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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B.2.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.2.2 Material Model Examples B..4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B.2004 .20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.2.2. springback and other applications. such as those required for droptest.2. 1.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.2.2.2.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B.2. you can model your structure in ANSYS.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.2.05.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.2. Using this integrated product.2.2.2.2. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B..2.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B.1. and complex contact/impact problems.2.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B.2. large deformation dynamics.2.2. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.2.2.2. 20.2.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B.2.

and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. The three main steps are: 1. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. If you have not used ANSYS before. However. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Many times.2004 . Likewise.. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2.. you already know how to perform these steps. 20.2.05.

2004 . 20.RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the . updates.

You may choose to read through it from front to back. but that may be useful in some situations. 20.05. Before you build a model. However. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1.3. you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system. see the ANSYS Commands Reference.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command). The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis.. are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. you are ready to build the model.2004 . A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information..

Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure. For detailed theoretical information. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem.2004 . see the ANSYS Elements Reference. For detailed information on explicit elements. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1... Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally. see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.05.5.4. 20. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.

see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. Solid and Shell Elements 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. and elastic modulus. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. plastic.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. 2. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. For example. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density. such as with foams. Therefore. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. including details of input and output quantities. Therefore. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required..e.1. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.1. SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements). pyramid.. These elements assume a linear displacement function. rubber. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation. and foam models.05. or p-elements.2004 . higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. including elastic. 20. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. By default. Poisson's ratio. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. Wedge.1. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements.. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern. A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element. For additional details. midside nodes. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models.

. These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations.05.2004 . these degenerate shapes should be avoided. Therefore. You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated). 20.

KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu.2. 2. 20. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3.. Therefore. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. 7. the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2..1. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation.1. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu. 6.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay. Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations.2004 . SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . for general analyses.05. 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes. As with solid elements.

5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element. 8.1.4. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control. 20.1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2.e.. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu. 2.. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell.05.2004 . Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay.5. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff. 2.. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis. Has four integration points with no hourglassing.

This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default). All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements. therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented..05.2004 . 20. Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1)..

2004 . stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i.7746 0.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. Typically. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point).R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior. For elastic materials. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials.NSET. 20. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled. so care is needed in interpretation of results. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..5774 0.8611 0. The distribution of strain is always linear.9062 1. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law...05. as shown in Integration Points.. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element.e. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. while more points are required for nonlinear materials.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element.. To represent a spring/mass system. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. because it does not have mass. However. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length). Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. In an automobile impact analysis.3. 20. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements.. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . and TB commands. By default.05. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis. for example. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. element type. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants. the line of action of the force also rotates. For example. 2. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. However. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element. and material properties (R. The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution. When the element rotates. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). The force is applied along the element axis. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. ET.they do not pin the nodes together.2.2004 .

(Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). PLANE162. shell.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node.05. IXY. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. To do so. You can not input a mass value for this option. BEAM161. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX. therefore.. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. IYY. IXZ. IZZ) via the element real constants. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. To use this option.) Once you have set the analysis preference. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. SOLID164. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. a rotational inertia is also added to each node. SHELL163. 20. The mass of each solid. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3. and LINK167. In the case of shell and beam elements. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160..2004 .4. a single value is used. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. IYZ. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass.

To do so in batch or command mode. 3.) For some material models. TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before. Also.2004 .1. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model. review Material Models of this document. the EDMP command). Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element. and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. After you select the appropriate material model. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system.. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). In the GUI. In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system.05. Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models). Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. 20. you typically use the MP.. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis. More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models.2.

Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes.g.4. By this method. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method. you specify which previously defined element type. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For simple models (e. a stress-strain curve). Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program. Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly. Use the TYPE. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter.3. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing. Mesh the Model After building the solid model. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options.g..) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3. MAT. line elements only). and REAL commands..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e. real constant set. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing..05. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements.2004 . 20..

VMESH. Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact. Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3.. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). therefore.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Instead. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh. with the EDCGEN command. If hourglassing is a problem.e. Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above). mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step.5. a long run time. avoid areas with relatively small elements). A brief overview of that procedure is given here.2004 . 20.. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls. or EDASMP commands. Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes. In the GUI. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). In the GUI.).. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. or elements may experience hourglassing. Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. etc. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. or EDPART. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used.

) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i. You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA.2004 . Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. unyielding objects in the model.. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Once these components are created. EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. For the single surface contact algorithms. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command. If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types.. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Another command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used. node components). consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA.05. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body.. 20.e. For example. Use realistic values for material properties. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART).6.

This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. issue the EDPART.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. EDCGEN . updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. The PART list can be created. Any combination of TYPE. these latter commands will only update the list.. They can also be created.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3.. and listed with the EDPART command. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2. EDDAMP. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE. If the PART list already exists. For more information on the EDPART command. updated.7.UPDATE). EDLOAD. and MAT IDs. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. not overwrite it. And so on.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2. If the EDPART. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. 20. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART.2004 .UPDATE command. For example. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. EDDC. If any of the TYPE. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. and EDREAD). the PART list is overwritten. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE. REAL. these elements will be assigned PART number 2. EDPART.K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.CREATE creates new PART IDs.LIST command.05. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs. EDCRB. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs.

PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading.LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6. 20.CREATE). Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command.CREATE) and list it (EDPART.LIST). contact specifications. PART number 4 remains. Update the PART list (EDPART..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. which includes the addition of new elements. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2. b. Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts. The following procedure is recommended: a. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2.05. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s).. However. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. The PART list is shown below (EDPART. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3. Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed. etc. Create the PART list (EDPART. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1. Therefore. c. Continue modeling. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. e. d. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list). issuing EDPART. issuing EDPART.2004 . but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20. delete. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt". In order to properly model your structure’s behavior.05.RS01 and Jobname. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution. Jobname. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. see Postprocessing. even if the mesh does not change. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL. Note A new results file will be created for each loop.. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated.RS02.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. In addition. these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. however. Therefore.. .2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Loading After building the model.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. To apply these nodal loads. Death Time. To apply a load to your model. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command.2004 . all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis.1. Additionally. 20. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature.1. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. all loads are applied in one load step. VX) appear as degrees of freedom. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. Hence. for certain kinds of loads.. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. position in the model. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. AY.. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time). General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. etc. they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition.05. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. use the EDLOAD command. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. Please refer to Birth Time. For example. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes.1. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. VY. Therefore. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. the F. SF. For this reason. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. In particular. expected behavior.

ROTZ. However.MAT. FZ. ROTX.2004 .RIGID. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. For the case of rigid bodies. Therefore. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later. Therefore. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components.1. and then apply loads to each of them. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval. Otherwise.). you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. 20. In the GUI. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. FY. Or. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest.) To define a component. with each entry of the first array specifying a time value. To illustrate the use of array parameters. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ROTY.05. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. 4. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array.. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. and the nodes on the wall as a third component. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. You may define as many components as you wish. consider the baseball example mentioned previously.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. etc. the nodes on the bat as another component.2..

cm.time. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces. 20...all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command].node nsel.3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0.. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter). Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball.4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.ydisp. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim. Define an array named time to store the time values.s.4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim..75. 4.. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball.node.ballsurf.0. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers. You also need to define a third component named batsurf.2004 .0... cm. Further. Finally. Next..node. nodal accelerations.4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim.node ! define the component bathand nsel. surface pressures.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon.25.node. etc.s. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand..3.. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle.-1.1.1. It is important to note. as listed below. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand.s.. Likewise.3.all *dim. This component will be used later in the contact specification. In a more accurate simulation..xdisp..6. cm. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5.. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat. and material properties in your model.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0..-2.-1.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0.8.. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined..bathand.zdisp.0.node nsel.batsurf.node. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads.05. dimensions.2. nsel. nsel.ball.node nsel..s. moments. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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Z1. Some load types do not support birth and death time.Par2. Death Time.Par1. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve.BTIME. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS. If CID is not specified.1. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command..DTIME). array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4. see Birth Time. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command). Death Time. CID. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models.05. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.KEY.fy.X2.2...025...0 As shown above.Y2.time.time.Y1.Z2). 4.PHASE.05.1 *dim. see Birth Time. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.100.5.SCALE. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values.11. the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command.075. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession.1.1..200.add.5 time(1)=0.comp. 20. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.5yforce(1)=0.. The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.yforce.ADD. 4. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time.. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition.add.6. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels.1.. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command. Lab.300. the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction.LCID.11. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command.. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD .Cname .2004 .ADD.4.X1... The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.

Additionally.2004 .. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints. No other values are valid.e. but are based on a node component. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects. However.ADD.. you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry. It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). and rivet (RIVET). defining nodes where point loads will be applied. you will need to apply constraints to your model. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS). you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR.ADD.ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command.. The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction. Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints.05. the value specified must always be 0 (zero). 20. In the GUI. The ENS option has many potential applications.2. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. i. You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. see earlier discussion in this chapter). 4.ADD. nodal rigid body (NRB). as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command.1. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies. shell edge to solid (STS).STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system.NRB command are not associated with a part number. For a rigid joint. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector.2. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4.

2. For a generalized weld. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber.2004 . the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command.ADD. In the GUI. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model.. Unlike a spotweld.05. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis. however. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. if you use coincident nodes. you must specify a valid nodal component. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. In such cases..RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . When a rivet is defined. 4. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above. For a massless spotweld.2. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds. Coincident nodes are permitted. failure cannot be specified for a rivet. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. However. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. 20. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command.

EDVEL. use the following procedure: 1. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. Y. a nodal component [CM]. the two methods for defining initial velocities.g. OMEGAY. EDPVEL.2004 . etc. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X. and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command). Note To model a rotating body. This may be a single node. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC.) around a specified axis. VY. a part [EDPART]. 20. and Z axes. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL. PID). Due to the LS-DYNA architecture. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX.VGEN. with or without translations. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. 2. and OMEGAZ fields).. For the VELO option.2. To define an initial velocity. 3. The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX.. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Likewise.VGEN. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity. For the VGEN option... Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. ANGY. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. cannot be used in the same analysis. or a part assembly [EDASMP]. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO.3.05. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. (e. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application. For both the VGEN and VELO methods. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. YC. part. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4.g.

For our baseball example. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel.. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. use the EDVEL. If CP is used in this manner.. CEINTF. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed).3. use the EDPVEL. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set.velo. the set of coupled nodes will rotate.1.2004 .LIST and EDPVEL.. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete).LIST and EDVEL. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly. ROTY. it could lead to nonphysical responses. if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL.. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel. ROTZ) are not allowed. Similarly. CPSGEN) can be used to define. CELIST. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes. delete. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node.ball.-1600. CERIG) can be used to define. modify.velo. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program.05. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete).-1600. CPNGEN.DELE commands (in the GUI. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint.DELE commands (in the GUI. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model. Similarly. Also. UY. CEDELE.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4. delete. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies. list. For each node in the coupled set.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or. CPINTF. This means that if the structure rotates.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. CPLIST. CPDELE. 20. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number. CPLGEN. the CE-family of commands (CE.. modify.. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL.

1. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body. Therefore.DELE.GROUND.4.5.. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model. then define a component from these nodes (CM command).. 20.ADD. respectively. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags.05. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases. and SOLID164 element types. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials. use the commands EDNB . Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component. To define a nonreflecting boundary. For this type of analysis.LIST and EDNB. the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain. For example. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4.2004 . SHELL163. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment.

overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. In the explicit phase. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. When LDREAD is issued. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. or BFUNIF.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command. This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD..2004 . 20. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values.. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname.. See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. TUNIF. it defaults to zero. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). In addition. For all three methods of temperature loading. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading.05. use the BFLIST command. To use this method. use the BFDELE command.

This is the default setting. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. At time zero. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload. 2.e. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one.. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.OFF): In this case.ANSYS). Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands. In this latter case. the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again. True dynamic relaxation is used. Par2. a slightly different approach is taken. In the former case. EDLOAD . 3.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case. Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution).DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. Par1. Lab.DYNA): This is similar to the previous case.2004 . Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command). They are discussed below: 1. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. 20. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label.. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve. Therefore.. if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis.6. . ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. Cname. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution). ADD.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS. 4.05. PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation.EDDRELAX.

Before issuing the SOLVE command.RST and Jobname. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5.HIS. you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname. 20. Consequently. Jobname.. and termination controls).2004 . The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero.05. The header records.K. At this point.HIS. The input file for the LS-DYNA program. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. (At this point. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case. meshing.1.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. after completing element definitions. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load. Solution Process After the model has been built (i. 3. Solution Features 5.) 5.DB. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1.e. loading. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements). results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written. To work around this limitation.. boundary/initial conditions.ADD. real constant and material property specifications.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname. modeling.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped.) 2. are written on the two results files Jobname. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label.. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve). If the EDOPT.RST and Jobname. is written using all information that has been entered so far.

The other termination controls are optional. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time . and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. You may set up multiple criteria using this command. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis.. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models. CPU time limit . Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. To use this feature. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM. where details of the errors and warnings are written. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done.3. (See the EDTERM command for details. you must have a machine with at least two processors.2004 .2) or a full restart ( EDSTART. you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately.05. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings.3) analysis.You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. Termination criteria .Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis. messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window.2.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. If errors or warnings are produced.. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time.

. 2....... the calculations may be executed in different order..00000E+00 time step. Specify the number of processors to be used. If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available).. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. When you are using shared memory parallel processing. 0. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress. you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt..e.1).SMP.. switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1. (Unlike in ANSYS.. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors... This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i.... Because of this.. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background...) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5. To avoid these differences.4.. the higher the potential for scalability. you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN.....ans file.. the larger the problem.. 20. You can set this value via the config60. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run.. 2. or via the SETNPROC macro. you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP.. When used with more than 8 processors.. via the /CONFIG command........ any additional scalability is minimal.. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time.. you should close all other applications on those CPUs.. you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times. Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly. please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.. nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect.2004 . If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one... Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses.. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls.05...78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses.. For more information on all of these methods. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status.) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time..

..00000E+00 total energy. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718..00000E+00 global x velocity.. As the solution progresses. warnings...00000E+00 global y velocity. Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum....... This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed.. 0. The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors.00000E+00 external work..) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp... use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started. ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run.. 1. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run.MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used... etc. To do so......2004 ..... The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run..28205E+01 global z velocity. failed elements...... 1. then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers. you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates. 0. The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above)... The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT.... the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files... 0..00000E-20 system damping energy.....GLSTAT EDOUT. these files are written at requested time points...... 20..................ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy.. 1... -1...... 0. glstat and matsum are ASCII files.......) The files d3hsp. 1.... a value of 30 should be sufficient..00000E-20 spring and damper energy....... contact problems... For m (the number of lines to be viewed)..00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718. You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... On a UNIX system...00000E+00 sliding interface energy..........00000E+03 internal energy... A restart file is written.. you can determine the progress of the solution..00000E+03 total energy / initial energy. By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.....05........ 0. 1... sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point....

? Option 1 . ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes.5.. Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time. The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5..Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. however.6. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command. It should be noted. Option 2 . Option 3 . Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. except that all selected elements are plotted. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5. yellow (intermediate). This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest).05. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods. 20. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. This option produces the same plot as Option 1.This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.

RST and Jobname. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files).2004 . such as fabric. 3.R.1. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. 5. (Remember.6. etc. 2. After modeling has been completed. 20. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. the input file will be named Jobname_nn. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command. Jobname. reside). Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files.RST and Jobname.K. go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. Jobname.. reside.HIS. Jobname. 4. the input file will be named Jobname. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.. Using another window.) 4.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. That is. 3. users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.05. and if it is a full restart. soil. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. For both Method A and Method B. Method B 1. 2. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. certain element types. (In the GUI. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files. Method A 1.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26).K.6.k. 5. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below.2. After issuing EDWRITE.HIS.

k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support.05. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. will be shown. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. 20. (For these reasons. solve it using LS-DYNA. Jobname. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required.K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete. first make sure that the model defined in the . Using a Pre-existing File. run the lsdynaxx script as described above. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6. This allows you to take a pre-existing file. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. and not the modified version. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. 99) to be used as a starting point. real constants.3.HIS results file headers when only a file. . 02. see Restarting). you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors. Thus.k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example. the argument “m=drelax” is also required.K input file exists. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. For a restart analysis. where n is the desired amount of memory in words.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE). nodes and elements must not be changed. To use this method.0 and your input file is “crashtest.K. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command). element attributes (material properties. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname.) In all cases. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files.K..k”. (EDSTART command. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands.2004 .. the original version. Next. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”. Then edit the . the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the . 5. However. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis. For any type of analysis. depending on what type of analysis you are running. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. etc.RST and .. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest.6. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.K. When using these methods to modify the file Jobname.K. However. Also. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution)..) will not be available in the results files.

nodes-to-surface (NTS). the contact is represented by actual “contact elements. STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition. automatic single surface (ASSC).NODE. single edge. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis.NTS.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. You can do this by using nodal components.. and single edge contact (SE).S. the type of contact between them. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL.” For explicit dynamics.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. tiebreak. drawbead.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model. surface-tosurface. there are no contact elements.BALLSURF. For this reason. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended. 6. which include node-to-surface. and rigid contact options.BATSURF. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses.. When using contact or target components. PART ID definitions.S. automatic general (AG). eroding. In other analyses. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible.05. and other parameters related to the contact type.... This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis. single surface. 20.2004 .. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters.. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact. tied. You simply indicate the contact surfaces.BALLSURF. automatic general (AG). as shown in the sample input listing below.NODE.BATSURF. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”. SS.25...NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. Then. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC. and/or part assembly ID definitions.1. These contact types. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command... For most typical analyses. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur. STEP 2: Identify contact entities. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM.. STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type. use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid). a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. and ESS).

34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis. no contact or target surface definitions are required. FD.15. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS).2. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum.STS. use great care when defining contact components..25.05.N2. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN..15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN. As explained later in this section.1. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN.28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC.. A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN. 20.ESTS. VC (also input on EDCGEN )... and the exponential decay coefficient (DC)..5. and SS).. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis. Therefore.1..3. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command.. as illustrated below: EDCGEN. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command. ESS.1. Vrel.. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model.6... no initial penetrations are allowed.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN.STS.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity.2004 .1. AG. N1.34.2.. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD).3. (FS.. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..ASSC.NTS..1.STS.

g. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact. for sheet forming simulation. as outlined below. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. For both types of tiebreak contact.. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). e. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. for rigid body contact. ESS. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries. e... tiebreak. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. you must specify a data curve ID (V1).2004 . a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. Therefore. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics.05.g. ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding. rigid. and drawbead contact.. This information varies with contact type. and an unloading stiffness value (V3). additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements. 20. For rigid body contact. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material. For eroding contact.

exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined.20000 FD = 0.15000 DC = 0.1. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2). Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is.. you can list.00000 VC = 0. If contact has been incorrectly specified.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ).2. and INC fields of the EDPC command.DELE. you must input a load curve ID (V1). by issuing the command EDPC.08000 DC = 0.ALL. The plot will consist of nodes or elements. Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. maximum contact entity number. Listing.1.2004 .1.ALL and ESEL.2).05. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). Therefore. In drawbead contact. components or parts).10000 FD = 0. You can specify a minimum contact entity number.DELE. and a drawbead depth (V3). A sample listing is shown below. which help restrain a blank during drawing operations. However. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted..00000 VDC = 0.1 for the above listing. or delete contact definitions. Ctype. you can delete it using the EDDC command. 20. plot. Use the NSEL. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead. issue the command EDDC. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. after plotting the contact entities. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN. Hence. To delete a specific contact definition. issue the command EDDC.Cont. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.00000 VC = 0. To delete all current contact definitions.00000 VDC = 0. 6. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted. MAX.Targ. then deactivate it at a later time.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0.

each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed.Targ) contact in a small restart. nodes-to-surface contact. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. and you must perform at least one small restart. you cannot delete.05. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS. Once a contact specification is defined. Thus.2. you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). Therefore..Ctype. and surface-to-surface contact. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur.2004 . 20. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1.3).Cont. FOSS 6. you can achieve significant CPU time savings. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact.2.RACT. By considering contact only when it is needed. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Cont.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART .Ctype. With such a large number of contact options. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis. (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC ..DACT.DELE. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis. AG.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC . TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed. deactivate. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis. in this section. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS.1.

ASSC. When using solid elements. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target. DRAWBEAD. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. When it is defined. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. ASS2D. The convex surface is the contact surface. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. the following options may be used: 1. 2. STS. there are often several contact options available. General (Normal) Contact (SS. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. TNTS. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand.2004 . 20. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. FSTS. they still are used for a wide range of applications. 6. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. In fact. The coarser mesh is the target surface. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. TDNS. Single Surface Contact (SS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. In single surface contact. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. TSTS. however.2. 3. ANTS. SE. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. Therefore. ENTS. OSTS. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. The finer mesh is the contact surface. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. NTS. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. AG. TDSS. Unlike implicit modeling. FOSS.. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined.05. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. ASTS. ROTR.. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact. For shell elements. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. ESTS. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA. RNTR.

an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). However. or eroding options. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated.05.. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. 2. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. the data curve ID (V1). Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. ASTS) Along with the general contact family.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. TDSS. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general. UY. ENTS. 20. ASS2D. rigid body contact (RNTR. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. Rigid Contact (RNTR. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. When defining tied contact. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration.2004 . TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. force calculation method (V2). Thereafter. To do this. 3. When using eroding contact. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. after the failure criterion is exceeded. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. Therefore. automatic. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. Tied Contact (TDNS. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. For the rigid options. Eroding Contact (ESS. 6. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. upon application of loads or initial velocities. the contact search depth is always limited. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms.. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. It is important to note. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. ANTS. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. or separate from. In automatic contact. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. Automatic Contact (ASSC. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. AG. the target surface. a symmetry plane option (V1). 5. 4.

When using TSTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections. Drawbead contact. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces.. 20. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force.2004 ..05. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command. 8. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. During drawing and stamping simulations. For the TNTS option.

The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. Therefore. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface.1. 6.3. However.05. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. For these contact types. 20. TNTS. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). the neighboring segments are checked. TSTS. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. Therefore. contact options NTS. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. These methods are outlined below: 6. you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact. OSTS.2004 . FSTS. Forming Contact (FNTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3.. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method.2. OSTS.3. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. and TDNS contact options.. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6.

A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined. Therefore. a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command.YMAX. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6. Cont.XMAX.ZMIN.ZMAX ADD. EDBX.BOXID . Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS.3.Option.YMIN.. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS).. a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box. Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration.Targ. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements.05.BOXID1. and single surface (SS) contact definitions.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm. EDCGEN.4. and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm.XMIN. When you specify a contact box.. . shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth. The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box.3.. DELETE. which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above. DTIME. automatic single surface (ASSC). STS. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS).NTS. Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain. 20. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets). The contact box is defined using the EDBX command. 6.2004 . The bucket sort method is extremely robust. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies.

05.2004 . TNTS. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. NTS.1. 20. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options.6. To control the contact penetration distance. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. For these contact types. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. NTS. For all of the contact options other than STS.5. OSTS. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. In an explicit dynamic analysis. 0. Contact Stiffness 6. and the contact depth is relatively large. NTS. Second. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. TNTS. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa). Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS.6. OSTS.. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. For this reason. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth.. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. OSTS. and TSTS. and TSTS. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion. TNTS. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. In cases where the contact is not genuine.4 x min side length. and TSTS. 0. as explained above. Therefore.

The amount of penetration ( ). which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise. bodies will pass through one another. by setting PENO to 1.05.1 by default) In almost all cases. but this implies that k = . Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor.2004 . If the difference between the two time steps is small. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. 20. increasing the value of SFSI above 0.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur. or incompatibility. the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results. For example. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command.. there should be no penetration. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 6. however. The contact stiffness. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0.2. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Together with the related mass. which will lead to numerical instabilities. overwriting user input for the scale factor. PENO of the EDCONTACT command. In practice.6. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. the program scales them to closer values.. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. this approach may not be necessary. Ideally. fs. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). Without a contact stiffness.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k.

All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate. DC. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). ASS2D. The available materials are listed below. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below.7.DC. .. BTIME.Targ.DTIME For 2-D contact.ASS2D. 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements. 20. Cont. For additional information on each material model. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. and DTIME..FD.2004 . the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS.. where applicable.) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior. BTIME. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7.FS. FD.05. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6.. The option. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. 20..2004 ..

and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP.. The next section. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. MPDATA. MPTEMP.1. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands. TBTEMP. and TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 20. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions. TB.2004 .

ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. you actually input a material data curve ID. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. There. 5.2. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. Equation of State. Double-click on a material subcategory. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. and click on OK. copy.. or delete material models via the GUI. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. double-click on LS-DYNA.. Enter the desired values. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. Also.2004 . All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively.05. In the Material Models Available window on the right. do not define extraneous properties. under the Nonlinear category. If you define. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. 2. Discrete Element Properties. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. and Foam Material Models. 4. 3. or Rigid Material. edit. then choosing Edit > Delete. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. For example. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears. Nonlinear. 20. the subcategories are: Elastic. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. you can edit the data and click on OK again. Inelastic. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected.

1. Because of symmetry. EZ). MP.Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ.Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. To specify a material coordinate system.NUXY . Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model.2.density MP.ORTHO commands.g. 7.. Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model.3. For an example input listing. EX).e.elastic moduli (also EY. use the EDLCS and EDMP. J. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP. If no material coordinate system is specified. see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel. Linear Elastic Models 7. one value required MP.shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ).EX .1. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide..COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7. 20.05. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i.EX . and L of the element (see the figure below). Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix.density MP.2.DENS .elastic modulus MP.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ.2.1. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I.DENS .GXY . the other values will be automatically defined (e. EY = EZ = EX). For a multi-layer composite laminate.1.1. See Composite Damage Model for more information. only 21 constants are required. 7.. use the TB. one value required or MP.2.2004 . one value required MP. Use the MP command to input the required values.NUXY . NUXZ). PRXZ)..PRXY . This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).

and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below. MP. C56.density TB. C14.ANEL command. C26. MP.2. You input density using the MP command (DENS). 7. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. C23.MAT. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP. C34.. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. C15. 19. C25 TBDATA. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. C45.DENS EDMP. C35. C13. C33 TBDATA. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. C22. J. C16.1. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading. For an example input listing.EX MP. 20.VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. C46. C11. use the EDLCS and EDMP.2004 .FLUID. C24. 1. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus.. and NUXY are all specified. EX.ORTHO commands. 7. C12.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). 13.2. ANEL TBDATA. C44. If no material coordinate system is specified. This discrepancy is not a computational error. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. DENS .05. 7. To specify a material orientation axis. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above). C55. C36 TBDATA.2.4. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type.

.0 TBDATA. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve.2.. and ij is the Kronecker delta. MOONEY. you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. (For Poisson's ratio. V is the relative volume. This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus. Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor.2.. I2 . see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber. 1.2. To use this input method.05. smaller values may not work.. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model.2.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY). For an example input listing. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor. 7. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command. MOONEY.. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command.2004 ..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. 20. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 .2.49 is recommended...2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. a value greater than . 2. C10 TBDATA. C01 and : I1 . is the Poisson’s ratio.

elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model.. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA. 2. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force. and width equal to 1. 4. 5. thickness. 48. 7. V: p = K ln V. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model.05. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. 47.2004 . EVISC TBDATA. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. In tension. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values. Input these values with TB. Alternatively. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson.. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. 6. 1. 3. For an example input listing. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA. 46. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB.2. In compression. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction.2. G0 . The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 20. 1. The parameters . see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber.3.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.EVISC and locations 46.

.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input. . Input density (DENS) with the MP command. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. 2.. Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.05. . K TBDATA.1. . Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing..NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For an example input listing.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature.3.EX ntemp MPDATA.2. .1. Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7. Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.TEMP 2 . 20.TEMPntemp MPDATA. TBTEMP commands.. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass.. (The density is temperature independent. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA.NUXY 2. .NUXY 1.NTEMP command. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command.DENS MPTEMP.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB. EX 2 . the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed.EX1 .2004 . .BISO. (A temperature dependent model is also available. .1. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength. MP. 1. 47. 1/ Note For this material option. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. . you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command. TBDATA..EX.3. and density (DENS) with the MP command. . If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature. . (These properties are temperature dependent.1.BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. BISO TBDATA. 7.TEMP 1.3. . 7. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command.2.2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.NUXY. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).2. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model. 61. 48. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy.

NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP. 1. 7. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) .ALPX.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. . you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA.ALPXntemp TB. Otherwise. 1. the analysis will terminate. 1.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP.3. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. .PLAW. density (DENS). 2..ALPX1. . Input the elastic modulus (Exx).7 and locations 1 .1. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate.2. Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. tangent modulus. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. 4. . . Input the yield stress. Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only. 2.. 2. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. PLAW. 1...2004 .. BISO. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP..TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA.ALPX2 ..TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA.7 TBDATA... 20.. to the out of plane plastic strain rate.3. . anisotropic hardening parameter.05. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model. 2. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs. 3. plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. . Y (yield stress) TBDATA. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB.

. the additional input parameters are specified using TB.1. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model. In addition. For this model..05.5. you must input the density (DENS).4.10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command.PLAW..2.2004 .. 7.. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE).PLAW. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE).4. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials.. TB.3.10 TBDATA. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel. y (yield stress) TBDATA.2. This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements.3. The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing.LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. elastic modulus (Exx). 20.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA.. As shown below.. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered.

Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress. 1. density (DENS). The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic..BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature.5. 20.. tangent slope. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters.. Input elastic modulus (Exx). and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. strain rate parameters C and P. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only).3. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing.3. 5. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Input the yield stress. 4. density (DENS). or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing..6 of the TBDATA command: TB. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB.. kinematic.05. and the failure strain with TB. 7. p eff is the effective plastic strain. hardening parameter. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 7.1 TBDATA.1 and locations 1 ..2. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.PLAW. 3. 1. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel. (hardening parameter) TBDATA.2. 2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. BKIN TBDATA.2004 . 2.6.. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. PLAW. is the strain rate. 6.

HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential).7. Input the hardening rule type. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2). are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . m is Barlat exponent. For the exponential hardening option. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. p is the plastic strain.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.05.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. density (DENS). Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). All of the anisotropic material constants.3.2.2004 . yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient. and n is the hardening coefficient. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions.. 0 is the initial strain at yield. excluding p which is determined implicitly. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants. 7. a and c are anisotropic material constants. 20. is the uniaxial tension in the direction.

S3 |m + |S3 .. R90 TBDATA. the Barlat exponent.. 1. R00 .PLAW. Lege.S2 |m + |S2 .VAL1. and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes. 7.2..8 of the TBDATA command: TB. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. and R90 . 4. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. m.3. Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA. If CSID = 0. Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS.2004 .05..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2). and the orthotropic material axes with TB. J... 20.3 TBDATA.. 2.S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . 5.ORTHO. R00 TBDATA.8... R45 TBDATA. and then issue EDMP.8.3 and locations 1 . 6. For an example input listing. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 .CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. R45 . CSID. the width to thickness strain ratio values. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS. Before specifying the material property. 7. the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I. 3. PLAW. and L of the element: If CSID = 2. m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA.

4..b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . h For an example input listing. density (DENS). m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. c. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB..10 of the TBDATA command.PLAW.a( - where a.3.2. 20. 0 is the initial strain at yield. a TBDATA. b TBDATA. 8. g TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. 0 (initial strain) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command..2004 . and n is the hardening coefficient. 9.9. the hardening coefficient. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses. 6.. 10. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4. the initial strain at yield. the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient.6 and locations 1 . 1.6 TBDATA. f TBDATA.. g.Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PLAW. b.. Input the strength coefficient. For this material option. c TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 3. 7. f. and h represent the anisotropic material constants.05. 7. the flow potential exponent. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. 5. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. TB.c( xx yy xx ) . 2. p is the plastic strain.. The material model follows a Ramburgh .

In this model. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. 20. k (material constant) TBDATA. effective strain rate (optional). 4.2004 . and initial strain rate with TB. effective strain rate. effective strain rate) TBDATA. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength. instead of LCID4 in location 5. 4. 2. Input the material constant. PLAW. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. For shell elements.. Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion... 6.PLAW...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain.4 and locations 1 . m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.5 of the TBDATA command. effective strain rate using TB.. m is the hardening coefficient. 2. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient.. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 7. to define failure of the material. hardening coefficient. is the strain rate. effective strain rate) TBDATA. 1. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. PLAW.. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6. LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion.05. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). effective strain rate) TBDATA.5 TBDATA. density (DENS). 1. strain.10.. k is the material constant. the tangent modulus. density (DENS). TB.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength.4 TBDATA. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses.2. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature... LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. 3.PLAW. effective strain rate (optional). n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. strain rate sensitivity coefficient. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.5 and locations 1 . strain rate... ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 3. and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. effective strain rate) TBDATA. 5.3.

Input the elastic moduli (Exx. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing. Input all values shown below with the TB. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure. the shear strength... NUYZ. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. density (DENS). Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings.CONCR.3.COMP and locations 1 . NUXZ) with the MP command. 7. 7.. 3.3. 5.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials. Gyz.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. Gxz).. shear moduli (Gxy. even if the failure capabilities are not used. the longitudinal tensile strength.2.CONCR.2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB. 6.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. Eyy. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates.2. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials.2004 . see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage).12.2 TBDATA.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. transverse tensile strength.. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA.1. transverse compressive strength.11. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants.. (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB. 20.3.. COMP TBDATA. Ezz). 1.2.05. 2.. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY. 4. C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA.

Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. 1 .17.LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA.2004 . v1 . y (initial yield stress) TBDATA.69-78.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model.5. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.13.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA..9. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.15.59-68. 20.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.14.C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.18. and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain.3.16.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10. C and P are strain rate parameters.B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA.7.11. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.46.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA. 1 . natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate.20-32.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.13.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.19. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.12.48.10.6.8.33-45. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model. density (DENS).49-58.2.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA. strain curve input and strain rate dependency.05.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs. especially for steel.4.47.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA..

n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 3. Input the strength coefficient. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. strain rate dependency is ignored. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. PLAW. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. effective plastic true strain. For an example input listing. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs. if C and P are set to zero. hardening coefficient. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. 2.. the strain rate parameter C. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel.7 of the TBDATA command: TB.. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used.3.6. the strain rate parameter P... Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses.2 and locations 1 . density (DENS). and strain rate parameters C and P with TB.. 3.. plastic true strain) TBDATA.. Only true stress and true strain data are considered. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.PLAW.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate.. 1. Input the yield stress. 5.. the effective plastic true strain at failure..05. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA.14.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command. 4... strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden.8 TBDATA. 7. 2.PLAW. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper . Further. PLAW. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 20.8 and locations 1 . C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. 1.2004 . e is the elastic strain to yield.2. the tangent modulus. k is the strength coefficient.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model.. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves. 4.7. and n is the hardening coefficient.. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. If LCID 2 is used. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).2 TBDATA.

16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.3. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7. 1 .4. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified.38. Input the parameters described below with TB.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.9 TBDATA. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA.45.37.41.1.4. Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.PLAW.42. Eh . Up to 16 data points may be specified. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus. f (failure strain) TBDATA. 20. 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.. elastic modulus (EX).C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.4.5-20.2. Page 82 of 180 7..PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.. Input the density (DENS).C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. true plastic strain curve. Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain.21-36.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB.. therefore.C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA.. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis. 1 .Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.1.43.PLAW...2.2004 ..16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA.40.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.05.39. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.44.

20..05.4. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. Next.2004 ..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid.2. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. f 2 is the cap surface. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and . and f 3 is the tension cutoff. is the trace of the stress tensor. 7. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope. J 1. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In this model.2. The first invariant of the stress. . The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space.

R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA. there is the tension cutoff surface.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command.GCAP TBDATA. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA.2004 . TB.8. denoted f 3 in the figure.3.7. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA.9.6. Input the parameters described below with the TB. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command. 20.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA.1.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. and the cap surface on the right.5..W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA. TBDATA. Finally. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material. the tension cutoff surface on the left.2. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above.05.

C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a. TBDATA. c TBDATA. 2. b.Toff (tension cut-off value. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete. Foam Models 7.2004 ..6 of the TBDATA command: TB. however.1 TBDATA.N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA.2. 20. For an example input listing.5. ij is the Kronecker delta. FOAM..2. p o is the initial foam pressure. and c are user defined input constants.. b TBDATA... closed cell.05. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. 6.12.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. Toff < 0.10. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. the initial foam pressure.1 and locations 1 . 4.1. and the initial volumetric strain with TB.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete. the ratio of foam to polymer density. a TBDATA. is the ratio of foam to polymer density. and c.5. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure.FOAM. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs. 7.11. 3. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model.13. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress.. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero. Input the yield stress constants a.. b. 1. Unlike honeycomb. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. 5.

0 .2 TBDATA. the tension cut off (tearing) stress. 20.FOAM..2 and locations 1 . 5.5. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7.tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. default = 1) TBDATA. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models. SHAPE (shape unloading factor. For uniaxial loading.05 and 0. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness..5. 1. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness.3 and locations 1 .2. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA. strain. the shape factor for unloading.FOAM.. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU)... 2...05. and initial viscous coefficient. the initial viscous coefficient. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached.0 . (decay constant) TBDATA. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. DAMP (viscous coefficient. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient. FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy... E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA.2. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command.full energy dissipation) TBDATA. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems).3. 1. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). . LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA. 3. and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated. 6. the hysteresis unloading factor.. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1.2004 . the viscous coefficient. the decay constant.2.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. In compression. values between 0. 2.3 TBDATA. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper. 3. 7.no energy dissipation (default) and 0.. and density (DENS) with the MP command. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. respectively. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). default=1E20) TBDATA. The elastic stiffness. 4. FOAM. FOAM. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs.. .8 of the TBDATA command: TB. a decay constant ( ). TC (tension cutoff stress. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB.5 are recommended) TBDATA. 4..0 .

Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant.no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1.05 and 0. LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs.Gbcu) (G .0 .5 are recommended) 7. and t is time. 3. volumetric strain.5. In the formulation.. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero.. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate.4. 8.2004 . It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads. E is the elastic modulus. 2.Ebbu) (E .5.4 TBDATA. the tension cutoff value. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0.05.0 bulk viscosity active) 7.3 of the TBDATA command: TB.. The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads.FOAM.. volumetric strain) TBDATA. 20. Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E ..4 and locations 1 . and the viscous damping coefficient with TB. For stresses below the tensile cut off value. 1. the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading. 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value.Eaau ) (E .. density (DENS). The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled. DAMP (viscous damping coefficient. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.0 .Gabu) (G . Input the elastic modulus (Exx). FOAM. values between 0.2.tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA.5.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..Eccu ) (G .2..

9.. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. HONEY TBDATA. LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes.V). 4. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 16. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 8. 2. 14. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.05) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 15. 11. 13. 10. 20. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 17. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. This input is optional.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. 3. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. default = 0. Input all values shown below with TB. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 1. 5. density (DENS). Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. 6. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs.05. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . 7. LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs.2004 . Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 12.HONEY and locations 1 . Each curve must have the same abscissa values. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. (material viscosity coefficient. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs.

LOC+3. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded.C0 TBDATA. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC+1.C6 TBDATA.. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density.6.2. 20.LOC+8.. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.2.2004 . Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways.2.LOC+7.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC+4.1.C2 TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.) TBDATA.6. You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.6. 7.LOC+2. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.2.C1 TBDATA.05. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.C5 TBDATA. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models.LOC+6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7.LOC.C3 TBDATA.LOC+5.C4 TBDATA. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy.

(See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC.2004 .) TBDATA. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.) TBDATA.LOC+6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.LOC+4.LOC+1.LOC+3.S3 TBDATA.S2 TBDATA. v1 ..2. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.3.6.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.C TBDATA.S1 TBDATA. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve.LOC+7.LOC+2.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. 20.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC.LOC+1. a is the first order volume correction to 0.A TBDATA. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using. 0 TBDATA.LOC+3 to LOC+12.LOC+2.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA.. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.05.LOC+5. S2.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy.LOC+13 to LOC+22. S1. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.

2..A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model.. C. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity. B. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. also called the viscoplastic model..4. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below).TI (initial temperature) TBDATA.LOC+23 to LOC+32. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range.6. Input the parameters described below with TB. For solid elements. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section).2..05.2004 . n.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. 20.3-20.1.6.. and m are material constants.21-26. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA.5. Input the density (DENS).EOS.T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7. 7. The model may be used for shell and solid elements. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A.4 TBDATA.

Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).12. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.D3 TBDATA.D1 TBDATA. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.11.15. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).EOSOPT TBDATA. 20.9. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA..Troom TBDATA.8. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).C TBDATA.m TBDATA.05. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel.A TBDATA.2.1. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.B TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.10.14.CP (specific heat) TBDATA.Tmelt TBDATA.EOS and locations 1 .6. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB...EOS. density (DENS).5.1.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1.2004 . See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models...15 of the TBDATA command: TB.D2 TBDATA. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).7.D4 TBDATA.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model.3.pressure cut-off TBDATA.n TBDATA.13. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.

2004 .2. density (DENS).EOS and locations 1 . Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain. Optionally. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). 1.6. Input the parameters listed below with TB. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. you can define a viscosity. Pressure Cutoff ( 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). 2. so you should use reasonable values. see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum.0) TBDATA.05.6.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Erosion in tension and compression is possible. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA. and temperature.6. 7.. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . Input the Young’s modulus (EX). 4..7.2. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. EOSOPT TBDATA. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass. strain rate.. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS. Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA.. 20. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. 3. EOS.

Troom (room temperature) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.05. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.EOS.13. Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS). Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).6.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.18. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA. Input the parameters described below with TB. The model must be defined with an equation of state.3.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA..16.4. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).9. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command.C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.15. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.8. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. Set SPALL = 1.1.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA.8.19..10. 20.0 to use maximum principal stress. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure.G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA..B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure limit. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.6.. SPALL = 2.5.) TBDATA.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.12.3.7.2. SPALL = 3.. o (initial strain) TBDATA.SPALL (Spall type.2004 .B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.11.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. 7.14.17.

In this model. 20. = o. b. Here. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei. Tmo .. In this model.2004 . is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. p is the pressure. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go.. and f are experimentally determined material constants. h. V is the relative volume.05. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations.

the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. pcut. p cut.. and failure under tensile loads. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. max. cracking.05. Whenever exceeds m.. the pressure is reset to pcut . is set equal to m. p cut. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material.EOS. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient. SPALL = 1.2004 . Once spall is detected with this model. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. This option is not strictly a spall model. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted. material melts. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression.. the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. exceeds the limiting value -pcut . while max is positive in tension. Thus. y and G are set to one half their initial values. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff. TB. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. SPALL = 3. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. The pressure limit model. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. The maximum principal stress spall model. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. The hydrostatic tension spall model.5. and the pressure cutoff value.. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. If tensile pressures are calculated. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . 20. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. SPALL = 2.

5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.15.DISCRETE.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA..05.7.7..SPALL (Spall type.7.2.A (atomic weight) TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB..DISCRETE.a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA. Hardening and softening can be defined. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA.17.4.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command.2. 7..11.6.) TBDATA. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB.2.. 20. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.DISCRETE.b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA. Discrete Element Models 7.12.8.FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.0 TBDATA. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).18.2.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model.16..3.13. set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model.PC (pressure cut-off..KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.5. Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes..7. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA.2.9. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA.1.2004 .h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.1..1.14. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA. see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel.10.Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB...19-28.

..2.3.3.1.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs..BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA. respectively. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.DISCRETE...CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.5.LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs.3.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.) TBDATA.0 is compression only (default). The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading.2. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA. displacement or moment vs.2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA..DISCRETE.2..2.2.... 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.5 TBDATA..KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.1. Inelastic Tension..DISCRETE.5.2004 .LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening.KU (Unloading stiffness.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB...0 is tension only..DISCRETE.. 20.3 TBDATA.05.DISCRETE.6.2 TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB.3. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only.7.7.2..LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity..7. Input the spring elastic stiffness.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.. 0.. Optionally. displacement/twist relationship.LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.DISCRETE.)) TBDATA.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7.7 TBDATA.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.1.) 7. displacement or moment vs.CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression..DISCRETE.4.. 1.7. Input the model parameters with the TB.4. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness.) TBDATA.1.2.0 is compression only.2..) 7.

) where L is the change in length L = current length . a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined.1.. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes.9.DISCRETE. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA.3.. Input the damping constant with the TB...DISCRETE.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.1..7. 0).DISCRETE.LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs. Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes. If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the offset should be positive. Input load curve ID with the TB.4 TBDATA... generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.COPT (Time implementation option) 7.0. F. For an initial tensile force.2..1.7. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs. No force will develop in compression.7.5. The force is given by: F = K x max( L.6...1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. The force.. the offset should be a negative length..2004 .DISCRETE.KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA.7.DISCRETE. rate-of-rotation relationship. Input the model parameters with the TB. 20.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167. 0).. For a slack cable.1 TBDATA.(initial length ..DISCRETE.TC (Cutoff time.6 TBDATA. Optionally...FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.05.2..BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA..2.8.6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB. ) 7..Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables.4.

Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead.2. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading). the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . This material number.MAT. however.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity.8.RIGID. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. 20. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. Y.05. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex).2. cannot share a common node.CABLE.2. The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP.8. i.DENS MP. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command. issue: EDMP. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP. 7..Load Curve ID For an example input listing.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used.. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis. if more than one node is constrained. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes.e. the change in length over the initial length. Therefore. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. Along with the EDMP command. to define a rigid body for material 2. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified. For example. Two independent rigid bodies..2004 . For this reason. see Cable Material Example: Steel.EX EDMP. Rigid Model 7. and Z displacements VAL2 .1. However. multiple rigid material types must be specified. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements.

and displacements are transferred to the nodes.ADD. mass. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number. Therefore.. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. see Rigid Material Example: Steel. In addition. By default.7. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. the mass. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. When rigid bodies are defined. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. Y. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. NEQN. you can assign inertia properties.05. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number.PARTS should be issued. Hence. After defining a rigid body. 20. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model. the command EDCRB.PARTM. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body.2004 . a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. see Material Models. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value. The motion of the body is then calculated.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X.. For an example input listing.RIGID. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. the command EDMP. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies. When using the EDCRB command. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless. center of mass.

IRCS. or LIST).rigid.2. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity.. you can input all of the above parameters.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor.velo2.velo2. For batch input.ADD.Ivect.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body .6 *dim.. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart. 0 inert2(1) = 0.. TM is the translational mass.PART. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia. .CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined. 0.TM. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command.3150E-03. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. edmp. The command format is EDIPART. 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.2851E-03. 0.coord2.2450E+01.. including the required array parameters.2004 . the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.coord2. CID is a local coordinate system ID.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0.2851E-03 ! EDIPART. However. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body.3 *dim. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI. 0.ircs. Specifying Inertia Properties By default. .5000E+00.Vvect. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system. . You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body. . Option is the option to be performed (ADD. 0. 0.0E-7.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. 0.1.inert2.Cvect.tm. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution. . 20. DELETE. 10.Option. Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part. which is a rigid body.inert2.05. mass..

By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage. (Note that for other load types. long duration.RBUX. For example.3. Loading As described in Loading.2. However. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD. . for the rigid body load labels.ADD.. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2. a component name is input in this field. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes.. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. To improve efficiency for this class of applications. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable. You need to stop the analysis. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications.05. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. you can achieve significant savings in computation time. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later. 20. PAR1. and then back to deformable.2004 . you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. then restart the analysis again. define the part switch.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis.

D2R. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. 6. then issue EDRD . and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161. For rigid body switching to work properly.05. (In the GUI. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions. After a deformable-to-rigid switch. PART In a new analysis. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. they will be calculated by the program. the choice of element formulation is critical.R2D. (In the GUI.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD. Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body.ADD. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties). The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. If you do not define the inertia properties. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable. PART. COMP1.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body.2004 . In the current LS-DYNA implementation. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. simply leave MRB blank. See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies. 20. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior.4. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. 7. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. where COMP1 is a node component.. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number.NRB.D2R with no additional arguments. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged.

05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. triangular 2-D. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. however.e. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. or beam elements. but not triangular shell. which is automatically calculated by the program. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. These modes.2004 .. In general. or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. It is generally not recommended. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes... 20. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity.

In these cases. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. c. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model.. and Poisson's ratio). the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy. Also. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below.. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model. 20. metal plasticity. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed. and bending. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior.15.) Using this method.HGLS. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results. and the sonic speed. You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations. However. the material number. For this command. elastic modulus. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. l min. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. particularly when dynamic relaxation is used.05. However. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes. (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient. which is a function of material properties (density. Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10.) Note that for a given set of material properties. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. the hourglass coefficient. As a general guideline. is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). the minimum time step size t min. for a given mesh.2004 .

For example. Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended. ? Of the two methods listed above. Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways. and mass scaling is applied to all elements.2004 . It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive.9). mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. If DTMS is negative. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.001% mass to the model.. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass. 20. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. when using mass scaling.. the same time step size is used for all elements. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0. When mass scaling is requested.

elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). 2. By part number for large vector blocks. also known as mixed time integration.2004 . 4th ... the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd.05. even the larger ones. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. etc. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. If subcycling is turned on. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Thus. 3rd. step depending on their size.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size. By element number in ascending order. By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization.. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. To control the time step size after mass scaling. Subcycling Subcycling. 20. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. 3.

2004 . or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points.RST file.RST) vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs. 12.RST and the Jobname. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise.. Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST.HIS files: The Jobname. With an explicit dynamic analysis. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12. Note the distinction between the Jobname. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors.. contains solutions for the entire model. consequently. thus. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and. Inc. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled.05.1. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26).HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq).HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname.1. 20. However.RST and Jobname. or to view animated results. this processor is not supported by ANSYS. rigid bodies. Results ( Jobname. POST1 and POST26. History (Jobname. Nodes that are included in constraint equations. used primarily in POST1 processing. Output Controls 12.

You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes.HIS file. used in POST26. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space.SPCFORC EDOUT.RST file is usually less than 100. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data). it is usually 1000 or more.. For example. CM. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART).05. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting.1. For large models.elm1 EDHIST. !Specify the name of the nodal component. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands). the element and nodal components to be analyzed. NSLE !Select nodes from elements. Therefore. CM.MATSUM EDOUT.HIS and other output files. The Jobname.2. For details on creating components. may exceed the system limit. !Specify the name of the element component. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space. a system error may occur.MAT. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname. the data to be stored in the results files. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26..elm1.NSTEPS EDHIST. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results..RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results.HIS. Generally. the Jobname.RST and Jobname.1.1 !Select elements of material 1.S.3.GLSTAT EDOUT.) As a comparison.HIS file. 20. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics). the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system.node !Create nodal component nod1. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME.nod1 EDOUT. and the ASCII files to be written.2004 . In this case.nod1. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results. the number of time steps in the Jobname. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces).elem !Create element component elm1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.RST and Jobname.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results. specify the number of time steps. Create a component consisting only of those elements. but for only a portion of the model. 12. Furthermore. Jobname. in the Jobname. 12. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname. The remaining data will not be written.

failure strain). you may want to issue EDOUT.2. the printing or plotting command will be ignored. and the model will behave as expected physically. When using POST1. You can display the deformed shape. If you are using command input.ALL to write all possible ASCII files.05. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.SLEOUT EDOUT. COMBI165. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161. 20. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. display.NODOUT EDOUT. the elements are still in the selected set. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions. and otherwise control the animation. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start...RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy). PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below). In some cases. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities.2.2004 . Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT.1. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. show contour and vector displays. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape. resume. use the appropriate plotting command (for example. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. Stress data will be rotated during printout. or element table operations. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.) 12. stop. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. When you display results in POST1. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail. However. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data).RST file. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1). the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. (During the LS-DYNA solution. for example.

SOLID164. SHELL163. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid. PLESOL ). For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2). “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.Item. BEAM161. For beam elements. If NIP = 2.Item 12. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements.LOC command. For more than 5 layers. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. for strain data. By default.) Also by default. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. regardless of the BEAMIP setting.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. In this case. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). see the ANSYS Elements Reference. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element. By default. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell. layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)).. However.05. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. COMBI165. data is only available at the middle of the layer. no matter how many layers exist. Further. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. LINK167). 20. If you set BEAMIP = 0. and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration. there is no stress output. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). especially in bending.2004 .Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot. the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. the results at the top correspond to integration point 2. For faster plotting. MASS166.NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results.2.. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. However.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. To get results close to the element surface. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule. for that matter). For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160.

. you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. Also. Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL. As the number of elements in the model changes.RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used. nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files.05. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files..2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model.LIST ! ! SET. ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. ..2 ! ! PRNSOL. you could write a macro to create the desired animation.DB file). The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. SHELL163.1. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used.Second mesh refinement Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162.Third mesh refinement etc.3. .Jobname. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step.RS02 . 12. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. You should not resume the original model database (. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing). /POST1 FILE.RS03 . using the FILE and /SEG commands. The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . However. care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files.. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio.First mesh refinement Jobname. Therefore.2. Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20.EPPL] for these element types.RS01 ! ! SET. Note Because of the multiple results files. Jobname. and SOLID164 elements.

Each variable is assigned a reference number.HIS file. with variable number 1 reserved for time.2004 ..RST file.3. work.. Care must be taken when reading from the . SLEOUT. the results will be read from the Jobname.05. The Jobname.3.RST.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE. NODOUT. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26.Jobname.HIS and Jobname. however. . For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT.num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. 20.) 12. and reaction forces. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time.NCOMP are specified. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. known as variables. To generate results.1.MERGE LAYERP26. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. such as different energies. RCFORC. SPCFORC.num2 ESOL NSOL STORE. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs.MERGE . such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST. !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname. MATSUM.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12.HIS file into POST26.

. SPCFORC. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. smoothed. including POST1 and POST26. To plot the results. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. or both sets of data. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT.Jobname. LAYERP26. 12.3. and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.4. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables. Four arrays are required for smoothing data.2004 . Once stored.3. etc.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. SLEOUT. you can choose to plot unsmoothed. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR.05. and RBDOUT files. After EDREAD. If you are working in interactive mode. Once these arrays have been created. NODOUT.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. MERGE for each layer. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation). RCFORC. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field. respectively. 20. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points. first issue FILE . respectively. DATAP defaults to all points. but if you are working in batch mode. The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter. see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. 12. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data.2.. MATSUM.

materials that are no longer important. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it. For example. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. a restart "dump" file is written. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. After the completion of each stage. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems.05. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. To change the model and continue calculations.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. 20. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. 13.2004 . or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis.. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. d3dump02. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage.1. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. etc.. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. By viewing the development of the error. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. The Restart Dump File By default. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart.

A New Analysis For a new analysis..2.. you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example.1.2004 .. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL.HIS.2. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option). 13. 13.2. you must issue the command EDSTART.3..2. A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). For this type of restart. or a full restart.DB) has not been changed. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary. 20. a simple restart.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. 13.d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database..1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then issue the SOLVE command.05.2. The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname.2.RST and Jobname. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes. a small restart. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C). For a problem which was prematurely interrupted. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART .. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI.

there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command).2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart.. For example. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis.) Note When postprocessing the restart results. results are appended according to the time value. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. Another example is mass scaling. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. even if no switch is being made. Furthermore. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step.05. The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). ACLEAR.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. In other results files. 20. 3. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file. After the first small restart analysis. or even a series of restart analyses. Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. In a small restart. Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description.. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete. Be sure to issue EDSTART . If you do select such parts. etc. deactivate.2004 . (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. you may choose to perform an additional restart. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. In some cases. in Jobname. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files.RST. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number. it is important that you issue EDSTART .2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PIDN. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. To do this. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. You would issue the command EDSTART . if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other.2 with an appropriate d3dump file. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname.) When the EDSTART. Create the initial model and run a new analysis. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed. as needed.. If you issue EDIS with no arguments.4.2004 . and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01.. Post-process the results. If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model. In a full restart. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field. parts having the same part ID).3. When LS -DYNA starts execution. or to apply different loading conditions. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis.K. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses). you must issue the command EDSTART .K.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. 5. Repeat step 3-6. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE). the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. For example. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. Typically. 7. Page 119 of 180 13. Issue the commands needed to change the model. you may need to consider more materials. 2.. 1.d3dump01. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field.K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands. Issue EDSTART.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart. Jobname_01. to remove portions of the model. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart.ADD. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized.05. Issue the SOLVE command 6. 4. you must issue the command EDIS. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. For example. 3. these are discussed below.3 command is issued. To initiate a full restart. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below. Post-process the restart analysis results.2. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. 20.

LIST. stress initialization may fail for those parts. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis.05. use a different element type number. the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. However. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model.LIST and EDPVEL. the same number of elements. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. However. the initialization is “all or nothing. If this is not the case. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. in the same order. or real constant number for those elements. In this case.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part.DB).) To avoid a mismatch in parts. During the initialization. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis.2004 . all discrete elements will be initialized. as described below. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way.. material number.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart. the part cannot be initialized. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis. In addition. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. material number. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. For discrete elements (COMBI165). Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. 20. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. as stated above. and previously existing parts will not be altered. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. Again. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. use a different element type number. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis..

05. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis.2004 . etc. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis. To solve these problems. Jobname_nn. Each time EDSTART .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small). In a full restart. 14.HIS ). Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 02.…) automatically. you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart.RST.RST and Jobname_nn. Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat.1.g. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution. e. ASCII output files. an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa.HIS. are not renamed and will be overwritten.. the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01. you need to use both solution methods.RST file (similar to a new analysis). Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena.. however. matsum. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. For both the simple restart and small restart.RST. 20. new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. Just issue EDSTART.. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname. The results in Jobname_nn. For a small restart. For a simple restart. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase).3.). glstat.3 is issued. etc. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. In this chapter. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code. the history file (Jobname.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1.) are appended with consecutive time markings. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. matsum. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn.

Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Specifically. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. In most dynamic metal forming operations. Hence. This release of energy. By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. stresses. 6. 2. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material.2004 . Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. using Jobname1. 1. 2. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). 11. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. 10. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. 9.. 7. springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185).05. In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads.DB. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. Then the deformed shape. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. In addition. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). 8. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. This elastic energy. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. 20. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components. In the explicit metal forming analysis. which is the driving force for springback. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. Solve and finish the analysis.

Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163. 20. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types.ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6.2004 .. cannot be used in a sequential solution. 3. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. Redefine the key options. Re-enter the preprocessor. material properties. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved..DB file at this point. real constants. boundary conditions. Command(s): /FILNAME. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. PLANE162. Command(s): ETCHG. (Note that the 2-D explicit element.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. see step 12).

or convert them to null elements.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings.2004 . you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis. but you do need to redefine the other values. these elements must be unselected. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. converted to null elements. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS.. 7. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. 20.05. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements. Command(s): SHPP. deleted.Update Geometry 9. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. REAL. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected. For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements.) The TYPE. deleted. Also..

For SOLID164. the implicit analysis will be terminated. Re-enter the solution processor. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185). 20.. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. Command(s): D. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13. For SHELL163. Turn large deformation effects on. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181.2004 . These thicknesses override those defined using real constants..05. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. in a metalforming analysis. etc. 12.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. otherwise. only the stresses are transferred. Command(s): NLGEOM. you need to constrain the blank). Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12).

uy d...01..stamp1.n3.all tbdelete.on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport.0 esel.0.0.ux. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis.stamp1..dyna.0.s.ux.... you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.. The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution.0... 20.01.stamp2 /prep7 etchg......181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle.s..db /filename.all upgeom..list resume.all.n1..uy. /batch.off finish /solution nlgeom.eti r.01 ddel.1 shpp.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14.rst d.1.uz d.stamp1. Solve and finish the analysis.01.2004 .n2..0..2.ename.ux.

The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements.. ? Slenderness of the structure. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. In each substep. When the tools are removed. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run.2. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run. tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. 20.2004 .OFF. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. ? ? 14. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part. being very thin. you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command.. ? The model is improperly constrained. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step.05. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle.1. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions.

. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains. The first type. however.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases.2004 ..ON). implicit-to-explicit. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis. is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis.05. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. 20.

which are used only in forming applications..05. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful. 20. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax. After defining additional loads. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure. different material models (e.. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows.2004 . Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file. using Jobname1. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions. initial velocities. etc. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. but are not used by LS -DYNA... This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. adding plasticity). the bird in a bird-strike problem). The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. In this implicit analysis. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.1. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled.g. 1. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e..g.

DB. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten. but they need to be defined here nonetheless. Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest).ALL. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved.0). the bird in a birdstrike simulation.. Command(s): /FILNAME. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3.. 20. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.05.DB file at this point. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example.2004 .ALL. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Solve and finish the analysis. 5.

20..2004 . Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.05. see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition. Re-enter the preprocessor. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. PLANE162. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. Note that the 2-D explicit element. as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG.

you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. their corresponding companion explicit element types.ITE. require a third (orientation) node. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. however. REAL. However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained.ITE. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4. and loading values on the explicit elements. 20. Re-enter the solution processor. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. 8. The TYPE. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF..05. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4.2004 . Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. real constants.. boundary conditions. Redefine the key options. optional node. Also. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. above. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well. LINK160 and LINK167.

/batch.. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry.05. Read nodal displacements.list resume. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file.drop1. drelax. 20.. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. if necessary.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14.2004 . and temperatures from the implicit results file. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11. In this step. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. You can then return to the implicit solution. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run. rotations. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc.

ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command). you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading.uy.x. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above..0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body.plaw.create ! Create parts for loading edpart.y.load. BFK.. etc.s. BFUNIF.0 nsel. Jobname.assc nsel. However.1.1. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis... In the explicit analysis phase.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.drop2 /prep7 etchg.rbvx.7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.add.time. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis. BFV..05.ux.dens. d. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file.loc. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above)..2.all.list ! List parts edvel.all tb..0216 ddel.1.rigid. BFL.all. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF.ite mp... automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued. and TREF commands.7 edcgen.drop1. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).0 finish /solution rexport.a.loc. TUNIF. these include temperature loads applied with the BF. LDREAD.8 edmp. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.0 d.2004 . Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. BFA.2. 20.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15.… ! Apply initial velocities edload.K. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis.dyna..

Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15.TEMP. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient.2004 . Solve and finish the analysis. Currently. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain.05. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient.2.NODE. 1.. 20. 2. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase. Therefore. but they can be defined here if desired. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. VALUE). You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis.. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition.

The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Command(s): /FILNAME.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1.DB file at this point. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1.. 5. 20.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.DB. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.2004 . Re-enter the preprocessor. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7.05.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

hgls. W/m-C ! specific heat.0.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0e-5.1. degrees Celsius mptemp. 0.11 esize.dens.78e-5.0 nsel.5 vmesh. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20. 0. 2..16.1.all nsel.31.34.20.1 mp.2004 .all. 5.1.6.nuxy.etip. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity..hgen. 900. unitless mpdata.1..s.tte mp.temp.5e11.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp.0. 5e-5.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end .elem bf.0 d.0. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 . 0.density cannot be temp.5e-5.all ddele. m/m-C mpdata.93e11. 6.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity. 1100.1.05. 500.node esln cm.loc. 20. 0.s.3 mp.0 nsel.z.1.1.alpx.all.all save solve fini /post1 set.5e-5.0.0.300.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.32.explicit /prep7 bfdele.ex. 6.static time.33.8030.0e11.1.1.3.ext sf.9e11.1.0e3 esel.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio. 700.last plnsol.all.1. 1. 1.ntip.. 0.all sfdele.temp /wait. 0. 0.all. 0.0 edmp.loc.1.all.z.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam.kxx. 1.all finish /solu antype.0 block. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.conv.1. 1.0. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.c.11 cm. 0.all etchg.0 nsel.1.s. 0. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion.8e11.502.all.

700 tbdata. modulus of elasticity) are desired.x.temp.all.s.0 d.thermal.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb.all time.e.500 tbdata. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution.1200 tbdata..8e6 tbtemp.1100 tbdata.8000.1.0.1.9e6 tbtemp.epto.1.. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0).all..900 tbdata.500 edhist.uz esel.0. a thermal shock condition is created.1e6 tbtemp. edrst.2004 .ux.1..3e6 tbtemp. 20.7e6 edpart. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.all nsel.create eddamp.7000.6 tbtemp. ! ! Alternately.15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient.0. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario. stop vibrating)..g..biso.10000.0 tbdata. Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0.ntip edhist.1.rth bflist nsel.0.last.2e6 tbtemp.last /dscale.1.uy..20000...30000.0.10 plnsol.05..z.01 fini /solu ldread.etip edout.0....9000.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .loc..100 edhtime.1.glstat save solve fini /post1 set.

. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g). Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. 20.2. Drop Test Module 16. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target.05. rigid surface (the target). and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. For all drop test cases. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis. The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. For example. For example. contact surface friction coefficients. graphics mode. Thus. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk). and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module.. When this option is used. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target. specify solution controls. the module automatically creates the target. This reduces computation time. do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. In a typical drop test. For most drop tests.2004 . the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact.

3. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module. Before you begin. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module. should be specified. and orientation. and modification of the target size. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide.2004 .1. rigid surface (target). Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.1.. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details. More advanced features. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows). All elements should be defined and all material properties. 16. 20. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details.3. the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g).1. properties. Thus. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS.. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. neglecting surface friction. In the DTM. including damping.05. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is.3. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped. such as inclusion of surface friction effects.

Velocity tab -.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM.2. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. and the estimated time at the end of solution. Otherwise. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis. initial translational and angular velocity. 16.1. and define contact and friction properties for the target. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular.. analysis start time. you will not be able to set up the DTM. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g). object drop height. no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. rotate the target. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. 20.Modify dimensions and material properties of the target. To avoid time increment degeneration problems. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. Status tab -.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero. object orientation.05.2004 . See Elements in this user's guide for more information. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. run time after impact. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. tetrahedron. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As). Target tab -..Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object.3. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages.

If you choose the Status tab. 20. 16. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. Reference point options include the lowest object point. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example). or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable.. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model.1. as well as the run duration time after impact. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 16. that is. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM. or you can type your own value. you type the drop height. Under the Number of Results Output heading. 3. 32. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g).1. Under the Solution time heading. 16.5.1. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. and specify a reference point. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab. STEP 7: Solve Before solving.3. Under the Gravity heading.4. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages.7. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool. see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide.HIS).3. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab.2. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time).RST) and to the time-history file ( file. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data..3.3.4.3. Review the information under all of the tabs. 2.1.2004 . check them in the ANSYS Output window.3. Under the Drop Height heading.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16. etc. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1. 16.05.1.). or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS.6.

Make changes if necessary..Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object. See Postprocessing and Postprocessing . it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. 16.. By redefining the object Y direction. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). screen Cartesian coordinates. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. 16. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates.3.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box. For animating results.3. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen.1. screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity. At this time. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window. are defined automatically. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed. 16. which are fixed.2004 .1. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.8.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.9. 20.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve. (g). then choose OK.3. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction. See Postprocessing . you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.05. all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again.2. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined. (g).

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it will require more computation time. After doing so. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way. by default. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. the initial angular velocity must be zero. or "out". To use the option to start the analysis near impact time. After you specify a drop height. so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). you will notice that. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. 20. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively.3.) If you do not choose to orient the object. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists.2004 .05. 16. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. Within the DTM. However. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). However.3.. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM. You should avoid using this name. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name. You should avoid using these names. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”. The keyword is DTFILT. ? During initialization. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob. coupling of components within an object is allowed. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined.

The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities. modify the target's position and properties. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. and specify contact surface friction coefficients.4. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. simply input the X. as discussed below. 16. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four.. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates. under Solution Time in this user's guide. 20..05. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. Y.2004 . Object Initial Velocity By default. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. and Z components of the velocity. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. however. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. 16. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop".1.2. Details on these features are included in the following sections.4.4. After choosing the desired option.

. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL.2004 . Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center. 16. 16. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position.4.2. 20. By default. size. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L. But if necessary. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. orientation.1TL. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane. material properties. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.2. To change the target position. Under the Dimensions heading.2.05.1.

2004 . Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid.5. density. 16. it is preferred that you input them directly. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. density. The modulus.7.2. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Target Orientation By default. If you know the actual target material properties. you can enter two target scaling factors. As an example. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s).4.2. 16. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. and therefore normal to (g).0 and Ts=0. Under the Orientation angle heading. modulus of elasticity. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. By default.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab. Under the Dimensions heading. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. a material density. under the Material Properties heading.3.. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS). The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. Thus. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. To modify the target orientation. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. If you change the target's size. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL. and stores the corresponding material number.4. the target is re-drawn automatically. If you input Ls=2. choose the Target tab.4. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command.5.RIGID.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. enter the Young's modulus. For example. If you change the target's orientation. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus.MAT.4. and Poisson's ratio. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object.. density. To specify the properties. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.2. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen. 16. and the target height is 0. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default.1T sTL. 20. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. the target is re-drawn automatically. choose the Target tab. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution.05. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model. then.

05. initial translational and angular velocity. 16.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or FD. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). then they have default values of 0. and Status. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages.. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. Velocity. The target is then created and loads are applied. If you do not change parameters FS. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16. Target.. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. The tabs.0.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information. with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs.2004 . You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). are Basic. then choosing the Target tab.5. 20.5. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. in order from left to right. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box.1. and the estimated time at the end of solution. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task.2. the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab. including the target surface.5. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.

81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped. referenced to the screen coordinates.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved.4 32.Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point.Specify the magnitude of gravity.05. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386... Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Drop Height -. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction.2004 . Gravity -. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object.2 9. 20.

the angular velocity must be zero. 20.Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. . Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. Therefore. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. To use this option.. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. If an initial translational velocity is applied. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box. However. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered. Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. measured along the screen Y axis. which is the case just before impact. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. is not equal to the specified drop height. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact.05. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. ? Solution Time -. then the information is stored. If this option is used. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box.. Set Orientation -. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. By default. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide). If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. and the calculation is not repeated. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). starting from when the object drops.

On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname.HIS. ? ? Related Information -. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname.05. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. You may define additional nodes.For further information about the options on the Basic tab. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target.RST.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file. Help: Displays this help topic. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. See the EDRST command for details. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16...3. Refer to the EDHIST command for details. Number of Results Output -. 20. See the EDHTIME command for details.2004 .5.

the initial angular velocity must be zero.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change. 20. and it will automatically recreate the target. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). as described below.Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time.. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time).2004 . If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system..05. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. If these conditions are not met.Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. If you apply a translational velocity other than zero. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. Translational Velocity -. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity. Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. and choose to start the analysis near impact time. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity.

use the Target tab to specify the options described below.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab. Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 20.2004 . Also. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity.5. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Specify the target's position and size.4.05. Help: Displays this help topic. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity. Dimensions -. ? ? Related Information -. the target is automatically created..Target Tab When you choose the Target tab..

The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis. Therefore.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness.Specify the material properties of the target. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. Similarly. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN . if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis. divided by 2.0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length.05. The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. A warning is printed to the screen. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. divided by 2. and the target is returned to its previous orientation. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes. The default thickness is equal to 0..1 times the default length. ? ? Contact -. then the input is considered to be invalid.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you). ? Orientation angle -. The default length is determined by ANSYS. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1. Then.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . 20. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. Material Properties -. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. If only a single node exists on the object at this point. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below.. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis.

? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Help: Displays this help topic. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact.2004 . but not as robust.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact.0) You type the static friction coefficient.. Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16. 20.5. see the following sections in this user's guide.. Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand.05. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body.

a zero entry detected for the value of gravity). You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur. Click OK to commit the settings.05. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings.. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems.2004 . See error messages. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. The target will not be created in this situation. initial translational and rotational velocity. See error messages. Unsuccessful set-up. Click OK to commit the settings.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Ready to drop. 20. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. if necessary. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution.. and the total time at the end of solution. Then. Proceed with caution. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example.

The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick.. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.2004 . or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node. 3. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.. Pick the first node.05. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic.6. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. 20. 3.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 2. 4. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.For further information about the options on the Status tab.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button. Pick the second node. Related Information -. Pick the first node. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction. 2. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity..

see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing .Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing . von Mises Stress).Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0. Maximum text fields -. Stress-plastic).05. the default is the last data set. Stress-total. Result Set Range. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example. the default is the first data set. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -. Display Type two -column selection list -.Animation Next 16. Load Step Range. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default). Increment result set text field -. Model result data radio buttons -. meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 1st Principal Stress. The default is unchecked. Postprocessing . Animation time delay (sec) text field -.2004 .Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -.Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example. ? ? Range Minimum.7. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. Stress.Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1).For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box.Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated...5 seconds).

An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation. the animation will be created and will be displayed. Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ? After you choose OK. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference.8. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide.Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. Postprocessing .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Related Information -.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . as well as changing its direction.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box. ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing .05. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available. 20.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16..2004 . Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Center of grav. ? ? Related Information -. Help: Displays this help topic. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them.05. y. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed.1. Initial Low Pt.For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. 20.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default).: Only the lowest point of the object. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing .: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object. as initially specified will be graphed or listed.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.2004 . Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above. then select the x.. Velocity.

? ? ? A.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.. The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K]. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear. a central difference time integration method is used. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method).05.1. and F cont is the contact force.2004 . Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence.. and large time steps can be taken.2.1. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. Convergence tools are provided. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems. 20.1. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force.

the explicit method is useful only for very short transients. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A. the time step can be arbitrarily large. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion.05.2004 ... Due to this very small time step size. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly).2. For nonlinear problems. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector. 20.2. A. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. that is. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces.2. No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit.1. the implicit solution is always stable.2. Stability Limit A. Implicit Method For linear problems.

Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed). 20. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step.05. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity)..9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For stability reasons.. Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A.3. a scale factor of 0. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod. As an example.4.

. Inc. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS. and the wave propagation velocity.1. are dependent on element type. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length. B. l..05. For beam elements: l = length of the element. 20. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled. Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only. Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands.2004 . c. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20. ..2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05..

2004 .210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ex.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B. Material Model Examples B.2.. Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP. 20.1.05.2..1.

5.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.05.20 ! No units MP.126. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.126.1.1.ANEL.24.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.nuxz. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP...4.2.29 ! No units MP.gxz. 20.2.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.1e9 ! Pa MP.51.15.3.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.dens.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.1.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.dens.1.10..1.nuxy.3.1.2.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.104e7 ! Pa B.1..nuyz.1.9e9 ! Pa MP.dens.4.ez..358.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.1 TBDATA.121.126.6.nuxy.499 ! No units TB. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.20 ! No units MP.1.gxy.2.1 TBDATA.2.1.5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.5..1.9e9 ! Pa MP.358.2.6.dens.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.1.121.1.2.2.18.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.gxy.20 ! C01 (psi) B.1.1e9 ! Pa MP.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.dens.20 ! No units MP.1..MOONEY.18. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP.ex.2004 .9e9 ! Pa MP.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.gyz. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.ey.48.44.1.21.nuxy.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA..44.307e9 ! Pa MP.

46.1.41 ! r-value TBDATA.1.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP.15.31 ! No units MP.nuxy.5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.27.53 ! 1/ B.05.7.BISO.1.1.YldStres(1) B.ex.3.PLAW.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.2390 TB.2.4..4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.STRAIN.2..dens. 20.29 ! No units MP.1 TBDATA.ex.1.1.nuxy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.218e6.7 TBDATA.nuxy.PLAW.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE..2. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP. Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.1.1.128.1.2.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.1.EVISC.0.1 ! Yield stress vs.10 TBDATA..05.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.ex.207e9 ! Pa MP.5 Strain(1) = 0..1.48.29 ! No units MP.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.2.210e6..YLDSTRES.1..2..2004 .00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.214e6.30e6 ! Pa MP.1.3.60.61.dens..dens. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.5 *DIM.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.Strain (1)..1..1.8.1..1...ADD.47...2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..180e9 ! Pa MP.9.1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA..dens.

2.dens.1.1.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.6 *DIM..5..6.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.11.nuxy..310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1.5.7.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA..mjstrn(1) B.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.8.1.mnstrn (1).1.2. .5.1.6.20. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.dens.2.1.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.36 ! No units MP.68 TBDATA.dens.10..-10.1.4.1 TBDATA.65 TBDATA.nuxy.2.12. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.ex.50 mjstrn(1) = 80.1. m TBDATA....4..76e9 ! Pa MP.1.3.1..40...mjstrn.BKIN.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB.2.1.40.0.05.PLAW.200e9 ! Pa MP.39.5.ex.4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.3 TBDATA...nuxy.73 ! R00 TBDATA.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.40.27 ! No units MP.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB. .2.PLAW.ADD.100e9 ! Pa MP.ex..170 ! Barlat exponent.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.mnstrn.44 EDCURVE.1.0 ! P TBDATA.763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.34 ! No units MP.75 ! Failure strain B..0.1 TBDATA.45.29.1 *DIM. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP.

..04 TBDATA..15.6.33 MP.32 TBDATA.254 TBDATA..209e9 MP.3.1..1.PLAW.2..34 MP. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.4 TBDATA. 1.ElasMod.29 MP..22e5 TBDATA.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.16..1.nuxy.300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.7.1.2..7850 TB.2.1.ex.0 YldStres(1) = 207e6..dens.1. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0.PLAW.65 TBDATA..3. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs..5.017 TBDATA.2004 .1.13.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.1.7 TBDATA.3.5 TBDATA.StrnRate. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs..nuxy.1 TBDATA.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.2.5.2.ex..76e9 MP.1.1. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP..dens.275e6..023 TBDATA.002 TBDATA.1.1.. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP.11 TBDATA.1.ex..2.9861 TBDATA.250e6.4.05.PLAW.nuxy..290e6... 20.5 *DIM.1.2 *DIM...1.08.9761 TBDATA.YldStres.8.4.9861 TBDATA..6 TBDATA.2750 TB.9..14....5 *DIM.75e9 MP.9.1.2720 TB.dens.

75 TruStres(1)=207e6..6.250e6.4.TruStres.16....3.5 TruStran(1)=0.3.ADD.PLAW.nuxy.2.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.18...1 TBDATA.4. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.dens.1..7 ! (ksi) TBDATA..1..0.8 TBDATA.6500..gxy.2.40... Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.nuxy.TruStran (1).0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.ADD.16.StrnRate(1).1.3.216 TBDATA.2710 TB.69e9 MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.1 ! LCID for true stress vs.226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.5 *DIM.17.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB.ADD.2.TruStran..2.0.1.1 TBDATA.2.211e9.1.ex..1.215e9.. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.1.1.1...ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.dens.2 TBDATA.598 TBDATA.0 TBDATA.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA.08.ex.33 MP.1.1700 ! ksi MP.1.2.0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.218e9 EDCURVE.1. 20.207e9 ! Pa MP.PLAW.2.StrnRate(1).YldStres(1) EDCURVE.5.212e9.275e6.2004 .30 ! No units MP.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.dens.4..5.3000e6 EDCURVE..1.4..4.TruStres(1) B.05. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.290e6.GCAP.

1.1.20.3.. 20.3. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA..1.2.EOS.5.5.10 TBDATA.1.-.EOS.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.15..8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.138e9 ! Pa MP.89.9.2.8 TBDATA.13.62 !N B.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11.6.4500 TBDATA.2 TBDATA.8 TBDATA.5 TBDATA.1.2004 .ex.4..1..20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.0 !m TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.09 !m TBDATA.1.19.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.dens.291..1 TBDATA..1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.022 !c TBDATA.0002 TBDATA.1.7.2.1.240e6 TBDATA.1.ex.7.-.5.35 ! No units MP..10.11.7. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.17.30 TBDATA.14.8.36 !n TBDATA.1.473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA..30 ! No units MP.4.350.1.6.025 !c TBDATA.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.nuxy.1 TBDATA.1.05.18 TBDATA.6..1..2.12.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.dens..8.61 TBDATA..207e9 ! Pa MP.1...2.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.31 !n TBDATA.nuxy..1.10.9.7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.

2.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.1.3.19.21..19. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP.89 TBDATA.240e6 TBDATA.0.014 TBDATA.dens.54 TBDATA..0 TBDATA.0..12.1.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.nuxy. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP.13.0.10 TBDATA.7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B.05.12 TBDATA.0 ! S2 TBDATA.0..5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.1..02 TBDATA.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.2.2.1.2 TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA.2.2.0 TBDATA.9.03 TBDATA.1.8.ex..1..489 TBDATA..-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.-3.200e9 ! Pa MP.17.1 TBDATA.1.2.4400 TBDATA.5386 ! C TBDATA.17.21.ex.1.1.4..2.48 !A 0 B.4..21.1..15.0 ! S3 TBDATA..3 ! No units MP.100e9 ! Pa MP.394 TBDATA.16..18.4.20.34 ! No units MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.16.1.EOS.1.3.23.20.97 ! TBDATA.10.0. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.-.EOS. 20..2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.18.1.nuxy.0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.14.22.11.17.1..2004 .1.dens.

93 ! TBDATA.1.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA.nuxy.32.EngStres(1) B. parameter TBDATA.16e6 ! (Pa) MP.1.rigid.17.1.7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP.nuxy..29.gxy..49 ! S1 TBDATA.2.207e9 ! Pa MP..08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.11.2..457 ! C TBDATA.220e6 EDCURVE.dens.15..2..1..11.1.24..05.2 ! Spall type TBDATA.EngStres.2 TBDATA.16.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.EOS.2004 .25.1.1..04.34.ex. temp.1.49. 20.207e9 ! Pa MP. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3 ! No units EDMP...3 ! No units MP.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.-50 ! Min.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.33.0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.06.31.10.0.0 ! S2 TBDATA.1.210e6.1.30.215e6.02..4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B.1. temp.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.35 !n TBDATA.4 EngStran(1) = . Cable Material Example: Steel MP. TBDATA.3.200 ! Max.1.7..EngStran.18.1.dens.cable.ex.ADD.5.1.5.EngStran (1).0 ! S3 TBDATA.4 *DIM..43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA..2380 ! Absolute melting temp. parameter TBDATA.1.

The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname.2004 . the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command).. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. not ANSYS commands. ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS. However. an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples.05. ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA.k is created.k file.

RBVZ. RBRY. RBOZ) EDLOAD. MX. . AX. UZ. FZ. +RBRX. AY.2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. . OMGY.RBOX. VX.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. (ACLX. RBFY. (RBFX. . UY. (RBUX.. ACLY. RBVY. (FX. RBFZ. RBUZ. . RBMZ) EDMP. RBOY. RBUY. MY. (UX. RBRZ. OMGZ) EDLOAD. OMGX. MZ) EDLOAD.05.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20. PRESS EDLOAD. FY. RBMX. RBMY. VY. ROTZ. . . AZ) EDLOAD. ACLZ.. .TEMP EDLOAD. ROTY. VZ. RBVX. . ROTX.

05..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .. 20.

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