V1).. It is important to note. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. after the failure criterion is exceeded. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. When using eroding contact. To do this. or eroding options. the contact search depth is always limited. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. Therefore. Rigid Contact (RNTR. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. Automatic Contact (ASSC. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. automatic. Thereafter.05. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies.

20. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. Drawbead contact.. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections. When using TSTS. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces.2004 . During drawing and stamping simulations.. 8.05. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command. For the TNTS option.

OSTS. FSTS. Therefore. contact options NTS. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. However. For these contact types. Therefore. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. Forming Contact (FNTS..3. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6. 6.05. the neighboring segments are checked. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. TSTS. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9.2. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking.2004 . and TDNS contact options. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction.3.. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions. OSTS. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. TNTS. These methods are outlined below: 6. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface.3.1. 20. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact.

For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS). An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand. a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box. 20. Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain..05.. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command.XMAX.BOXID1. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets).3. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS). Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration.ZMAX ADD.Option. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS.NTS. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined.. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box. automatic single surface (ASSC).YMIN.Targ. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. Therefore. 6. and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm. a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command. When you specify a contact box. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells.YMAX. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies. The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types. and single surface (SS) contact definitions.XMIN. The bucket sort method is extremely robust. EDCGEN. EDBX. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets. DELETE. ..4.2004 . which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above.3.BOXID . STS. DTIME. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth.ZMIN.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm. A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. Cont.

TNTS. Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6. OSTS. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.1. and TSTS. OSTS. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. TNTS. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. OSTS. as explained above. and TSTS. Therefore. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. 0.05. Contact Stiffness 6..6. For all of the contact options other than STS. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. In an explicit dynamic analysis. and the contact depth is relatively large. 20. In cases where the contact is not genuine. NTS.5. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness.2004 .6.4 x min side length. and TSTS. 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options.. To control the contact penetration distance. NTS. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Second. For this reason.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. For these contact types. NTS. TNTS. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa). contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion.

between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k. The amount of penetration ( ).05. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message.2004 . by setting PENO to 1. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results. 20. In practice. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. Together with the related mass. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command. however.6. If the difference between the two time steps is small. increasing the value of SFSI above 0. fs. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. but this implies that k = . PENO of the EDCONTACT command. or incompatibility. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise.1 by default) In almost all cases. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur. Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The contact stiffness. Without a contact stiffness. this approach may not be necessary. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command. overwriting user input for the scale factor. which will lead to numerical instabilities.. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor. there should be no penetration.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur. For example. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. bodies will pass through one another. Ideally.2. the program scales them to closer values. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis. which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. 6. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option.. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.

FS.FD. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements. For additional information on each material model.2004 .) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter. BTIME. .DTIME For 2-D contact.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate. The available materials are listed below. The option.7. Cont. ASS2D..Targ. DC. where applicable. BTIME.. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior.ASS2D. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7.. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.05. 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. FD. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. and DTIME. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact. 20. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS.DC. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN.

05. 20..2004 ..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. TBTEMP. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. and TBDATA. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP.05.. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MPDATA. TB. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands. MPTEMP. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP. The next section.1. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.2004 . 20.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then choosing Edit > Delete. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. you can edit the data and click on OK again. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears..2. Enter the desired values. or Rigid Material. Nonlinear.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. do not define extraneous properties. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. For example. Double-click on a material subcategory. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. you actually input a material data curve ID. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. 20. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models.05. Inelastic. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. or delete material models via the GUI. the subcategories are: Elastic. 3. and click on OK. 5. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. 4. Also. Equation of State. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. under the Nonlinear category. 2. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. Discrete Element Properties. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. If you define. edit. and Foam Material Models. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. double-click on LS-DYNA. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. In the Material Models Available window on the right. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it.2004 .. copy. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. There. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file.

1.shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ). NUXZ). PRXZ).elastic modulus MP.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i.elastic moduli (also EY. Because of symmetry.2.2. If no material coordinate system is specified. For a multi-layer composite laminate. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I.EX .NUXY . Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model. EX).NUXY . EZ).e..Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ.density MP. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide.PRXY .2004 .Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing..2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. use the TB.05. J.1. 7. Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model. EY = EZ = EX)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7.g. 20.DENS . Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix. See Composite Damage Model for more information.DENS . one value required MP. use the EDLCS and EDMP.density MP.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ. Linear Elastic Models 7.1.GXY .. the other values will be automatically defined (e. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP.1. only 21 constants are required. This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations). Use the MP command to input the required values. MP. and L of the element (see the figure below). one value required MP.ORTHO commands. 7. To specify a material coordinate system.1.3.2. one value required or MP. see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel.2. For an example input listing.EX .

MP. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type. EX. C56.DENS EDMP.VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. use the EDLCS and EDMP. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. C24. 20. C33 TBDATA. 7. C45.05. C26. ANEL TBDATA. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. DENS . and NUXY are all specified. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above). You input density using the MP command (DENS).ANEL command. MP. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP.2. C11.MAT.2. C16. C14. C22. C13. C25 TBDATA. C35.4. C46. 13. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. To specify a material orientation axis. J.EX MP. For an example input listing. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus. 7. C12. C36 TBDATA. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. C34. C44.density TB.2004 . 1.1. C23.. C15.2. 19. This discrepancy is not a computational error. If no material coordinate system is specified. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command. 7. C55. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP.FLUID.ORTHO commands. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP)..

Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command.2.. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7.2..49 is recommended. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor. and ij is the Kronecker delta. (For Poisson's ratio. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model... C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. For an example input listing. a value greater than . you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. 2.2004 .2.2. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model. is the Poisson’s ratio. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY). C01 and : I1 . 1.2. 7. V is the relative volume. C10 TBDATA. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko.... The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command. I2 .05. Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor. smaller values may not work. see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber.0 TBDATA. MOONEY. MOONEY.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve.2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus. To use this input method..1.

2. In tension. 6. Alternatively.2.3. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. 5. EVISC TBDATA. In compression. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values. For an example input listing.2004 . 4. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model.05. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA.2. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA. 47. G0 . and width equal to 1. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. 3. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB. V: p = K ln V. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force.. 7.EVISC and locations 46. 1. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. thickness. Input these values with TB. 48. 46. The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. The parameters .. 1. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model. 20.

3. 47. 1.1. . .) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB. (These properties are temperature dependent.BISO. TBTEMP commands.TEMP 1. you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command.NUXY.3. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command.05. Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature. and density (DENS) with the MP command. Input density (DENS) with the MP command. . . . Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command.TEMPntemp MPDATA.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). TBDATA. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. (A temperature dependent model is also available. MP. If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature..2004 . the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed.EX..BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. EX 2 . Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).2.NUXY 1. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. 2. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength. BISO TBDATA. 61.EX1 . Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.. 1/ Note For this material option.) Input elastic modulus (Exx).NTEMP command. K TBDATA.EX ntemp MPDATA. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB.. . . Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.DENS MPTEMP. . (The density is temperature independent. 48.2. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input.TEMP 2 . 7. For an example input listing. .2.NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass.3.1. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. 7.NUXY 2. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.1. .2.. . .1. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model.

(continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP. .ALPX2 . 20. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.3. tangent modulus. 1. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. PLAW.. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. .05.PLAW.ALPXntemp TB. you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis. density (DENS). Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model. 2.7 and locations 1 .. 2. NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP. 1. 7. ..TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA. Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate. 2.TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA. . Otherwise.ALPX.3.. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs.2.. the analysis will terminate. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. . Input the yield stress.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA.. 1. Etan (tangent modulus) . plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... anisotropic hardening parameter.7 TBDATA.. 2. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA. to the out of plane plastic strain rate.2004 . .ALPX1. . 3.1. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB.. 4. 1.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. BISO.

10 TBDATA. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE).. TB.3.PLAW. 20. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model..R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience.4..5. you must input the density (DENS).. The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section. elastic modulus (Exx). In addition.2. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered. As shown below..4.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA.PLAW. 7.2. For this model. the additional input parameters are specified using TB.1. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.3.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE). see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel..10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing. This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials. y (yield stress) TBDATA.05.LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing. 3. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. 2..PLAW. Input the yield stress. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing.. PLAW.2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.3.2004 .5. or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure. kinematic. Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress. and the failure strain with TB. p eff is the effective plastic strain... is the strain rate.2. 20. density (DENS).05. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature.. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only). C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.1 TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Input elastic modulus (Exx). tangent slope. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel.. BKIN TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 4. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. 1. density (DENS). 7.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. 7. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. strain rate parameters C and P. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.3. hardening parameter. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. 5. 6.BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 1.1 and locations 1 . Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic. 2..6. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.

05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing. m is Barlat exponent. Input the hardening rule type. HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential). p is the plastic strain.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants. and n is the hardening coefficient. is the uniaxial tension in the direction. excluding p which is determined implicitly.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 7.7..3. 20. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2). a and c are anisotropic material constants. yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . Input the elastic modulus (Exx). density (DENS). For the exponential hardening option.2004 . All of the anisotropic material constants. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient. 0 is the initial strain at yield. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above.2.

The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 . 2.. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented). CSID. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS.CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. R45 TBDATA. and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes. Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA... R45 . m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA. and L of the element: If CSID = 2. Before specifying the material property. PLAW. has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2... file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . 20.ORTHO. R90 TBDATA. 6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2). J.PLAW. and the orthotropic material axes with TB.8. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS. the width to thickness strain ratio values.. 7.2. and then issue EDMP. 4.S2 |m + |S2 . For an example input listing..3 and locations 1 . 7. R00 .S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . R00 TBDATA.VAL1. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182. 3. Lege.S3 |m + |S3 . the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I. and R90 . Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA.. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat.. 5. m.8. 1.3. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. If CSID = 0.8 of the TBDATA command: TB.05.3 TBDATA. the Barlat exponent.

For this material option. g TBDATA. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.6 TBDATA. p is the plastic strain. 6. the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. 5. 10.3. 8.6 and locations 1 . 7. 1.. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. 4. f TBDATA. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses. density (DENS). 0 (initial strain) TBDATA. b TBDATA. 2. the flow potential exponent..Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. f.a( - where a. c.b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . 20. the initial strain at yield.. a TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 7. 3. g. h For an example input listing. and n is the hardening coefficient. TB. the hardening coefficient.9.10 of the TBDATA command. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).c( xx yy xx ) .. b. PLAW. 0 is the initial strain at yield. The material model follows a Ramburgh .05. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB. 9. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA.2. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.. Input the strength coefficient.2004 . c TBDATA. isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4....ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) .PLAW. and h represent the anisotropic material constants.

LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. In this model. strain rate sensitivity coefficient.PLAW. k (material constant) TBDATA.. effective strain rate (optional). effective strain rate) TBDATA.5 TBDATA..10. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6. 6. and initial strain rate with TB. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion.. Input the material constant. is the strain rate. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength. density (DENS).. effective strain rate (optional).PLAW.. 7. 1.. effective strain rate) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). effective strain rate using TB. hardening coefficient.5 and locations 1 . The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. strain rate.. TB.4 of the TBDATA command: TB..2. m is the hardening coefficient. 1.05.. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). the tangent modulus. PLAW. instead of LCID4 in location 5. 20. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. 4. 3. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. PLAW. strain. effective strain rate) TBDATA. LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses. density (DENS). 4. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain.. n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA. 2. k is the material constant. 3.4 TBDATA.. 5. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing.4 and locations 1 . 2. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.. For shell elements. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs.. effective strain rate) TBDATA.2004 .5 of the TBDATA command.3. to define failure of the material. effective strain rate.

. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials.11. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure.1.2.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. density (DENS). (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state.COMP and locations 1 . 3. Eyy. 7. NUYZ. Gxz).. shear moduli (Gxy. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates. COMP TBDATA. the longitudinal tensile strength...3. 7.. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA.2 TBDATA. Ezz).3. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally.2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB. C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB.2.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. Input the elastic moduli (Exx. see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel.3. NUXZ) with the MP command. 20.CONCR. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA. 5.05. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. transverse compressive strength.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 6. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA.2004 .. 2. even if the failure capabilities are not used.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.CONCR.12. 4. Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings.2. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY.. Gyz. Input all values shown below with the TB. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants. 1. transverse tensile strength. the shear strength. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA..

density (DENS). strain curve input and strain rate dependency.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.10. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.13. 1 . 20. which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate.19.15.4..05.17. C and P are strain rate parameters. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.7.18. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.47.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.20-32. v1 .C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA..V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.46.13.33-45.6. especially for steel.9.69-78.49-58. 1 .PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model.14.48.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.16.2.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).11.12.A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.2004 .5.3.59-68.8. and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain.

strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command.14.8 and locations 1 ..6.7 of the TBDATA command: TB.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. effective plastic true strain. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper . C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. 4.. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 20. Further. Input the strength coefficient. PLAW. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. and n is the hardening coefficient. 1. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel. hardening coefficient.PLAW. the strain rate parameter C. For an example input listing. 1. 7.3. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. the effective plastic true strain at failure..2. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature...2 TBDATA. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters.PLAW.. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. the strain rate parameter P. strain rate dependency is ignored.05. 2.. Input the yield stress. the tangent modulus. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. e is the elastic strain to yield. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA.. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs.2004 .7. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses.. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. 5.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate. Only true stress and true strain data are considered. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs.. density (DENS). P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.8 TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 2. PLAW.2 and locations 1 .. 4. k is the strength coefficient.. 3. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model. 3. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used. if C and P are set to zero. and strain rate parameters C and P with TB. If LCID 2 is used. plastic true strain) TBDATA.

4.C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.43. Input the density (DENS). therefore.. 1 .05.4.1.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA..2. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.44.39. Up to 16 data points may be specified. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA. Eh .41. Page 82 of 180 7.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PLAW.45.37. elastic modulus (EX). and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.40.1...3.Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB.C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. f (failure strain) TBDATA. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified.. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus..C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.21-36.5-20. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100. Input the parameters described below with TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.PLAW. 1 .4.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA.C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA..9 TBDATA. true plastic strain curve.42.2.16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified. 20.2004 . Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis.2.38.. 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.

Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space. 20. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope.2. The first invariant of the stress.4. In this model. Next. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below.2. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space.05. J 1.. and f 3 is the tension cutoff. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. 7. f 2 is the cap surface..2004 . two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor. is the trace of the stress tensor. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and .

Finally.7.2004 . denoted f 3 in the figure.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA. the tension cutoff surface on the left.R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6. TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically.GCAP TBDATA.8.5.9.W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA.1.2. 20. TB. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material. Input the parameters described below with the TB.05.3. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA. there is the tension cutoff surface. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA..4.. and the cap surface on the right.

b TBDATA. 4. the initial foam pressure.05. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete.10. TBDATA. 5.2. For an example input listing. c TBDATA. and the initial volumetric strain with TB. 3.2. 6. however. the ratio of foam to polymer density. Unlike honeycomb. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress. 7. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA.. b.1. b. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model. Input the yield stress constants a. Toff < 0.. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain. 2.11.. and c are user defined input constants.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.1 and locations 1 . low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs.12.5. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ij is the Kronecker delta.. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command..6 of the TBDATA command: TB.1 TBDATA. and c. p o is the initial foam pressure. a TBDATA..13.. Foam Models 7. 1. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete.. FOAM.FOAM. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.Toff (tension cut-off value.2004 . closed cell.C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid. is the ratio of foam to polymer density. 20. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure.5.N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA.

SHAPE (shape unloading factor. 3. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient.3 and locations 1 .5.full energy dissipation) TBDATA.. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). respectively. 1. 2.5 are recommended) TBDATA.0 .. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command.2. 4. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.3. DAMP (viscous coefficient.5.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU). 20. FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA. the hysteresis unloading factor. 4.. and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated..0 . default=1E20) TBDATA.. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA.. FOAM. In compression. TC (tension cutoff stress.2. the tension cut off (tearing) stress. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached. . a decay constant ( ). The elastic stiffness.. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems)..no energy dissipation (default) and 0. and initial viscous coefficient. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient.tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA. the initial viscous coefficient. For uniaxial loading. and density (DENS) with the MP command. 5. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs. 7.05 and 0. strain. . n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7..2 TBDATA. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature..FOAM.05. the viscous coefficient. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy.FOAM. 6. and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. default = 1) TBDATA... 3.3 TBDATA..2 and locations 1 ..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. (decay constant) TBDATA.0 .2004 . values between 0. the shape factor for unloading. Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. 2. 1. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. FOAM. the decay constant. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs.

05 and 0.0 .3 of the TBDATA command: TB.5. density (DENS). TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA. 2. FOAM.Gbcu) (G .0 ..tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA.2. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant. In the formulation. and t is time.Eccu ) (G . LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs. 3.5 are recommended) 7.5. It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads. DAMP (viscous damping coefficient. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).2.4 and locations 1 .5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value. 8.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading. volumetric strain) TBDATA.2004 ..no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate.. values between 0. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero.Eaau ) (E .Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.4 TBDATA. the tension cutoff value..05.FOAM..0 bulk viscosity active) 7.4. volumetric strain. Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. 1. The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E .. E is the elastic modulus.Ebbu) (E . For stresses below the tensile cut off value. 1.Gabu) (G . and the viscous damping coefficient with TB. Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials.

LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. 9. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).05. LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. 3. HONEY TBDATA. density (DENS). LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.HONEY and locations 1 . 7. 11. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.. 8. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs. 4. 2. Each curve must have the same abscissa values.V). 5. (material viscosity coefficient. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 13. 14. default = 0. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs. 17. 12. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. This input is optional. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes. Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 1.. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 6. 15. 10. 20. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . 16. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Input all values shown below with TB. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.17 of the TBDATA command: TB.2004 . relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.05) TBDATA.

You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. 20.LOC+4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.2004 .C1 TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.LOC+8.1.C2 TBDATA.) TBDATA.6.2.C5 TBDATA.2. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.C6 TBDATA. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density.LOC+6.LOC+3.05.2.LOC+2. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models...LOC+5.LOC+1.LOC+7.6.C0 TBDATA.6.C3 TBDATA. 7. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways.C4 TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models.

v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.LOC+1.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC+5.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.S1 TBDATA. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC+3 to LOC+12. S1.LOC.) TBDATA.LOC+6.LOC+3.C TBDATA..LOC+2.LOC+1.3.S2 TBDATA. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.05.2. 0 TBDATA. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC+2. 20. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.6.2004 .. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma.) TBDATA.A TBDATA.LOC+4.LOC+7.LOC+13 to LOC+22. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. S2.S3 TBDATA.LOC. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. v1 . a is the first order volume correction to 0.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.

20.T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.4.LOC+23 to LOC+32. For solid elements.6. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and m are material constants. Input the density (DENS). you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section).3-20...2. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A. also called the viscoplastic model. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual... and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening.2.A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.4 TBDATA. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below). C. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model. 7.21-26.EOS.2.6.HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA. The model may be used for shell and solid elements.. Input the parameters described below with TB.5. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants.05.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB.1. n. B. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA.2004 .

15 of the TBDATA command: TB.m TBDATA..2.D1 TBDATA.A TBDATA.D4 TBDATA.15.C TBDATA.B TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.7.5.Troom TBDATA. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).05. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.12.4.n TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA.1. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel... you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).13.10.CP (specific heat) TBDATA. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.8.11. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.14.3. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1.2004 . density (DENS).1.Tmelt TBDATA. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.EOS. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).pressure cut-off TBDATA.. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA.D3 TBDATA. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models.EOS and locations 1 .D2 TBDATA. 20.9.6.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model..

so you should use reasonable values. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. 1. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).6. Pressure Cutoff ( 0.7. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA.. see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model.. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS. Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA. 3. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass. Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain. EOSOPT TBDATA. 2..6. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command..2. EOS.2.2004 .. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).4 of the TBDATA command: TB. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. you can define a viscosity. and temperature. 20.2. 7. Erosion in tension and compression is possible.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. Optionally.05.6.EOS and locations 1 . 4. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .0) TBDATA. density (DENS). strain rate. Input the parameters listed below with TB.

B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.18. Set SPALL = 1.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA.0 to use maximum principal stress.G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model. The model must be defined with an equation of state.15.Troom (room temperature) TBDATA.4. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.5.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.8. 20. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command.G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA..16. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure. SPALL = 2.2.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.14.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure limit.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.) TBDATA.1. 7. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).2004 . Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS). Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). o (initial strain) TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).EOS. Input the parameters described below with TB.13.7.8.05.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SPALL = 3.EOSOPT TBDATA.3..9. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.10.SPALL (Spall type.11.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA..B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.19.3..6.6.12.17.2.

LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached. In this model.2004 . p is the pressure. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. and f are experimentally determined material constants. In this model. b. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. Here. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. 20.05. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out.. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. V is the relative volume. h. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations.. = o. Tmo .

The hydrostatic tension spall model. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. and the pressure cutoff value.5. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression.. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient. 20. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. Once spall is detected with this model.. SPALL = 2. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. SPALL = 3. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. max. and failure under tensile loads. the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. The maximum principal stress spall model. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. p cut. y and G are set to one half their initial values. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff.2004 . TB. The pressure limit model. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. pcut. p cut.05. SPALL = 1. is set equal to m. Thus. If tensile pressures are calculated. limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated. This option is not strictly a spall model. cracking. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting.. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. exceeds the limiting value -pcut . and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive). detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit.. the pressure is reset to pcut . detects spall if the maximum principal stress. Whenever exceeds m. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material. while max is positive in tension.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. material melts. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or .EOS. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command.

.19-28.DISCRETE.7.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.DISCRETE..12.2.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.1. see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel.1.13.0 TBDATA. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.17..6. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.7...0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.SPALL (Spall type.4.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA.3.11. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB. Discrete Element Models 7.. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .. Input the model parameters with the TB. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). 20.) TBDATA.05.A (atomic weight) TBDATA..Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA.7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.7. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA. Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model.8.1. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA.2004 .a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA.2.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model..10.FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA. 7.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA.15.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA.9..16. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.DISCRETE.2..2. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).PC (pressure cut-off.18.5.b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.14. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes. Hardening and softening can be defined.

1.0 is compression only (default).KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.5...7.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening... The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading.. displacement or moment vs. 0.2.DISCRETE.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.)) TBDATA.7. Inelastic Tension.2.. Optionally. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.6. 20.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs. displacement or moment vs.4. Input the model parameters with the TB.BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA.3.LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs.DISCRETE.3.CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1.7.) TBDATA. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity.2.DISCRETE.4.. respectively.1..LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA..7. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB.2...LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs..2..0 is compression only...DISCRETE.. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.DISCRETE.) 7.0 is tension only.) TBDATA. 1..2004 .CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7. Input the model parameters with the TB.2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB... displacement/twist relationship.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7.DISCRETE.3 TBDATA. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.2.3.2.5.5 TBDATA.KU (Unloading stiffness. Input the spring elastic stiffness.DISCRETE.1. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB.05.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.2 TBDATA.) 7.2... regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression.7 TBDATA.3.or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only.. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.1.

generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension.9...Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.4 TBDATA...8.. Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes.0..KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB.2..7.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7.... If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.4.7.DISCRETE.) where L is the change in length L = current length .7. rate-of-rotation relationship. Input the damping constant with the TB. the offset should be a negative length. No force will develop in compression.COPT (Time implementation option) 7.3.. The force is given by: F = K x max( L.DISCRETE.1.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB.1.2004 . Optionally.. F... 0).05.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167.2. For a slack cable. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs..DISCRETE..6. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA.DISCRETE.. Input load curve ID with the TB. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined.LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs. For an initial tensile force.6 TBDATA. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes.BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA.7. ) 7. The force. 20.5.1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.1 TBDATA...(initial length .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.DISCRETE. 0).1. the offset should be positive.2. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables..TC (Cutoff time.FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.DISCRETE.

e. and Z displacements VAL2 . Rigid Model 7. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP. 20.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if more than one node is constrained. see Cable Material Example: Steel. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading). 7. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command. Along with the EDMP command. Y. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex). Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity. This material number.Load Curve ID For an example input listing. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type.2. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . cannot share a common node. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).2004 .8. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis. the change in length over the initial length. i. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain.MAT. Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead.2. however.2.8. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. issue: EDMP. For this reason. to define a rigid body for material 2.EX EDMP.RIGID.05. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X.. Therefore. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP.CABLE.1. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes. However. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. For example.DENS MP. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body. multiple rigid material types must be specified... Two independent rigid bodies.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified.

a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it.RIGID. 20. mass. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. The motion of the body is then calculated. NEQN. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. By default. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. Therefore. the mass. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number.2004 . and displacements are transferred to the nodes. After defining a rigid body. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless..PARTM. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. When using the EDCRB command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. For an example input listing. the command EDMP. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. Y. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. you can assign inertia properties. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number.05. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements.2. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA.7. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model.PARTS should be issued. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used.ADD. When rigid bodies are defined. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value. Hence. center of mass. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. the command EDCRB. see Rigid Material Example: Steel. see Material Models.. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. In addition. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies.

0. 0.ircs.. . .tm.rigid. 0...6 *dim. 0.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.0E-7. mass.Option.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body.1. Option is the option to be performed (ADD. 20.Ivect.Cvect. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia.coord2.3 *dim. which is a rigid body. you can input all of the above parameters.2851E-03 ! EDIPART.3150E-03.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body. CID is a local coordinate system ID. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart. . The command format is EDIPART.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.ADD. You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body.IRCS.coord2.TM.2004 . ! Define parameter input tm = 0. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.. . .2450E+01.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor.velo2.velo2. For batch input. TM is the translational mass. or LIST).2.2851E-03. 0 inert2(1) = 0. 0. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system.5000E+00. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity. Specifying Inertia Properties By default. 0.Vvect. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command.05. Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part. 10.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body .inert2. edmp.. DELETE.inert2. including the required array parameters.CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined. 0. However.PART.

3. define the part switch..ADD. However. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..RBUX. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP. Loading As described in Loading. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. .) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable.05. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. a component name is input in this field. You need to stop the analysis.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state.2. for the rigid body load labels. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. For example. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. then restart the analysis again. PAR1. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. 20.2004 . and then back to deformable. long duration. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis.2. you can achieve significant savings in computation time. To improve efficiency for this class of applications. (Note that for other load types.

if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. PART In a new analysis. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. the choice of element formulation is critical. Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements.NRB. and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161. After a deformable-to-rigid switch. For rigid body switching to work properly. 7.4. 20.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then issue EDRD . Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. COMP1.D2R. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. If you do not define the inertia properties. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD. (In the GUI. See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid.05. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. (In the GUI.ADD.2004 . PART. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties).. simply leave MRB blank. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. In the current LS-DYNA implementation. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. they will be calculated by the program.D2R with no additional arguments.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body. where COMP1 is a node component. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that..R2D. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD. 6.

In general. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. which is automatically calculated by the program. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time.. however. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes.2004 . triangular 2-D. but not triangular shell.e. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant. or beam elements.. It is generally not recommended. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls. 20. These modes. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command.05.. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations.

the material number. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior.15. and Poisson's ratio). for a given mesh. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. the hourglass coefficient. For this command. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations.) Using this method. the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. l min. elastic modulus. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. However. 20. In these cases. However.2004 . Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy.05.. is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). which is a function of material properties (density. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0.) Note that for a given set of material properties. (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes. As a general guideline. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed. Also. particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. metal plasticity. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model. the minimum time step size t min. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements. and bending. c. and the sonic speed. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods.HGLS.

Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways.. It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. If DTMS is negative. and mass scaling is applied to all elements..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. when using mass scaling. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass.05.2004 . ? Of the two methods listed above. element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. the same time step size is used for all elements. the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive. mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS.001% mass to the model. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . 20.9). Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. When mass scaling is requested. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis. For example.

etc. also known as mixed time integration. By part number for large vector blocks. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 4th . By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization. By element number in ascending order. the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly.2004 . Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. Subcycling Subcycling.05. 3rd. 2. If subcycling is turned on. To control the time step size after mass scaling. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. 3. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. even the larger ones. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. step depending on their size. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command.. Thus. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size. 20.

1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs. Nodes that are included in constraint equations. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time.RST and the Jobname.RST and Jobname. consequently. thus.HIS files: The Jobname. used primarily in POST1 processing.1. Results ( Jobname. 12. Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and. or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26).RST file.05. rigid bodies. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors. 20. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12. However. or to view animated results. Inc. POST1 and POST26. this processor is not supported by ANSYS.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname. Output Controls 12.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq).1. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise.RST) vs. Note the distinction between the Jobname.2004 . Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST.. contains solutions for the entire model. With an explicit dynamic analysis. History (Jobname.

ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met..) As a comparison. For example. may exceed the system limit. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART). !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces). Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space. NSLE !Select nodes from elements. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit.MATSUM EDOUT.2004 . The Jobname. For large models. For details on creating components. CM. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname. the data to be stored in the results files.RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command.NSTEPS EDHIST.2. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points.. but for only a portion of the model.RST and Jobname.3. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis.S. CM.HIS file. 12. 12.node !Create nodal component nod1.05.nod1.GLSTAT EDOUT. Furthermore.SPCFORC EDOUT. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data). in the Jobname.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26. specify the number of time steps.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.1 !Select elements of material 1. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis. !Specify the name of the element component. 20. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space. The remaining data will not be written. In this case.nod1 EDOUT. Therefore. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics). !Specify the name of the nodal component. Jobname.HIS.1. a system error may occur.1. the element and nodal components to be analyzed.MAT. it is usually 1000 or more.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands). Generally. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete. used in POST26.elm1. the Jobname. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL.HIS and other output files.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RST file is usually less than 100. and the ASCII files to be written.elm1 EDHIST.RST and Jobname.elem !Create element component elm1. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results.HIS file. Create a component consisting only of those elements. the number of time steps in the Jobname.

When using POST1. the elements are still in the selected set. stop. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname.SLEOUT EDOUT. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. failure strain). However. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. resume.2004 . use the appropriate plotting command (for example. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program. 20. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail. Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system.2. COMBI165. and otherwise control the animation. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. In some cases.RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy).NODOUT EDOUT. You can display the deformed shape. the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). the printing or plotting command will be ignored. When you display results in POST1.ALL to write all possible ASCII files.1. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. and the model will behave as expected physically. display. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. show contour and vector displays.2. PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. or element table operations. for example. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). If you are using command input. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. (During the LS-DYNA solution. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape.) 12. Stress data will be rotated during printout. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions.05.RST file. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161. you may want to issue EDOUT.. and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1).

2. However. If NIP = 2.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. BEAM161. data is only available at the middle of the layer. COMBI165. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. By default. 20.LOC command. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element.05. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. the results at the top correspond to integration point 2. no matter how many layers exist. and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. SOLID164. LINK167). By default.NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results. If you set BEAMIP = 0. there is no stress output. for that matter). regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration.. for strain data. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)). SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. To get results close to the element surface. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. PLESOL ). saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. For more than 5 layers. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHELL163. layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer.2004 . MASS166. Further. “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties.Item. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. regardless of the BEAMIP setting.) Also by default. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule.2. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. However.. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results. For beam elements. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid. In this case.Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements. For faster plotting.Item 12. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). especially in bending. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2).

As the number of elements in the model changes.LIST ! ! SET. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used.RS01 ! ! SET. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio.. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing)..Second mesh refinement Jobname.Jobname.First mesh refinement Jobname.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. /POST1 FILE. SHELL163. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. Also..Third mesh refinement etc. Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162.EPPL] for these element types. nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files. using the FILE and /SEG commands.2.RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used. and SOLID164 elements. Note Because of the multiple results files. . care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files.DB file).2 ! ! PRNSOL. Jobname.RS02 . as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files. the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model. you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. you could write a macro to create the desired animation. Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL.3. ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. However. 12. You should not resume the original model database (. The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . . . Therefore.RS03 . you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step.05.

Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.NCOMP are specified.HIS and Jobname. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE. The Jobname. SLEOUT.RST file. and reaction forces. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements.. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time. Each variable is assigned a reference number. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs.3.RST. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26. such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST. .num2 ESOL NSOL STORE. Care must be taken when reading from the . however. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname. SPCFORC. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT. MATSUM.HIS If you do not load the Jobname.1.MERGE LAYERP26. known as variables. the results will be read from the Jobname.2004 .num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting. NODOUT. To generate results. work..) 12.Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12. with variable number 1 reserved for time.HIS file. 20. RCFORC.05.HIS file into POST26. !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record.MERGE . such as different energies.

respectively.2.4. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MATSUM. Once stored. To plot the results.. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). and RBDOUT files.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. respectively. you can choose to plot unsmoothed. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. smoothed.3. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing. Once these arrays have been created.3. MERGE for each layer. but if you are working in batch mode. SLEOUT. and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference. After EDREAD. 12. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter. or both sets of data.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. including POST1 and POST26. NODOUT. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR. Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data).2004 . The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. LAYERP26. DATAP defaults to all points. 12. If you are working in interactive mode. etc.Jobname. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only. RCFORC. 20.3. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12. Four arrays are required for smoothing data. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data.05.. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field. SPCFORC. first issue FILE . ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation).

you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. 20. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it..2004 . Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. To change the model and continue calculations. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. For example. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. etc. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. 13. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them..05.1. By viewing the development of the error. You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. d3dump02. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. a restart "dump" file is written. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. After the completion of each stage. The Restart Dump File By default. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. materials that are no longer important.

DB) has not been changed.05. or a full restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13..HIS.2.2004 .. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C). 13.2.3. For this type of restart. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted.. you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example.2. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI.1.1.. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL.RST and Jobname. 20. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes. A New Analysis For a new analysis. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option). enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART .. a simple restart. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. 13. The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname. you must issue the command EDSTART.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command..2. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). a small restart. 13. then issue the SOLVE command. A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname.d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database.2.

Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. etc. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command.) Note When postprocessing the restart results. even if no switch is being made. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart. deactivate. The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command).2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart.. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). 20. Furthermore.RST. After the first small restart analysis. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step. or even a series of restart analyses. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files. Another example is mass scaling. If you do select such parts. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. For example. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). In some cases.. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file. 3. results are appended according to the time value. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. in Jobname. In other results files. it is important that you issue EDSTART . that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. In a small restart.2004 . you may choose to perform an additional restart. Be sure to issue EDSTART . ACLEAR.05.2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname.

If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model. If you issue EDIS with no arguments. to remove portions of the model. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed. Issue the SOLVE command 6. these are discussed below.05.4. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname. 4. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below. PIDN.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. To initiate a full restart.. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses). 20. Create the initial model and run a new analysis. parts having the same part ID). Jobname_01. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Repeat step 3-6. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command.2004 .) When the EDSTART.2 with an appropriate d3dump file.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart.. you may need to consider more materials. or to apply different loading conditions.d3dump01. For example. 1. Issue the commands needed to change the model.2. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field. you must issue the command EDSTART . you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. To do this. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. Post-process the results. You would issue the command EDSTART . you must issue the command EDIS. 2.. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis. In a full restart. Typically. Page 119 of 180 13. as needed. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart.K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands. 5. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE). The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.. the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database.ADD. 7. Post-process the restart analysis results. When LS -DYNA starts execution.3.K. Issue EDSTART. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties.3 command is issued. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. For example. 3. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field.K. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized.

or real constant number for those elements. the initialization is “all or nothing. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. as stated above. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis.2004 . those nodes will be considered by the initialized part.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. in the same order. as described below. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis. However. For discrete elements (COMBI165). ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the part cannot be initialized.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. stress initialization may fail for those parts. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way. and previously existing parts will not be altered. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines.. If this is not the case. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. all discrete elements will be initialized. use a different element type number. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. During the initialization. In addition.LIST and EDPVEL.) To avoid a mismatch in parts. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model. However. In this case.05. material number. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart.DB).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. Again. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. the same number of elements. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. use a different element type number.LIST. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. material number.. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. 20. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis.

For both the simple restart and small restart. etc. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution.HIS ). Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. To solve these problems. 14.3 is issued. however. etc.HIS.). Each time EDSTART .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small). an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). ASCII output files. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis. Jobname_nn....RST. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1. For a small restart.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart. Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13. e. 02. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn. the history file (Jobname. glstat. In this chapter. the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01. The results in Jobname_nn.) are appended with consecutive time markings.2004 .1. new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn.g. Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis.…) automatically. are not renamed and will be overwritten.RST and Jobname_nn. 20. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RST. Just issue EDSTART. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. In a full restart. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname. For a simple restart.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat. you need to use both solution methods.3. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures.05. matsum.RST file (similar to a new analysis). you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart. matsum.

implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed. stresses.DB. 6. In the explicit metal forming analysis. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). which is the driving force for springback. 2. 20. This elastic energy. In most dynamic metal forming operations. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. Solve and finish the analysis. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. 10. Hence. 8. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. using Jobname1. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. 1. springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. This release of energy. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. Then the deformed shape. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. 11. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. In addition. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). 2. 9.2004 . In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185). A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components.. 7..05. Specifically. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies.

ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types. cannot be used in a sequential solution. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved.. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved.DB file at this point. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Command(s): ETCHG. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. material properties.. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. PLANE162.05. boundary conditions. see step 12). 3. (Note that the 2-D explicit element.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. real constants. 20. Command(s): /FILNAME.2004 . and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. Re-enter the preprocessor. and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. Redefine the key options.

or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected. 7. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. Command(s): SHPP. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181. but you do need to redefine the other values.. converted to null elements. REAL.05. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. 20. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis.Update Geometry 9. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings.. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling. For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements. deleted. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8.2004 . Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. deleted. Also. these elements must be unselected. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. or convert them to null elements.) The TYPE. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements.

12. Command(s): D.2004 . in a metalforming analysis. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. etc. only the stresses are transferred. Turn large deformation effects on. Command(s): NLGEOM. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13. For SOLID164. you need to constrain the blank). or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12). the implicit analysis will be terminated. otherwise. 20. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants.. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185).. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For SHELL163.05. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181.

0..ename.0.181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle.off finish /solution nlgeom..ux.uy.stamp1..all.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14..ux. The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution..2004 .01.s..ux.rst d.stamp2 /prep7 etchg..dyna..stamp1.01 ddel.s.n2. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results.01.stamp1.all tbdelete..all upgeom..uy d.05. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...1. 20.1 shpp.0.uz d.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.01. /batch..0 esel.. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis.n1...list resume.0..2.0..db /filename. Solve and finish the analysis..on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport.eti r..n3.

tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. In each substep. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. 20. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle.OFF. Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. ? ? 14. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. ? The model is improperly constrained. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. When the tools are removed. ? Slenderness of the structure. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes.2. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements.. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command). being very thin. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run.05. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect.1..

Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model. however.05. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains.. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes. 20. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. implicit-to-explicit.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. The first type.2004 .ON).

g. After defining additional loads.05. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file.g. In this implicit analysis. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions.. initial velocities. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. which are used only in forming applications. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. different material models (e. This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. adding plasticity).. 20. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15.2004 . but are not used by LS -DYNA. using Jobname1. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful.. the bird in a bird-strike problem).. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. etc.. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier.1. 1. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response.

Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten.ALL. 20.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2.2004 .DB file at this point. but they need to be defined here nonetheless.DB. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3.. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Command(s): /FILNAME.05. Solve and finish the analysis.. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest). These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis.ALL. Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1.0). the bird in a birdstrike simulation. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. 5. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.

. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG.05. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only. 20. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . Note that the 2-D explicit element.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used. PLANE162. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. Re-enter the preprocessor. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition.. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.

then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. 20. you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained. Also.2004 . you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. above..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. REAL. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. optional node.05. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. Redefine the key options.. LINK160 and LINK167. require a third (orientation) node. Re-enter the solution processor. however.ITE. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. their corresponding companion explicit element types. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. real constants. However. 8. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. boundary conditions.ITE. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4. The TYPE. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. and loading values on the explicit elements.

GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. /batch. rotations. 20.list resume. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run. In this step. drelax.. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13.05.2004 . Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis. if necessary. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file. You can then return to the implicit solution. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.drop1. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. and temperatures from the implicit results file. Read nodal displacements.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11.. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis.

assc nsel.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15.1.load.dyna. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued.0 nsel.create ! Create parts for loading edpart. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above. these include temperature loads applied with the BF. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file..ite mp. d. BFUNIF.05.ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis.. BFK.time.x..dens.drop1. and TREF commands.. Jobname. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above. TUNIF.… ! Apply initial velocities edload. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis.2004 . In the explicit analysis phase.2.y.1.1.7 edcgen.all.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading. BFA..2.plaw.rbvx.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.drop2 /prep7 etchg.a.rigid.uy. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis. Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.ux. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above).0 finish /solution rexport.K. BFL.. LDREAD. 20..1.loc.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command). However.all... BFV..0 d.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.0216 ddel.all tb. etc.loc. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.list ! List parts edvel.add.7. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).s.8 edmp.

VALUE). but they can be defined here if desired. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D.2004 . 1. 2. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.2. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient.. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1. Currently.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation.NODE.TEMP.05. Therefore. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase.. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload. 20. Solve and finish the analysis. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient.

Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1. The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Re-enter the preprocessor. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten..DB.05. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7.. Command(s): /FILNAME. 20. 5. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.DB file at this point.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

0 block.0.1.s. 1.05.ex.8030.all.1. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 .0 nsel.dens.32. 1100. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity.all etchg.static time.ext sf. 0. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.0e11..etip.hgen..conv.20. 0.0 nsel.0e-5. 20.explicit /prep7 bfdele.0.all nsel.0. 2.1.temp /wait.0 nsel.hgls. 5e-5.last plnsol.s.3 mp.nuxy.11 esize. unitless mpdata. 1.1.loc.31.all finish /solu antype. 6. 5.node esln cm. 0.0 edmp.all.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end . 0.9e11. degrees Celsius mptemp.1.kxx. 0.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity. W/m-C ! specific heat. 6.0e3 esel.1.1. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata.all sfdele.0.1 mp.3. 700.c. 1.all.loc.1.temp. 500.8e11.78e-5.density cannot be temp.1. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.all ddele.5 vmesh.16.5e-5.1.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion.1.33.1.0. 0.all.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio. m/m-C mpdata.34. 0.0 d.300.ntip.s.93e11.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r. 0.all.tte mp. 900. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.alpx.0.. 0..6.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam.z.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11 cm.all save solve fini /post1 set.elem bf.z.1.5e-5. 1.502.2004 .all. 0.5e11.

1200 tbdata.1100 tbdata.9e6 tbtemp..2e6 tbtemp.. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0).2004 .1.epto...0 d. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.uz esel.0.30000..8e6 tbtemp.10 plnsol.z..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb.s..biso.. ! ! Alternately.all nsel. 20.rth bflist nsel.x.1.0.all.0.1e6 tbtemp.3e6 tbtemp. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario. edrst.10000. a thermal shock condition is created.ux.1. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition.0.create eddamp.all.700 tbdata.7e6 edpart. modulus of elasticity) are desired.0.7000. Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..glstat save solve fini /post1 set.0.1. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution.uy.6 tbtemp.15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient.thermal.900 tbdata..1.last.1.temp.e..0.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .etip edout.01 fini /solu ldread. stop vibrating).1.loc.0 tbdata.20000.100 edhtime.500 edhist..05.500 tbdata.g. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i..all time..8000.last /dscale.ntip edhist.9000.

The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. In a typical drop test. When this option is used. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16. specify solution controls. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. For most drop tests. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis.. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. For example. contact surface friction coefficients. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. For all drop test cases. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. Thus. the module automatically creates the target.05. 20. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact. graphics mode. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. This reduces computation time.1. Drop Test Module 16. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test. For example..2. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk). rigid surface (the target). to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option.2004 . the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g).

2004 . it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module.3. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection. Thus. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model.1. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. More advanced features. properties. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16.05. should be specified.3. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows). 16. such as inclusion of surface friction effects. neglecting surface friction.1.. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped.3. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. and modification of the target size. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. Before you begin. and orientation. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. 20. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. All elements should be defined and all material properties. including damping. the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g).1. Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). In the DTM. rigid surface (target).

STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As).1. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. rotate the target. and the estimated time at the end of solution. object orientation.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.. and define contact and friction properties for the target. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis. Status tab -. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. 16. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. Otherwise. 20.2004 . object drop height. tetrahedron. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. Velocity tab -. To avoid time increment degeneration problems. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. you will not be able to set up the DTM.05. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular. analysis start time. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM.2. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. run time after impact. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.Modify dimensions and material properties of the target. no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. Target tab -.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero.3. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. initial translational and angular velocity. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g)..Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object.

4.2. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 16.1.. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. or you can type your own value. 16.RST) and to the time-history file ( file. see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab.1. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.3.3.05. 32. check them in the ANSYS Output window.3. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab.3. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. 3.). Under the Number of Results Output heading. 16.7. Under the Gravity heading. as well as the run duration time after impact. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g). Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data.HIS). If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages.3. 2. or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. etc. Review the information under all of the tabs.1. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM.3. 20. Reference point options include the lowest object point. Under the Solution time heading. that is.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16. If you choose the Status tab.1.1..5. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1.2004 . and specify a reference point. Under the Drop Height heading. 16. you type the drop height. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). STEP 7: Solve Before solving. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box.4. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example). There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model.6.

You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed. Make changes if necessary. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined. 20. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results.9. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation. 16.3.05. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time. 16. For animating results.3. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field.2004 . Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. 16. By redefining the object Y direction. At this time.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. are defined automatically. then choose OK. See Postprocessing and Postprocessing .2. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab.3.1. you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates. See Postprocessing . (g). (g). all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again. which are fixed. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration.. screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity.8.1. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field.. screen Cartesian coordinates.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS.

? During initialization. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed. You should avoid using these names. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM.05. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. or "out". 20.. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped. After doing so. 16. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You should avoid using this name. it will require more computation time. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. you will notice that. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”. However.) If you do not choose to orient the object. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. Within the DTM. coupling of components within an object is allowed. After you specify a drop height. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object. To use the option to start the analysis near impact time.2004 . the initial angular velocity must be zero. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase.3. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob.3. by default. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. However.. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way. The keyword is DTFILT. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name.

You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities.4.05..1. modify the target's position and properties. simply input the X. in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. however.4. Object Initial Velocity By default. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped.2. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. and specify contact surface friction coefficients. as discussed below. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. 20. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice.2004 . Details on these features are included in the following sections. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". under Solution Time in this user's guide. and Z components of the velocity.4. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. 16. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. Y. After choosing the desired option. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry.. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation.

. To change the target position.2. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point.05. But if necessary.1. By default. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L..4.4.2.1TL.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position. 16. Under the Dimensions heading. 20. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center.2004 .2. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. orientation. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity. size. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. 16. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses. material properties.

Under the Dimensions heading. Thus. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. density.. the target is re-drawn automatically.05.2. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. then. By default. and therefore normal to (g).4. Under the Orientation angle heading.2. As an example. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. If you know the actual target material properties. density.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab.MAT.4.4. To modify the target orientation. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS).4. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model. For example. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.2. you can enter two target scaling factors. The modulus. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. a material density. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). If you change the target's orientation. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution. If you change the target's size. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus.5. 16. under the Material Properties heading. the target is re-drawn automatically. 16. 16. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. density. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s). If you input Ls=2. and Poisson's ratio. 20. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object.RIGID.1T sTL.5.2004 . you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.7. Target Orientation By default. choose the Target tab. modulus of elasticity. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. enter the Young's modulus. and stores the corresponding material number. and the target height is 0.0 and Ts=0. it is preferred that you input them directly. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide.3. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module.. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. To specify the properties. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. choose the Target tab. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model.

20. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab. including the target surface.. and Status. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box.0.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs. 16.05. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16..2004 . in order from left to right. and the estimated time at the end of solution.1. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. are Basic.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. If you do not change parameters FS. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. Velocity. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters. or FD. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16. Target.5.2.5.5. before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). Note When you make changes to any tabbed page. The tabs. then they have default values of 0. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. initial translational and angular velocity. The target is then created and loads are applied. then choosing the Target tab. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab.

05. referenced to the screen coordinates. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped.81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped.2004 .Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point.2 9.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction. Gravity -. 20..Specify the magnitude of gravity. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity.4 32. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM.. Drop Height -.

To use this option. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. the angular velocity must be zero. Therefore. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. ? Solution Time -. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. However. If an initial translational velocity is applied. measured along the screen Y axis.Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field.. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. 20. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box. Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. is not equal to the specified drop height. which is the case just before impact. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. then the information is stored. starting from when the object drops. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide). which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop. If this option is used. ..05. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. Set Orientation -. and the calculation is not repeated. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. By default.

Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file. Help: Displays this help topic.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. See the EDHTIME command for details. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .05. On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname. 20. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.RST. Refer to the EDHIST command for details.HIS.. Number of Results Output -.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See the EDRST command for details. You may define additional nodes. ? ? Related Information -.2004 ..For further information about the options on the Basic tab. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing.5.3.

? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.. Translational Velocity -. and choose to start the analysis near impact time.05. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -.. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). and it will automatically recreate the target. If these conditions are not met. the initial angular velocity must be zero. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity.Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time. as described below.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system.Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped.2004 . Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time). Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change. If you apply a translational velocity other than zero. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time.

use the Target tab to specify the options described below. Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .2004 . Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.4.5. Dimensions -.05.. Help: Displays this help topic. the target is automatically created. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab. Also. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity.Specify the target's position and size. ? ? Related Information -.. 20.

0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. ? ? Contact -. The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate.Specify the material properties of the target. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes. The default thickness is equal to 0. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis. The default length is determined by ANSYS. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value.2004 . A warning is printed to the screen. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point. 20. Similarly. Therefore.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Then.. divided by 2. and the target is returned to its previous orientation. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN .1 times the default length. ? Orientation angle -. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you)..05. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. divided by 2. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. then the input is considered to be invalid. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value. If only a single node exists on the object at this point. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. Material Properties -. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped.

Help: Displays this help topic. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact.5. see the following sections in this user's guide. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand.05. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option. except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16.. but not as robust. Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0.2004 . Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 20.5.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient.. Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body.0) You type the static friction coefficient.

See error messages. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur. a zero entry detected for the value of gravity). [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems. Unsuccessful set-up. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution. The target will not be created in this situation. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. and the total time at the end of solution. Click OK to commit the settings. Then. See error messages.05. Ready to drop. Click OK to commit the settings. 20.. if necessary.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up.2004 . [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. Proceed with caution.. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. initial translational and rotational velocity. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.

The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction.2004 . 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button.6. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. Pick the second node. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic. 20. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. 4. Related Information -. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1.. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Pick the first node.For further information about the options on the Status tab.05... The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. 3. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. 3. Pick the first node. 2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing .For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below.2004 . Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0.7. ? ? Range Minimum. see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing ..Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Postprocessing . meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. Stress.Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1).Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated. Result Set Range. the default is the first data set. Maximum text fields -. Stress-plastic). Increment result set text field -. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default). The default is unchecked. 20.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -..Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0. the default is the last data set. Animation time delay (sec) text field -. von Mises Stress). Display Type two -column selection list -. 1st Principal Stress.Animation Next 16. Model result data radio buttons -.Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -.5 seconds). Stress-total.05. Load Step Range. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Related Information -.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing .. 20.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box.05.2004 . Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. the animation will be created and will be displayed. ? After you choose OK. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16.Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.8. Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide. Postprocessing . as well as changing its direction.

05. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above. Initial Low Pt. 20. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default). Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing .: Only the lowest point of the object.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed. Center of grav. Velocity.1.. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Help: Displays this help topic. Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. y. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. then select the x. ? ? Related Information -..: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them.For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt.2004 .

? ? ? A. The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K].2004 .1. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force.05. Convergence tools are provided.1. and large time steps can be taken. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear.1. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems. 20. a central difference time integration method is used... but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method.2. and F cont is the contact force.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.

05.2. Stability Limit A. For nonlinear problems. A. Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. the time step can be arbitrarily large. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing . The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces.. the implicit solution is always stable. 20. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency..Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A.2004 . Due to this very small time step size.2. No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required.2. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly). that is. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector.1. the explicit method is useful only for very short transients.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion. Implicit Method For linear problems.

2004 .3.. 20. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l.4. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed). The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity). For stability reasons.05. As an example. a scale factor of 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step..9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS.1. and the wave propagation velocity. are dependent on element type. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length. Inc.05.. l. B. c. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. For beam elements: l = length of the element. Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. 20.2004 . Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model.

.2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table.05. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20. .

1.2.ex.2004 . 20.1.2..210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Material Model Examples B.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B. Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP..05.

6.1.121.MOONEY.1 TBDATA.9e9 ! Pa MP.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.2.gxy.nuxy.1.1.dens.1e9 ! Pa MP.1 TBDATA.1.gyz.1.ANEL.3.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA...3.1.1.126. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.nuxy.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.44.ez.15.48. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP..5..nuyz.1. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.307e9 ! Pa MP.nuxz.126.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.5.1.6.gxz.9e9 ! Pa MP.dens.5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.ey.1.20 ! No units MP.2004 .2.dens..21.1.2.4. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.126.2.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.ex.51.10.2.dens.18.1.2.1.358.20 ! C01 (psi) B.24.nuxy.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.20 ! No units MP.1.358.05.44.dens.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.1..2 ! C66 (Pa) B.2.20 ! No units MP. 20.29 ! No units MP.gxy.1.9e9 ! Pa MP.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.104e7 ! Pa B.1e9 ! Pa MP.121.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.4..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.2.499 ! No units TB.18.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.

.ex.9..29 ! No units MP..1.61.207e9 ! Pa MP.1.3.214e6.3.7..27. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP. Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP..1..41 ! r-value TBDATA.nuxy.2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.53 ! 1/ B..PLAW.46.5 Strain(1) = 0.EVISC. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.29 ! No units MP.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA..1. 20.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE..ex.1 TBDATA..2.128.1 ! Yield stress vs.ex.2004 .2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.2.dens.05.7 TBDATA.2.8.1.10 TBDATA.dens.nuxy.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.2.60.1.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.1.1.dens.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.2.Strain (1).48..1.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B..PLAW.218e6.180e9 ! Pa MP...2390 TB.dens.00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.05.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.30e6 ! Pa MP.31 ! No units MP.1.1.1.1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA..nuxy..210e6.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA..8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.4.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.1. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.YLDSTRES..STRAIN.5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.5 *DIM.47.0.1.ADD.YldStres(1) B.1.BISO.1.15..

.1.5..4.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.1.73 ! R00 TBDATA..1.1.dens.2.1.40.44 EDCURVE..68 TBDATA.mjstrn(1) B...1..dens.65 TBDATA.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB.39.40..0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.0.5.50 mjstrn(1) = 80..34 ! No units MP.11.40.75 ! Failure strain B.6.1 *DIM.2. m TBDATA. .nuxy.1.2.4.7.1. .1.PLAW.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.8.nuxy.6.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.12.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.6 *DIM.36 ! No units MP.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1 TBDATA.mnstrn....170 ! Barlat exponent.05.4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.27 ! No units MP.0 ! P TBDATA.1.ADD.763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.2. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.BKIN.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.0.dens.20.3..45.2.100e9 ! Pa MP.1.2. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP..1.29.-10.3 TBDATA.PLAW.1 TBDATA.ex.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5.ex.10.76e9 ! Pa MP.mjstrn.200e9 ! Pa MP.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.mnstrn (1).nuxy..5.ex.1.

ElasMod. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0.1..nuxy.9.. 20.34 MP.5 *DIM.PLAW.5.. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.1..0 YldStres(1) = 207e6.9861 TBDATA.PLAW.2 *DIM..7 TBDATA..300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5 *DIM.4 TBDATA.08..3.1.65 TBDATA.023 TBDATA.1.6 TBDATA.dens.2004 .4.2.017 TBDATA.ex.22e5 TBDATA.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent..2720 TB.16. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs...8.ex.nuxy.6.4. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP.75e9 MP. 1.32 TBDATA.2.33 MP.1.1.15.3.9861 TBDATA..5 TBDATA.dens.dens.2750 TB.PLAW.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.1...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.7..05.9761 TBDATA.275e6..nuxy.11 TBDATA...ex.2.14.1.290e6.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs.29 MP.002 TBDATA..254 TBDATA.1.2..209e9 MP...3.5.250e6.1..1 TBDATA..1.9.04 TBDATA.1.7850 TB..StrnRate.2.1. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B..2..76e9 MP. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP.YldStres.1..13.1..4.1.

.211e9.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA..4.3..2710 TB.1700 ! ksi MP.2.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB..2.dens.290e6.2.1.2..1.PLAW.1.1. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.2.8 TBDATA.4.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.6500.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.TruStres.215e9.gxy.75 TruStres(1)=207e6.TruStran..275e6.1 ! LCID for true stress vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.ex.ex.nuxy.TruStran (1).dens.0..598 TBDATA.5.1 TBDATA.YldStres(1) EDCURVE.1.4..1 TBDATA.1.1.1.ADD..5 *DIM...GCAP.StrnRate(1).216 TBDATA. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.17..1.0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.dens.6.30 ! No units MP.18.StrnRate(1).16.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.218e9 EDCURVE.1.5 TruStran(1)=0.33 MP.2004 .ADD..1.4...212e9.250e6.ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.nuxy.1.69e9 MP.05. 20.2 TBDATA.7 ! (ksi) TBDATA.226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.08..4.40.1..2.0.3.TruStres(1) B.3000e6 EDCURVE.207e9 ! Pa MP.ADD.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.2.PLAW.0 TBDATA.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.3..16.5..

.5 TBDATA.09 !m TBDATA..-.89. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.4.0002 TBDATA.291.14.11. 20..1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.62 !N B.1.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.30 TBDATA.7.1.7.1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA..2 TBDATA.13.nuxy.6.ex.19.10.61 TBDATA.35 ! No units MP.1.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1 TBDATA.207e9 ! Pa MP.1..63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.10.31 !n TBDATA..05.8 TBDATA.10 TBDATA.1.36 !n TBDATA...-..473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.EOS. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP..1.18 TBDATA.1.2.1.1.12.5.3.8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.dens.240e6 TBDATA.8 TBDATA.30 ! No units MP.022 !c TBDATA.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.2004 .4500 TBDATA..0 !m TBDATA..nuxy.1.6.dens.5.1 TBDATA.3.4..20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.2.ex.2.EOS.15.9.138e9 ! Pa MP.1.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.6.9.8.2.17.1.8.1...5.350.1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.1.2.11.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.1..025 !c TBDATA.7.20.

-. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8..4.19.0.0.-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.2004 .12 TBDATA.19.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.nuxy.1.0.1.10 TBDATA.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.12.1.3.1.20.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA..nuxy.4.200e9 ! Pa MP.18..100e9 ! Pa MP.0 ! S3 TBDATA.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.2.97 ! TBDATA.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B.0..16.EOS.1.014 TBDATA.15.ex..10.02 TBDATA.7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.240e6 TBDATA..4400 TBDATA. 20.89 TBDATA.17..1.2.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.21.339 ! S1 TBDATA.18.1.05..dens.5386 ! C TBDATA.3 ! No units MP.48 !A 0 B.2..2. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP.20.1.1.2.14.23.17..ex.394 TBDATA.0 ! S2 TBDATA.2 TBDATA.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA..21.17.2.1 TBDATA.21.1.54 TBDATA..4.dens.1..0 TBDATA.9.1.03 TBDATA.1.1.1.16.-3.13..3.EOS.11.34 ! No units MP.0 TBDATA. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP..0.489 TBDATA.22.0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.

7.30.1.08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.34.0..18.31.2 TBDATA.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.1.dens.ex.215e6.49 ! S1 TBDATA.1...04.210e6.1.7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP..5..25.5..220e6 EDCURVE.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.06.207e9 ! Pa MP..24. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B.2380 ! Absolute melting temp.11.17.3 ! No units MP.457 ! C TBDATA.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.1.1.1... parameter TBDATA.nuxy.3 ! No units EDMP.49.1.0 ! S3 TBDATA.0. temp.1. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.02.1.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA..EOS..207e9 ! Pa MP.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM.2.EngStres(1) B.93 ! TBDATA.rigid.2.15.1.1.11.32.3.gxy..2 ! Spall type TBDATA.EngStres.10.. 20.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.EngStran (1).2.16e6 ! (Pa) MP.ADD.2004 . TBDATA.cable.35 !n TBDATA.0 ! S2 TBDATA.1.dens.33...4 *DIM.ex. temp.200 ! Max.43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.16.29. parameter TBDATA.nuxy.EngStran.-50 ! Min.4 EngStran(1) = .1.05.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.

an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname.. However. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples. 20.2004 . ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table. The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command).k is created. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA.k file.. ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. not ANSYS commands.

ROTZ. .TEMP EDLOAD. . +RBRX. RBVZ.. AZ) EDLOAD. FZ. . . . (ACLX. UY. RBRY.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20. (FX. MX. RBUZ.RBOX. (RBFX. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. RBOZ) EDLOAD. ROTY. RBMY. RBFY. RBOY. RBMX. PRESS EDLOAD. RBVY.. VZ. VX. AX. OMGZ) EDLOAD. ROTX. (UX. .2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. RBFZ. RBMZ) EDMP. (RBUX. MZ) EDLOAD. FY. OMGY.05. RBVX. AY. VY. MY. RBUY. . ACLZ. ACLY. RBRZ. UZ. OMGX.

.05.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20..

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