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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools. you can model your structure in ANSYS.2.2. Using this integrated product.2.2.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B. large deformation dynamics.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.2.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B.2.2.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.2. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. such as those required for droptest.2.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B.2.1.2.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B.2.2.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.2.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B. 1.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.2.2.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.2004 .22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B.2.2. springback and other applications. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.2.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B..2 Material Model Examples B.2..2.2. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.05. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B.2. and complex contact/impact problems.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B.2.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.

Many times.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. If you have not used ANSYS before.2. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1.. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you already know how to perform these steps. Likewise. The three main steps are: 1. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above.. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis.2004 . However.05. 20. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.

updates..05. ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output.2004 .. 20.RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the .

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command).. you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system. Before you build a model.3. 20. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. but that may be useful in some situations.2004 .. You may choose to read through it from front to back. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1.05. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. However. The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis. you are ready to build the model.

. 20.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally. Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure.4.2004 . see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem. Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2. For detailed information on explicit elements. For detailed theoretical information. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.05.. see the ANSYS Elements Reference.

but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. Poisson's ratio.1. 20.1. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements.2004 . higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. 2. Solid and Shell Elements 2.1. The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. By default. including details of input and output quantities. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. midside nodes. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. For additional details. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. including elastic. Therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. and elastic modulus. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis. or p-elements. such as with foams. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. Wedge. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. These elements assume a linear displacement function. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. rubber. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element.. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation. pyramid. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. and foam models. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. For example.05.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. plastic..e.. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements). Therefore.

05.2004 ... 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated). Therefore. These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations. these degenerate shapes should be avoided. You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) .1. 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2. As with solid elements. SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. 7. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay.2. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu.3. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay... 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes. the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended.05. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. Therefore.2004 . for general analyses. 6. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations.1. 20.

so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell.. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i. 8. 2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff.05.1. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2.1. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis. Has four integration points with no hourglassing. 2.5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element.e.. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis.4.2004 ..5. 20.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay.

provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default). Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements.. This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. therefore..05.2004 . C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented. 20.

NSET. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior.. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled.8611 0. The distribution of strain is always linear. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point). stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.. 20.5774 0. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i.05. as shown in Integration Points.7746 0..9062 1. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero.R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements.e. For elastic materials. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0.2004 . Typically. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element. while more points are required for nonlinear materials. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials. so care is needed in interpretation of results. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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For the plane stress option (KEYOPT(3) = 0), you can also choose the following materials:
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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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Prev Additional Information Prev Beam and Link Elements Elements

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. In an automobile impact analysis. and material properties (R. and TB commands. However. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element.they do not pin the nodes together.2.05. The force is applied along the element axis. a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. However. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length). you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. element type. because it does not have mass. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis.. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. the line of action of the force also rotates. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis.2004 . 2. For example. To represent a spring/mass system. When the element rotates. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise). ET. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants. By default. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). 20. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. for example..3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution.

2004 .) Once you have set the analysis preference. IXZ. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. You can not input a mass value for this option. PLANE162.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. a single value is used. In the case of shell and beam elements. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. and LINK167. IXY. (Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. therefore. 20.05. shell. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX. IYY.. IZZ) via the element real constants. a rotational inertia is also added to each node.4. IYZ. BEAM161. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. To use this option. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SOLID164. SHELL163.. To do so. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. The mass of each solid.

Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis.) For some material models. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model. you typically use the MP. 3. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. Also. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element.1. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. To do so in batch or command mode. In the GUI.. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS.2. review Material Models of this document. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. TB..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. the EDMP command).05. Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models). In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). After you select the appropriate material model.2004 . you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS.

.05. and REAL commands. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. By this method. real constant set. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions.. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options. Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program. Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing.) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter. you specify which previously defined element type. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly.. 20. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes. For simple models (e.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements. line elements only).3. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model.g. a stress-strain curve). See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details..2004 .g. Use the TYPE. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing. Mesh the Model After building the solid model. MAT.4. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing.. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry. with the EDCGEN command. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used.2004 . Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. Instead. a long run time. therefore. or elements may experience hourglassing.5. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). avoid areas with relatively small elements). etc. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes.e. Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). A brief overview of that procedure is given here. VMESH. In the GUI. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. If hourglassing is a problem.). mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls.. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool..05. or EDASMP commands. Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM. In the GUI. or EDPART. mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.

Another command. Once these components are created.e. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements.2004 .05. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter.. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i.) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. unyielding objects in the model. Use realistic values for material properties. node components). EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command.6. If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. For the single surface contact algorithms.. For example. 20. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART). do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body. You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response..

REAL = 1 and MAT = 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3. REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. And so on. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. If the EDPART. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. not overwrite it.7. They can also be created.05. Any combination of TYPE. EDDC. and MAT IDs. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. EDDAMP.. and EDREAD). If any of the TYPE. these elements will be assigned PART number 2.2004 . updated. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements.CREATE creates new PART IDs. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. For example. EDLOAD. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. EDPART.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. 20. and listed with the EDPART command. these latter commands will only update the list. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. the PART list is overwritten. REAL. The PART list can be created. issue the EDPART. For more information on the EDPART command.LIST command. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE. EDCRB.UPDATE command. EDCGEN ..K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. If the PART list already exists. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs.UPDATE).

Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1.. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2. e. Update the PART list (EDPART. Therefore. Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. contact specifications. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5. Create the PART list (EDPART. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. which includes the addition of new elements. issuing EDPART. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts. Continue modeling. PART number 4 remains.. The PART list is shown below (EDPART. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s).LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example. 20. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2. etc.2004 . but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART.CREATE). TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3.CREATE) and list it (EDPART. d. issuing EDPART. The following procedure is recommended: a. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. b.LIST). c.05. However. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution.. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. see Postprocessing. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. Loading After building the model.RS01 and Jobname. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. even if the mesh does not change. In order to properly model your structure’s behavior.RS02. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt". In addition.05. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop. however. Note A new results file will be created for each loop.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D.. Jobname. . Therefore. delete.

all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. SF. use the EDLOAD command. Additionally. all loads are applied in one load step. 20. for certain kinds of loads. Hence. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command.2004 .. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes. expected behavior. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. position in the model. the F. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. AY. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4.1.1.05. etc. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time). For example. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. To apply a load to your model. they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command.1. To apply these nodal loads. VY. Death Time. In particular. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition. For this reason. Please refer to Birth Time. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Therefore.. VX) appear as degrees of freedom. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA.

you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal.). but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components.RIGID. Or. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. To illustrate the use of array parameters. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. consider the baseball example mentioned previously. ROTY.2. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval. However. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. ROTX.. You may define as many components as you wish. For the case of rigid bodies. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. and the nodes on the wall as a third component. 4.) To define a component. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. Therefore. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. and then apply loads to each of them. Therefore.. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. ROTZ.1.05. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. etc.MAT. Otherwise. FY. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. In the GUI.2004 . with each entry of the first array specifying a time value. 20. the nodes on the bat as another component. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. FZ.

0.5. moments.time. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm.s.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0.. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models.ydisp.node. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand. Define an array named time to store the time values.s. as listed below.all *dim. etc.8. You also need to define a third component named batsurf. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces..node ! define the component bathand nsel..ballsurf.3. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command].0. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined.2.node.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0.. 20. In a more accurate simulation. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.node nsel.node nsel..4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim.-2. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different.05.6. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces.bathand.batsurf. Finally..3.0. cm. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers.. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter).s. and material properties in your model.. 4.s..4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon.1..25.. surface pressures.. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle..4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.-1. cm.xdisp.3... define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand.75.node.-1.3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0. cm. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. This component will be used later in the contact specification.all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied.. nsel. It is important to note. Next.ball.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces. nodal accelerations. dimensions. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat.zdisp. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball. Likewise.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim. nsel.node nsel. Further. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads..node. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default..2004 .1.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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6. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined.300. see Birth Time.11.ADD...11.Z2).time.yforce.time.1..100. If CID is not specified.075.Cname .Y2. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction. the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts..1 *dim.DTIME).5yforce(1)=0. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition.5 time(1)=0..5.LCID. 4. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time.2004 .1..05.ADD. CID.. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems.X2.4..Y1. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command).025.add. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models. Death Time.1. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD ..Par1.0 As shown above.X1..SCALE. 4. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.comp. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4. Some load types do not support birth and death time. Lab. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels. The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command.PHASE. 20.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve. The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.1.KEY.200. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession.fy. the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.add.Z1.BTIME. Death Time.05. see Birth Time..2.Par2.

The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS). see earlier discussion in this chapter). You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command.2. the value specified must always be 0 (zero). The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. nodal rigid body (NRB). The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). No other values are valid. but are based on a node component. Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. However. you will need to apply constraints to your model. Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. 4. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. shell edge to solid (STS).e. 20. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid. you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR.NRB command are not associated with a part number. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects. Additionally. i. The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction.2004 . Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body.1..ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. For a rigid joint.05.. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. defining nodes where point loads will be applied.ADD. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body.STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector.ADD. Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4.ADD. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. and rivet (RIVET).. In the GUI.2. The ENS option has many potential applications. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body.

the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . In the GUI. however. if you use coincident nodes. Unlike a spotweld. you must specify a valid nodal component. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. When a rivet is defined. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. Coincident nodes are permitted. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds. 4. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command.2. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model. However. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command. In such cases. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. For a generalized weld. 20. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. For a massless spotweld.05. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above.ADD. failure cannot be specified for a rivet. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds..2004 .2. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis.RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident..

all initial velocities in the model will be zero. cannot be used in the same analysis. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations.) around a specified axis. 20. with or without translations.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4. VY. For both the VGEN and VELO methods. the two methods for defining initial velocities. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. EDPVEL. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX. The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom.VGEN.2004 . Due to the LS-DYNA architecture.g. or a part assembly [EDASMP]. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. 2. and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command).2. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands.05. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application. and Z axes. OMEGAY. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. For the VELO option.. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node.VGEN. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command. use the following procedure: 1. (e. YC. Likewise.. a part [EDPART]. and OMEGAZ fields). Note To model a rotating body..g. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL. Y. EDVEL. PID). ANGY. 3. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. etc. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e. To define an initial velocity. This may be a single node. a nodal component [CM]. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component.3. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. part. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For the VGEN option. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions.

DELE commands (in the GUI.. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel.-1600. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. For our baseball example. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. This means that if the structure rotates. delete. CPNGEN. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ROTZ) are not allowed. it could lead to nonphysical responses. UY. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. Also. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly.05. CERIG) can be used to define. If CP is used in this manner. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set. the CE-family of commands (CE. CPLIST. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. 20.DELE commands (in the GUI. modify.velo. CEDELE. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number.. delete. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. CELIST. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed).LIST and EDVEL. Similarly.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4.LIST and EDPVEL. Similarly.velo. modify. use the EDPVEL. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes.-1600.. CPSGEN) can be used to define.. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or. if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL.2004 .. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete). Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. CPINTF.1.. list. For each node in the coupled set. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel.ball. use the EDVEL.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. ROTY.3. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. CEINTF. CPDELE. CPLGEN. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete).

1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries.. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model. For example. and SOLID164 element types. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. Therefore.GROUND.05. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). 20.4.1. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results.5. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases.DELE. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. To define a nonreflecting boundary. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags..ADD. respectively. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4. SHELL163.2004 . For this type of analysis. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4.LIST and EDNB. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body. use the commands EDNB . the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems.

Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure.2004 . overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF.. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. For all three methods of temperature loading. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading. This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading..RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname. use the BFDELE command. it defaults to zero. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. In addition. use the BFLIST command. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. TUNIF. In the explicit phase.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. To use this method. You must define two array parameters to represent the load.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model.. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command.05. 20. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). or BFUNIF. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . When LDREAD is issued.

. Cname. EDLOAD . True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX. 20. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command).DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution).05.OFF): In this case. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. True dynamic relaxation is used. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. Par2. a slightly different approach is taken. Lab. Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS. They are discussed below: 1. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. 2. PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload. This is the default setting. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve.e.2004 . ADD. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i. In the former case. Therefore. Par1. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again.. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label. .ANSYS).EDDRELAX.. the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution. 4. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . In this latter case.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. At time zero. Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). 3. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA): This is similar to the previous case. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands.6.

The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname.HIS.HIS. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI. To work around this limitation.. is written using all information that has been entered so far. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero. (At this point. boundary/initial conditions. Consequently. Solution Features 5. Solution Process After the model has been built (i.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command.. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements). If the EDOPT. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used.RST and Jobname. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. The input file for the LS-DYNA program. meshing. are written on the two results files Jobname. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname. 20.2004 . 3. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide.ADD.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped.. real constant and material property specifications. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information.K. after completing element definitions.RST and Jobname.1. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve).DB.e. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written.. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. Jobname.) 2.05. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case. Before issuing the SOLVE command. loading. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. The header records. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5. and termination controls). At this point.) 5. modeling.

you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately.. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time .) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis. Termination criteria . The other termination controls are optional.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time.3.You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position.2) or a full restart ( EDSTART. These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models. (See the EDTERM command for details. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. where details of the errors and warnings are written. CPU time limit . To use this feature. 20.. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. you must have a machine with at least two processors. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.2. messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window.05.3) analysis. You may set up multiple criteria using this command. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART. If errors or warnings are produced.2004 .

........ you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP... To avoid these differences.. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1. If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available). you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt. the calculations may be executed in different order. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors.. When used with more than 8 processors.. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress. via the /CONFIG command. please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide..1). Specify the number of processors to be used..78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.... If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one..4. For more information on all of these methods. switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA....) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5.. the larger the problem. (Unlike in ANSYS.. any additional scalability is minimal...... 0.e. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls. the higher the potential for scalability. nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect. Because of this... Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses. you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN.... 2. you should close all other applications on those CPUs.05. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status. or via the SETNPROC macro. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.. you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times... Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly.. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background.. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time..) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time. You can set this value via the config60.. 2..SMP..2004 ..00000E+00 time step. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU.. When you are using shared memory parallel processing...ans file.. This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses..

.MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used. To do so...... sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run......GLSTAT EDOUT.... 0....) The files d3hsp. 0. contact problems.......00000E+03 total energy / initial energy.........00000E+03 internal energy... etc.. failed elements.. 0...... a value of 30 should be sufficient.00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718... ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run..... The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors....00000E+00 sliding interface energy.. 1. you can determine the progress of the solution..28205E+01 global z velocity. A restart file is written.. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718... sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run.00000E+00 total energy... glstat and matsum are ASCII files.........ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy.. 0..05... -1.. As the solution progresses. warnings.. 0..... use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started.. Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point... 1...00000E+00 external work.00000E+00 global y velocity..00000E-20 spring and damper energy.2004 . This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed...... you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates.....00000E+00 global x velocity....00000E-20 system damping energy... then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers.... The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA..... The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above)....... these files are written at requested time points.... On a UNIX system. By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command. 1..) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp....... You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver. the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files.... 1.. 20..... file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For m (the number of lines to be viewed).... 1. The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT..

This option produces the same plot as Option 1. Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command.05.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes. This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements.. ? Option 1 . 20. however. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size. The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.6. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5. yellow (intermediate). ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest).Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. It should be noted. Option 3 . ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods.This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements.. Option 2 . that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. except that all selected elements are plotted.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5.5. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes.

After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. reside).. 3. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. 4. (Remember. Jobname.1.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. (In the GUI. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.) 4.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.RST and Jobname.RST and Jobname. etc. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis.K.K. 3.R.05.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed.k. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution.2. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files.2004 . users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.6. such as fabric. That is. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. 2. Jobname. the input file will be named Jobname_nn. Method B 1.HIS.6. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. 2. For both Method A and Method B. certain element types. After modeling has been completed. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command. 5. go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files.HIS. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. and if it is a full restart. the input file will be named Jobname. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26). (Note that if the analysis is a small restart. After issuing EDWRITE. 5. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. reside. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files). Method A 1. Using another window. Jobname. soil. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

will be shown. To use this method.6. For any type of analysis. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. (EDSTART command. the original version. This allows you to take a pre-existing file.3.. etc.. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. 99) to be used as a starting point. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6.) In all cases. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 02. However. Then edit the . run the lsdynaxx script as described above. see Restarting). the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required. Jobname.K. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”.K. Using a Pre-existing File. Also. the argument “m=drelax” is also required.K.. real constants. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6. where n is the desired amount of memory in words. and not the modified version.HIS results file headers when only a file.. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files. first make sure that the model defined in the . the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command). you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.) will not be available in the results files.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname.0 and your input file is “crashtest. element attributes (material properties.k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. 5.K. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE). and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the . 20. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname.k”. depending on what type of analysis you are running. Next. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support.K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files.RST and . When using these methods to modify the file Jobname.k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis.2004 . However. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete. nodes and elements must not be changed. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. For a restart analysis. solve it using LS-DYNA. (For these reasons. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26.05. .K input file exists. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). Thus.

It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses..1.. STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type.05.BALLSURF. single surface. These contact types. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur. For most typical analyses. 20.25. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. You can do this by using nodal components. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters. and ESS)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model. 6. This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis.. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model.. use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid). there are no contact elements. For this reason. are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”..NODE.2004 . STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC. You simply indicate the contact surfaces. eroding. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended. When using contact or target components. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. tiebreak. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.. and/or part assembly ID definitions.BATSURF. STEP 2: Identify contact entities.. automatic single surface (ASSC). automatic general (AG). tied. surface-tosurface. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL.BATSURF... and single edge contact (SE).. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible. single edge. and rigid contact options.” For explicit dynamics. Then. In other analyses.BALLSURF. SS.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements.. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. nodes-to-surface (NTS). automatic general (AG).NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. drawbead.S. the type of contact between them.NODE. which include node-to-surface. PART ID definitions. and other parameters related to the contact type. as shown in the sample input listing below.NTS. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM.S.

STS.6. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ESTS.. AG. no initial penetrations are allowed. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command.STS. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS).1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively..1.15.STS.34. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model. (FS.. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN.2004 . and the exponential decay coefficient (DC).. N1.15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN...28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC. no contact or target surface definitions are required.. Vrel.3..5.NTS. ESS. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command.05.. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD)..1.. use great care when defining contact components.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN.N2. 20.2. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions.1.1. Therefore. As explained later in this section.25..) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity..ASSC... A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis. and SS).23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally.3. as illustrated below: EDCGEN. FD. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN.. VC (also input on EDCGEN ).34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis.2.

The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. This information varies with contact type. For both types of tiebreak contact. for sheet forming simulation.. a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. For rigid body contact. e. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics. rigid.g. 20. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. Therefore. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. For eroding contact. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding... for rigid body contact. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS.2004 . ESS. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact.05. e. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material. as outlined below. and an unloading stiffness value (V3).. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries.g.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements. and drawbead contact. tiebreak. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. you must specify a data curve ID (V1).

plot. which help restrain a blank during drawing operations. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN.1. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities. Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command.DELE. To delete a specific contact definition.10000 FD = 0. you must input a load curve ID (V1).1. or delete contact definitions. MAX. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. In drawbead contact. you can list. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0.DELE.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. A sample listing is shown below. Use the NSEL. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. after plotting the contact entities.ALL and ESEL. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted.2). However. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ). For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact. To delete all current contact definitions. 20. issue the command EDDC.ALL. Hence. components or parts). Therefore.1.00000 VC = 0. 6. The plot will consist of nodes or elements. you can delete it using the EDDC command.05. maximum contact entity number. by issuing the command EDPC. and INC fields of the EDPC command. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead. then deactivate it at a later time. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted.00000 VC = 0. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition.2.. If contact has been incorrectly specified.00000 VDC = 0.Cont. and a drawbead depth (V3). Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads.00000 VDC = 0.. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis.2004 .Targ.15000 DC = 0.08000 DC = 0. issue the command EDDC. You can specify a minimum contact entity number.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions. Listing. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Ctype.1 for the above listing.20000 FD = 0.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC ..Targ) or reactivate (EDDC . Once a contact specification is defined. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon. nodes-to-surface contact.. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed.Targ) contact in a small restart. Thus. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6.Ctype.2. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis.2.RACT. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur. you cannot delete. Therefore. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1. By considering contact only when it is needed. and surface-to-surface contact. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS.Ctype. With such a large number of contact options.1. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. in this section.Cont.3).DELE. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS.2004 .) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART . (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis. and you must perform at least one small restart. 20. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed. you can achieve significant CPU time savings.05. FOSS 6. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed.Cont. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS.DACT. deactivate. AG. Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis.

ENTS. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. 20. In fact. SE. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact.. FOSS. ANTS. OSTS. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. When it is defined. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact. AG. For shell elements. ROTR. General (Normal) Contact (SS.2004 . ASS2D. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. FSTS. RNTR. the following options may be used: 1. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Unlike implicit modeling. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. Single Surface Contact (SS. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. DRAWBEAD. ASTS. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. 2. TNTS.2. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. 3. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body.2. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target. 6. The coarser mesh is the target surface. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. TDNS. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand. NTS. The convex surface is the contact surface. there are often several contact options available. however. TSTS. In single surface contact. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. The finer mesh is the contact surface. Therefore. they still are used for a wide range of applications. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options. ASSC. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined.. ESTS. When using solid elements. STS.05. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. TDSS.

See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. or eroding options. the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. For the rigid options. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth.. 20. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. Automatic Contact (ASSC. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. automatic. It is important to note. Thereafter. ASS2D.05. TDSS. upon application of loads or initial velocities. after the failure criterion is exceeded. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general. a symmetry plane option (V1). Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. the data curve ID (V1). To do this. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. 2. When defining tied contact. AG. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. 6. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command.2004 . ANTS. When using eroding contact. rigid body contact (RNTR. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. 3. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. In automatic contact. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. Therefore. Tied Contact (TDNS. or separate from. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. ASTS) Along with the general contact family. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. Rigid Contact (RNTR. ENTS. Eroding Contact (ESS. However. TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. 5. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). force calculation method (V2). the target surface. UY. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. the contact search depth is always limited.. 4.

Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force. Drawbead contact. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction. During drawing and stamping simulations. When using TSTS. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command.05. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections.2004 . This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions.. 8. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For the TNTS option. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces. 20. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces.. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command.

OSTS. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6. TNTS. you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions. 6. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master).3.2004 . Therefore. Therefore. FSTS. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. These methods are outlined below: 6.. OSTS. However.3. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. and TDNS contact options.3. contact options NTS.1. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. TSTS. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking.2. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. For these contact types. Forming Contact (FNTS.05. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact. 20. the neighboring segments are checked.

Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain. automatic single surface (ASSC). DTIME..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm.YMIN. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box.XMIN. The bucket sort method is extremely robust. DELETE. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS.BOXID1. Therefore.3.. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command.4. Cont. a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command.Targ. Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration. EDCGEN. 6.ZMIN. The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth.. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS). a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6.BOXID .05.Option.. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand. STS. .3. and single surface (SS) contact definitions.ZMAX ADD. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets). When you specify a contact box. EDBX. 20. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets. which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS).XMAX.NTS. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells.YMAX.2004 . and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm.

Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6. Second.6. TNTS. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. To control the contact penetration distance. In an explicit dynamic analysis. In cases where the contact is not genuine.. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly.1. NTS. TNTS. OSTS. For this reason.5. and the contact depth is relatively large. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. NTS. TNTS. For all of the contact options other than STS. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command.4 x min side length. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. and TSTS. Contact Stiffness 6. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion. OSTS. and TSTS. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa).05. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6.. OSTS. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness. as explained above. Therefore. NTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 0. 0. For these contact types.2004 . and TSTS. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. 20.

In practice. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise. by setting PENO to 1. Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur.2004 . The amount of penetration ( ).. this approach may not be necessary. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. PENO of the EDCONTACT command. or incompatibility. increasing the value of SFSI above 0. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. which will lead to numerical instabilities.05. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. 6. For example. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses.6. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. If the difference between the two time steps is small. there should be no penetration. overwriting user input for the scale factor. The contact stiffness. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. 20. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command.2. fs. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results. Together with the related mass. the program scales them to closer values. however.. but this implies that k = .1 by default) In almost all cases. Without a contact stiffness. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option. bodies will pass through one another. Ideally. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used.

DTIME For 2-D contact.Targ.DC. DC.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate.. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Cont.. The option. . The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS.. 20.05..) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For additional information on each material model.7. where applicable. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below. 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. ASS2D. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7. BTIME.ASS2D. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). and DTIME. BTIME. The available materials are listed below. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements. FD.FD. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior. the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.2004 . The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter.FS.

. 20.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05.

MPTEMP. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP.. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models. 20. TB. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions. MPDATA.. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TBTEMP. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.05. The next section.1. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. and TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7.2004 .

and Foam Material Models. copy. edit. 20. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. Double-click on a material subcategory.05. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. Also. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. double-click on LS-DYNA. or delete material models via the GUI. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. do not define extraneous properties.. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. 5. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. and click on OK.2004 . You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears.. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. Discrete Element Properties. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. Nonlinear. under the Nonlinear category. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. There. Equation of State. or Rigid Material. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file.2. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. In the Material Models Available window on the right. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. If you define.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. Inelastic. Enter the desired values. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. the subcategories are: Elastic. then choosing Edit > Delete. you can edit the data and click on OK again. For example. 4. you actually input a material data curve ID. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. 3. 2.

Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model.EX .1.3. one value required MP.1. See Composite Damage Model for more information. use the EDLCS and EDMP.1. Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix. the other values will be automatically defined (e.NUXY .DENS . For a multi-layer composite laminate. and L of the element (see the figure below).2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7.. EY = EZ = EX). To specify a material coordinate system. see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel.Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing. only 21 constants are required.PRXY . If no material coordinate system is specified.2. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP.elastic moduli (also EY. EX).elastic modulus MP.NUXY . NUXZ).. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .density MP. 7. Because of symmetry.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ. Linear Elastic Models 7.. PRXZ). EZ).2. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i. J.05. one value required MP. one value required or MP.shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ).1.density MP.Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants.GXY .2.g.1.. Use the MP command to input the required values. 20. MP. 7. For an example input listing.DENS . This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).e. use the TB.ORTHO commands.2.EX . Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model.

19. To specify a material orientation axis. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. J. C13. C22.EX MP. C26. use the EDLCS and EDMP.. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus. C35. C24.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). If no material coordinate system is specified. C36 TBDATA.05. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above).VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command.. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. C15. EX. and NUXY are all specified.2. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below.DENS EDMP. MP. This discrepancy is not a computational error. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type. For an example input listing.MAT.2. 20.2004 . DENS . C11. C34. C12. C46. C44. C33 TBDATA.4. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP.2. 1. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. 7. C56. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command. C45. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading. You input density using the MP command (DENS). material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. ANEL TBDATA. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. 13. C25 TBDATA. 7. C14. C23. MP.FLUID.ANEL command. C16. C55.density TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP.ORTHO commands. 7.1.

The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . MOONEY. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve. To use this input method.. Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. (For Poisson's ratio. For an example input listing.2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. a value greater than . Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB. see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY). This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus.. 20. MOONEY.2004 . and ij is the Kronecker delta. 2.2..2.0 TBDATA.1. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model...49 is recommended. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command.2.. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command.05. 7. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. I2 . you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. 1.. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly.2. smaller values may not work.. V is the relative volume. is the Poisson’s ratio. C01 and : I1 . C10 TBDATA.

47.EVISC and locations 46. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA. 48. 5. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.2.3. G0 . C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force. 6. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. thickness. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For an example input listing.05. Input these values with TB. 7. 46. 2. 1. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. 4. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume.. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. EVISC TBDATA. In compression. and width equal to 1. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA.. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB.2004 . V: p = K ln V.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. 3. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson. In tension. Alternatively.2. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. The parameters . 1. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values.

61. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command. 2. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).2004 . EX 2 . you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command. 20. .1. TBTEMP commands.EX1 . see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy.NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7. For an example input listing. ..NUXY 2. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command. 1. .) Input elastic modulus (Exx). If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input.1. 7. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. . Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing.NUXY.3. TBDATA. (A temperature dependent model is also available. (These properties are temperature dependent. Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. .2.. .BISO. BISO TBDATA. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. 48.EX ntemp MPDATA.3.NTEMP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).2. . Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.3.TEMP 1. the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed. Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7. 1/ Note For this material option.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB.2. (The density is temperature independent. ..1.2.EX..) Input elastic modulus (Exx). Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature. . .NUXY 1.TEMP 2 . 47.DENS MPTEMP.TEMPntemp MPDATA.05. K TBDATA.. and density (DENS) with the MP command. MP. Input density (DENS) with the MP command. . see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model.1. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass. .

PLAW.2.. . plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..ALPX2 . you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis. Otherwise.2004 .TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.3.ALPX. 2.1. BISO. to the out of plane plastic strain rate. .3. .. NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP.. 2.. 4. 20. 1. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command..7 TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) .ALPX1. . the analysis will terminate..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB.ALPXntemp TB. anisotropic hardening parameter. tangent modulus. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. . 1.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP. . Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model.05. PLAW. Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.. Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. 2. Input the yield stress. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs.7 and locations 1 . 1. 7. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). . 2.. 1. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 3..4 of the TBDATA command: TB.TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA. density (DENS).

1. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered..5..2. As shown below.PLAW.4.. For this model..4.2004 . and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. y (yield stress) TBDATA. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis.05. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE).10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials. elastic modulus (Exx).. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience..LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the additional input parameters are specified using TB.10 TBDATA. In addition. This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements. 20.PLAW. you must input the density (DENS).3.3. The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE).. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model. 7.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA.2. TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing.R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.

. is the strain rate. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. 6. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature. density (DENS). p eff is the effective plastic strain. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only)..6.1 TBDATA.. 4. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.3. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.2004 . density (DENS). Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress.. strain rate parameters C and P. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.PLAW. Input elastic modulus (Exx). 1.2. and the failure strain with TB. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. Input the yield stress. 20.3.BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.1 and locations 1 . 2. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 7. tangent slope.. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy.. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 3.. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. 7. hardening parameter. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. 2. or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure.05. Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic.5. BKIN TBDATA. 5. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.2. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 1. kinematic. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel. PLAW.

7. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants.3. excluding p which is determined implicitly.7. 0 is the initial strain at yield. For the exponential hardening option. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions.05. density (DENS). The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . 20. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2). All of the anisotropic material constants. m is Barlat exponent.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above. p is the plastic strain.. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing. Input the hardening rule type. HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential).. is the uniaxial tension in the direction.2004 . a and c are anisotropic material constants. yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). and n is the hardening coefficient.

J. Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA.S2 |m + |S2 .3 and locations 1 .S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . Before specifying the material property. m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA. PLAW. R90 TBDATA.. and then issue EDMP. R00 TBDATA. 4. 2.. has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2.8. 1. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 ... material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented)..8 of the TBDATA command: TB. the width to thickness strain ratio values. the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I. m. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS. CSID. Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA.8.. 6. and L of the element: If CSID = 2. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. R00 . see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182..S3 |m + |S3 .. For an example input listing..05.2.VAL1. 7.ORTHO. 5. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS. 7. 20. and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes. R45 TBDATA.CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. Lege. and the orthotropic material axes with TB. 3. and R90 .PLAW.3 TBDATA.2004 . If CSID = 0.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. the Barlat exponent. R45 .

.3. the hardening coefficient.2. g TBDATA..2004 . Input the elastic modulus (Exx). and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 2.a( - where a. f TBDATA. a TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . TB.9. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. h For an example input listing. For this material option. 7. isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4. 8.. 10. 20.. f. c TBDATA.PLAW.. and h represent the anisotropic material constants.Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. p is the plastic strain. 6. Input the strength coefficient. density (DENS). the flow potential exponent. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB. 7. 3.10 of the TBDATA command.6 TBDATA. b TBDATA.6 and locations 1 . 1. 4.. 0 is the initial strain at yield. and n is the hardening coefficient. PLAW.. g. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses..b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient. the initial strain at yield. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. c. The material model follows a Ramburgh .05. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 9. b. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. 5. 0 (initial strain) TBDATA.c( xx yy xx ) .

4 TBDATA. to define failure of the material. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain.. the tangent modulus. n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA.. 2.. 7.05.. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses.. 4. m is the hardening coefficient. strain rate sensitivity coefficient..3. k is the material constant. PLAW.. 20. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).. strain. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength... hardening coefficient. ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. k (material constant) TBDATA. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. effective strain rate using TB.4 and locations 1 . LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0.10. and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate.. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. effective strain rate. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. 1.5 of the TBDATA command. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient. and initial strain rate with TB. density (DENS). LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.2004 .. PLAW. effective strain rate) TBDATA. is the strain rate. density (DENS). the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. effective strain rate) TBDATA. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command.PLAW. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength. effective strain rate) TBDATA. 6. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 5. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.5 and locations 1 . In this model. effective strain rate) TBDATA. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 3.PLAW. For shell elements. effective strain rate (optional).5 TBDATA. 4.2. TB. 1. 2. Input the material constant. Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. effective strain rate (optional). instead of LCID4 in location 5. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. 3. strain rate. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.

4. transverse compressive strength. 3.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 7... C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. the longitudinal tensile strength.3. Input the elastic moduli (Exx...A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. NUXZ) with the MP command. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA. density (DENS). shear moduli (Gxy.. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.3.2. 6.CONCR. see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel.2004 . NUYZ. 20. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. COMP TBDATA. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials.. 7.12. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing.2 TBDATA. 5. (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials..A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA. Gxz). Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings.COMP and locations 1 .11. the shear strength. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). Eyy. Input all values shown below with the TB. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA.CONCR. 1.3. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY. 2. even if the failure capabilities are not used.1. transverse tensile strength.05.2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB. Gyz.2. Ezz).2..

which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate. 20.20-32.5.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA. 1 . and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain.48.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7. strain curve input and strain rate dependency. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.19.47.16. 1 .4.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.2004 .B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA. density (DENS). natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.17.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.8.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA.14.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.7.3.49-58.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.33-45.05..6.46.9.A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.15.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.13. especially for steel. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model. C and P are strain rate parameters. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.11.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.13.LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA.18. v1 .C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA.2. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model.10.69-78.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.59-68.12.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

3.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Input the yield stress.8 TBDATA. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. 2.6. density (DENS). and strain rate parameters C and P with TB. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. e is the elastic strain to yield..7 of the TBDATA command: TB. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs. and n is the hardening coefficient. effective plastic true strain. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves...4 of the TBDATA command: TB. 7. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs.PLAW.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used. 4. 1. the effective plastic true strain at failure. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Further.2 TBDATA.2004 . if C and P are set to zero. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 4.. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper .05. 20. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.2 and locations 1 . For an example input listing. the strain rate parameter C. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. the tangent modulus. Input the strength coefficient.PLAW.8 and locations 1 . the strain rate parameter P. 1. 2. strain rate dependency is ignored. 3. 3. plastic true strain) TBDATA.7. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.. PLAW. hardening coefficient. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA. PLAW. If LCID 2 is used..14.2... P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. k is the strength coefficient... 5. strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden... k (strength coefficient) TBDATA.. Only true stress and true strain data are considered. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters.

PLAW.2.2..05. Input the parameters described below with TB.PLAW.C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.4.C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA.41. Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB. Page 82 of 180 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA...39.3.44. Up to 16 data points may be specified.43.1. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified. Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.. elastic modulus (EX)..C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.40. f (failure strain) TBDATA.1. Input the density (DENS). true plastic strain curve..PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA. 1 .4.5-20. 1 . 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA. therefore..Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA.C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.21-36. Eh .38.4.9 TBDATA.45. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.42. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command..2004 . 20.2. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis.37. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified.

Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid.2004 . and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present.2. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below. is the trace of the stress tensor. The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor. 7. The first invariant of the stress.05.4. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. J 1. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. f 2 is the cap surface. and f 3 is the tension cutoff. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure.. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. 20..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model. . the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and . Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. Next. In this model.2.

1.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material. TBDATA.9. Finally.05.W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA..3. denoted f 3 in the figure.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command. Input the parameters described below with the TB.8.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically. and the cap surface on the right. there is the tension cutoff surface.4.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA.6. 20..7.R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA. TB. the tension cutoff surface on the left. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above.GCAP TBDATA.5. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA.

. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero. 3..C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. Toff < 0.. Foam Models 7.2004 . 2 for rock ) TBDATA. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete. 7. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete. the initial foam pressure.13. and c.Toff (tension cut-off value. a TBDATA. b TBDATA. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a. 4. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs.1. b. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the ratio of foam to polymer density. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model. 6. TBDATA.05.. Input the yield stress constants a.12. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. is the ratio of foam to polymer density.5. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain. and c are user defined input constants.. 20. and the initial volumetric strain with TB.1 TBDATA. 5. however.10. 2.N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA. c TBDATA. closed cell. ij is the Kronecker delta..6 of the TBDATA command: TB.1 and locations 1 .FOAM. b.2... p o is the initial foam pressure. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid. 1.2.5. FOAM. Unlike honeycomb. For an example input listing.11.

strain. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA.2 and locations 1 .2004 .. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume.2. Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. and initial viscous coefficient. FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper.tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.FOAM.no energy dissipation (default) and 0. the decay constant. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. FOAM.. the hysteresis unloading factor. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU). and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. In compression. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient. (decay constant) TBDATA. 3... Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). 4. SHAPE (shape unloading factor.0 .. default = 1) TBDATA.3 and locations 1 . and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated.. 4. 1.2.5. 2. the initial viscous coefficient.3 TBDATA. .5 are recommended) TBDATA. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models. the shape factor for unloading. values between 0. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA... default=1E20) TBDATA. 20.. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). 6. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy.. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs. 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems).0 . V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. the tension cut off (tearing) stress.FOAM. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached. 3. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA. and density (DENS) with the MP command.2. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness. 5..5..4 of the TBDATA command: TB.full energy dissipation) TBDATA.. a decay constant ( ). For uniaxial loading.05. 2. . LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA.05 and 0. TC (tension cutoff stress. respectively. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1.. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 7. the viscous coefficient.3. FOAM.0 . The elastic stiffness. DAMP (viscous coefficient. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions.2 TBDATA.

5. FOAM. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled.Ebbu) (E . 1. and t is time.Eaau ) (E .0 .5. values between 0. volumetric strain. E is the elastic modulus. The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads.Gbcu) (G . Input the elastic modulus (Exx).4. 3. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero. the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading.05 and 0. In the formulation.5 are recommended) 7.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4 and locations 1 .4 TBDATA.2. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate..2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value. LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs. 2.Gabu) (G . It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant. Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials. and the viscous damping coefficient with TB.no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1. the tension cutoff value...5.0 .tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA.. 1. For stresses below the tensile cut off value.Eccu ) (G .3 of the TBDATA command: TB. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E . BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0.... DAMP (viscous damping coefficient.2. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. 8.0 bulk viscosity active) 7. density (DENS).FOAM.05.. 20. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA. volumetric strain) TBDATA.

and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.. Input all values shown below with TB. 17. 8. Each curve must have the same abscissa values. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs. 20. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. HONEY TBDATA.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.V). Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA.05. 11. 7. 13.. LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 2. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs. This input is optional. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.05) TBDATA. 5. 6. default = 0. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes. LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. 12.HONEY and locations 1 . density (DENS). 9. (material viscosity coefficient. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects. 16. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs. 15. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 3. 4.2004 . 14. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 1. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . 10. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.

.LOC+4. 7.2.2.C2 TBDATA.C6 TBDATA.LOC+1.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.) TBDATA. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded.6.2.2004 .. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LOC+2.6. You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.V0 (initial relative volume) 7. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.LOC+8.LOC+7.C0 TBDATA. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+5.LOC+6.C1 TBDATA.LOC.1.C3 TBDATA.LOC+3. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy.6.C4 TBDATA. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways.2. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7. 20.C5 TBDATA.05. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density.

LOC+1.S3 TBDATA.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.LOC+3 to LOC+12.6.3. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC+2.2004 .LOC+1.LOC.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA. 20. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma.S2 TBDATA. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+6.S1 TBDATA.. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve.C TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC.LOC+5. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.A TBDATA.LOC+3. a is the first order volume correction to 0. S1.LOC+4.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.LOC+13 to LOC+22.LOC+7.2. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.05. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. v1 . 0 TBDATA. S2.) TBDATA.LOC+2.) TBDATA.

Input the parameters described below with TB.4 TBDATA. B.2.05.4. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below).HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA..T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7. For solid elements. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity.3-20. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section).C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA.. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range.2. 7.6.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA.2..A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model. Input the density (DENS).EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and m are material constants. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A. The model may be used for shell and solid elements...EOS. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.21-26. n.LOC+23 to LOC+32.1. 20.5. also called the viscoplastic model. C. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants.6. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.D3 TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.8.C TBDATA.n TBDATA.3.A TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.B TBDATA.14.pressure cut-off TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.7. 20. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB.CP (specific heat) TBDATA.1... See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models. density (DENS).5.9..Troom TBDATA.D4 TBDATA.4. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).D1 TBDATA.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.2.12.13.EOS..05.1.EOSOPT TBDATA.2004 ..D2 TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).10.15.11.EOS and locations 1 .Tmelt TBDATA.m TBDATA.15 of the TBDATA command: TB.6. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.

..2. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.6. Optionally. 1. 3. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). EOS. Input the Young’s modulus (EX). so you should use reasonable values. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.. 20. Erosion in tension and compression is possible. Input the parameters listed below with TB. 2. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and temperature. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model.0) TBDATA. Pressure Cutoff ( 0. density (DENS).6. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness.2. Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA.2. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).2004 .05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7.6.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.7. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass..EOS and locations 1 . you can define a viscosity. EOSOPT TBDATA.. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA. 4. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). 7. see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum. strain rate.

19.16.C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.2.2..B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.5.13..18.17.EOS. Input the parameters described below with TB.3..) TBDATA.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA..6.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.8.B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.10. SPALL = 3. Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS).14.4. 20.SPALL (Spall type.12.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.05.6. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).2004 .1. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure. The model must be defined with an equation of state.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use maximum principal stress.G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.3.8. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command. o (initial strain) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure limit.9.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB. SPALL = 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model.Troom (room temperature) TBDATA. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure. Set SPALL = 1.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA.7. 7. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .15..11.EOSOPT TBDATA.

05. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. h. In this model. and f are experimentally determined material constants. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Tmo . is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight.2004 . V is the relative volume. p is the pressure. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations. 20. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. In this model. b. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. = o. Here.

cracking. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. material melts. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression.5. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. SPALL = 2.2004 . p cut.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated. 20. SPALL = 3. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. y and G are set to one half their initial values. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. If tensile pressures are calculated. exceeds the limiting value -pcut ... the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. The pressure limit model. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. is set equal to m. p cut.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. TB. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05. the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. pcut. Thus. Whenever exceeds m. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. while max is positive in tension. The maximum principal stress spall model. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . the pressure is reset to pcut . This option is not strictly a spall model. and the pressure cutoff value.EOS. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive). max. The hydrostatic tension spall model. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted. and failure under tensile loads. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. SPALL = 1. Once spall is detected with this model. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff..

2.Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA.18.6. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA..1.2.2.FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model..11.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA.2.7.10. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command.PC (pressure cut-off.7.0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.) TBDATA.19-28.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA.1. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . Input the model parameters with the TB.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.5. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes.. 20.DISCRETE.7.16. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA.A (atomic weight) TBDATA.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.15..8.05.3.1..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.17. see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel.9.2.0 TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).14.7.. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model..DISCRETE.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA. Hardening and softening can be defined.DISCRETE. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes.b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.2004 . set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model. Discrete Element Models 7.12. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..13. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).4. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.SPALL (Spall type... 7. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA.

1.1.) 7. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA..FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7..CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1.7.. respectively.) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB..0 is compression only (default).3 TBDATA..) TBDATA... 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.5.BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA.3..KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.2.. Inelastic Tension. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression.LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs. displacement or moment vs..5.2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB...or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only.3.DISCRETE. 0.2.DISCRETE.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs. Input the spring elastic stiffness..6.0 is tension only.7.DISCRETE. displacement/twist relationship. 20. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness..CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7.3.2. 1. displacement or moment vs. Input the model parameters with the TB.) 7.1.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.3. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.DISCRETE.05.2.2..LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity.7.2 TBDATA. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB.4.DISCRETE. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.4..DISCRETE.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.1...5 TBDATA.2... Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.2.. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.2.)) TBDATA. Optionally.0 is compression only.LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs..KU (Unloading stiffness. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB. The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading.7.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.7 TBDATA.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .DISCRETE.LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA..

The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.2004 .TC (Cutoff time.COPT (Time implementation option) 7..7..BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA.. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined. Input the damping constant with the TB..7.2.DISCRETE..Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.2.DISCRETE. Input load curve ID with the TB. Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes..2. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs.FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.) where L is the change in length L = current length .05.LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs..7.8.9. The force is given by: F = K x max( L. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes.1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. the offset should be a negative length..1.1. 0). If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Optionally. For a slack cable.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167.1..6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB. rate-of-rotation relationship.6. Input the model parameters with the TB..DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7. the offset should be positive..DISCRETE..7.4.. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables.4 TBDATA.... The force. No force will develop in compression. For an initial tensile force..(initial length . generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension. F.DISCRETE. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA.5.1 TBDATA.DISCRETE. 0).4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. 20.0. ) 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes..6 TBDATA.2..3.DISCRETE..KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.

Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP.Load Curve ID For an example input listing. For this reason. The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body. This material number.05. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain.8. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. 20. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP. and Z displacements VAL2 . never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 .DENS MP. cannot share a common node.2. 7. Two independent rigid bodies. Therefore. however. i.2. Rigid Model 7.e.8. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements. will define the PART ID of the rigid body.2004 .RIGID.. Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex).CABLE. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading). Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity.MAT. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type. if more than one node is constrained.. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command.EX EDMP. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes. However.1. to define a rigid body for material 2.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X. the change in length over the initial length. issue: EDMP.2. Along with the EDMP command. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. Y. see Cable Material Example: Steel. multiple rigid material types must be specified. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). For example..

the command EDMP. Y. After defining a rigid body. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X. the command EDCRB. see Material Models. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless.2.. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value.PARTS should be issued. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. see Rigid Material Example: Steel.. center of mass. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it.05.PARTM. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. In addition.RIGID. and displacements are transferred to the nodes. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model.ADD.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies. mass. When rigid bodies are defined. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. Hence. The motion of the body is then calculated. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. the mass. When using the EDCRB command.7. Therefore. By default. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. For an example input listing. you can assign inertia properties. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. NEQN. 20.

which is a rigid body. . Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part.inert2.5000E+00. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.2004 .coord2.IRCS. You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body.2450E+01. 0. edmp.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. 0. or LIST). 0.3 *dim. TM is the translational mass.Cvect. 0.Ivect.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0. .rigid.Option.6 *dim. 10.TM. Option is the option to be performed (ADD. .inert2. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body . . you can input all of the above parameters.1.PART. 0.2.velo2. However. 0.Vvect...ircs.0E-7. 0 inert2(1) = 0. including the required array parameters.3150E-03.. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia. CID is a local coordinate system ID. The command format is EDIPART. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command. Specifying Inertia Properties By default.. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body. DELETE. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. For batch input.05.velo2.2851E-03. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2.ADD.tm. mass.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2851E-03 ! EDIPART. 20. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity.coord2. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body. . 0.

a component name is input in this field. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. then restart the analysis again. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage.2. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Loading As described in Loading.2. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable. (Note that for other load types. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state. You need to stop the analysis. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part.ADD.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2.3. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD.05.. you can achieve significant savings in computation time.RBUX.. However. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. To improve efficiency for this class of applications. for the rigid body load labels.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. PAR1. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. long duration. For example. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP.2004 . Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. . and then back to deformable. 20. define the part switch. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis.

and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161.NRB. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch. 20. (In the GUI. 6. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body. For rigid body switching to work properly. (In the GUI. 7. COMP1. the choice of element formulation is critical. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number.. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. In the current LS-DYNA implementation. PART In a new analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. simply leave MRB blank. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. After a deformable-to-rigid switch.ADD.05. where COMP1 is a node component. then issue EDRD . Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command.D2R with no additional arguments. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. If you do not define the inertia properties.4. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. they will be calculated by the program. PART. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR..R2D. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that. Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1.D2R. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties). you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions.2004 . See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable.

e. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity. which is automatically calculated by the program. but not triangular shell. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations.. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. These modes. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time. In general.2004 . Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes. triangular 2-D.. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant. or beam elements. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls. It is generally not recommended.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command.05. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields. 20.. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity. however.

(The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient. the minimum time step size t min. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior. is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case).2004 . particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. and Poisson's ratio). For this command.15. l min. for a given mesh. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). metal plasticity. the material number.) Using this method.. the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements. elastic modulus. Also. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results.. However. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model.HGLS. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and bending. However. 20. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). In these cases. and the sonic speed. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. c.) Note that for a given set of material properties. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed. Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model. the hourglass coefficient. As a general guideline. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum.05. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. which is a function of material properties (density. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model.

20. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass. ? Of the two methods listed above. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. For example..05. and mass scaling is applied to all elements. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0. the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis. mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. If DTMS is negative.2004 . It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small.9).. when using mass scaling. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive. Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways.001% mass to the model. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. When mass scaling is requested. the same time step size is used for all elements.

the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd. 4th . elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. 20. 2. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size. even the larger ones. 3rd. By element number in ascending order. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty.2004 .05. Thus. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If subcycling is turned on. also known as mixed time integration. etc.. By part number for large vector blocks. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. step depending on their size.. Subcycling Subcycling. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization.. To control the time step size after mass scaling. 3.

05.1. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26). or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. 12. used primarily in POST1 processing. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Output Controls 12. Nodes that are included in constraint equations.RST) vs. Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points. contains solutions for the entire model.1. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12.. POST1 and POST26. or to view animated results.RST file. consequently. Results ( Jobname.2004 . Note the distinction between the Jobname.RST and Jobname. thus.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors. rigid bodies. History (Jobname.1.HIS files: The Jobname. Inc. this processor is not supported by ANSYS.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname. Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST. However. 20.RST and the Jobname. With an explicit dynamic analysis.. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq).

HIS.MAT. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL. the data to be stored in the results files.2004 .node !Create nodal component nod1.nod1 EDOUT.elm1. The Jobname. Furthermore.RST and Jobname. For details on creating components. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model. For example..3. Jobname. 12. !Specify the name of the element component. 12. but for only a portion of the model. specify the number of time steps. the Jobname. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it is usually 1000 or more. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART). NSLE !Select nodes from elements.RST file is usually less than 100. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands).1. For large models.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results. the element and nodal components to be analyzed.HIS and other output files.MATSUM EDOUT. The remaining data will not be written. Create a component consisting only of those elements. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.elm1 EDHIST. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results. !Specify the name of the nodal component. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname. In this case. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met.HIS file. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics). and the ASCII files to be written.05. in the Jobname.2. may exceed the system limit. 20. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete..1 !Select elements of material 1. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system.) As a comparison. Generally. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command. the number of time steps in the Jobname.GLSTAT EDOUT. a system error may occur. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space..SPCFORC EDOUT.elem !Create element component elm1. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname. Therefore.nod1.RST and Jobname. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data). see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. CM. used in POST26.S.NSTEPS EDHIST.1. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME. CM.HIS file. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces).RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results.

for example. and the model will behave as expected physically. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command.2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1). failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. COMBI165. (During the LS-DYNA solution. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail. and otherwise control the animation. resume. show contour and vector displays. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. When you display results in POST1. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12.SLEOUT EDOUT. failure strain). You can display the deformed shape. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname. the elements are still in the selected set. use the appropriate plotting command (for example. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system.. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS.NODOUT EDOUT.05.1. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape. 20.2004 .RST file.ALL to write all possible ASCII files. the printing or plotting command will be ignored. display. stop. When using POST1.. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161.2.) 12. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. you may want to issue EDOUT.RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy). Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. However. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program. or element table operations. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. In some cases. PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below). the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. Stress data will be rotated during printout. If you are using command input.

In this case. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. However. PLESOL ).Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot.) Also by default. Further.Item 12. SOLID164. MASS166. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL. For faster plotting.2004 .NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. By default. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. BEAM161. data is only available at the middle of the layer. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. SHELL163. For beam elements. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. for that matter). LINK167).Item. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell.2. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). By default. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points.. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. To get results close to the element surface. “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties. If you set BEAMIP = 0. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. no matter how many layers exist.2. However. for strain data. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid. For more than 5 layers. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). the results at the top correspond to integration point 2.. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. 20. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements.LOC command.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. there is no stress output. COMBI165. the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)). layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. If NIP = 2. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2). Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL.05. regardless of the BEAMIP setting. especially in bending. Strain information is saved only at these two layers.

3. .EPPL] for these element types. you could write a macro to create the desired animation. As the number of elements in the model changes. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing). Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL. Therefore.Second mesh refinement Jobname. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used.05. nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files... /POST1 FILE. care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files.1. SHELL163. and SOLID164 elements.Third mesh refinement etc. Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file.DB file).2. using the FILE and /SEG commands. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step.RS01 ! ! SET.2 ! ! PRNSOL. Also. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio. ..RS03 .First mesh refinement Jobname. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files. However.RS02 . Note Because of the multiple results files. the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model.LIST ! ! SET. .Jobname. You should not resume the original model database (. The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . Jobname. you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. 12.RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26.MERGE . work.. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting.3. RCFORC..HIS file. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time. with variable number 1 reserved for time.NCOMP are specified. NODOUT.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE. the results will be read from the Jobname. 20.3. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements.num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname.num2 ESOL NSOL STORE. such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST. SPCFORC.Jobname. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT.) 12. !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data.HIS file into POST26.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12. To generate results.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer.HIS and Jobname.2004 . Each variable is assigned a reference number.MERGE LAYERP26. however.RST file. MATSUM. known as variables.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. Care must be taken when reading from the .RST.05. and reaction forces. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs. such as different energies.1. SLEOUT. The Jobname. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname. .

see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference. To plot the results. and RBDOUT files.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. including POST1 and POST26. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only. etc. DATAP defaults to all points. SPCFORC.2004 . see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . first issue FILE . Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT.3. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). Once stored. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data. 12.2. After EDREAD. smoothed.3. RCFORC. but if you are working in batch mode. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MERGE for each layer. The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE.4. Once these arrays have been created. respectively. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing. MATSUM.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points.3. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12.Jobname. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables... and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. 12.05. you can choose to plot unsmoothed. If you are working in interactive mode. respectively. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). SLEOUT. Four arrays are required for smoothing data. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. LAYERP26. ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation). NODOUT. 20. or both sets of data. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR.

You may then modify the model and continue the analysis.. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. 13. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. materials that are no longer important. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. By viewing the development of the error. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. For example. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed.05. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems. The Restart Dump File By default. d3dump02. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications.. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. After the completion of each stage.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. To change the model and continue calculations. etc.1. a restart "dump" file is written. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong.2004 . By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis. 20. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart.

.1. For this type of restart. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary.1.2.2. you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example.2.. then issue the SOLVE command. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL.DB) has not been changed. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted. 13.d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a simple restart. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART .. A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname.2.. 13. A New Analysis For a new analysis.2.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname.05..RST and Jobname. or a full restart. a small restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option).. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). you must issue the command EDSTART. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. 20.HIS.2004 .3.2. 13. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C).

For example. results are appended according to the time value. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. In other results files. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete.2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. etc. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. in Jobname. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command.2004 . mass scaling must be active in the original analysis. ACLEAR. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files.. or even a series of restart analyses. Furthermore. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files. it is important that you issue EDSTART . After the first small restart analysis. In a small restart. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. Be sure to issue EDSTART . VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description. Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. Another example is mass scaling. even if no switch is being made. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step. deactivate. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command).. The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. 3.) Note When postprocessing the restart results. you may choose to perform an additional restart.2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command).05. In some cases.RST. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. 20. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. If you do select such parts. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number.

this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other. Issue the SOLVE command 6. Typically. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis.ADD. Issue the commands needed to change the model. When LS -DYNA starts execution. You would issue the command EDSTART . these are discussed below. To initiate a full restart. Repeat step 3-6. If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model.d3dump01. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties.. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses).K.K.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart. the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. 2. Jobname_01. Issue EDSTART. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed. you must issue the command EDSTART .2.2004 . parts having the same part ID). PIDN. 20.3. 7. or to apply different loading conditions. 5. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part.3 command is issued. For example. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. 4. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname. you may need to consider more materials. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart. you must issue the command EDIS. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. In a full restart. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE). The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below.4. If you issue EDIS with no arguments. 3.. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. Create the initial model and run a new analysis.2 with an appropriate d3dump file.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. For example. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. as needed. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. 1. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01.) When the EDSTART. to remove portions of the model.. Post-process the restart analysis results. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field. To do this. Post-process the results. Page 119 of 180 13..K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands.05.

you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. However. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. use a different element type number. However.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. use a different element type number. During the initialization. ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis.2004 . a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. the same number of elements. material number. In this case. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part. or real constant number for those elements. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart.LIST. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. 20.. Again.LIST and EDPVEL. In addition. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis. all discrete elements will be initialized. If this is not the case. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. material number. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. the initialization is “all or nothing. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis.) To avoid a mismatch in parts. stress initialization may fail for those parts. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. and previously existing parts will not be altered. the part cannot be initialized. as stated above. the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses.DB). You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. For discrete elements (COMBI165). in the same order. as described below.05.

Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. glstat. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis.. e. Jobname_nn..) are appended with consecutive time markings.3 is issued. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname.05.RST. are not renamed and will be overwritten.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1. the history file (Jobname. an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. however.RST file (similar to a new analysis). Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code.1. The results in Jobname_nn. etc.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat. 14..3.). the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small). ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. 20. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname.2004 . etc. Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena. In this chapter.HIS ).…) automatically. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution. 02. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. To solve these problems.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart. In a full restart. matsum. ASCII output files. matsum. Just issue EDSTART. you need to use both solution methods. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis.HIS.RST and Jobname_nn. For both the simple restart and small restart. you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart.g.RST. Each time EDSTART . For a small restart. For a simple restart.

the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. In addition. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). Then the deformed shape. 2. 8. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies.2004 . 6. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. This elastic energy. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. which is the driving force for springback.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. Hence. using Jobname1. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In the explicit metal forming analysis. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. stresses. 2. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. 7.. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. 1. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185). By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. 10. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed. In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. In most dynamic metal forming operations. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows.05.DB. Solve and finish the analysis. 20. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. 9. 11. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. Specifically. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. This release of energy. Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations.. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration.

3.. material properties.DB file at this point. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types. and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see step 12).ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. real constants. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved. Command(s): ETCHG.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1.2004 . PLANE162. Re-enter the preprocessor. 20.05.. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. Command(s): /FILNAME. Redefine the key options.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. (Note that the 2-D explicit element. cannot be used in a sequential solution. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. boundary conditions.

OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis.2004 . converted to null elements. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration.) The TYPE. these elements must be unselected. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis). and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181.Update Geometry 9. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements.05. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. deleted. For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling.. 7. or convert them to null elements. REAL. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. Also. but you do need to redefine the other values. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. deleted. 20. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. Command(s): SHPP.

The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. etc. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred.. the implicit analysis will be terminated. For SHELL163. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185).05. 20. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. 12. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc.2004 . For SOLID164. in a metalforming analysis.. Turn large deformation effects on. otherwise. Command(s): NLGEOM. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. you need to constrain the blank). Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11. or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12). Command(s): D. only the stresses are transferred. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

uy.0..db /filename..0 esel.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14.all upgeom.off finish /solution nlgeom..1..05. /batch.01 ddel.01.. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results.0. 20.0..stamp1. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis..n2.2.s.on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport.ux.n3... Solve and finish the analysis.ux...n1.uy d.stamp2 /prep7 etchg. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.uz d.eti r.01.s..181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle..ux.stamp1..rst d.dyna.ename.1 shpp..all tbdelete.list resume...stamp1.0.all. The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution...01.2004 .0..

the ratio of part size to its thickness is large.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. When the tools are removed. Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist.2004 . You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. ? The model is improperly constrained. 20. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part. you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis. Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run.05. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes.OFF.1. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements. ? ? 14.. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command).2. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction.. tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. being very thin. In each substep. ? Slenderness of the structure.

20. The first type. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model.ON). There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. however.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases..05. implicit-to-explicit.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution.2004 . (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution. which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis. is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis.

you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. but are not used by LS -DYNA. initial velocities. 20. This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. using Jobname1. In this implicit analysis.1. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.g..05.. the bird in a bird-strike problem). See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled. adding plasticity). different material models (e. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry.2004 . The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax.. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted. which are used only in forming applications. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier. etc. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful. 1... Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. After defining additional loads. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response.g. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions.

These additional nodes must be constrained (using D. 20.2004 ..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2.0).DB file at this point. Solve and finish the analysis. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten.. 5. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example. Command(s): /FILNAME. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1.ALL. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. but they need to be defined here nonetheless.ALL.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the bird in a birdstrike simulation. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis.05. Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.DB. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest).

. as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes. see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. Re-enter the preprocessor. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . 20. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file.2004 . Note that the 2-D explicit element.. but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition. PLANE162. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.

ITE. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. REAL. Also. However.ITE.. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. optional node. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. and loading values on the explicit elements. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. require a third (orientation) node. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. The TYPE. real constants. 20. however. above. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. their corresponding companion explicit element types.2004 . then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG.. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. Re-enter the solution processor.05. Redefine the key options. 8. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4. boundary conditions. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. LINK160 and LINK167. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

You can then return to the implicit solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11.list resume.. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. 20. Read nodal displacements.. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis. drelax. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc.2004 . The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. if necessary. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14. and temperatures from the implicit results file.05. In this step. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis. /batch. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry. rotations.drop1.

7.K. these include temperature loads applied with the BF.0216 ddel.1. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.1.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.a.drop2 /prep7 etchg. In the explicit analysis phase.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body.rbvx. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above. LDREAD. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG). Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.all.dens..0 nsel.0 finish /solution rexport. Jobname. BFA.add.8 edmp.list ! List parts edvel.load.ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart. BFUNIF. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above).rigid.… ! Apply initial velocities edload. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis.uy. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued. However.2.x. TUNIF.1.. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.loc..2...create ! Create parts for loading edpart.time.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command)..ite mp. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above..ux.0 d. etc.y.plaw.all. BFL. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file.. d.assc nsel.1.7 edcgen.dyna.drop1. BFK. and TREF commands.all tb. BFV..loc. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading.2004 .05. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF.s.. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15.

05. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. but they can be defined here if desired.. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D..TEMP.NODE. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition. 1. Currently. VALUE). 20. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient. Therefore. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. 2. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15.2. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase. Solve and finish the analysis.2004 .

2004 . Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved.05. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten.DB file at this point.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7.DB. Command(s): /FILNAME. 5. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1. The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4.. Re-enter the preprocessor. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. 20.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

1.11 cm. 2.0 nsel.1. 0. 0..05.c.ex. 700.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 6.loc.dens. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp.hgls..5e11. unitless mpdata. 0. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 .all.1.5 vmesh.0.5e-5. 5e-5.0 block.502.z.0.hgen.78e-5.all sfdele.1.300.temp. 1100.all ddele.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam. 0.0e11.density cannot be temp. 5.1 mp.all finish /solu antype.6.all. 0.1.all.16.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion. 0. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.0 d.kxx.20.s. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity.34. 1.all.all.static time.ext sf.all etchg.1.0 edmp.0.11 esize. 0..0.tte mp.0.nuxy.all save solve fini /post1 set.all nsel. m/m-C mpdata.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end .7e11 ! Poisson's ratio.3 mp.2004 .all. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata.8e11.0 nsel.0.9e11. 0..last plnsol. 20. 1.explicit /prep7 bfdele.5e-5.31.0e3 esel.1.1.conv.1.1.0 nsel. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity.s.1. 6. 1.s.32. 0.0e-5.ntip.node esln cm.8030.elem bf. degrees Celsius mptemp. 0. 1. 500.93e11.1.1.z.loc.1. 900. W/m-C ! specific heat.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.3.33.alpx.temp /wait.etip.

05..all.9000.all time.last /dscale.. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario.3e6 tbtemp.z.6 tbtemp.temp..uz esel.loc.create eddamp. ! ! Alternately.uy.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb.500 tbdata.1.e.thermal.1.1.1.. Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0.0.7000. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0).rth bflist nsel.epto.8e6 tbtemp.1e6 tbtemp.1100 tbdata.x.ux.all.500 edhist.10000. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient..900 tbdata.8000.. edrst.100 edhtime.01 fini /solu ldread.700 tbdata.30000.2e6 tbtemp.20000. modulus of elasticity) are desired.1200 tbdata.0 tbdata.ntip edhist.last.2004 . 20.9e6 tbtemp.glstat save solve fini /post1 set.s.1..1.etip edout..0.0.7e6 edpart.0 d.g. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i.0..biso. stop vibrating). so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution...10 plnsol. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition.0.0..all nsel... a thermal shock condition is created.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .

For all drop test cases.. In a typical drop test. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. contact surface friction coefficients. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. Thus. do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test.1. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). Drop Test Module 16. The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. For example. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis. When this option is used. 20. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. the module automatically creates the target. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. rigid surface (the target). along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk).05.. the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module. Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. This reduces computation time. For example.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16.2004 . A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. For most drop tests. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g). The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target. graphics mode. specify solution controls.

Before you begin. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details.1. and modification of the target size.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows).3. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model. neglecting surface friction. properties. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. such as inclusion of surface friction effects.05. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g).. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). including damping.2004 .3. All elements should be defined and all material properties. should be specified. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. More advanced features. are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide.1. In the DTM. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection.1. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped. Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16. and orientation. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module.. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16. 16. Thus. 20. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module. rigid surface (target).

05. Otherwise.1. and define contact and friction properties for the target.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero.2.. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis.Modify dimensions and material properties of the target.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g). no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab.2004 . follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. object drop height.3. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. run time after impact. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. To avoid time increment degeneration problems. Status tab -. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM.Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object. tetrahedron. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As). rotate the target. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. initial translational and angular velocity. analysis start time. 20. Target tab -. 16. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. object orientation. you will not be able to set up the DTM. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. and the estimated time at the end of solution. Velocity tab -.

you type the drop height.. check them in the ANSYS Output window. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1.1. 16. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages. If you choose the Status tab. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. that is.). 3. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example).6. 16.3.3.4. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386.5. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model. or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.3. Under the Drop Height heading.1. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable.7. STEP 7: Solve Before solving. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab.HIS).1. 20. 2. 32. 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16..2004 . Under the Solution time heading. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g). 16.4.3. as well as the run duration time after impact.3. Reference point options include the lowest object point.3. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Review the information under all of the tabs.1.RST) and to the time-history file ( file. Under the Gravity heading. and specify a reference point. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction.1. Under the Number of Results Output heading. etc. or you can type your own value. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window.05.2. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis.

and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. screen Cartesian coordinates. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. 16. are defined automatically. See Postprocessing . Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM.3. At this time..05.1. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object. screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity. it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time.3.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information.. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). (g). you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined. For animating results. 16. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. which are fixed. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. Make changes if necessary. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box.2004 . See Postprocessing and Postprocessing . you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.1.2. 20.3.9. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field. By redefining the object Y direction. (g). ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction. all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed. then choose OK. 16. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve.

? During initialization. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). After you specify a drop height. or "out".3. you will notice that. it will require more computation time. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”. The keyword is DTFILT. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. by default. the initial angular velocity must be zero.) If you do not choose to orient the object. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped. To use the option to start the analysis near impact time. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. You should avoid using this name. However. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab.05. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way.. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM. coupling of components within an object is allowed. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase. However. 16. You should avoid using these names. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. 20.2004 . After doing so. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target. as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. Within the DTM.. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively.

modify the target's position and properties.2004 . See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. and specify contact surface friction coefficients.. Object Initial Velocity By default. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates.2.4. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. simply input the X. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. as discussed below.4. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. 16. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element.4.1. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command.. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. 20. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry. 16. however. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four. After choosing the desired option. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities. under Solution Time in this user's guide. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. Y. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. and Z components of the velocity. Details on these features are included in the following sections. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". even if the analysis is set to begin near impact.

By default. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. size.2004 .2.. orientation.2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center.2.. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0.1.4.05. 20. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. 16.4. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity.1TL.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L. But if necessary. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. 16. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections. To change the target position. material properties. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL. Under the Dimensions heading.

2.4. 20. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material.4. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab. If you input Ls=2. density. Thus. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. If you know the actual target material properties. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. By default. under the Material Properties heading.4. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen. If you change the target's orientation. and stores the corresponding material number.MAT. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model. the target is re-drawn automatically. The modulus. it is preferred that you input them directly.4. and Poisson's ratio. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. modulus of elasticity.5. you can enter two target scaling factors. As an example. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object. Under the Dimensions heading. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 16. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS). and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model. a material density.2004 . and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. density. choose the Target tab.0 and Ts=0. enter the Young's modulus. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.5. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution. Target Orientation By default. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. For example. To specify the properties. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid. and therefore normal to (g).3. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. 16. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. If you change the target's size. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL. To modify the target orientation. density. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.. then..1T sTL. and the target height is 0. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. 16. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s).05. choose the Target tab. the target is re-drawn automatically.7.RIGID. Under the Orientation angle heading.2.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module.2.

the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab. 16. before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). Each information group is logically arranged on a tab. Target. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task. Velocity. and the estimated time at the end of solution. with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed.2.05. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page.5.5. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. If you do not change parameters FS. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. are Basic.2004 . and Status. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. The target is then created and loads are applied. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). 20.5. in order from left to right..0. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.1. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. or FD. initial translational and angular velocity. The tabs. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages. then they have default values of 0. then choosing the Target tab. including the target surface.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information.

20.4 32. referenced to the screen coordinates.. Gravity -.05. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped.Specify the magnitude of gravity.81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped.2 9. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value.2004 .. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction. Drop Height -. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity.Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below.

Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. To use this option. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide).Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. Set Orientation -. starting from when the object drops. Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node.. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed. the angular velocity must be zero. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. Therefore. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. is not equal to the specified drop height. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. measured along the screen Y axis. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. and the calculation is not repeated.05. 20.. . which is the case just before impact. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. then the information is stored. However. If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. By default. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. If this option is used. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). If an initial translational velocity is applied. ? Solution Time -. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information.

On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname. Refer to the EDHIST command for details.For further information about the options on the Basic tab. 20.. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing. See the EDRST command for details.05. See the EDHTIME command for details. You may define additional nodes.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target. ? ? Related Information -. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.HIS.RST. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Help: Displays this help topic.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..5. Number of Results Output -.3. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname.2004 . see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16.

If these conditions are not met. 20. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change.Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -.2004 . ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. Translational Velocity -. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. as described below. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity.05. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and it will automatically recreate the target.. the initial angular velocity must be zero. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. and choose to start the analysis near impact time. If you apply a translational velocity other than zero.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities.Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped.. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time). If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity.

. use the Target tab to specify the options described below. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4.. 20.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab.05.5.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab.2004 . Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. ? ? Related Information -. Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . the target is automatically created.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity. Dimensions -.Specify the target's position and size. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16. Help: Displays this help topic. Also.

20. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes. Material Properties -. Therefore. divided by 2. and the target is returned to its previous orientation.Specify the material properties of the target. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point. Similarly. A warning is printed to the screen.2004 .0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. Then. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. ? Orientation angle -. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN . The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis. ? ? Contact -.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN .1 times the default length.. The default length is determined by ANSYS. then the input is considered to be invalid. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value.. If only a single node exists on the object at this point. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis. divided by 2. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you).05. The default thickness is equal to 0. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate. The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1.

except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient.. see the following sections in this user's guide.5. Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact.2004 . 20..0) You type the static friction coefficient. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand. but not as robust.5. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact. Help: Displays this help topic. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.05.

a zero entry detected for the value of gravity). Click OK to commit the settings. See error messages. and the total time at the end of solution. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems. initial translational and rotational velocity. 20. Click OK to commit the settings. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Then. See error messages.. Unsuccessful set-up. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database.2004 .05. if necessary. [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings. The target will not be created in this situation. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Proceed with caution. Ready to drop..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.

2004 . Pick the first node. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. 2. Related Information -. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic.. 3. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1.For further information about the options on the Status tab. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node.. 20. 3. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity. Pick the first node. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. 4. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box.05. Pick the second node. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. 2.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The default is unchecked. Stress-total. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example. Stress-plastic).Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example.For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -.Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0. Increment result set text field -. ? ? Range Minimum.Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1). Postprocessing .2004 . Display Type two -column selection list -.5 seconds).Animation Next 16. Stress. 20. Animation time delay (sec) text field -.Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Model result data radio buttons -.7. von Mises Stress). If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. Result Set Range..Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span. Load Step Range. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. the default is the first data set. 1st Principal Stress. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -. see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing .Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated. Maximum text fields -. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0. meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default).Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing .. the default is the last data set.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results.

? After you choose OK. ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing . Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Related Information -.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . 20. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16.. the animation will be created and will be displayed.Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Postprocessing .8. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box.05. as well as changing its direction. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference.2004 .

.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed. Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . ? ? Related Information -. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default).: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object.For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. then select the x..Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. as initially specified will be graphed or listed.1. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed.: Only the lowest point of the object. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system. y. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. Initial Low Pt. 20. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing . Velocity. Center of grav. Help: Displays this help topic.05. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt.

Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method.05. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...1. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force. and F cont is the contact force. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. 20. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems.1. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. ? ? ? A. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence. and large time steps can be taken.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A. Convergence tools are provided. The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K].2004 . a central difference time integration method is used. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear.2.

Implicit Method For linear problems. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing . the time step can be arbitrarily large. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly)..2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces. No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. Due to this very small time step size.1.2. A.2.2.2004 .Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector.05. Stability Limit A. the implicit solution is always stable. the explicit method is useful only for very short transients.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion. 20. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled.. Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit. that is. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. For nonlinear problems. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed). Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A.05. 20. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step.3. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. For stability reasons. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l..4.2004 .. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity). As an example.9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a scale factor of 0.

.1.2004 . The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model. are dependent on element type. c. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length..05. For beam elements: l = length of the element. B. l. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed. Inc. Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only. and the wave propagation velocity. 20. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled. Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS.

.. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table. .2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B. Material Model Examples B.2..ex.2004 . Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP.05.2.210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. 20..1.

MOONEY.1.gxy.1.1...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP..5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA. 20.1.1.dens.21.10.ey.2.20 ! No units MP.dens.1 TBDATA.5.1..ex.104e7 ! Pa B.4.nuxy.nuyz.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.18.1.121. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.20 ! No units MP.358. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.307e9 ! Pa MP.24.1 TBDATA.51.nuxy..6.1.126.20 ! No units MP.dens.9e9 ! Pa MP.29 ! No units MP.1.ANEL.358.1..1.48.44.4.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.05.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.44.1.ez. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.dens.9e9 ! Pa MP.dens..1e9 ! Pa MP.gxz.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.2.2.2004 .126.2.1e9 ! Pa MP.1.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.20 ! C01 (psi) B.2.gyz.126.9e9 ! Pa MP.121.1. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.5..2.1.18.2.gxy.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.1.nuxy.6.3.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.15.nuxz.2.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.499 ! No units TB.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.3.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.

Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP...5 *DIM.30e6 ! Pa MP.61..STRAIN.1.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP.1.1.00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.2.2..1.2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..YLDSTRES.ex.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.05.1.1.214e6.2004 .1 TBDATA.1.46.15...48.Strain (1).dens.2.EVISC.1.8.1 ! Yield stress vs.7 TBDATA.207e9 ! Pa MP.nuxy.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.BISO.dens.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA...5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.nuxy.ex..1..1.dens.0...1.29 ! No units MP.ex.210e6... Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP.4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.3.3. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.1.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.128..1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA. 20.10 TBDATA.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.47..218e6.53 ! 1/ B.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA..31 ! No units MP.1.05.29 ! No units MP.180e9 ! Pa MP.2.PLAW.4.1.2.nuxy.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.2.7.60.dens.ADD.2390 TB.41 ! r-value TBDATA.1.YldStres(1) B.9.27.5 Strain(1) = 0..1.PLAW.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.1.

PLAW.29.1 TBDATA.763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.1 *DIM.2.100e9 ! Pa MP.76e9 ! Pa MP..dens.40.4..1.34 ! No units MP.0.39.nuxy. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.1.-10.2..5.6.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.PLAW..1..4.mjstrn(1) B.5..7.dens.ex.11.50 mjstrn(1) = 80.1...8.40.1.mnstrn (1).44 EDCURVE. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.mjstrn. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP.1.73 ! R00 TBDATA.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1 TBDATA.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA..65 TBDATA..0 ! P TBDATA..5.1.27 ! No units MP.12.nuxy.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.2.mnstrn.45.40.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.2.1.6.0.1.BKIN.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.75 ! Failure strain B.10.ex..36 ! No units MP.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB..4650 ! kg/m 3 TB. .145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1.dens..nuxy.ex.1.20.170 ! Barlat exponent.68 TBDATA..200e9 ! Pa MP.05.ADD. . m TBDATA..5.2.3 TBDATA.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.6 *DIM.3.2.

.nuxy.023 TBDATA. 20.dens.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs.7850 TB.1.65 TBDATA..ex.1...1..9861 TBDATA.PLAW.2720 TB. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs.StrnRate.ex.209e9 MP.. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.PLAW.2.5.7.1.1.5 TBDATA..9.08.nuxy..017 TBDATA.dens.1.2.8..16.1.1.9.nuxy.1.2.. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0.14.22e5 TBDATA. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.33 MP.1.3.1.PLAW.5.YldStres.15.9761 TBDATA.2.. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP..11 TBDATA..290e6.75e9 MP.3.3.5 *DIM..1.6..250e6.1.1.4 TBDATA..2750 TB..002 TBDATA.6 TBDATA.7 TBDATA..04 TBDATA. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP.4.1 TBDATA.76e9 MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.1..1....13.2.254 TBDATA.34 MP.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.32 TBDATA. 1.5 *DIM..ElasMod.2004 .0 YldStres(1) = 207e6.4.300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 *DIM.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B...29 MP...ex.05.9861 TBDATA.275e6.2.4..dens.

Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.218e9 EDCURVE..dens.2.4.TruStran.StrnRate(1)..4.0.TruStran (1).226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB..1.0 TBDATA.2 TBDATA.gxy.dens.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.YldStres(1) EDCURVE.StrnRate(1)..08.. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.75 TruStres(1)=207e6.4..ADD.1.2.1.1.1.1 TBDATA.30 ! No units MP. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.2004 .250e6.2.40.4.275e6.7 ! (ksi) TBDATA...17.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3.69e9 MP.PLAW.ADD.1.TruStres.3..ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB.dens.0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.6.ADD.2.1700 ! ksi MP.18. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.5 *DIM.TruStres(1) B.215e9.3000e6 EDCURVE.GCAP.6500.8 TBDATA.16.nuxy.5.05.1.290e6...1.PLAW.212e9.33 MP.1.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.1...1 ! LCID for true stress vs.1.5.nuxy.. 20.2710 TB.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.3.598 TBDATA.2.ex.211e9.2..0.ex.2.16.5 TruStran(1)=0..216 TBDATA.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA.1.1..1 TBDATA..207e9 ! Pa MP..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.4..

EOS..31 !n TBDATA...1.4500 TBDATA.dens.8 TBDATA.5.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.1.0 !m TBDATA.17.5.10.10.ex.20.7.2004 .1.. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP..2.1 TBDATA.0002 TBDATA.09 !m TBDATA.9.12.1.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.-.240e6 TBDATA.9.1.1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.nuxy.2.5.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.nuxy.7.1.1..7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.11.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.35 ! No units MP.1.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA..30 ! No units MP.8.291.. 20.350.20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11.5 TBDATA.1.3.2..1.30 TBDATA..61 TBDATA. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP...2 TBDATA.1.022 !c TBDATA.8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.62 !N B.ex.6.19.1.1.36 !n TBDATA.EOS.1.6..2.207e9 ! Pa MP.1 TBDATA..4.025 !c TBDATA..14.8.13.18 TBDATA.1.6.10 TBDATA.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.2.dens.3.-.05.1..89.15.8 TBDATA.7.473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.138e9 ! Pa MP.4.

0 TBDATA.1.0.17.16..1.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.13.EOS.12.1.ex.0 TBDATA.19.2 TBDATA.2.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.-.7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.9.-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.17..14.16.0.nuxy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA...11.2004 .12 TBDATA. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP.1.0.97 ! TBDATA.23.1.1.014 TBDATA.89 TBDATA..-3.18.1.200e9 ! Pa MP.3.394 TBDATA.dens.489 TBDATA.2.1.22.3 ! No units MP.4.2.5386 ! C TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA.21.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.54 TBDATA.1.10 TBDATA.1..2..18.20.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.34 ! No units MP.1.48 !A 0 B..2.EOS.2.3.0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA..17.100e9 ! Pa MP. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP..03 TBDATA.15..1.dens..21..05.0.ex.21.240e6 TBDATA.0.02 TBDATA..1 TBDATA.2. 20.1.0 ! S3 TBDATA.4.0 ! S2 TBDATA.8..7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.19.1.4400 TBDATA.nuxy.20.4.10.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.

200 ! Max.dens.2380 ! Absolute melting temp.0 ! S2 TBDATA.ex.215e6.35 !n TBDATA..1.15.17.24.EngStran.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.1.2. temp.1.1.EngStran (1). TBDATA.29.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.18.cable.. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA.2 TBDATA.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.49.207e9 ! Pa MP..7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP.0.5. temp.49 ! S1 TBDATA.93 ! TBDATA.dens.EngStres.30. parameter TBDATA...11.3..1..25.1.3 ! No units MP.nuxy.31.457 ! C TBDATA.04.1.210e6..10.1.5.02.1.EOS.1.2.4 *DIM..7.08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.06.2.0 ! S3 TBDATA.1.EngStres(1) B.33.-50 ! Min.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM.32.1.220e6 EDCURVE..16.2 ! Spall type TBDATA.ADD.34.05.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.3 ! No units EDMP. parameter TBDATA.....rigid.1.0.4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B..43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA.11. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.1.4 EngStran(1) = .1.2004 .gxy. 20.16e6 ! (Pa) MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.nuxy.207e9 ! Pa MP.ex.

20. not ANSYS commands. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA.2004 . ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.k file. However. The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command). an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname.. ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table.. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS.k is created. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C.

RBMZ) EDMP. OMGZ) EDLOAD. PRESS EDLOAD.05. (RBUX. RBOY. RBVY.. MZ) EDLOAD. RBMY. FZ. AZ) EDLOAD. FY.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20. MX. . RBVZ.. MY. ROTY. RBMX. ACLY. RBFY. ACLZ. AY. .2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. . RBFZ. VZ.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. RBUY. . . . UY. (UX. . (RBFX. (FX. VX. RBRZ. AX. +RBRX.RBOX. OMGX. VY. OMGY. (ACLX. RBRY. . RBOZ) EDLOAD. ROTZ. ROTX.TEMP EDLOAD. RBUZ. UZ. RBVX.

. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05.2004 .

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