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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.1. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.2.2.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.2.2. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.2.2.2004 .2..2.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.2.2. 20.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B. such as those required for droptest.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.05.2. you can model your structure in ANSYS. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.2.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B.2 Material Model Examples B.2.2.2.2.2. and complex contact/impact problems.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.2.2.2. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time. Using this integrated product.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B.2. 1.. springback and other applications.2. large deformation dynamics.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B.2.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.2.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B.

Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. If you have not used ANSYS before. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. However. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program.2004 . Many times. 20.05. Likewise. and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. The three main steps are: 1. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program.2. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3... These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you already know how to perform these steps. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models.

updates..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output..05.2004 .RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the . ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates.

it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1.. Before you build a model.05. 20. are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command). you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information.2004 . The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. You may choose to read through it from front to back. but that may be useful in some situations.3.. However. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. you are ready to build the model.

see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure. Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2. see the ANSYS Elements Reference.. For detailed theoretical information.4. Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1.2004 . Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem..5. 20. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1.05. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. For detailed information on explicit elements.

The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. For example.e. plastic. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern.1. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements). or p-elements. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis. and foam models. and elastic modulus. 20. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.1. rubber.. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Wedge. midside nodes. Therefore.2004 . including details of input and output quantities. SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. By default. Poisson's ratio. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. Solid and Shell Elements 2.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.05. A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. such as with foams. higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements.. Therefore. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. pyramid.1. 2. including elastic. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required.. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. These elements assume a linear displacement function. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. For additional details.

These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations.. Therefore. 20. You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. these degenerate shapes should be avoided..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated).2004 .05.

7.1. Therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2. As with solid elements. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay.3. 6. 2.1..05. 20.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation. the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended. KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. for general analyses. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations. SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element.2.. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu.

2.5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element.2004 . Has four integration points with no hourglassing. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.e.1. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2. 20.4. 8..8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay. 2. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff.5.05.1. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell. so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis.. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay..

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default).. This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. therefore. You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements. All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1).05. Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set.. 20.

20..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness.NSET. The distribution of strain is always linear. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. which refer to top and bottom surfaces).05. as shown in Integration Points. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes.. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior.5774 0. while more points are required for nonlinear materials.R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements. Typically.9062 1. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces.. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point). The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0.7746 0. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials.8611 0.e. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces. For elastic materials. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled.2004 .. so care is needed in interpretation of results. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. For example. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length). respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. By default. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2.2004 . element type. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants.3.. The force is applied along the element axis. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. To represent a spring/mass system. 2. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2.05. the line of action of the force also rotates. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). However. When the element rotates. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . 20. because it does not have mass. In an automobile impact analysis. and TB commands. However. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis. Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. for example.. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise).they do not pin the nodes together.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. ET. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165.2. you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. and material properties (R.

IYY. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. You can not input a mass value for this option. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. a rotational inertia is also added to each node. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. The mass of each solid. In the case of shell and beam elements. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. IZZ) via the element real constants. and LINK167. To do so. (Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. IYZ.) Once you have set the analysis preference. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. 20. therefore. PLANE162. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. IXZ. SOLID164. BEAM161. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160. shell. a single value is used. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. SHELL163. IXY. To use this option.2004 .. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2.05.4. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX.

.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. In the GUI. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). 3. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS.2004 . Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system. After you select the appropriate material model. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis. Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. To do so in batch or command mode. Also. you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model.05. 20. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. review Material Models of this document. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. the EDMP command).2. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. you typically use the MP. More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference.. TB.1.) For some material models. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models).

(To access EDCURVE in the GUI. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options.) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. a stress-strain curve). you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model. Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3. Mesh the Model After building the solid model. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing.3. Use the TYPE. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method.4....2004 . and REAL commands. 20. real constant set. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements. you specify which previously defined element type.g. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes.g.05. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter. For simple models (e. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program.. MAT. line elements only). By this method.

. Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM. VMESH. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry. mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above).. Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh. 20. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls.5. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes. or EDPART.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.). Instead.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. with the EDCGEN command. In the GUI. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes. avoid areas with relatively small elements). A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and.05. Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact. mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). or EDASMP commands.e. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used. etc. A brief overview of that procedure is given here. therefore. In the GUI. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing.2004 . a long run time. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). If hourglassing is a problem. or elements may experience hourglassing. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model..

2004 .) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response.05. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART). Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. Once these components are created. For example. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. Another command.6. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. Use realistic values for material properties. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used. 20. For the single surface contact algorithms. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time.. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component.. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body.. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. node components). If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff.e. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command. EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. unyielding objects in the model. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter.

7.K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2. Any combination of TYPE. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. If the EDPART.LIST command.2004 .ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART.UPDATE). not overwrite it. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. The PART list can be created. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE.CREATE creates new PART IDs. EDCRB. 20. these elements will be assigned PART number 2. EDPART.05. For more information on the EDPART command. EDLOAD. For example. updated. and EDREAD). REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3. They can also be created. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. If the PART list already exists. and listed with the EDPART command.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. EDCGEN . REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. EDDC. If any of the TYPE. And so on. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. the PART list is overwritten. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE.. these latter commands will only update the list. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. EDDAMP. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs.UPDATE command. issue the EDPART. and MAT IDs. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. REAL. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2.

etc.LIST). which includes the addition of new elements. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command. Create the PART list (EDPART. Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2. issuing EDPART. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts. Update the PART list (EDPART. b. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5. Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. contact specifications. issuing EDPART.05. Therefore. e. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3.CREATE). d. but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2.LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example. PART number 4 remains. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list). The PART list is shown below (EDPART.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s).UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed... TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. However. Continue modeling. The following procedure is recommended: a. c. 20. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.CREATE) and list it (EDPART.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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Loading After building the model. In order to properly model your structure’s behavior. however. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL.. Jobname. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt".RS02. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. Therefore. even if the mesh does not change. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20.05. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RS01 and Jobname.. . Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. Note A new results file will be created for each loop. delete. In addition. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. see Postprocessing. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval.

many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. AY. VY. all loads are applied in one load step. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. To apply a load to your model. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties.1. Hence. for certain kinds of loads. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature.. etc. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time). In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. Please refer to Birth Time. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall.1. expected behavior. the F. 20. To apply these nodal loads.1. VX) appear as degrees of freedom.05. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. use the EDLOAD command. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4. they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters.2004 . position in the model. In particular. SF. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. For example. For this reason. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies. Death Time.. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes. Additionally. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis.

Therefore. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. and then apply loads to each of them. etc.) To define a component. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. You may define as many components as you wish. 20.05. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. Therefore. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. Otherwise. FY. FZ. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time.). ROTZ. and the nodes on the wall as a third component..MAT. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. For the case of rigid bodies. To illustrate the use of array parameters. Or. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load.2004 . loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve.RIGID. ROTY. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval. 4.1. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. In the GUI. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. consider the baseball example mentioned previously.. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal. ROTX. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. the nodes on the bat as another component. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. However.2. with each entry of the first array specifying a time value.

! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads..3.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0.1. cm. nsel.xdisp.all *dim. nsel. nodal accelerations.. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads. dimensions. This component will be used later in the contact specification.ballsurf.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon.05. Further. cm.0. 20. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command].node.-1.node ! define the component bathand nsel. In a more accurate simulation.bathand. cm.. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand.. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers.node nsel. Finally. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces.node nsel.-1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces.. surface pressures.3. 4. etc...4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim.node nsel.ball. Likewise.4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0. and material properties in your model.node... Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces.3.5. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter).ydisp.-2.0. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand.1.s... You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load.8. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models.node.. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball.time.. It is important to note.2004 ..2.4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim.batsurf. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined..0.s.3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0. as listed below. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball.. moments. Define an array named time to store the time values.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0.s..all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied.6.node.25.75.s. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.zdisp. Next.. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat. You also need to define a third component named batsurf.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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11.Par2.11...fy.0 As shown above. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.BTIME.2. If CID is not specified. 20. the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values.4..200. CID. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.1. 4.time.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels.1. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.1 *dim. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.. The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.PHASE. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information... Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined..add. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.05.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload. Death Time.time. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession...5 time(1)=0. 4.Par1. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command).6.yforce. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command.075.add. Lab.5yforce(1)=0.DTIME).SCALE..Y2.ADD.1.ADD.Y1. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command.300. see Birth Time. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction.05. Some load types do not support birth and death time..100. The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.Z2).Z1. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command. see Birth Time. the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems.1.5. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LCID. Death Time.Cname .X2.025.2004 .comp.KEY.X1. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD .

as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. However.2. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS)..ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command. The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction.05. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . the value specified must always be 0 (zero). Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR. Additionally. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid.2004 .. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints. defining nodes where point loads will be applied. see earlier discussion in this chapter).STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body.ADD. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. and rivet (RIVET). The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. i. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector. you will need to apply constraints to your model. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. For a rigid joint. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies.e. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. No other values are valid.ADD. but are based on a node component. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. nodal rigid body (NRB). You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. shell edge to solid (STS). It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). 4. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.NRB command are not associated with a part number. Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution.ADD.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4.1. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. The ENS option has many potential applications. In the GUI. Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. 20. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry..

Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command.2. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above. When a rivet is defined. 20. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. failure cannot be specified for a rivet.ADD. you must specify a valid nodal component. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model. For a massless spotweld. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis. For a generalized weld. In such cases.2004 . You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds. In the GUI. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. however.2. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts.RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident. However.. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command. if you use coincident nodes. Unlike a spotweld.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. 4.. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. Coincident nodes are permitted.

The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom.g. For the VGEN option. 3. a nodal component [CM]. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node.) around a specified axis.. Due to the LS-DYNA architecture. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). EDPVEL. part. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions. Y.VGEN. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities.. 20. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. and OMEGAZ fields). To define an initial velocity. cannot be used in the same analysis. Likewise. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. For both the VGEN and VELO methods.. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. OMEGAY. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations.3. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX. or a part assembly [EDASMP]. This may be a single node. use the following procedure: 1. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO.g. and Z axes. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. VY. YC. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity.2004 . and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command). Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC. with or without translations. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. etc. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command.VGEN. (e.05. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. Note To model a rotating body. EDVEL.. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL. PID). ANGY. For the VELO option. the two methods for defining initial velocities.2. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 2. a part [EDPART]. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements.

if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL.LIST and EDPVEL..DELE commands (in the GUI. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. CPNGEN. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete). delete. delete.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes.05. For each node in the coupled set. Similarly.velo. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP.-1600. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. If CP is used in this manner.. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies. UY. CEINTF.. 20. CPINTF. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed). modify. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX.LIST and EDVEL. modify.velo. This means that if the structure rotates. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete). ROTY.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. Also. use the EDPVEL. CPSGEN) can be used to define. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.DELE commands (in the GUI. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. the CE-family of commands (CE. Similarly. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly.-1600.... use the EDVEL. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number. CELIST. it could lead to nonphysical responses.3. CERIG) can be used to define. For our baseball example. CPLGEN.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4. CPLIST. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set.1.ball.2004 . When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program. CEDELE. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint. CPDELE. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. ROTZ) are not allowed. list. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel.

2004 . For this type of analysis. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. Therefore.DELE.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags.4.5. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model.GROUND.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model.05. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4.1. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain.. To define a nonreflecting boundary. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body.ADD.. SHELL163. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For example. 20. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. respectively. use the commands EDNB . LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior.LIST and EDNB. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component. and SOLID164 element types.

TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. TUNIF. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. or BFUNIF. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname. In addition.. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model.. use the BFLIST command. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. When LDREAD is issued.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. To use this method.2004 . For all three methods of temperature loading. See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command. In the explicit phase. This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values. 20. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. it defaults to zero. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). If the reference temperature is not specifically defined. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . use the BFDELE command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis.

DYNA): This is similar to the previous case. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i.. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated.. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again. 3..2004 . 4. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX. a slightly different approach is taken. EDLOAD . if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS.OFF): In this case. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands. This is the default setting. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve. ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load.DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. Cname.ANSYS).6. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution). Lab.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case.EDDRELAX. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. In this latter case. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. 20. Par2. Par1. At time zero. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command).e. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. . Therefore. True dynamic relaxation is used. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label. ADD.05. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. In the former case. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one. 2. They are discussed below: 1.

05. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load.e. loading. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label. To work around this limitation.DB. and termination controls). Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide. The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname.RST and Jobname.2004 . 20.. after completing element definitions. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve). The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero. Solution Process After the model has been built (i.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command.HIS. Solution Features 5.ADD. Before issuing the SOLVE command. Consequently. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The header records. Jobname. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case. modeling. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves.RST and Jobname.) 5..) 2. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program. you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written. meshing. boundary/initial conditions.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. The input file for the LS-DYNA program. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname. (At this point. are written on the two results files Jobname..1. At this point.. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used. is written using all information that has been entered so far. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information. real constant and material property specifications. If the EDOPT.HIS. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5.K. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements). 3.

Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached. you must have a machine with at least two processors. (See the EDTERM command for details. Termination criteria ..You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position.3. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. To use this feature. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis.2004 . When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. where details of the errors and warnings are written. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met.05.2) or a full restart ( EDSTART.2. The other termination controls are optional.3) analysis. you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. If errors or warnings are produced. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time . The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis.. You may set up multiple criteria using this command. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window. CPU time limit . 20.

.. nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect. you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1... Specify the number of processors to be used.... you should close all other applications on those CPUs..05. 20. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU. You can set this value via the config60.. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time.. This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i....ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses. via the /CONFIG command. To avoid these differences.. you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN..e.) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5.2004 .4. you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times... please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status. the larger the problem.. Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors... When you are using shared memory parallel processing.. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. When used with more than 8 processors... If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available).78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 0..SMP.) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time. the higher the potential for scalability. (Unlike in ANSYS.... you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP.. Because of this.. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background... While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress.00000E+00 time step. or via the SETNPROC macro. the calculations may be executed in different order.. For more information on all of these methods... any additional scalability is minimal... If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run.ans file. switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA.. 2...1).. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls........ Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses. 2..

00000E+00 sliding interface energy.. As the solution progresses....... 0.00000E+00 total energy.. use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20... Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum.....00000E-20 system damping energy.... failed elements.2004 ....... 1. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run...MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used.GLSTAT EDOUT.....00000E-20 spring and damper energy.28205E+01 global z velocity. 1. contact problems........... You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver. A restart file is written. then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718......00000E+03 total energy / initial energy. you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates.... -1.. 0... 0. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point... 0.... The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above)........00000E+00 global y velocity...... To do so..00000E+00 global x velocity.... etc. By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.. The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run..... you can determine the progress of the solution. 0.......ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy.. The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT..) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp........00000E+00 external work.... warnings..05.. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run...... The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors... these files are written at requested time points.00000E+03 internal energy..... the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files. This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed... glstat and matsum are ASCII files..) The files d3hsp. 1......... 1.... For m (the number of lines to be viewed)... On a UNIX system. 1. a value of 30 should be sufficient....00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718..

Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. ? Option 1 .This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size.6.05.Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Option 2 . This option produces the same plot as Option 1. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest). Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size. 20. however. It should be noted. except that all selected elements are plotted. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. Option 3 .. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements.. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command. or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes.5.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. yellow (intermediate). This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command.2004 . The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5.

2.05. etc.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. certain element types. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 4. After issuing EDWRITE. users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis.R.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files). you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. That is. Using another window. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. Method A 1. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution.HIS. Jobname.) 4. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below. 5.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed. 20. (Remember. and if it is a full restart. the input file will be named Jobname_nn.HIS..K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.6. Jobname.RST and Jobname.k. 5. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. soil. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. Method B 1. Jobname. the input file will be named Jobname. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files. reside). (In the GUI.6.. For both Method A and Method B. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.K. 2. 2. reside.2004 . go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. After modeling has been completed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. such as fabric. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.1. 3.K. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files. 3. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26).RST and Jobname. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart.

99) to be used as a starting point. depending on what type of analysis you are running. etc.K. 5. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. This allows you to take a pre-existing file. 02. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. For any type of analysis. you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors. However. run the lsdynaxx script as described above. (EDSTART command. see Restarting).6. 20. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the . When using these methods to modify the file Jobname. element attributes (material properties. first make sure that the model defined in the .k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. Thus. solve it using LS-DYNA. Also. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files.k”. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE). Next. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution).K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command).. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7.05.HIS results file headers when only a file. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26.3.K. the argument “m=drelax” is also required.RST and .. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required. real constants.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis. will be shown. and not the modified version. the original version. (For these reasons. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete. For a restart analysis. Then edit the . Jobname. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. nodes and elements must not be changed.k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example.) will not be available in the results files.. However.0 and your input file is “crashtest.) In all cases.K. .K. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. To use this method. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6. where n is the desired amount of memory in words. Using a Pre-existing File.2004 .K input file exists. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.

are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. the type of contact between them. In other analyses. use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid).1. SS. For this reason. single edge. automatic single surface (ASSC). and ESS). STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM... STEP 2: Identify contact entities.NODE. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis. You simply indicate the contact surfaces. automatic general (AG).BATSURF. and rigid contact options. PART ID definitions. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC.. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult. there are no contact elements. and other parameters related to the contact type. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible. single surface. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis. You can do this by using nodal components. Then. When using contact or target components. and/or part assembly ID definitions.BALLSURF.. STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type.25.NODE.. eroding.S.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended.2004 .” For explicit dynamics. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact.. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. tied. These contact types. as shown in the sample input listing below. surface-tosurface. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. 6. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.BALLSURF. tiebreak.NTS..S. drawbead. nodes-to-surface (NTS).BATSURF...05.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20. and single edge contact (SE). which include node-to-surface. automatic general (AG). For most typical analyses. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model..

. and the exponential decay coefficient (DC).. Vrel.. as illustrated below: EDCGEN.1.1.05. VC (also input on EDCGEN ).2004 ...STS. AG. and SS)...28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC.N2.34.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity.6. ESS.STS..15.34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command. As explained later in this section. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS)..ASSC.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively.STS. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN... no contact or target surface definitions are required.ESTS.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN.25. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command. FD.. (FS.2.. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction..1.NTS. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD). 20.15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum.5.. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command. use great care when defining contact components.3. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model.3. N1. no initial penetrations are allowed. A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN..1.2. Therefore.

tiebreak.05.2004 . and an unloading stiffness value (V3). as outlined below. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. e.. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. ESS. a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material. For eroding contact. for rigid body contact..g. e. you must specify a data curve ID (V1). In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. and drawbead contact. For rigid body contact. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This information varies with contact type. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements. Therefore. VDC = 20 indicates 20%).g. ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding. rigid.. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics. 20. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness. for sheet forming simulation. For both types of tiebreak contact..

Use the NSEL.1. by issuing the command EDPC. Therefore. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command. Hence. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2).2004 . However. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted..20000 FD = 0.Cont. and a drawbead depth (V3). This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis. 20.00000 VC = 0. In drawbead contact. after plotting the contact entities.1. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). which help restrain a blank during drawing operations.2. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted.10000 FD = 0. 6.DELE. Ctype.ALL. You can specify a minimum contact entity number. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. and INC fields of the EDPC command. you can list. The plot will consist of nodes or elements. you can delete it using the EDDC command.00000 VDC = 0. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. plot. maximum contact entity number.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0.. To delete all current contact definitions. then deactivate it at a later time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. MAX. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead.1.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. issue the command EDDC. components or parts).2). Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. A sample listing is shown below. you must input a load curve ID (V1).05. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ).ALL and ESEL. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0.DELE. or delete contact definitions.Targ. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads.00000 VC = 0. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.08000 DC = 0. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions. To delete a specific contact definition.15000 DC = 0. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities. issue the command EDDC.00000 VDC = 0. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities. Listing.1 for the above listing. If contact has been incorrectly specified.

Therefore.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART . AG. deactivate.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC . Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS. in this section.2004 . you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed..DACT.Targ) contact in a small restart. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed.05.1. Once a contact specification is defined. you can achieve significant CPU time savings.3). 20.Cont. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1.Ctype. With such a large number of contact options. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC.DELE. you cannot delete. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed. FOSS 6. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur. nodes-to-surface contact.Cont.Ctype. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below).RACT.2. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. and you must perform at least one small restart. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC . By considering contact only when it is needed. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS.2. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6. and surface-to-surface contact. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact. Thus.. (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon.

DRAWBEAD. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. ASTS. The finer mesh is the contact surface. FSTS. TDSS. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. The convex surface is the contact surface. 6. ESTS. STS. SE.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1.2004 . In single surface contact. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. 3.. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact. Single Surface Contact (SS. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. RNTR. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA.. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined. NTS. The coarser mesh is the target surface.05. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. ASS2D. the following options may be used: 1. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict.2. TNTS. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. Therefore. When it is defined. ROTR. ENTS. ANTS. FOSS. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface.2. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. AG. there are often several contact options available. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. In fact. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. 20. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. When using solid elements. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. ASSC. 2. Unlike implicit modeling. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. OSTS. General (Normal) Contact (SS. TSTS. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TDNS. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options. however. they still are used for a wide range of applications. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. For shell elements.

the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. a symmetry plane option (V1). try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. after the failure criterion is exceeded.2004 .. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. UY. 3. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. In automatic contact. ANTS. AG. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. or separate from. the target surface. 6. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Thereafter. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. Automatic Contact (ASSC. the contact search depth is always limited. It is important to note. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. For the rigid options. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. 2.05. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. To do this. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. TDSS. or eroding options. ASS2D. force calculation method (V2). rigid body contact (RNTR.. the data curve ID (V1). automatic. Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. When using eroding contact. ENTS. However. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. upon application of loads or initial velocities. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. 4. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). ASTS) Along with the general contact family. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. Tied Contact (TDNS. Rigid Contact (RNTR. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. When defining tied contact. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. 5. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. Eroding Contact (ESS. 20. Therefore. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. and UZ) are affected by tied contact.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact.

Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command. During drawing and stamping simulations. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. When using TSTS. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command.2004 . This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction. 8. For the TNTS option. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. 20. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force.05.. Drawbead contact.. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction.

3. the neighboring segments are checked. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface. and TDNS contact options. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. OSTS. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact.05. FSTS. TSTS. contact options NTS.3. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. 6.1. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). Forming Contact (FNTS. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. Therefore.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking. These methods are outlined below: 6. 20. However.. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6.. OSTS. TNTS. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. For these contact types. Therefore. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions.2.

2004 . Cont. Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box. DTIME.BOXID1. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand..ZMIN.3. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS). and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm. EDBX. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets).. When you specify a contact box. Therefore.Option.XMAX. and single surface (SS) contact definitions. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets.YMAX.NTS. which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above.Targ. 20. 6. Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS.ZMAX ADD. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command.4.XMIN. automatic single surface (ASSC). STS.. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS).YMIN. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells. DELETE.BOXID . The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types. EDCGEN.. The bucket sort method is extremely robust. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. . a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command.3.

Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS. and the contact depth is relatively large..5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness. and TSTS.05. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. OSTS. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.5. TNTS. and TSTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options.1. In an explicit dynamic analysis. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. Therefore. NTS. NTS. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. Second. TNTS. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. NTS. To control the contact penetration distance.6. 0. as explained above. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa). The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. For these contact types. For all of the contact options other than STS.2004 .6. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated. Contact Stiffness 6. In cases where the contact is not genuine.. and TSTS. OSTS. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. For this reason. OSTS. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort.4 x min side length. 20. TNTS. 0.

2004 . 20. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.2.. or incompatibility.1 by default) In almost all cases. 6. PENO of the EDCONTACT command. this approach may not be necessary. The contact stiffness. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command. the program scales them to closer values. For example. Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. bodies will pass through one another. but this implies that k = . which will lead to numerical instabilities.05. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. The amount of penetration ( ). the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. If the difference between the two time steps is small.. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis.6. by setting PENO to 1. which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. overwriting user input for the scale factor. however. fs. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used. In practice. Together with the related mass. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. there should be no penetration. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. Without a contact stiffness. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option. increasing the value of SFSI above 0. Ideally. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor.

. FD. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. BTIME.. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. DC.DTIME For 2-D contact. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. where applicable. For additional information on each material model. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact. 20. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter.Targ.. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements.05. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. BTIME..ASS2D.DC. Cont. The option.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate. The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS.FS. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. ASS2D.2004 . the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below. . and DTIME. The available materials are listed below.) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.FD.7.

2004 . 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...05.

Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TB. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. MPTEMP.05.2004 . and TBDATA. 20. The next section. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP.. MPDATA. TBTEMP. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands.1..

Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. and click on OK. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. edit. or Rigid Material. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. If you define. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. Nonlinear. Equation of State. 20. you actually input a material data curve ID. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. There. or delete material models via the GUI. then on one of the material model categories: Linear.05. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 3.2. In the Material Models Available window on the right. do not define extraneous properties.2004 .. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 5. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. and Foam Material Models. 2. Inelastic. you can edit the data and click on OK again. For example. under the Nonlinear category. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. double-click on LS-DYNA. copy. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. Double-click on a material subcategory. the subcategories are: Elastic. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. Also. Discrete Element Properties. 4.. Enter the desired values. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. then choosing Edit > Delete.

1. EZ).05. and L of the element (see the figure below).density MP.1. see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. 7. one value required or MP. one value required MP.2.2.elastic modulus MP. J. use the EDLCS and EDMP. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP. To specify a material coordinate system.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ.density MP. Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model. EY = EZ = EX).2.2..2004 ..ORTHO commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7. For a multi-layer composite laminate.1. For an example input listing. See Composite Damage Model for more information. Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants.PRXY . This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).e.NUXY .. the other values will be automatically defined (e.3.elastic moduli (also EY.2. Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix.NUXY .DENS . NUXZ). Use the MP command to input the required values. Linear Elastic Models 7.1.g. MP. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i. 20. EX). 7. If no material coordinate system is specified. PRXZ).GXY . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Because of symmetry. use the TB.EX .Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing. only 21 constants are required.1.shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ). one value required MP.DENS .. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide.EX .Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ.

material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I.ORTHO commands. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. C14.1. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above). C24. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. 7. C35. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type. C44. C23.VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. If no material coordinate system is specified. DENS . and NUXY are all specified. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below. C13. ANEL TBDATA. C36 TBDATA. 19. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading. C22.. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. C56. EX. 7.FLUID.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP. C33 TBDATA. C12.2.2. C45.ANEL command. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. C46. C34. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. You input density using the MP command (DENS). This discrepancy is not a computational error. C25 TBDATA. J. C55. 7.. use the EDLCS and EDMP. MP.4.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). MP. C16. 1.05. To specify a material orientation axis. C11. C26. 13.2004 .MAT.DENS EDMP. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program.2. For an example input listing. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command. 20.EX MP. C15.density TB.

Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor.1...) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB..2. To use this input method. C01 and : I1 . This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus.2.2.49 is recommended.. V is the relative volume. I2 . and ij is the Kronecker delta. see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber. is the Poisson’s ratio.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve. MOONEY. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command..2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.0 TBDATA. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY). For an example input listing. (For Poisson's ratio.2. a value greater than .. MOONEY.2004 .. smaller values may not work. 7. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command. you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. 20. 2. 1. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model. C10 TBDATA. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model.. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor.

The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.3.2. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction. 1. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB. 7. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length.. 47. 5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. In compression. 20. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson. 48. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 2. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model.. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. 1. 4. The parameters . The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model. and width equal to 1.05. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. In tension. V: p = K ln V. For an example input listing.2. thickness. 3. Alternatively. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA. G0 . C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. 6. Input these values with TB.EVISC and locations 46. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. 46.2004 . C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA. EVISC TBDATA.

If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature.) Input elastic modulus (Exx).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. .TEMP 2 . Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. 7.. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing..EX1 .2. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength.3.DENS MPTEMP..05. 48.NUXY 1. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command. .) Input elastic modulus (Exx). 1. For an example input listing. Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7. TBTEMP commands. .2004 .EX.NUXY.1.NUXY 2. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command. Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature. BISO TBDATA. (These properties are temperature dependent. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. EX 2 . Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 61. 1/ Note For this material option. Input density (DENS) with the MP command. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. TBDATA. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). and density (DENS) with the MP command. (A temperature dependent model is also available.2.NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MP.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB. .TEMPntemp MPDATA.. .1. . 47.2. .3.1. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass. . (The density is temperature independent.3.EX ntemp MPDATA. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). 20.. K TBDATA. 2.2. .BISO. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy. 7. you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command.TEMP 1.NTEMP command. .BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.1. . Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed. .

1.1.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA. .ALPX1. Input the yield stress. tangent modulus.. BISO. . Y (yield stress) TBDATA.. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). .7 TBDATA. you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model. . Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only.2. 1. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. . NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP.. 2. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs. 2.ALPX. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. 20. Etan (tangent modulus) . ..3. 2.. plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. 1..7 and locations 1 . : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.ALPX2 .TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP. 7. anisotropic hardening parameter. 4. 3. PLAW.ALPXntemp TB...TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 1.PLAW. to the out of plane plastic strain rate. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. .. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. Otherwise. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB. the analysis will terminate. 2.2004 . density (DENS).

R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. elastic modulus (Exx).. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials. As shown below.10 TBDATA. 20. 7. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE).Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis.2004 ... The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section.2.. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.4.4.3. TB. For this model.PLAW. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel.. In addition. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model.10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA.2.5.PLAW..LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3. This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing.05. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE). y (yield stress) TBDATA. the additional input parameters are specified using TB. you must input the density (DENS).1...

Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. 1. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.2. 3. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.1 and locations 1 .2004 .6 of the TBDATA command: TB.. BKIN TBDATA. p eff is the effective plastic strain. 20. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. PLAW.5.6. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. 1.. 2. tangent slope. Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress.05. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. Input the yield stress...BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.3.. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. 4. is the strain rate. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. kinematic. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).PLAW. 7. 5. strain rate parameters C and P..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing.1 TBDATA. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel.. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only). 6. hardening parameter.3. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.2. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. density (DENS). 7. density (DENS). Y (yield stress) TBDATA.. Input elastic modulus (Exx). or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure. 2. and the failure strain with TB.

The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. 7..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. density (DENS).2004 .05. excluding p which is determined implicitly. All of the anisotropic material constants. Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.2. HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential). yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and n is the hardening coefficient. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above.3. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). For the exponential hardening option. 0 is the initial strain at yield. The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. a and c are anisotropic material constants. 20. is the uniaxial tension in the direction. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions. Input the hardening rule type. m is Barlat exponent. p is the plastic strain. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants.7. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2). the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient.

R45 . HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA..2004 .ORTHO.. 3. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. 6. and then issue EDMP. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS. 4.PLAW. and the orthotropic material axes with TB. CSID. the Barlat exponent. 7. J.S2 |m + |S2 .3 and locations 1 .S3 |m + |S3 .. and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes. m. and L of the element: If CSID = 2.3 TBDATA. Before specifying the material property. the width to thickness strain ratio values. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 . the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I.3.05. R00 TBDATA. R00 . 2. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182.8... R45 TBDATA. PLAW. Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA. 7. 5. and R90 . you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS.CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented). Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA...2. has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2.. 1.8. For an example input listing. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If CSID = 0. m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA.VAL1..S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . Lege. 20.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. R90 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2).

b. 0 is the initial strain at yield. c. f TBDATA. c TBDATA. 20. 1.. h For an example input listing. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses. the flow potential exponent. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. For this material option. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).2004 . isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4.b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . and h represent the anisotropic material constants. f.3..10 of the TBDATA command. the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient. 10. 7.6 and locations 1 . 0 (initial strain) TBDATA.. 5. and n is the hardening coefficient.05.. density (DENS). a TBDATA. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1.. 2. p is the plastic strain. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.9.c( xx yy xx ) . see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. 4. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB.Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The material model follows a Ramburgh . 3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . PLAW. 8. the hardening coefficient.PLAW.. TB. 7. 9. the initial strain at yield. 6. b TBDATA.6 TBDATA.2.. Input the strength coefficient.a( - where a. g TBDATA.. g.

Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses. 4. effective strain rate (optional).. The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0... 2. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum.. TB. 4. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 6. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.2. strain rate. and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. 20. density (DENS). strain. strain rate sensitivity coefficient. Input the material constant. and initial strain rate with TB. LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs.PLAW. In this model. effective strain rate.3. LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. 1. is the strain rate.5 TBDATA... hardening coefficient. k (material constant) TBDATA. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength. effective strain rate) TBDATA. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.5 and locations 1 .. 3. 7..05. PLAW. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain.10. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. effective strain rate (optional).. to define failure of the material...2004 . and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. PLAW. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. instead of LCID4 in location 5. effective strain rate) TBDATA. effective strain rate) TBDATA. k is the material constant. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. 2. 1.PLAW. effective strain rate using TB. and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. m is the hardening coefficient.5 of the TBDATA command. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the tangent modulus. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. density (DENS). n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA. 3. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion.4 TBDATA. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient. 5. For shell elements. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion.4 and locations 1 . 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. effective strain rate) TBDATA.

6. transverse tensile strength.COMP and locations 1 .CONCR. the shear strength. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA.2. 20. Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY.3..2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials..3.2. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB.. density (DENS). Gxz). 2.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. shear moduli (Gxy. Ezz).. 1. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Input all values shown below with the TB.1.. NUXZ) with the MP command.05.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. 5. 4. Eyy.2004 . 3. 7. Input the elastic moduli (Exx.CONCR. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally.2 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing. Gyz. even if the failure capabilities are not used.12.11. (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA. COMP TBDATA.3. C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. transverse compressive strength. see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel. the longitudinal tensile strength.. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. 7. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates.. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA. NUYZ.. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure.2.

69-78. which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA. C and P are strain rate parameters.47.14.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.20-32. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA. especially for steel.19. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. 20. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).2. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.8.33-45.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA.49-58.05.4.16. strain curve input and strain rate dependency.7.17. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA. v1 . and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain. density (DENS).B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.6.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.48.59-68.15. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model.3. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.9.46.2004 .LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA. 1 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model.13.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.10..A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.13.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA.12..5.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.11.18. 1 .B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA.C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.

yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper . the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.14.6. 4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA..PLAW. Input the strength coefficient.2 TBDATA. strain rate dependency is ignored. PLAW. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.8 and locations 1 . 4. 7.. the effective plastic true strain at failure. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. and n is the hardening coefficient.3. If LCID 2 is used. the strain rate parameter C..8 TBDATA.PLAW..2004 .2 and locations 1 . 2.7 of the TBDATA command: TB. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used.2.. Only true stress and true strain data are considered.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. hardening coefficient. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses. effective plastic true strain.. 20. 1. 3. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.. plastic true strain) TBDATA.. e is the elastic strain to yield. Input the yield stress.. 5.. and strain rate parameters C and P with TB. density (DENS). if C and P are set to zero.05. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. Further. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters.. 3. k is the strength coefficient. the tangent modulus. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. 2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves. PLAW...7.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate. 1. strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. the strain rate parameter P.. For an example input listing. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).

Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain.2.40.Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Eh .05.1.. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.PLAW.C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.38. Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.41.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB.37..1.4. true plastic strain curve. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA. Input the density (DENS).2004 .4.PLAW. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified.3.9 TBDATA.5-20. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100.C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Up to 16 data points may be specified.42.16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA.C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Page 82 of 180 7..21-36.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA..C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA..44.C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.43. Input the parameters described below with TB. elastic modulus (EX). 1 . Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.4. 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.2.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA. therefore.2... 1 .45. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.39. f (failure strain) TBDATA..Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.

20. 7. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope.2004 . J 1. is the trace of the stress tensor. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. . Next.05. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and . Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space.2. The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model.2. Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below. f 2 is the cap surface. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present.. The first invariant of the stress.4. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. and f 3 is the tension cutoff. In this model. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete..

and the cap surface on the right. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.GCAP TBDATA.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA. 20.W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA..7. denoted f 3 in the figure. TB.3. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above. Input the parameters described below with the TB.9..R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA.5.2.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA. there is the tension cutoff surface.05.4. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA.8.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically.2004 .1. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface. the tension cutoff surface on the left. Finally.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material. TBDATA. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA.6.

N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA. the ratio of foam to polymer density.5. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid.. Toff < 0. and the initial volumetric strain with TB. 6. b TBDATA. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. a TBDATA.11. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress.2. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and c. TBDATA.. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero.13. For an example input listing. and c are user defined input constants. b. the initial foam pressure. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA. Foam Models 7. 5. p o is the initial foam pressure. 2..1 and locations 1 .C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 4.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete. closed cell. 7.. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain.1. Input the yield stress constants a. is the ratio of foam to polymer density.Toff (tension cut-off value. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure. 20...12.5.1 TBDATA. FOAM. however. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.05.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. Unlike honeycomb.. ij is the Kronecker delta. 3.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. c TBDATA..10. b. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model. 1.FOAM.2.

Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx).5 are recommended) TBDATA. 20. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs.5.2 TBDATA. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. a decay constant ( ).8 of the TBDATA command: TB.3 and locations 1 .2. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems).05 and 0.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. FOAM. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA...0 .. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs. 6. 3.... 2. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper.FOAM. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy. strain. default=1E20) TBDATA.. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models.2. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.5. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB. 4. For uniaxial loading. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated.. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA. 1. . and density (DENS) with the MP command.3 TBDATA. respectively.2. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness. FOAM..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. The elastic stiffness. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. the tension cut off (tearing) stress. DAMP (viscous coefficient.2004 . and initial viscous coefficient. the hysteresis unloading factor. 2. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. TC (tension cutoff stress. the initial viscous coefficient. and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB.no energy dissipation (default) and 0. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU). and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). In compression..05. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA. 4. the shape factor for unloading.tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.full energy dissipation) TBDATA.. SHAPE (shape unloading factor. 1. values between 0.FOAM.3. Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. 7.2 and locations 1 . V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness. 3. the decay constant. LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA.0 . 5. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached. ..0 ... FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. (decay constant) TBDATA. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1. the viscous coefficient. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. default = 1) TBDATA.

In the formulation. values between 0. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). volumetric strain. and t is time. 1. Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials.5. The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads.Ebbu) (E . Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA.0 bulk viscosity active) 7.2. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0. and the viscous damping coefficient with TB. the tension cutoff value.Eccu ) (G . density (DENS)..3 of the TBDATA command: TB.. For stresses below the tensile cut off value.tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA.2..FOAM..Gbcu) (G .2004 .05. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E .no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Eaau ) (E .. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant. volumetric strain) TBDATA. 2. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero.4.5. 3.0 .0 . 20.4 TBDATA.Gabu) (G . DAMP (viscous damping coefficient.05 and 0. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.5. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled.4 and locations 1 . 1. FOAM. LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs.. 8. the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading.5 are recommended) 7.. E is the elastic modulus. It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value..

. LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.HONEY and locations 1 .. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 14. 8. 5. 11.2004 . LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). This input is optional. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 17. 4. 2. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. density (DENS). LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects.05) TBDATA. Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 3. 6. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs. Input all values shown below with TB.V). Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 9. HONEY TBDATA. (material viscosity coefficient. 13. 7.05. 1. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs. 12.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. 10. 15. 16. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. Each curve must have the same abscissa values. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 20. default = 0.

2.1. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models.LOC.C0 TBDATA.LOC+4. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.6.) TBDATA.2. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy.C3 TBDATA.C6 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7.LOC+6. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density.C5 TBDATA.C4 TBDATA.2. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.2004 . You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.05. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models..LOC+2..E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC+3.C2 TBDATA.LOC+7.6. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LOC+5.6.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.2.C1 TBDATA. 20.LOC+8.LOC+1. 7.

v1 .E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA. a is the first order volume correction to 0..) TBDATA.LOC+7. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC+3. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.05.S1 TBDATA.LOC. S1.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC+13 to LOC+22.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 0 TBDATA. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.LOC+3 to LOC+12. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+5.LOC+6. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma.LOC+2. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve. S2.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA..GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.) TBDATA.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.A TBDATA.2004 . (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.2.LOC.LOC+1.3.S3 TBDATA.LOC+1. 20.S2 TBDATA.C TBDATA.LOC+4.LOC+2.

21-26..A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA. C. B..LOC+23 to LOC+32. The model may be used for shell and solid elements.. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below). For solid elements. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity.1.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB.4 TBDATA. 20.2.2. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model.6.6. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA.2004 . 7.T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.05.4. also called the viscoplastic model..5.3-20. Input the density (DENS). Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and m are material constants. n. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section).2.EOS. Input the parameters described below with TB.

and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3)..EOS and locations 1 .n TBDATA.D2 TBDATA.05.15 of the TBDATA command: TB.B TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB.2..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1.1.1. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA.D4 TBDATA..A TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models.2004 .pressure cut-off TBDATA.10. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.14. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).EOS.9. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.8.D1 TBDATA. density (DENS). 20.D3 TBDATA.C TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA.4.Troom TBDATA.7.15.Tmelt TBDATA.11.12. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model..13.3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..CP (specific heat) TBDATA.5.6.m TBDATA.

EOS and locations 1 . Pressure Cutoff ( 0.. 1. 3.2004 . and temperature. so you should use reasonable values. EOSOPT TBDATA.2. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).0) TBDATA.6. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. Input the parameters listed below with TB. you can define a viscosity.. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA.6.7.6.2. 7. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 20. Optionally. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). EOS. 4. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).. strain rate. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness.2. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model. see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass. density (DENS).05. Erosion in tension and compression is possible. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. 2. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain.

G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA. Set SPALL = 1..3. SPALL = 3.B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model.7.1. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0 to use maximum principal stress.05.5.. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.2.8.6.0 to use minimum pressure limit.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.SPALL (Spall type..0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA. 7.13. Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS). The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure.. o (initial strain) TBDATA..G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model.B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA. 20.EOSOPT TBDATA. The model must be defined with an equation of state.11. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .9.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.16.2.4.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.19.10.6. Input the parameters described below with TB.Troom (room temperature) TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). SPALL = 2.18.2004 . Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.14.12.3.EOS. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.) TBDATA.15. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.8.17.

Here. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached.2004 .05. 20.. In this model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations.. b. h. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. In this model. V is the relative volume. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Tmo . p is the pressure. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. and f are experimentally determined material constants. = o.

5. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. The maximum principal stress spall model. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression. while max is positive in tension. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero..EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material.EOS. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. pcut. the pressure is reset to pcut . p cut. max. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . and failure under tensile loads. and the pressure cutoff value..2004 . limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. The hydrostatic tension spall model. cracking. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. y and G are set to one half their initial values. Whenever exceeds m. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. If tensile pressures are calculated. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. p cut. SPALL = 1. TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. material melts. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. exceeds the limiting value -pcut . the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. 20. SPALL = 3. The pressure limit model.. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient.05. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated. Once spall is detected with this model. is set equal to m. This option is not strictly a spall model. SPALL = 2. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted.. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive). EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. Thus.

.2. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.6.18.DISCRETE.8.2.2.2004 . Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model.Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA.7.. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA.SPALL (Spall type. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA..FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).4. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB.. Input the model parameters with the TB.12. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model.9.14.05.DISCRETE..PC (pressure cut-off.2.DISCRETE.. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).15.. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command. Hardening and softening can be defined.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. 7.13. 20.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7..EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.7.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA.1. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA.b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.16.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA.a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.1. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes.11. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.19-28.3.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA.A (atomic weight) TBDATA.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA.) TBDATA.1. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes..7. see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .2.0 TBDATA.7.10..0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. Discrete Element Models 7.17.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA.5. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.

.) 7. Optionally..KU (Unloading stiffness.4..3. 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.0 is compression only (default)..2004 .) 7. respectively.2.LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs.2 TBDATA... displacement or moment vs. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB. 20.1. The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7...5. displacement or moment vs.2.1.0 is tension only. Inelastic Tension.3 TBDATA. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening..7.)) TBDATA.DISCRETE..7.DISCRETE..2.DISCRETE. displacement/twist relationship. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA.DISCRETE. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency..CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1..7..DISCRETE.LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA. 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression..5. Input the model parameters with the TB.1.2.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs.05.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.0 is compression only.) TBDATA. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes..or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only.LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity.2.3..) TBDATA..CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7. 1.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA.2..6.4.7 TBDATA.LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.DISCRETE.7...KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening.5 TBDATA. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB.1.DISCRETE. Input the spring elastic stiffness.3.2.2..3.

0.1.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167. If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6.7..) where L is the change in length L = current length . The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.. Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes.. rate-of-rotation relationship.FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes. The force.TC (Cutoff time.8..DISCRETE. 0).1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. F.1.2.7.. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables. The force is given by: F = K x max( L..DISCRETE...DISCRETE.. Input load curve ID with the TB. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs..COPT (Time implementation option) 7.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7.7.6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB.1 TBDATA.05.(initial length .. 0).DISCRETE..LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs.4..6 TBDATA.2. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0. No force will develop in compression.5.. generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension.Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.DISCRETE.. For an initial tensile force.1. 20.KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA.7.DISCRETE...3.2.BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA.4 TBDATA..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.2004 . Input the damping constant with the TB.. the offset should be positive.9.2. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA. ) 7.. Optionally.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. For a slack cable. Input the model parameters with the TB. the offset should be a negative length.

2. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command. Rigid Model 7.2004 . The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body.1.EX EDMP. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. cannot share a common node. i. however. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain.e. and Z displacements VAL2 . Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity. This material number. the change in length over the initial length. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type. see Cable Material Example: Steel. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid.MAT.RIGID. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . However.2. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex). All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body.CABLE. 20.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used. Therefore. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis.. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).. For example.2. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified. Along with the EDMP command.. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading). Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP. Two independent rigid bodies. issue: EDMP. if more than one node is constrained.8.05. For this reason. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. multiple rigid material types must be specified. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model.Load Curve ID For an example input listing. Y. 7.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X. to define a rigid body for material 2. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP. Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead.8. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements.DENS MP.

When rigid bodies are defined. mass. In addition. center of mass. For an example input listing. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the mass. Y. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. see Material Models. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. and displacements are transferred to the nodes. 20...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X. When using the EDCRB command. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies.2004 . see Rigid Material Example: Steel. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model. After defining a rigid body. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. you can assign inertia properties. the command EDCRB. By default.2.7. Hence. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number.05. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number. the command EDMP.PARTM. The motion of the body is then calculated. Therefore. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first.ADD. a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it.RIGID. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers.PARTS should be issued. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. NEQN.

including the required array parameters. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor..2.coord2. 0.ADD. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.tm.Ivect.CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined. CID is a local coordinate system ID..ircs. 0. 0.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity.velo2.2851E-03.2450E+01..3150E-03. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body. However. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. 10.Vvect.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.IRCS. 0 inert2(1) = 0. or LIST).6 *dim. Option is the option to be performed (ADD. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart. . 0.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim. .. You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body.5000E+00.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body . Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part. which is a rigid body. 20.2004 . initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0. mass.velo2.inert2. . TM is the translational mass.1. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body.0E-7. Specifying Inertia Properties By default.rigid. edmp. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2.inert2.3 *dim.PART.Option. you can input all of the above parameters.2851E-03 ! EDIPART.Cvect. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system.TM. DELETE.. The command format is EDIPART.05. . For batch input.coord2. 0. .5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. 0. 0.

Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later. You need to stop the analysis.ADD.05. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. long duration. a component name is input in this field. and then back to deformable.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2.2004 . then restart the analysis again. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. Loading As described in Loading. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. for the rigid body load labels. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. 20. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis.. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage. . It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. PAR1. For example. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP.2. However.3. define the part switch. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8.RBUX. you can achieve significant savings in computation time. (Note that for other load types.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. To improve efficiency for this class of applications..

NRB. PART. 7. (In the GUI. For rigid body switching to work properly. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior. where COMP1 is a node component. COMP1.D2R with no additional arguments. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. they will be calculated by the program. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties). Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch.D2R. See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number.ADD. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. (In the GUI.4. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. 20. PART In a new analysis. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD..2004 . Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. the choice of element formulation is critical. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions. After a deformable-to-rigid switch.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. If you do not define the inertia properties..R2D. In the current LS-DYNA implementation. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD.05. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. then issue EDRD . simply leave MRB blank. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that. 6.

Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. or beam elements. however. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls.05. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity. 20. It is generally not recommended. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. triangular 2-D.. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. These modes. which is automatically calculated by the program. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point.. In general. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible).e.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. but not triangular shell. or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations.2004 . The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized.. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes.

Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy. You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. and Poisson's ratio). For this command. the hourglass coefficient. l min.05.. which is a function of material properties (density. However. As a general guideline. c. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. for a given mesh. the material number. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations.) Using this method. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0. However.HGLS. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model. elastic modulus.) Note that for a given set of material properties. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model. (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. metal plasticity. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. Also. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. 20. the minimum time step size t min. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements.. particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes.15. the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. and bending. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. and the sonic speed. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. In these cases.

The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.9). the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive. ? Of the two methods listed above. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . If DTMS is negative. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0. It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass.001% mass to the model. For example. 20. and mass scaling is applied to all elements. element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.. Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. When mass scaling is requested.05. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. when using mass scaling.2004 .. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis. the same time step size is used for all elements.

. By part number for large vector blocks. 4th . the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd. elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups.. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command. By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size. 3rd. step depending on their size. To control the time step size after mass scaling.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. even the larger ones. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. If subcycling is turned on. By element number in ascending order. Subcycling Subcycling. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. 3.2004 . Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1.. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly. 2. 20. etc. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Thus.05. also known as mixed time integration.

. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time..2004 . Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points. or to view animated results.RST and the Jobname.HIS files: The Jobname. used primarily in POST1 processing. thus. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26). the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST.RST and Jobname. contains solutions for the entire model. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs. 20.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors.1. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and. Results ( Jobname. 12. Output Controls 12.1.RST) vs. However. Inc. this processor is not supported by ANSYS. History (Jobname.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq). consequently. POST1 and POST26.1. Nodes that are included in constraint equations. or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. With an explicit dynamic analysis. rigid bodies. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12.RST file. Note the distinction between the Jobname.05.

!Specify the name of the element component.05. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model.MAT.1 !Select elements of material 1.elm1 EDHIST. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL. may exceed the system limit. Create a component consisting only of those elements.SPCFORC EDOUT. Furthermore.S. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command.HIS. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting.) As a comparison. NSLE !Select nodes from elements. Jobname. The remaining data will not be written. the data to be stored in the results files. CM.node !Create nodal component nod1. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system.MATSUM EDOUT. !Specify the name of the nodal component. it is usually 1000 or more. 20.nod1 EDOUT. For example. specify the number of time steps. used in POST26. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met. 12. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces).RST and Jobname. Generally. 12. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname. the number of time steps in the Jobname.1. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname.2... in the Jobname. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26.HIS and other output files. and the ASCII files to be written.RST file is usually less than 100. In this case. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The Jobname.2004 . see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space.nod1. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete.HIS file.GLSTAT EDOUT. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis.1. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data). a system error may occur. the Jobname.RST and Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.HIS file.elem !Create element component elm1. but for only a portion of the model. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics).. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME.NSTEPS EDHIST. For large models. CM. For details on creating components. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis.3. the element and nodal components to be analyzed. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART).elm1. Therefore. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands).RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results.

20. (During the LS-DYNA solution. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.) 12. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. When you display results in POST1... and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1). PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below). resume.RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy). Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. the printing or plotting command will be ignored. If you are using command input. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. the elements are still in the selected set. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). You can display the deformed shape. or element table operations.1.2. for example. stop. display. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system.NODOUT EDOUT. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape.ALL to write all possible ASCII files.05.2004 . However.2. you may want to issue EDOUT. In some cases. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). and the model will behave as expected physically. the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. use the appropriate plotting command (for example. failure strain).RST file. Stress data will be rotated during printout. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail. COMBI165. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. show contour and vector displays. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and otherwise control the animation. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. When using POST1.SLEOUT EDOUT.

layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. However. For more than 5 layers. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. BEAM161. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements. By default. For beam elements. COMBI165. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. SHELL163. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. no matter how many layers exist. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MASS166. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. Further. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). In this case. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid.2. PLESOL ).Item 12. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell. LINK167).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element.LOC command.. for that matter). use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element.05. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. the results at the top correspond to integration point 2. and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration. “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties. regardless of the BEAMIP setting.Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot.NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results. the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. To get results close to the element surface. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)). for strain data. By default.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements.2. SOLID164. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. If you set BEAMIP = 0.) Also by default. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command).2004 . especially in bending. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results.Item. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. data is only available at the middle of the layer. there is no stress output. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2). For faster plotting. If NIP = 2.. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. 20. Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. However. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements).

1.EPPL] for these element types. . the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model.Third mesh refinement etc. 12. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used.DB file). The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Note Because of the multiple results files. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing). Also. you could write a macro to create the desired animation. ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. /POST1 FILE.2.RS01 ! ! SET.LIST ! ! SET. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step. Therefore. care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files.RS02 .RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. .2 ! ! PRNSOL. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files.Second mesh refinement Jobname... Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20. and SOLID164 elements. As the number of elements in the model changes. You should not resume the original model database (.Jobname.3.05. However. Jobname. using the FILE and /SEG commands. Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL. . nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162.First mesh refinement Jobname. SHELL163.RS03 . the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio.

RST file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12.3.HIS file into POST26. work.HIS file.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing.05. MATSUM. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs.num2 ESOL NSOL STORE. such as different energies. known as variables. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer. SPCFORC. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements..1. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data. with variable number 1 reserved for time.RST. Care must be taken when reading from the .num1 ESOL NSOL STORE.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record.. the results will be read from the Jobname.3. NODOUT.HIS and Jobname. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting. however.Jobname. such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST. Each variable is assigned a reference number. To generate results.MERGE . stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT.NCOMP are specified. The Jobname.) 12. . and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.MERGE LAYERP26.2004 . !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. RCFORC. 20. SLEOUT. and reaction forces.

2.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. first issue FILE . NODOUT.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12. After EDREAD. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter.3. Four arrays are required for smoothing data. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation).05. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables. Once these arrays have been created. LAYERP26.Jobname. Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. 20. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points. To plot the results. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). DATAP defaults to all points. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing.3.4. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR. you can choose to plot unsmoothed.. SPCFORC. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data. 12. RCFORC. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). or both sets of data. smoothed. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. including POST1 and POST26. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. If you are working in interactive mode. ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. respectively. MATSUM. MERGE for each layer. but if you are working in batch mode.3. see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference.2004 . etc. The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. respectively. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Once stored. 12.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . SLEOUT.. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and RBDOUT files.

etc. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. After the completion of each stage.. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems. 20. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. By viewing the development of the error. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. To change the model and continue calculations.05. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. a restart "dump" file is written. The Restart Dump File By default. 13. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01.1.2004 .. d3dump02. For example. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. materials that are no longer important. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis.

a small restart. A New Analysis For a new analysis.. or a full restart.2. 13.RST and Jobname. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART . For this type of restart. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI.DB) has not been changed. you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example.2.2. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes.2.. 20.2. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted.. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. then issue the SOLVE command.HIS. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL.d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database.. 13. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary. 13.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13..1. The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname. a simple restart.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). you must issue the command EDSTART.1.3.. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option). A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C).05.2004 .2.

inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart. Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist.05. In some cases. ACLEAR. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. deactivate... EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). In a small restart. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command. In other results files. 3. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly.2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart. etc. Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files. After the first small restart analysis. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command). Be sure to issue EDSTART . The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file. results are appended according to the time value. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step. If you do select such parts.2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.RST. in Jobname. that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts.2004 . or even a series of restart analyses. it is important that you issue EDSTART . take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. you may choose to perform an additional restart. Furthermore. For example. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files. Another example is mass scaling.) Note When postprocessing the restart results.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. even if no switch is being made.

these are discussed below. For example.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses).K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands.d3dump01. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis. 20. 5. Issue the commands needed to change the model. you must issue the command EDSTART . it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. You would issue the command EDSTART . If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model. Typically..3 command is issued. If you issue EDIS with no arguments. In a full restart.K. PIDN.. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed.K. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other. When LS -DYNA starts execution. to remove portions of the model. Repeat step 3-6. To do this. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE).2004 . the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. 7.) When the EDSTART. or to apply different loading conditions. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below.4. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. To initiate a full restart.ADD. Post-process the results.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart. parts having the same part ID). 1.3. 4. Post-process the restart analysis results. you must issue the command EDIS.2. 2. 3. Issue the SOLVE command 6. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.2 with an appropriate d3dump file. Page 119 of 180 13.05. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized. Jobname_01. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties. For example. Create the initial model and run a new analysis. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field.. you may need to consider more materials. Issue EDSTART. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart. as needed..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart.

use a different element type number. In this case..LIST and EDPVEL. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. the same number of elements. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis. use a different element type number. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart.) To avoid a mismatch in parts. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. Again. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. In addition. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. the initialization is “all or nothing.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. However. 20. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. material number. the part cannot be initialized..LIST. as described below. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. stress initialization may fail for those parts. Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. During the initialization. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis.DB).2004 . this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. as stated above. If this is not the case. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model. in the same order. material number. For discrete elements (COMBI165). if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. However. ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. or real constant number for those elements. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way. and previously existing parts will not be altered.05. all discrete elements will be initialized. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis.

3 is issued.g. Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn.2004 . 20. an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa. 14. Each time EDSTART . etc.. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 02... Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. To solve these problems. are not renamed and will be overwritten. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname. ASCII output files. In a full restart. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01. matsum. For a small restart. the history file (Jobname. matsum.05.). new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. For a simple restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small). however. For both the simple restart and small restart.HIS. The results in Jobname_nn. e. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code. glstat. Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis.RST file (similar to a new analysis). you need to use both solution methods. In this chapter.…) automatically. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname. you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart. Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena.HIS ).1.RST.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart.3. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution.RST and Jobname_nn. Just issue EDSTART. etc. Jobname_nn. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis.) are appended with consecutive time markings.RST. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart.

In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. 9. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. 10.2004 . In most dynamic metal forming operations. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements.05. Solve and finish the analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. Specifically. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. Then the deformed shape. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed.DB. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components.. This release of energy. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. which is the driving force for springback. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. 8. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). 2. 1. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. In the explicit metal forming analysis. 20. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. using Jobname1. stresses. In addition. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. 2. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185).. 11. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7. springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. This elastic energy. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations. 6. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. Hence. By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies.

Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types.ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. 3.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. Command(s): /FILNAME. (Note that the 2-D explicit element.05. boundary conditions. PLANE162. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved. see step 12). Re-enter the preprocessor.DB file at this point. real constants. and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. material properties. Redefine the key options..2004 . only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163. cannot be used in a sequential solution. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. 20. Command(s): ETCHG.

GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants. REAL. Command(s): SHPP. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis). these elements must be unselected. 7. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1.. Also. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected.) The TYPE. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. converted to null elements. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration.2004 . 20. deleted. or convert them to null elements. but you do need to redefine the other values. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS. For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements.. deleted.Update Geometry 9. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements.05. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181.

20. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11. the implicit analysis will be terminated. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants. 12. or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12).2004 . Command(s): D. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred. etc. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13.. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc.05. Command(s): NLGEOM.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. For SHELL163.. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. you need to constrain the blank).ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. For SOLID164. otherwise. in a metalforming analysis. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185). Turn large deformation effects on. only the stresses are transferred.

..n1.ux.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14..ux.stamp2 /prep7 etchg..n2.1.s..stamp1..stamp1.01 ddel..01.ux.01.uy d....db /filename. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis.. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport.181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle...0. 20.off finish /solution nlgeom. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results.1 shpp.05.list resume..01. /batch.rst d..s..uz d..eti r.0.0.2. Solve and finish the analysis.n3.2004 . The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution.0 esel.ename..0.all upgeom.all.uy.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.stamp1.all tbdelete..dyna..0.

When the tools are removed.05.2. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. ? ? 14. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom. 20. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. In each substep. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part.OFF. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command). Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. ? Slenderness of the structure. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. ? The model is improperly constrained. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging. you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements. being very thin..2004 .. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model.

which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution.. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15.05. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases. implicit-to-explicit. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. however. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. 20. The first type.ON). we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model.2004 .. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis.

initial velocities..g. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. 1..g. different material models (e. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. adding plasticity).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15. the bird in a bird-strike problem). completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure.1. but are not used by LS -DYNA. which are used only in forming applications.. This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted. In this implicit analysis.. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions. etc.05. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled. you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file.2004 . After defining additional loads. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. using Jobname1. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax. 20..

Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example.. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3.ALL. the bird in a birdstrike simulation.2004 . 5. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2.05. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest).. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1.DB.ALL. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten. 20. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. but they need to be defined here nonetheless.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.DB file at this point. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. Solve and finish the analysis.0). Command(s): /FILNAME. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4.

see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used.. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.2004 . but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only. 20.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes. but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. Re-enter the preprocessor. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. PLANE162.05. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. Note that the 2-D explicit element.

you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. LINK160 and LINK167. optional node. however. 20. Also. require a third (orientation) node. real constants.ITE.. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. their corresponding companion explicit element types. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. 8. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. above. However.ITE. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2.2004 . Re-enter the solution processor. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well.05. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. REAL. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. boundary conditions. and loading values on the explicit elements. Redefine the key options. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4. The TYPE..

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11. and temperatures from the implicit results file. drelax. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. You can then return to the implicit solution.. 20. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run. In this step. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis. Read nodal displacements. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. rotations.05. /batch.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry.2004 .list resume. if necessary.drop1.

.all.8 edmp.2.0 finish /solution rexport. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).1.create ! Create parts for loading edpart. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above). TUNIF. Jobname.2004 . BFK. BFL. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file.all.rbvx.s. In the explicit analysis phase.uy.plaw. 20.loc. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above.ite mp. LDREAD.K.7.0216 ddel.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command).drop2 /prep7 etchg. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading.ux..dyna.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.load.time.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.a.0 d. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body. However.1.x. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis.. etc.. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.list ! List parts edvel.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15.. BFV. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above..rigid.7 edcgen.2.05.loc.dens. Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. BFA..drop1.add. d.all tb. BFUNIF.y.… ! Apply initial velocities edload. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis. these include temperature loads applied with the BF..assc nsel.1. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.0 nsel. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF. and TREF commands...ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart.

20. 1. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . Solve and finish the analysis. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1.2. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. VALUE). ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D. 2. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase.TEMP. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. but they can be defined here if desired. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient.05. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Currently.. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain..NODE. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. Therefore.

Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten. The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.DB. 20. Re-enter the preprocessor.05. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. 5. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Command(s): /FILNAME..DB file at this point. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4..2004 .

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

0.1.. 6.all.all etchg.5e11.hgls.1.0. 5.nuxy. 5e-5.conv. 1. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity.3.all sfdele.1.1. 500.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp.z.temp. 1100.etip.z.loc.78e-5.0 nsel.dens.11 esize.all save solve fini /post1 set.34.0.0e11.all. 0. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata. 2.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11 cm.1. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.9e11. 0.s.alpx.c.explicit /prep7 bfdele.kxx. m/m-C mpdata. 0.300.5e-5.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end .0.ex.20.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio.last plnsol. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 .1.5 vmesh.all finish /solu antype.8030. unitless mpdata. 0. 1.93e11.static time. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.32. 1.0 d.0 edmp.1 mp.1.1. 0.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam. 6. 700. W/m-C ! specific heat.1. degrees Celsius mptemp.all ddele.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity.density cannot be temp.0.502. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion.ext sf.1.elem bf.8e11.node esln cm.1.2004 .6.all. 0..all. 0.tte mp.0 block. 0.ntip.hgen.31. 900.1..loc.05. 0. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.16.temp /wait.1.s.0 nsel.0.33.0 nsel.all.3 mp.all nsel.0e3 esel.0e-5.all.1. 0.s.. 1.5e-5.

6 tbtemp.7e6 edpart.0.100 edhtime.1100 tbdata.0 tbdata.05...20000.1.0.. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition...etip edout.9e6 tbtemp.0.9000.x.glstat save solve fini /post1 set.2e6 tbtemp.2004 .0 d.s.10000.1. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0).uy..7000.temp..1.10 plnsol. modulus of elasticity) are desired.700 tbdata. a thermal shock condition is created.all time.e..0.500 edhist.1.all nsel.uz esel. 20.1.0.ntip edhist. edrst..epto.last. ! ! Alternately.8e6 tbtemp.1e6 tbtemp.ux.1..0.900 tbdata.rth bflist nsel.thermal. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i.01 fini /solu ldread.1.500 tbdata.biso.8000.loc.3e6 tbtemp. stop vibrating). Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.g.. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario.30000.1200 tbdata.0.create eddamp...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.last /dscale.all.z..15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient.all.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .

The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk). This reduces computation time. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test.2004 . the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact. For all drop test cases. specify solution controls. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis. Thus. contact surface friction coefficients. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g). you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module. For example. The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. In a typical drop test. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target.05. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. the module automatically creates the target.1.. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected.2. For most drop tests. Drop Test Module 16. The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. When this option is used. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). graphics mode. rigid surface (the target). For example.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.. Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. 20. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.

1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows).3. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.05. the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g).1. are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped.3. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module.. Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.. 16. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. More advanced features. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. Thus. and orientation. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. rigid surface (target). screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. such as inclusion of surface friction effects. In the DTM. should be specified. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection. properties. All elements should be defined and all material properties. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details.2004 . 20.3. including damping. Before you begin. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module. and modification of the target size. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16.1. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. neglecting surface friction. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model.

See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. you will not be able to set up the DTM.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g). To avoid time increment degeneration problems. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. and define contact and friction properties for the target. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As).2004 . See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Target tab -. object drop height. run time after impact. Velocity tab -.. 16. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file.3. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. object orientation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis. Status tab -. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. tetrahedron.1. 20.. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. analysis start time.2. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. and the estimated time at the end of solution.Modify dimensions and material properties of the target.05. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. rotate the target.Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. initial translational and angular velocity. Otherwise. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular.

3.3.3.3. and specify a reference point.4. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool.HIS). Under the Number of Results Output heading. you type the drop height. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction.1.1. as well as the run duration time after impact. Under the Gravity heading. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. 3.. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example). Perform any of the following verification steps: 1.2004 .3. or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS.). you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab.7.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16.. etc. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g). 20.2. 16. 32. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab. that is. STEP 7: Solve Before solving. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data.1. Review the information under all of the tabs.4. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. 2. 16. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). Reference point options include the lowest object point.RST) and to the time-history file ( file. 16. or you can type your own value. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM. 16.5. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable. Under the Solution time heading.6.1. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model.05. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. Under the Drop Height heading. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386. check them in the ANSYS Output window.3. If you choose the Status tab. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages.

all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again.1. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM.. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 16. 20. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.2. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. At this time. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field. For animating results. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time.05. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS. screen Cartesian coordinates.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve. 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.8. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen. Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM. By redefining the object Y direction. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window.2004 . screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity. are defined automatically.1.. See Postprocessing and Postprocessing .3. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM.3. (g).9. 16. See Postprocessing .3. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. Make changes if necessary. you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. which are fixed. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). (g). then choose OK. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box.

coupling of components within an object is allowed. To use the option to start the analysis near impact time. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario.2004 . it will require more computation time. as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. You should avoid using this name. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. After you specify a drop height. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way. Within the DTM. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. by default. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped.05.) If you do not choose to orient the object.3. you will notice that. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. or "out". 20.3.. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. the initial angular velocity must be zero. After doing so.. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively. so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. ? During initialization. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. However. The keyword is DTFILT. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed. 16. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. You should avoid using these names. However. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase.

in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities.4. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. Y.1.. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . under Solution Time in this user's guide. After choosing the desired option. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry.4. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates.. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 16.4.2004 . and Z components of the velocity. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. modify the target's position and properties. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. 16. simply input the X. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. and specify contact surface friction coefficients.2. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command.05. as discussed below. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". Object Initial Velocity By default. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. 20. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. Details on these features are included in the following sections. however.

The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped.. size. But if necessary. 16.2. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL.. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane. 20. orientation.2. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections. 16.1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Under the Dimensions heading.05.2.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position.4. By default. To change the target position. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity. material properties. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.1TL.2004 .

RIGID. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point.1T sTL. you can enter two target scaling factors. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution.2. If you input Ls=2. density. a material density. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation.5.. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model. Thus. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. 16. and the target height is 0. the target is re-drawn automatically. and stores the corresponding material number. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus. enter the Young's modulus.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model. density. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. The modulus. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object. and Poisson's ratio. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. To specify the properties. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. For example.7. If you know the actual target material properties. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. As an example..4. density. choose the Target tab.2004 . the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. Under the Orientation angle heading.05. If you change the target's orientation.4. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material. the target is re-drawn automatically. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. and therefore normal to (g).0 and Ts=0. choose the Target tab. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL. under the Material Properties heading. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab.3. To modify the target orientation. Under the Dimensions heading.4. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s). If you change the target's size. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). modulus of elasticity. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Target Orientation By default.5. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. 20.4. then. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. By default. 16. it is preferred that you input them directly. 16. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS).MAT. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen.2.

The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16..5. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. and Status. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box.5. then they have default values of 0. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page. are Basic. The tabs. including the target surface. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. initial translational and angular velocity.1.2. Velocity. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. or FD. 16. in order from left to right.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). If you do not change parameters FS. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs. and the estimated time at the end of solution. The target is then created and loads are applied. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab.05.2004 . Target. then choosing the Target tab.. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.5.0. 20. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters.

Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point. Drop Height -.05. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction.Specify the magnitude of gravity.2 9. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386.4 32. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved..81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below. referenced to the screen coordinates. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.2004 . Gravity -.

if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. ? Solution Time -. the angular velocity must be zero.Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide). Set Orientation -. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If this option is used. By default. . which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. starting from when the object drops. is not equal to the specified drop height.05. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. then the information is stored. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick.. Therefore. To use this option. Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact. If an initial translational velocity is applied.. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box. measured along the screen Y axis. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop. However. 20. and the calculation is not repeated. which is the case just before impact.

? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. See the EDRST command for details.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file.05. On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname.. ? ? Related Information -..Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.HIS. Number of Results Output -. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname.2004 .For further information about the options on the Basic tab. Refer to the EDHIST command for details. 20.3. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.RST. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . See the EDHTIME command for details.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16. You may define additional nodes.5. Help: Displays this help topic. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing.

X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system.. and it will automatically recreate the target.Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. 20.2004 . the initial angular velocity must be zero. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. If you apply a translational velocity other than zero.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities.Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time. If these conditions are not met. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change. Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time). even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. Translational Velocity -. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. and choose to start the analysis near impact time. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity.05. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). as described below. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system.

.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. use the Target tab to specify the options described below.5. Dimensions -. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab.05.4. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity. Also.2004 .Specify the target's position and size. Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . ? ? Related Information -. Help: Displays this help topic. the target is automatically created. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16.

and the target is returned to its previous orientation. The default length is determined by ANSYS. The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane. then the input is considered to be invalid. Then.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you). Similarly. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN . Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value. Therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation..2004 . Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio. The default thickness is equal to 0.Specify the material properties of the target. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis. ? Orientation angle -.. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point.0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis. A warning is printed to the screen.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value. If only a single node exists on the object at this point. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes. divided by 2. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. ? ? Contact -. divided by 2. Material Properties -. 20. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.1 times the default length.

Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. 20. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact.05.. Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. but not as robust.2004 .5. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact.5. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option. see the following sections in this user's guide. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient. except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16.0) You type the static friction coefficient. Help: Displays this help topic.

[yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. Then. a zero entry detected for the value of gravity). Unsuccessful set-up. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. if necessary. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems. Click OK to commit the settings. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. Proceed with caution. See error messages. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur.05. 20. The target will not be created in this situation. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution. and the total time at the end of solution. Ready to drop. Click OK to commit the settings. [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings...2004 . Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. initial translational and rotational velocity. See error messages.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.

2004 . The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. 2.. Pick the second node. 3. 2. 4.. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.6. Pick the first node. 3.For further information about the options on the Status tab. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. 20.. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node. Related Information -.. Pick the first node.

? ? Range Minimum. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below. Increment result set text field -.Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0. Stress. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default).05. The default is unchecked. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example.For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. 1st Principal Stress. Stress-total.Animation Next 16. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -. the default is the first data set. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0. Load Step Range. Animation time delay (sec) text field -. Model result data radio buttons -..Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated. von Mises Stress).Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1).2004 .Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. the default is the last data set.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -.Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing . meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation.. see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Result Set Range.Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Maximum text fields -. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Stress-plastic).5 seconds). Postprocessing . 20.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span.7. Display Type two -column selection list -.Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example.

05. the animation will be created and will be displayed. Postprocessing .. Related Information -.2004 . ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. as well as changing its direction.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference. ? After you choose OK.Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.. Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation.8.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide. 20.

? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default). as initially specified will be graphed or listed. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1. Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. 20.: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt. Center of grav. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above. Velocity.2004 .. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing . Initial Low Pt. Help: Displays this help topic. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed. ? ? Related Information -. y.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them.For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box. then select the x. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system.: Only the lowest point of the object. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed..

and large time steps can be taken.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.2004 . a central difference time integration method is used. The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K]. 20. Convergence tools are provided. ? ? ? A.1. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence.. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method.05. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems.1.2. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method).. and F cont is the contact force.1. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force.

the explicit method is useful only for very short transients. that is. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion.2.2. the implicit solution is always stable. 20. Implicit Method For linear problems. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector.2. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing . The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly). Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled. Due to this very small time step size.2004 . the time step can be arbitrarily large.. Stability Limit A. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. For nonlinear problems.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A. No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties.2.05. A..

3. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod.. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed). 20.9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. For stability reasons. As an example. a scale factor of 0.4.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity). Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l..

The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length.05. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled. c. B.. are dependent on element type. 20. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Inc. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed. Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA.2004 . l. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands. For beam elements: l = length of the element. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model. and the wave propagation velocity.1. Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only.

.2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table.. .

1.1. 20.2004 . Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP..2.210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ex.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B..2.05. Material Model Examples B.

2.1..499 ! No units TB. 20.1e9 ! Pa MP.dens..dens.1.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.44.1. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.121..1.9e9 ! Pa MP. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP.gyz.nuxy.ANEL.1 TBDATA.ez.2.1.1.1.20 ! C01 (psi) B.1.2.5.9e9 ! Pa MP.18.ex.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.6.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.10.5.1.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.dens.3.dens.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.1.2.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.ey.2004 .104e7 ! Pa B.dens.MOONEY.nuyz.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.9e9 ! Pa MP.51.gxz.2.18. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.gxy.1.nuxy.3.2.1.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.307e9 ! Pa MP.4.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.29 ! No units MP.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA.05..4.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA..5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.1.24.21.1e9 ! Pa MP.126.. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.1 TBDATA.1.48.nuxz.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.126.121.gxy.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.126.6.44.1.. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.20 ! No units MP.15..nuxy.358.1.358.2.2.20 ! No units MP.20 ! No units MP.

Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP.2..47.27..5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA..2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP.31 ! No units MP.5 Strain(1) = 0.ex.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB. 20.180e9 ! Pa MP..5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.10 TBDATA.dens.05.1.1.1.210e6.1.1.nuxy.00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.ADD.128..1.YldStres(1) B.5 *DIM.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP..ex.41 ! r-value TBDATA.2.dens.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.2..53 ! 1/ B.1..1.1...218e6.1..YLDSTRES.4.dens.48.PLAW..1..7.214e6.1.dens.nuxy.3.05..29 ! No units MP.30e6 ! Pa MP.4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.61.46.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.0.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.nuxy.1.8.3.15. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.1.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE..2.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.7 TBDATA.29 ! No units MP.2390 TB...9.1.EVISC.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.ex.Strain (1).2004 ..7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.PLAW..BISO.60.1 ! Yield stress vs.STRAIN.2.207e9 ! Pa MP.1 TBDATA.2.

40.3..1.mnstrn (1).6.6 *DIM.45.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB.mjstrn(1) B.0..68 TBDATA..75 ! Failure strain B.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.nuxy.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B. .ADD. .39.ex.nuxy.4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.50 mjstrn(1) = 80.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.4.1...763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.10.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.mnstrn..nuxy. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP.3 TBDATA.44 EDCURVE.2.2.170 ! Barlat exponent.1.2.5.200e9 ! Pa MP.12.20.. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.ex.1.0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA..36 ! No units MP.1..1.76e9 ! Pa MP.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.8.dens.40.0 ! P TBDATA.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.40.05.2.0.4.1 TBDATA.BKIN.27 ! No units MP.1.mjstrn.5.7.5.dens.29.1.6.5. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.1 *DIM.PLAW.2...65 TBDATA.ex.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1.100e9 ! Pa MP.11..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.1 TBDATA.34 ! No units MP..1.dens.1.-10...PLAW.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.1.2. m TBDATA.1..73 ! R00 TBDATA.

1.StrnRate. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs.ElasMod.1.275e6..ex.254 TBDATA. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.6.14.017 TBDATA.3.dens. 1..1.4 TBDATA.dens..4..7850 TB.5 *DIM.29 MP...2...76e9 MP.15.2004 .ex.8.3.1.11 TBDATA..1.023 TBDATA..5.1..4..33 MP.34 MP.1.9861 TBDATA.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs..1.1..2. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0.2750 TB.PLAW.5 *DIM.1 TBDATA.2720 TB.2.32 TBDATA.5 TBDATA..1..65 TBDATA..2.1.250e6.22e5 TBDATA.9761 TBDATA. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP.. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP..13.3.08.PLAW.9...ex..6 TBDATA.PLAW.9.2. 20.209e9 MP..9861 TBDATA.4.290e6.2 *DIM.0 YldStres(1) = 207e6.1.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.75e9 MP.1.1.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.05.YldStres..7 TBDATA.dens.5.16.nuxy.2..nuxy...7. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.1..04 TBDATA.002 TBDATA.nuxy.

ADD..3.YldStres(1) EDCURVE.290e6.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB..ex.17.0. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.75 TruStres(1)=207e6...4.218e9 EDCURVE..4.4..2004 ..5 TruStran(1)=0.215e9.2..2710 TB.250e6.StrnRate(1)..TruStres.2.1.1.5.PLAW.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B..1 ! LCID for true stress vs..0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.211e9.TruStres(1) B.3000e6 EDCURVE.1.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.6.212e9.2..dens.TruStran.1.nuxy.16. 20.05.18.dens.3.207e9 ! Pa MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.3.2.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP..7 ! (ksi) TBDATA.GCAP.6500. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.8 TBDATA.1.gxy.StrnRate(1).1 TBDATA.1.1.69e9 MP.16.1.1.0.40.ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.nuxy.5 *DIM.08.33 MP.4..1 TBDATA..226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.dens.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA..598 TBDATA.4.1.1700 ! ksi MP..PLAW.275e6..0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.2 TBDATA.0 TBDATA.ADD.TruStran (1).216 TBDATA..5.2.ex..ADD.30 ! No units MP.1. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.1.2.1.

.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.025 !c TBDATA.10.2.7.1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.1.6.-.1.nuxy. 20.62 !N B..1.1.19. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP.89...0002 TBDATA.8 TBDATA.36 !n TBDATA.350.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.31 !n TBDATA..884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.-.7.61 TBDATA.7.207e9 ! Pa MP.EOS..1 TBDATA.20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.9.14.291.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.6.1.1.138e9 ! Pa MP.10.30 TBDATA.dens.ex..11.3.022 !c TBDATA..9.7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.1.5.1..8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.6...05.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.2.12..09 !m TBDATA.2 TBDATA.1 TBDATA.2.15.1.18 TBDATA.4.8 TBDATA.4500 TBDATA.11.8.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.5.1.1.1.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.nuxy.30 ! No units MP..240e6 TBDATA.ex..2.17.3.2..4.20.1.473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.EOS.10 TBDATA.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA..35 ! No units MP.dens.0 !m TBDATA.1.5 TBDATA.8.1.13.5.

54 TBDATA.0..9.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.240e6 TBDATA.05. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.4.1..0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.0.2.0 TBDATA...1.0..1.4.EOS.16.014 TBDATA.21.0 ! S2 TBDATA.1..17. 20.489 TBDATA.nuxy..1.1.21.02 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.22.48 !A 0 B.200e9 ! Pa MP.3.23.11.97 ! TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA.2.03 TBDATA.EOS.394 TBDATA.nuxy.2.20.1.21.89 TBDATA.3.2 TBDATA.1.10 TBDATA..8.10.0.16.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.1 TBDATA. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP.12 TBDATA.0 ! S3 TBDATA.2.0 TBDATA.3 ! No units MP.5386 ! C TBDATA.ex.1.19.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA..0..dens..20.18.. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.13.17.2.1.1.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.15.1..18.-3..1.4.4400 TBDATA.19.1.12.14.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.2004 .34 ! No units MP.2..47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B.dens.ex.2.17.-.100e9 ! Pa MP.

4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B.1.18.30. TBDATA.2.2..93 ! TBDATA.rigid.1..EngStran (1).16e6 ! (Pa) MP.nuxy.ex.1.. parameter TBDATA.cable.1.EOS.3 ! No units EDMP. 20.EngStran. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.11.0 ! S2 TBDATA..31..1. temp.16.dens..ADD.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.0 ! S3 TBDATA.04.15..457 ! C TBDATA.2380 ! Absolute melting temp.dens.2.3. parameter TBDATA.0.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.210e6.4 EngStran(1) = ..-50 ! Min.43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA.1.25...7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP..EngStres.33.7.215e6.05.1..nuxy.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3 ! No units MP.10.0.1.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA.207e9 ! Pa MP.EngStres(1) B.32.29.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM.1.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.35 !n TBDATA.24.1.220e6 EDCURVE.5.1.gxy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.200 ! Max.1.17..11. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.ex.2 TBDATA.4 *DIM.2 ! Spall type TBDATA.49.06.49 ! S1 TBDATA..08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.34.1. temp.2004 ..02.5.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.1.207e9 ! Pa MP.1.

ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table.2004 . ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command). The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname.k is created. However. 20. not ANSYS commands.05.k file...

MX. MY. ACLZ. AY. . VZ. OMGZ) EDLOAD. FY.RBOX. (FX. RBFZ. PRESS EDLOAD. ROTZ. RBMY. . AZ) EDLOAD. ROTY. RBUY. (UX. (RBFX. RBVZ. .HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20. UZ. ROTX. RBRZ. . AX. RBMX. RBUZ.2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. RBOZ) EDLOAD. MZ) EDLOAD. +RBRX. (ACLX. UY. RBFY. VY.. FZ.05. (RBUX. OMGY. RBMZ) EDMP. RBVX. VX. RBVY. . . . ..TEMP EDLOAD. OMGX. ACLY.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. RBRY. RBOY.

.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.2004 .

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