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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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1.2.2.2.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.2.2.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B. you can model your structure in ANSYS.2. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.2.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B. 20..2.2.2. and complex contact/impact problems. Using this integrated product.2.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.2004 .05.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B. 1.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.2.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B. large deformation dynamics.2.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B. springback and other applications.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B.2.2. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.2.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1. such as those required for droptest.2. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.2.2. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.2.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B.2 Material Model Examples B.2.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B..2.2.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.

However. Many times.2. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis.. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.05. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Likewise. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. 20.2004 . The three main steps are: 1. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models.. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1. you already know how to perform these steps.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program. and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. If you have not used ANSYS before.

.05.RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 . updates. ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates. 20. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output.

3. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1. You may choose to read through it from front to back. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis. are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05. you are ready to build the model. you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models.. Before you build a model. However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command). 20.2004 . but that may be useful in some situations. see the ANSYS Commands Reference.

For detailed information on explicit elements. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem.05. For detailed theoretical information. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally.5. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.2004 . Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2. 20. Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1...4. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure.

A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. Therefore. rubber. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. including elastic. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. Wedge. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed.1. 20. Poisson's ratio. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. For additional details. midside nodes. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density. 2.1..e. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. These elements assume a linear displacement function. pyramid. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. plastic. SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element.2004 . and foam models. Therefore. such as with foams. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation. For example. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements).. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements. including details of input and output quantities. higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration.05. and elastic modulus.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.1. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. or p-elements. Solid and Shell Elements 2. By default. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3.

Therefore. these degenerate shapes should be avoided. These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations.. You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated). 20.05.

Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay. Therefore. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations.2.2004 . As with solid elements. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu. SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element.3.. 20.. 2. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation. KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu.1. 6. 7. for general analyses.05.1. 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information.

2.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell.. Has four integration points with no hourglassing. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations. 8. 20. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear.2004 .4. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu.05..e.1.5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element.1. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control.5. 2. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay.

. 20. Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set. therefore.2004 .05. C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented.. provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default). the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements. This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

The distribution of strain is always linear.8611 0. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.05.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element. so care is needed in interpretation of results. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials.9062 1. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i.5774 0.7746 0. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior..R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements.e. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior.NSET. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0. For elastic materials. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes. Typically.2004 .. stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). while more points are required for nonlinear materials. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces.. as shown in Integration Points. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness.. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point). 20.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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For the plane stress option (KEYOPT(3) = 0), you can also choose the following materials:
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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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Prev Additional Information Prev Beam and Link Elements Elements

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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2004 . By default. For example. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element.2. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest.3.. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise). The force is applied along the element axis.05. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis.they do not pin the nodes together.. Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . However. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. because it does not have mass. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. for example. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. However. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length). element type. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. To represent a spring/mass system. Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element. and material properties (R. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. 20. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165. and TB commands. you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution. the line of action of the force also rotates.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. In an automobile impact analysis. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). ET. 2. When the element rotates.

SOLID164. IYY. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. and LINK167. The mass of each solid. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3.. In the case of shell and beam elements. You can not input a mass value for this option.. To use this option. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. a rotational inertia is also added to each node. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. (Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. PLANE162. therefore.) Once you have set the analysis preference. To do so. SHELL163. a single value is used. IXZ. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX.2004 .05. IXY. IZZ) via the element real constants. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. BEAM161.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. shell.4. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. IYZ. 20.

In the GUI. Also. Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. the EDMP command). review Material Models of this document. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model. After you select the appropriate material model.05. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models). and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. TB.. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. 3.) For some material models. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. To do so in batch or command mode. In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system. Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. 20. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system.1.2.2004 . you typically use the MP. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element.

Use the TYPE. real constant set. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options.3.g. and REAL commands. For simple models (e.. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI.g. Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements.. line elements only).) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. MAT. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. Mesh the Model After building the solid model. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly. By this method.4. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes. Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method..05. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing. 20.2004 . you specify which previously defined element type.. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model. a stress-strain curve).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e.

Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. Instead. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing.e.. Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry.2004 . They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes.. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details).5. with the EDCGEN command. VMESH. or EDASMP commands. or EDPART. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. If hourglassing is a problem. A brief overview of that procedure is given here. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh. In the GUI. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. etc. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls.). Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. or elements may experience hourglassing.05. a long run time. therefore. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above). use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes. Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. 20.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. avoid areas with relatively small elements). In the GUI. Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM.

EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART). (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command.e. 20.2004 . and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. Use realistic values for material properties. unyielding objects in the model. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response.6. Another command. Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i. Once these components are created.) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. For example.. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff. node components). Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA.05.. If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used. For the single surface contact algorithms. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body..

EDDC. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. EDDAMP. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. If any of the TYPE. REAL. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. EDCGEN . The PART list can be created. issue the EDPART. updated.CREATE creates new PART IDs. Any combination of TYPE. these elements will be assigned PART number 2. They can also be created.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs.UPDATE command. EDPART.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. and listed with the EDPART command. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command..K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. not overwrite it. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE. and MAT IDs. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. the PART list is overwritten. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE.LIST command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs. If the EDPART.7. these latter commands will only update the list. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. If the PART list already exists. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. 20.2004 .05. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. And so on. EDLOAD. and EDREAD).. EDCRB. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. REAL = 2 and MAT = 3.UPDATE). For example. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2. For more information on the EDPART command.

PART number 4 remains. Therefore. b.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed.LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3. The following procedure is recommended: a. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2. but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART. etc. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2. issuing EDPART. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5.CREATE) and list it (EDPART.05. However. which includes the addition of new elements.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts. c. The PART list is shown below (EDPART.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading. issuing EDPART. contact specifications. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..CREATE). Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. Create the PART list (EDPART. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. Continue modeling. d. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. e. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6.2004 . 20. Update the PART list (EDPART.LIST). Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. even if the mesh does not change.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20.05. see Postprocessing.RS02. however. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval. . In order to properly model your structure’s behavior. delete.. Therefore. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop. these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt". Jobname. Note A new results file will be created for each loop.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. In addition.RS01 and Jobname. Loading After building the model. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL.. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D.

they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. VX) appear as degrees of freedom.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. Therefore. 20. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. Death Time. AY. for certain kinds of loads. Please refer to Birth Time. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. all loads are applied in one load step. To apply these nodal loads.2004 . if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time). Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. the F. use the EDLOAD command. expected behavior. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. SF. VY.1. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. In particular. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA.. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX.1. To apply a load to your model. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. Hence. etc. For this reason. For example. Additionally. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4.05.1.. position in the model. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition.

you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal. ROTY. etc. consider the baseball example mentioned previously. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. You may define as many components as you wish. Otherwise. 4. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX.). with each entry of the first array specifying a time value. For the case of rigid bodies. To illustrate the use of array parameters. and then apply loads to each of them. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. FZ. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later. Or. 20. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. However. the nodes on the bat as another component. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. In the GUI. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components.MAT.2. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. Therefore. FY.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component.RIGID. ROTX.. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. and the nodes on the wall as a third component. Therefore. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. ROTZ. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval.2004 .1. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit.) To define a component.05.. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command.

. You also need to define a third component named batsurf..bathand. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default..4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.node nsel. 20.1.. Further.05.2004 ..3.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim.batsurf. It is important to note.node. cm..xdisp..all *dim. dimensions.5. as listed below. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces.2. 4.25.-1.node ! define the component bathand nsel. In a more accurate simulation.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0. nsel. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball.6. Likewise.0. nsel.3.node.ball.zdisp. moments.all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied.1. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads. This component will be used later in the contact specification.s.. Finally. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads.s. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers.. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different.. surface pressures. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads. etc. cm. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle.4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim..3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0.. nodal accelerations. Define an array named time to store the time values.node.-2.0.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0.3.node nsel. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8..time.0..node nsel.s.4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter). the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon.. and material properties in your model. Next. cm. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load.ydisp.node..75. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command]. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand..s.-1.ballsurf. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat.. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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.1 *dim.KEY.fy. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.5yforce(1)=0.LCID.X2.X1.Z2).Y2. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.add. 4.. the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command.075. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession. Death Time. 20.Cname .ADD.11.. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD . Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction.add. CID. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values.DTIME). The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.0 As shown above.. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.yforce.025. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.1. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4..BTIME. see Birth Time.200.. the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts.. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.5 time(1)=0. see Birth Time. If CID is not specified. 4. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command.time.300.comp. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command). Lab.ADD. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.time.05. Some load types do not support birth and death time.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve.Y1.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload.. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time.4. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command..PHASE. The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.1. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS.2. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition...11.Par2.SCALE.2004 .6.1..5.1.05.100.Z1.Par1. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems. Death Time.

Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. you will need to apply constraints to your model. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. but are based on a node component. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. defining nodes where point loads will be applied. you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR. nodal rigid body (NRB). However. It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4. For a rigid joint. see earlier discussion in this chapter). ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints.ADD.2004 . The ENS option has many potential applications. you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry. In the GUI. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid. and rivet (RIVET). and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body. as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. 20.ADD. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command..NRB command are not associated with a part number.ADD.2.e. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. Additionally. 4.1. You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command.STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS). Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program..05. The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution. No other values are valid. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies. i. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. the value specified must always be 0 (zero). shell edge to solid (STS). nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry..2.ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects.

Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above. if you use coincident nodes. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . Coincident nodes are permitted.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. In the GUI. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds.05. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds..RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident. When a rivet is defined. 4. you must specify a valid nodal component. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. In such cases. For a generalized weld. however. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. However. Unlike a spotweld. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. For a massless spotweld. 20. failure cannot be specified for a rivet.. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation.2. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model.ADD.2004 . This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data.2. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis.

use the following procedure: 1. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX. For the VGEN option..3. etc. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL.. EDVEL. and OMEGAZ fields). For both the VGEN and VELO methods. and Z axes. (e. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC. To define an initial velocity. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. VY. EDPVEL. For the VELO option. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.g. 3. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command). initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. YC.05. Note To model a rotating body. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO. cannot be used in the same analysis.g. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node.2. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. a part [EDPART]. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. Due to the LS-DYNA architecture.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4.2004 . or a part assembly [EDASMP].VGEN. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. 2. Likewise. the two methods for defining initial velocities. This may be a single node. Y. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. with or without translations. part. PID).. ANGY. 20. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity. a nodal component [CM]. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations. OMEGAY.VGEN.) around a specified axis.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. Also. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. CPSGEN) can be used to define. CPDELE. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete).LIST and EDVEL. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or.velo. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies. delete.. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. modify.. For each node in the coupled set. CEINTF. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. This means that if the structure rotates. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. CPLGEN. CPLIST. CERIG) can be used to define. For our baseball example. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete).3.. use the EDPVEL. If CP is used in this manner. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes. modify. CPNGEN.05. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number. the CE-family of commands (CE.DELE commands (in the GUI. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. CELIST..-1600.2004 . it could lead to nonphysical responses. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel. Similarly. CPINTF. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node. list. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4.-1600. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure.1. delete. CEDELE. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed). assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model. use the EDVEL. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel.velo.ball. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set. ROTZ) are not allowed. 20. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program..DELE commands (in the GUI. Similarly. ROTY.LIST and EDPVEL. UY.

The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases.05. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials. For this type of analysis. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162. SHELL163. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). 20. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body.LIST and EDNB. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations..2004 .DELE. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. To define a nonreflecting boundary.ADD.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain. use the commands EDNB . Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4.5. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component.1. and SOLID164 element types. LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior. respectively. the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model.4. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. For example..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment.GROUND. Therefore.

2004 . See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. use the BFDELE command.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. use the BFLIST command. In the explicit phase.05. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command. When LDREAD is issued. TUNIF. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature... To use this method. For all three methods of temperature loading. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. In addition. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. 20. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis.. or BFUNIF. overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. it defaults to zero. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model.

20. True dynamic relaxation is used. In this latter case.6. a slightly different approach is taken. EDLOAD . PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands. Par1. ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4.DYNA): This is similar to the previous case.DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. At time zero. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. Therefore. Lab. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate.05. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution. 3. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command).e. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero. Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. This is the default setting. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload.OFF): In this case. Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . ADD..2004 .EDDRELAX. Cname. 2..DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case. . When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve. Par2. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label. 4. In the former case.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS. They are discussed below: 1.ANSYS).. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution).

DB..HIS. Solution Process After the model has been built (i. The header records. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements). (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped.ADD. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written.RST and Jobname. meshing. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case.. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. The input file for the LS-DYNA program.) 2. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used. (At this point. If the EDOPT. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname. boundary/initial conditions.1.) 5. modeling.e.RST and Jobname.. Solution Features 5. 20. loading. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program.05. are written on the two results files Jobname. Before issuing the SOLVE command. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves. Jobname. 3. after completing element definitions.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. Consequently. and termination controls). you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information.2004 . At this point. The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname. real constant and material property specifications. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..K. To work around this limitation.HIS. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve). is written using all information that has been entered so far. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label.

2004 .3) analysis. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. You may set up multiple criteria using this command. Termination criteria .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window. The other termination controls are optional. 20. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. CPU time limit . you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. If errors or warnings are produced. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time . The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced.3. you must have a machine with at least two processors. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. where details of the errors and warnings are written.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done.. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM..2) or a full restart ( EDSTART. (See the EDTERM command for details.2.05. To use this feature.

2004 .78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.SMP..) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time.... Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly.. When used with more than 8 processors.4. the calculations may be executed in different order..... any additional scalability is minimal. When you are using shared memory parallel processing.05.. you should close all other applications on those CPUs..... the larger the problem. or via the SETNPROC macro. 2.. To avoid these differences... This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i. Specify the number of processors to be used. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.e. You can set this value via the config60...00000E+00 time step. 0. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background. you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times... If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available).. If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one.. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run.. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1... For more information on all of these methods. you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt.ans file. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status. you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP.. the higher the potential for scalability. Because of this... switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA.....) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5. (Unlike in ANSYS.. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress....ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses.. please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide...1). nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect. via the /CONFIG command.. 2.. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls. Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses.... 20.. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors.. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time... you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN.. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU.

.. 0.MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used...........00000E+00 total energy.. As the solution progresses. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run...........00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718. To do so.00000E+00 global y velocity... 1.. 20.. 1...00000E-20 system damping energy..05. Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum.. By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.. 1... warnings........... 0. ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run.28205E+01 global z velocity...00000E+03 internal energy....... 0. you can determine the progress of the solution. The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT.......... a value of 30 should be sufficient. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point..00000E+00 sliding interface energy.... these files are written at requested time points... This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed.00000E-20 spring and damper energy.....2004 . etc...GLSTAT EDOUT. the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files......... glstat and matsum are ASCII files. use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started... A restart file is written. 0. 1. The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors..00000E+03 total energy / initial energy.... failed elements. -1... you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates....ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy...00000E+00 global x velocity.. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run.. 1...00000E+00 external work.) The files d3hsp..... The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above).. 0. contact problems..... file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh....... then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers... The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA..... For m (the number of lines to be viewed)..) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp.. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718. You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver.. On a UNIX system........

? Option 1 .Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5.6. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods.2004 .05. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size.. It should be noted. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest).Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command. This option produces the same plot as Option 1. yellow (intermediate). however.This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5. except that all selected elements are plotted. or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes.. Option 2 . There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size.5. Option 3 .

K. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.K. 5.6.1. and if it is a full restart. reside). Method B 1.RST and Jobname. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.R.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files). go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. (In the GUI. After issuing EDWRITE. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. That is.HIS. Jobname. For both Method A and Method B. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. Using another window. reside. (Remember.2004 . 4. 20.. the input file will be named Jobname. Method A 1.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed.. 5. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. etc. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window.k. users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. 2. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26).RST and Jobname. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command.2. Jobname.05.) 4. such as fabric. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. After modeling has been completed. soil. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 3.HIS. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started.6. the input file will be named Jobname_nn. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. Jobname. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files. 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. 3. certain element types.

2004 .K. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required.K. real constants. Also.0 and your input file is “crashtest. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. element attributes (material properties. will be shown. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. 5. (For these reasons. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command). you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest. However.) In all cases. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). 99) to be used as a starting point.3. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. However.K. solve it using LS-DYNA. To use this method. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26. Using a Pre-existing File. run the lsdynaxx script as described above. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the .K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. the original version.k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. where nn is the number of the dump file (01..K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files. nodes and elements must not be changed.) will not be available in the results files.05. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete. Then edit the . When using these methods to modify the file Jobname. (EDSTART command..k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example.k”. and not the modified version. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST. For a restart analysis. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files. depending on what type of analysis you are running.. see Restarting).RST and . is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Thus.6.K. the argument “m=drelax” is also required. Next. For any type of analysis.. This allows you to take a pre-existing file. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”. Jobname. 02. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. where n is the desired amount of memory in words. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. etc. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE).HIS results file headers when only a file. first make sure that the model defined in the . you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors.K input file exists.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis. . 20.

use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid). These contact types. STEP 2: Identify contact entities. and/or part assembly ID definitions. and other parameters related to the contact type.BATSURF.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model. are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”.2004 . and single edge contact (SE). SS. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM.BALLSURF.BATSURF.S. automatic single surface (ASSC). For this reason. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL. PART ID definitions.. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters..NODE. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses... STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type. This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis. When using contact or target components. tiebreak. In other analyses. drawbead.NTS. automatic general (AG). ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. eroding. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact.. surface-tosurface. nodes-to-surface (NTS)..BALLSURF.. For most typical analyses. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur. tied. Then.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis. STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition.. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements.NODE..25. there are no contact elements.1.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. which include node-to-surface.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. 6. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended. as shown in the sample input listing below. single surface. and rigid contact options. You simply indicate the contact surfaces. automatic general (AG).” For explicit dynamics. single edge...S. 20. the type of contact between them. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC. and ESS). You can do this by using nodal components. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult.05.

and SS).1.15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN. 20.1..ASSC.. no contact or target surface definitions are required..25...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN... contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions.05. (FS. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum.. Vrel. no initial penetrations are allowed.STS. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis.15. Therefore.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN.5. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD)..34. N1.1. use great care when defining contact components. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command.. As explained later in this section....28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC.6.3.STS. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity.2.1. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model. VC (also input on EDCGEN ).3. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command. as illustrated below: EDCGEN...2. AG.ESTS. ESS. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS).34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis.N2. A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN.2004 .1. and the exponential decay coefficient (DC). The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally.STS.NTS.. FD.

20. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Therefore. rigid. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact.. as outlined below. For rigid body contact. For both types of tiebreak contact..g. and drawbead contact. for rigid body contact.05.. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. ESS. e. and an unloading stiffness value (V3). and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements.2004 . e.. For eroding contact. tiebreak. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails.g. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding. you must specify a data curve ID (V1). a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. This information varies with contact type. for sheet forming simulation. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics.

1. you must input a load curve ID (V1).00000 VC = 0..ALL and ESEL.1 for the above listing. or delete contact definitions. Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2). However.2004 . and INC fields of the EDPC command. If contact has been incorrectly specified.15000 DC = 0. components or parts). You can specify a minimum contact entity number.05.ALL. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. you can delete it using the EDDC command.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). The plot will consist of nodes or elements.20000 FD = 0. Therefore. 20. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN.Targ. after plotting the contact entities. then deactivate it at a later time. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2). all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted. plot.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. Use the NSEL.Cont.10000 FD = 0. To delete all current contact definitions.DELE. issue the command EDDC. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact. Listing. To delete a specific contact definition. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions. Ctype.08000 DC = 0. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement.1. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted.DELE. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ). maximum contact entity number. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. which help restrain a blank during drawing operations. 6. you can list.00000 VDC = 0. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. Hence. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis. and a drawbead depth (V3).. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. MAX. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities.00000 VC = 0.1. issue the command EDDC.2. A sample listing is shown below. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead.00000 VDC = 0. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command. by issuing the command EDPC. In drawbead contact.

and you must perform at least one small restart. you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed.05.2. you can achieve significant CPU time savings. Thus. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact. 20. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). deactivate.DACT. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS..Cont. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS. FOSS 6.2004 .1.Targ) contact in a small restart.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART . nodes-to-surface contact.Ctype. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed. Therefore.DELE. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS. By considering contact only when it is needed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC .2. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. in this section. you cannot delete.Ctype.RACT. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC . each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed. and surface-to-surface contact.. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. Once a contact specification is defined. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon.3). Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis. AG. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis.Cont. (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC. With such a large number of contact options.

General (Normal) Contact (SS. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. RNTR. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. FOSS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. STS. 3. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. ROTR. there are often several contact options available. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options. ASTS. When it is defined. For shell elements.2. AG. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. Unlike implicit modeling. ANTS. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding.. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target.2004 . NTS. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the following options may be used: 1. The finer mesh is the contact surface. The coarser mesh is the target surface. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact.. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. In fact. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand. The convex surface is the contact surface. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. DRAWBEAD. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. they still are used for a wide range of applications.05. 2. Single Surface Contact (SS. OSTS. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. TDSS. TSTS. ASS2D.2. ASSC. When using solid elements. TNTS. TDNS. FSTS. ESTS. ENTS. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. SE. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. 20. Therefore. In single surface contact. however. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. 6.

If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. 6. When using eroding contact. or eroding options. Automatic Contact (ASSC. It is important to note. 4. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). 20. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. AG. the contact search depth is always limited. For the rigid options. In automatic contact. ASS2D. Thereafter. a symmetry plane option (V1). set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements.2004 . To do this. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. Eroding Contact (ESS. 2. force calculation method (V2). automatic. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. However. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. Tied Contact (TDNS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. 3. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. Rigid Contact (RNTR. the target surface. TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. ANTS.05. UY. ASTS) Along with the general contact family. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command.. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. Therefore. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general.. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. or separate from. the data curve ID (V1). the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. upon application of loads or initial velocities. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. 5. TDSS. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. ENTS. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. after the failure criterion is exceeded. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. rigid body contact (RNTR. When defining tied contact.

which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction. Drawbead contact. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command..05. For the TNTS option. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections. 20. This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions.. During drawing and stamping simulations. 8. When using TSTS. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force.2004 . LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. contact options NTS. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface.. For these contact types. you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions.1. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. Therefore. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). 20. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6. TSTS.3. However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9.2. the neighboring segments are checked. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. and TDNS contact options. 6. Therefore.3.3. Forming Contact (FNTS. OSTS. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. TNTS. FSTS. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. These methods are outlined below: 6.. OSTS.2004 . Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface.05. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking.

LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined.BOXID . 20. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets.2004 . Therefore. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS). DTIME. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm.. STS. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. DELETE.XMIN.Targ. When you specify a contact box. Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain.3. a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box.NTS.. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies.YMIN.3. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 6. a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command. EDBX. EDCGEN. A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. The bucket sort method is extremely robust.YMAX..05.XMAX. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets). and single surface (SS) contact definitions. and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6.ZMIN. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box. . automatic single surface (ASSC). The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types.. Cont.4. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS). which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above.ZMAX ADD.BOXID1.Option. Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration.

the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. NTS. Second. In an explicit dynamic analysis. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa). In cases where the contact is not genuine. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. TNTS.6. OSTS. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6. For this reason. and the contact depth is relatively large. For all of the contact options other than STS. as explained above. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. 20.5. and TSTS. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6. OSTS. To control the contact penetration distance. and TSTS. 0. TNTS.1.. Therefore. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user..2004 . it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion. Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS. NTS. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly.05.6. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness.4 x min side length. TNTS. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. and TSTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options. NTS. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. OSTS. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. For these contact types. 0. Contact Stiffness 6.

Ideally. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. The amount of penetration ( ). or incompatibility. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option. which will lead to numerical instabilities. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command.2004 . Unlike the EDCONTACT command. 6. bodies will pass through one another. If the difference between the two time steps is small. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis.6. 20. Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. however. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. there should be no penetration. by setting PENO to 1. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k. which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. this approach may not be necessary.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program..1 will typically cause instabilities to occur. the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). fs. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. but this implies that k = .2. increasing the value of SFSI above 0. Together with the related mass. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces.1 by default) In almost all cases. overwriting user input for the scale factor. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor. In practice. PENO of the EDCONTACT command.. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise.05. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. The contact stiffness. For example. Without a contact stiffness. the program scales them to closer values. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command.

refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.7...) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7.DC. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. ASS2D. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact.2004 .DTIME For 2-D contact. The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS. The option. For additional information on each material model.05.FS. and DTIME. The available materials are listed below.. DC. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components.FD. 20. BTIME.ASS2D. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter. FD. BTIME. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate.Targ. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior. where applicable. Cont. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.

05.. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 ..

Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and TBDATA..1. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP. TBTEMP. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. 20. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. MPTEMP.2004 . Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models.05. TB.. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions. MPDATA. The next section.

Double-click on a material subcategory. you actually input a material data curve ID. Equation of State. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number.05. double-click on LS-DYNA. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. the subcategories are: Elastic. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. and click on OK. or delete material models via the GUI. edit. under the Nonlinear category. There. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. For example. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. In the Material Models Available window on the right. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. then choosing Edit > Delete..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. 2. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. Enter the desired values. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. do not define extraneous properties. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. and Foam Material Models.2. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. Also.. 5. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. copy. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. Inelastic.2004 . 4. or Rigid Material. Nonlinear. 3. 20. you can edit the data and click on OK again. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears. If you define. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. Discrete Element Properties.

material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I.Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ. Use the MP command to input the required values.PRXY .GXY .NUXY . and L of the element (see the figure below). 7. Linear Elastic Models 7..2. For an example input listing. use the EDLCS and EDMP.e.2. NUXZ). 20. only 21 constants are required. EX).DENS . see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel.elastic moduli (also EY. For a multi-layer composite laminate. EZ).3. PRXZ). Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix. Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model. one value required MP.elastic modulus MP.1. Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model.density MP. one value required or MP. 7.2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants. MP. use the TB.. the other values will be automatically defined (e. one value required MP.2.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ.2.Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing.DENS .ORTHO commands.g. EY = EZ = EX). This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).1. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i. If no material coordinate system is specified.EX .2004 ... See Composite Damage Model for more information.shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ).1.density MP.NUXY . Because of symmetry. J.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide. To specify a material coordinate system.1. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP.EX .1.05.

. C13. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus.05. C33 TBDATA. ANEL TBDATA. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. C26. C35.MAT. This discrepancy is not a computational error. You input density using the MP command (DENS).DENS EDMP. C34.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP. C15. C24.EX MP. C45. 7. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading. To specify a material orientation axis. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. C14. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type. C36 TBDATA.2. 1.2. C44. DENS . If no material coordinate system is specified. 13. and NUXY are all specified. MP.1. C22. use the EDLCS and EDMP.4.density TB. EX.FLUID. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. C56. C16. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above). 7. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. C23.ANEL command. C46. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. C55.VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. C11.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. MP. C25 TBDATA. 19. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. J. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below. 7. For an example input listing. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command. 20.2.2004 . C12.ORTHO commands.

1.2.1.. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY). MOONEY. smaller values may not work.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. is the Poisson’s ratio.0 TBDATA.2. you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus..2004 . (For Poisson's ratio. To use this input method. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB.2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. 2. Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor. V is the relative volume. 7. C01 and : I1 . see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber... Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor.2. a value greater than .05. and ij is the Kronecker delta... MOONEY.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. For an example input listing. C10 TBDATA. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command. 20. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko..2. I2 .. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve.49 is recommended. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model.

4. The parameters . For an example input listing. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. 46..2. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EVISC TBDATA. 6. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model. and width equal to 1. thickness.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values.EVISC and locations 46. 3. 47.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction. 48.3.2004 . Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. 1. 2. G0 . The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 1. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA.. 20. Input these values with TB. In tension. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. V: p = K ln V. In compression. 5. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. 7.05. Alternatively.2. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values.

20.. .EX ntemp MPDATA. 61. . you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command.NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. .DENS MPTEMP.3. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength.2004 . MP.2. 1.. 47. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. (A temperature dependent model is also available. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).1.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB.BISO. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. . 1/ Note For this material option. 48.TEMP 1.1.BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command.1.2. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. and density (DENS) with the MP command. EX 2 .2.EX1 . (The density is temperature independent. .TEMP 2 .EX. .1. 7. .. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. . . Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). (These properties are temperature dependent. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7. 7.2. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command.3. the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). Y (yield stress) TBDATA. K TBDATA. TBDATA. Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature. 2.NUXY.NUXY 1. .3. TBTEMP commands. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model.. For an example input listing. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input.TEMPntemp MPDATA.) Input elastic modulus (Exx).. Input density (DENS) with the MP command.05. BISO TBDATA. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy.NTEMP command.NUXY 2. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass. Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature. . Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.

3. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.ALPX.. 2.3...TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. .7 and locations 1 .PLAW. 1. . . Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. . Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.7 TBDATA.TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA.ALPX1. Etan (tangent modulus) . Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. to the out of plane plastic strain rate..4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Input the yield stress.TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA.. 20.1. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA. 7.05. anisotropic hardening parameter. 2. 1. BISO. PLAW. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP. 1.ALPXntemp TB. 4. Otherwise. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB. Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. the analysis will terminate. NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP.. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 1. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate. tangent modulus.2004 . you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis.. density (DENS). ..2. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs. .. plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ALPX2 . .3. 2.. 2. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.

1.4.3..4.5.PLAW.05. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered. 7.2. For this model. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials..10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE). This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements.10 TBDATA. you must input the density (DENS). the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE).3. y (yield stress) TBDATA. TB.R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. In addition.LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA. elastic modulus (Exx). 20.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.PLAW..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing..2004 . The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section... As shown below.. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience. the additional input parameters are specified using TB.

. 2. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. 20. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. density (DENS)..1 and locations 1 . 5. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Input the yield stress. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB.05. 3. strain rate parameters C and P. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.3. Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).. is the strain rate. PLAW. kinematic. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.3.. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only). density (DENS).. 4. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel.. and the failure strain with TB. 7. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. hardening parameter. p eff is the effective plastic strain. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. BKIN TBDATA.PLAW. 2. tangent slope. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.2.. 1. 7. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature.. or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing. Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress.5. 6.2004 .1 TBDATA. 1.6. Input elastic modulus (Exx).BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.

density (DENS). and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. a and c are anisotropic material constants.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing. is the uniaxial tension in the direction. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above.2004 .2. HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential). yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions. Input the hardening rule type. 20. For the exponential hardening option. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants. All of the anisotropic material constants.. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).05. Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2).3. The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 .7. 7. m is Barlat exponent. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 0 is the initial strain at yield. and n is the hardening coefficient. p is the plastic strain.. excluding p which is determined implicitly.

and L of the element: If CSID = 2. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2).3 and locations 1 .. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. R00 TBDATA. m. the width to thickness strain ratio values. the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I. the Barlat exponent.. 7. and the orthotropic material axes with TB.ORTHO. CSID. and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes.8 of the TBDATA command: TB.3 TBDATA. 6. 4.05. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. 5. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS. and R90 . has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2.PLAW.S2 |m + |S2 . Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA. J.. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182.S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij .VAL1.. and then issue EDMP. PLAW.8. 1. For an example input listing. R00 ... 7..S3 |m + |S3 .2004 . Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. 20.. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented).CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. R45 TBDATA. 3. R90 TBDATA. 2. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 .3.. If CSID = 0. R45 .8. Before specifying the material property. Lege.2. Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA. m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA.

6 TBDATA. isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB. c TBDATA.. PLAW. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . 5. 3.3. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. b. 6. p is the plastic strain..6 and locations 1 .10 of the TBDATA command. Input the strength coefficient. 1. TB.PLAW. the hardening coefficient. 20. 2. 0 (initial strain) TBDATA. For this material option. 0 is the initial strain at yield. the initial strain at yield.05... 7.. the flow potential exponent. and n is the hardening coefficient..a( - where a. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 7.9. 10.. b TBDATA. density (DENS).2.. 4. h For an example input listing. c. g.b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. f TBDATA.2004 . g TBDATA. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA.Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The material model follows a Ramburgh . 9. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. and h represent the anisotropic material constants.c( xx yy xx ) . 8. f. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient. a TBDATA.

strain rate. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 6. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. instead of LCID4 in location 5. m is the hardening coefficient.. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. density (DENS).4 of the TBDATA command: TB. effective strain rate) TBDATA.. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. strain. density (DENS). ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.3..10. is the strain rate..4 and locations 1 . The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0. n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). hardening coefficient.. k (material constant) TBDATA. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs... LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs..5 and locations 1 . and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength. PLAW. strain rate sensitivity coefficient. 2. TB. In this model.. to define failure of the material. effective strain rate. Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. k is the material constant. effective strain rate) TBDATA.PLAW. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient.2.5 of the TBDATA command. the tangent modulus. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. and initial strain rate with TB.PLAW. LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing. 4. effective strain rate) TBDATA. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. 3..5 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain. 3.2004 . The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. effective strain rate (optional). effective strain rate using TB. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 7. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses. 1.. 1. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6. PLAW. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. 2. 4. Input the material constant. 20..05. effective strain rate (optional).4 TBDATA. 5. For shell elements. effective strain rate) TBDATA. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength..

2. (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state. Ezz). NUXZ) with the MP command. COMP TBDATA.. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure. Gyz.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. 2.3.. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA. 6.2004 . see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel. even if the failure capabilities are not used. 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 5.2.2.11..3. Gxz)..1. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. transverse tensile strength. 20. shear moduli (Gxy. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally.2 TBDATA.COMP and locations 1 .. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA.3. 7.. 4. density (DENS). KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. transverse compressive strength. C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. the shear strength. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants. Input the elastic moduli (Exx.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.CONCR.2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB. the longitudinal tensile strength. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates. Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials. NUYZ..05.12.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials. 3.CONCR. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA.. 7. Input all values shown below with the TB. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY. Eyy.

19.15.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.18.2. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA.49-58.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA. especially for steel.12.3. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model.7.33-45.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.14.2004 .69-78.9. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.10.59-68. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.13.17.48. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.20-32. v1 . 1 . 1 .T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7.6.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.47.05.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA.11.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA. C and P are strain rate parameters.46...5.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA.LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA. 20.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.16. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate. strain curve input and strain rate dependency.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.4.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. density (DENS).B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.13.C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA. and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain.A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.8.

Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.. For an example input listing.. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs.6. 4. 2. 3. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used. if C and P are set to zero.2 TBDATA.... 7. Only true stress and true strain data are considered.. the tangent modulus. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel. 1. k is the strength coefficient..7. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model..2004 . P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. 3.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate. strain rate dependency is ignored. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the elastic modulus (Exx)..8 and locations 1 . PLAW.2 and locations 1 . 20.PLAW... Input the yield stress. the strain rate parameter C. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs.05..2.PLAW. 4. the effective plastic true strain at failure. and strain rate parameters C and P with TB. the strain rate parameter P. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Input the strength coefficient.14.7 of the TBDATA command: TB. strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. Further. plastic true strain) TBDATA. 1.3. effective plastic true strain.8 TBDATA.. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves. hardening coefficient. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses.. and n is the hardening coefficient. PLAW. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If LCID 2 is used. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. density (DENS). 5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command. e is the elastic strain to yield. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper .4 of the TBDATA command: TB. 2. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain.

0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.40.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. f (failure strain) TBDATA.. Up to 16 data points may be specified.2. Eh .. Page 82 of 180 7. Input the density (DENS).C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.5-20. 20. Input the parameters described below with TB.C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.05.PLAW.C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.43. 1 .3.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA.38.39. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100.PLAW. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7. Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified. 1 .PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.42.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA..Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. elastic modulus (EX).. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified..37.2004 .2.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB.C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.4. true plastic strain curve.21-36.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.4. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command..45.9 TBDATA.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA.44.41.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. therefore. Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA.4..2. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis.1. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus.

Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid.. is the trace of the stress tensor. 7. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor.2004 . f 2 is the cap surface. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and ..2. and f 3 is the tension cutoff.2. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. . J 1. Next. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. In this model. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. The first invariant of the stress. Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope.4. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details.05. 20.

1. there is the tension cutoff surface.5. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA..3. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.GCAP TBDATA. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA. Finally.2.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the cap surface on the right.R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA.05.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command.7. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA.8. 20. TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically.W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA. Input the parameters described below with the TB. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA.4..9.2004 . TBDATA. the tension cutoff surface on the left.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA. denoted f 3 in the figure.6.

13. the ratio of foam to polymer density. 6. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs. Unlike honeycomb..N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA. 1. is the ratio of foam to polymer density.2. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. Toff < 0. b.2004 .. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure. and c.10. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model. ij is the Kronecker delta. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. 4. FOAM. the initial foam pressure. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete. b. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command.05. and the initial volumetric strain with TB. 20.11. p o is the initial foam pressure.1 TBDATA. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid...6 of the TBDATA command: TB. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress. 7. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a.1 and locations 1 . and c are user defined input constants.12. b TBDATA. For an example input listing. closed cell.C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. Foam Models 7. Input the yield stress constants a.1.Toff (tension cut-off value.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete.5. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain.FOAM.2. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA. c TBDATA. 2. a TBDATA. however. 3..5. 5. TBDATA.

FOAM.2004 . and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA. 4.5. and density (DENS) with the MP command. FOAM. 7. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).0 . FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA.3 and locations 1 .05. .05 and 0.. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU). Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models. the hysteresis unloading factor..no energy dissipation (default) and 0..FOAM. 20.. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. .3 TBDATA. the viscous coefficient.. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. DAMP (viscous coefficient. values between 0..2. 1. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1. a decay constant ( )..2. the decay constant. For uniaxial loading. 3. 4.0 . and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB. 6. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation.5.. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. 3. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness.3. FOAM. respectively. The elastic stiffness.2.. 2.2 TBDATA..4 of the TBDATA command: TB.5 are recommended) TBDATA. default = 1) TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. SHAPE (shape unloading factor. and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB.. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs.2 and locations 1 . Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 5. default=1E20) TBDATA. (decay constant) TBDATA.0 .tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA. strain. the tension cut off (tearing) stress. 1. the initial viscous coefficient. 2.. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. In compression. and initial viscous coefficient. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper.. the shape factor for unloading. TC (tension cutoff stress.full energy dissipation) TBDATA.

FOAM.5. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs.05.2. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant. and t is time.5. 1. 8. DAMP (viscous damping coefficient. 1.Eccu ) (G . In the formulation..Gabu) (G .3 of the TBDATA command: TB.2. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate.tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA. E is the elastic modulus. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA.Eaau ) (E .. and the viscous damping coefficient with TB.Gbcu) (G . volumetric strain) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).Ebbu) (E . Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials.5 are recommended) 7. the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading. volumetric strain. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E . Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. values between 0..0 bulk viscosity active) 7. the tension cutoff value. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero. 2...4 TBDATA.4.. For stresses below the tensile cut off value. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled. 3. The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads.. density (DENS).. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0. It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads.0 .4 and locations 1 .0 . 20. FOAM.no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value.05 and 0.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .

Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. default = 0. 16. LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects. 2. (material viscosity coefficient. 11. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.2004 . Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.05) TBDATA. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs. 3. 15. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs.. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 8. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. This input is optional. Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 17.HONEY and locations 1 . 14. 6.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 13. 20. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 1. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 7. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 10. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Input all values shown below with TB. 9. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs.. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 .05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes. LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. 5. Each curve must have the same abscissa values. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. HONEY TBDATA. 12. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. 4. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. density (DENS). LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs.V).

LOC+4.2. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.2.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.LOC+3.C3 TBDATA.C0 TBDATA.LOC+8.05.6.C4 TBDATA. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded.C1 TBDATA. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy.LOC+1.6. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways.2.LOC+2.LOC+7.V0 (initial relative volume) 7. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models.2.1.LOC+6. 20.6.LOC+5.LOC. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.. 7.C6 TBDATA.C2 TBDATA. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models..) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7.C5 TBDATA.

(See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy. S2. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.C TBDATA.S2 TBDATA.A TBDATA.LOC+13 to LOC+22. 0 TBDATA.LOC+1. a is the first order volume correction to 0.) TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) 7. S1.2004 ... and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+1.05.LOC+2.LOC+7.3. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC+6.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.LOC+3 to LOC+12.LOC+3.6. 20.LOC+4.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.S1 TBDATA. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.LOC+5.LOC.) TBDATA.LOC+2.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.S3 TBDATA. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.LOC. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using. v1 .V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA.

LOC+23 to LOC+32.4. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model.EOS.4 TBDATA. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section). For solid elements. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below).2. B. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A.A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB. Input the density (DENS). Input the parameters described below with TB.6.5... also called the viscoplastic model..2004 .05.HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity.6. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. n.1. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA...21-26. 20. The model may be used for shell and solid elements.2. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range. 7. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA. C. and m are material constants.T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.2.3-20.

m TBDATA.2.D2 TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA. 20.n TBDATA. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).4.EOS.1. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models.Tmelt TBDATA. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).6..D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model.9.D4 TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command..CP (specific heat) TBDATA.14. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.10.D1 TBDATA.D3 TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.11.EOS and locations 1 . * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA.7.C TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper..Troom TBDATA.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB.05.5. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).15 of the TBDATA command: TB.A TBDATA.13. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.B TBDATA. density (DENS). and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.15.pressure cut-off TBDATA.12.1.3. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel..8.

Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.2. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA.. Erosion in tension and compression is possible. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness. Input the parameters listed below with TB. 3. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.6.7.2004 . Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. you can define a viscosity.EOS and locations 1 . 20. 4. Pressure Cutoff ( 0. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). density (DENS). and temperature... Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Optionally.6. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. Input the Young’s modulus (EX). 2.05. EOS.. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass.6. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . so you should use reasonable values.2. 7. 1. strain rate.2. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain.0) TBDATA. EOSOPT TBDATA.

11.13.1.G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model.2004 .B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA. The model must be defined with an equation of state..) TBDATA. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .8.8.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.2.0 to use minimum pressure limit.Troom (room temperature) TBDATA. Input the parameters described below with TB.17. SPALL = 2.19. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS).SPALL (Spall type.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA. 7.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.5.16..05. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command.C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.18.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.14. Set SPALL = 1.C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.2.9.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model. 20.4.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.15.3.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA..G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.10. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure. o (initial strain) TBDATA..G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA.3.0 to use maximum principal stress.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.EOS.7.6.. SPALL = 3.6. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.12.

and f are experimentally determined material constants. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. In this model. V is the relative volume. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Tmo .05. = o. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. p is the pressure. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go.. In this model. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei. b..2004 . h. 20. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. Here.

Thus.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. p cut. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. The pressure limit model.2004 . the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. Whenever exceeds m. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted. 20. SPALL = 2. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff. exceeds the limiting value -pcut . and the pressure cutoff value. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . while max is positive in tension. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. The maximum principal stress spall model. max.. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. TB. SPALL = 3. material melts. is set equal to m..05. pcut. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive). If tensile pressures are calculated. SPALL = 1. p cut. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. y and G are set to one half their initial values. limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value.EOS. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated.. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient.. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. The hydrostatic tension spall model. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. cracking.5. Once spall is detected with this model. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. This option is not strictly a spall model. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. and failure under tensile loads. the pressure is reset to pcut .

.13.DISCRETE.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA.9. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .12.1. 20. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes.5..7.15. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.7. 7.4.2..11.2.. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Discrete Element Models 7.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.10.1..MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB.Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA.A (atomic weight) TBDATA.DISCRETE.05.16.8.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes..FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model.6.7. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA..2.2. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.3.DISCRETE. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.) TBDATA..0 TBDATA.19-28..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.2.18.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA.1.PC (pressure cut-off. Hardening and softening can be defined..a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.7. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA.14. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB.17.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA.SPALL (Spall type. Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model. set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA..

5 TBDATA.) TBDATA.LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening. displacement or moment vs.2..LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4.. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness..2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB. displacement or moment vs.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7.2.DISCRETE.05. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.. respectively.. 20.LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7. Inelastic Tension.4. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency.DISCRETE. Input the model parameters with the TB..2 TBDATA.) TBDATA.2004 .. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.DISCRETE.3.3. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression.7. Input the model parameters with the TB.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs.KU (Unloading stiffness. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA..2..0 is compression only..5. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA.DISCRETE..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB.BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA.DISCRETE. The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading. 1...DISCRETE.2..2..2.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB. displacement/twist relationship.3.. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.)) TBDATA.) 7.KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.7..1. 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.7 TBDATA.1.7.3 TBDATA.0 is tension only.DISCRETE..7.LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs..) 7.1.5.6.CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1.. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.2.3.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.2. Optionally..or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only. 0.1. Input the spring elastic stiffness...0 is compression only (default).

the offset should be a negative length... Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes. F.DISCRETE.6 TBDATA.. 0).7.. The force is given by: F = K x max( L.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7.DISCRETE.2.. generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables.7. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0..BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA...6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB.Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA..offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167.1.8.DISCRETE. the offset should be positive.7.6. 0). For a slack cable. The force.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.4.(initial length .2.COPT (Time implementation option) 7.. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes...1.3.TC (Cutoff time.) where L is the change in length L = current length .KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA. Optionally. rate-of-rotation relationship.1. Input the damping constant with the TB.DISCRETE..4 TBDATA.. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0. Input load curve ID with the TB.0. ) 7.1 TBDATA.DISCRETE.DISCRETE.5.FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.9.. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs.2.. If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. For an initial tensile force.2.2004 .7. 20. No force will develop in compression.LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs...1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB...

However. Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading).2.8. Y.. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid. cannot share a common node. and Z displacements VAL2 .e.2004 .. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type.DENS MP. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead.05. Rigid Model 7.RIGID. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified. Therefore. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex).Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Two independent rigid bodies. the change in length over the initial length. i. For example.MAT. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. Along with the EDMP command. 7. to define a rigid body for material 2.. issue: EDMP. 20. The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis.Load Curve ID For an example input listing. if more than one node is constrained. see Cable Material Example: Steel.EX EDMP. This material number.2. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command. however.1. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes. multiple rigid material types must be specified. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. For this reason. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements.8.CABLE. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain.2.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).

two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. and displacements are transferred to the nodes.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. For an example input listing. In addition.7. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. When rigid bodies are defined.PARTS should be issued. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. Hence. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. NEQN. the command EDCRB. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless. you can assign inertia properties. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value.2004 . Therefore.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X.2. see Rigid Material Example: Steel. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. After defining a rigid body.ADD. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. The motion of the body is then calculated. Y.PARTM. center of mass. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. 20. mass. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. By default. a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body.RIGID.. the command EDMP. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. see Material Models. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. When using the EDCRB command. the mass.05.

TM is the translational mass.ircs..3150E-03. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart.inert2.Ivect. Specifying Inertia Properties By default. 0 inert2(1) = 0.05.6 *dim..2. DELETE.Cvect. 20.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.coord2. 0. CID is a local coordinate system ID.Vvect.velo2. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system.TM. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body.ADD.2851E-03 ! EDIPART.Option.CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined.IRCS. 10. you can input all of the above parameters. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity.velo2.. For batch input. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia.inert2. 0. . 0. edmp.coord2. However.1..2851E-03.rigid.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body . Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part.PART. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution. The command format is EDIPART. 0.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0.2004 .. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command. . PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.5000E+00. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. including the required array parameters.3 *dim. or LIST).0E-7.tm. 0. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. . You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body. . which is a rigid body. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0. Option is the option to be performed (ADD.2450E+01. 0. mass. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2. . 0.

. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis. (Note that for other load types. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. Loading As described in Loading. for the rigid body load labels.2. you can achieve significant savings in computation time.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state.ADD. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD. To improve efficiency for this class of applications. and then back to deformable. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. 20. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage.. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. then restart the analysis again.RBUX. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable.05.. You need to stop the analysis. For example. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. long duration.2.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. a component name is input in this field. PAR1. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes.3. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. define the part switch. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications.2004 . However.

some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties). simply leave MRB blank. 7.D2R. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. For rigid body switching to work properly. In the current LS-DYNA implementation. PART. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD.NRB.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that.R2D.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. then issue EDRD . the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number. After a deformable-to-rigid switch.. (In the GUI.05. Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body. the choice of element formulation is critical. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged.2004 . Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. COMP1. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. PART In a new analysis. (In the GUI.4. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions. If you do not define the inertia properties. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable. they will be calculated by the program. and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161. 6. See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch.. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. 20.D2R with no additional arguments.ADD. where COMP1 is a node component.

or beam elements. These modes. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity. which is automatically calculated by the program. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i.2004 . or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. It is generally not recommended. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields.e. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time.. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. In general. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. 20. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. however.. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. but not triangular shell..05. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes. triangular 2-D. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant.

For this command. c. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior.. In these cases. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. metal plasticity. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). 20. and Poisson's ratio). However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. the material number. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model. for a given mesh.HGLS.2004 . Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). As a general guideline. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy. the hourglass coefficient. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results.) Using this method. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes. (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient. elastic modulus. You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model.05. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model.15. which is a function of material properties (density.. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified.) Note that for a given set of material properties. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed. Also. the minimum time step size t min. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0. particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. l min. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model. However. the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. and bending. and the sonic speed.

? Of the two methods listed above. mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. For example.. 20. element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.9).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0. the same time step size is used for all elements. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and mass scaling is applied to all elements. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis..2004 . Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. If DTMS is negative. when using mass scaling.05. the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways. It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. When mass scaling is requested.001% mass to the model. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive.

step depending on their size. also known as mixed time integration. To control the time step size after mass scaling. 3rd. etc. the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd.. Thus.. 2. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly.05. 3. elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. By part number for large vector blocks.. If subcycling is turned on. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size.2004 . even the larger ones.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. 20. Subcycling Subcycling. 4th . ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. By element number in ascending order. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command.

05. Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise. Note the distinction between the Jobname. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12. consequently. 12. or to view animated results. With an explicit dynamic analysis.RST) vs. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26). Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST..1. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and.RST and Jobname. thus.RST and the Jobname.HIS files: The Jobname. Inc.1. However. History (Jobname. Results ( Jobname.RST file. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled.2004 . contains solutions for the entire model. or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors. POST1 and POST26.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs.1.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq). this processor is not supported by ANSYS. rigid bodies. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time. 20.. Output Controls 12. used primarily in POST1 processing. Nodes that are included in constraint equations.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname.

used in POST26. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname. For example. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis. For details on creating components. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL. Furthermore. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.HIS file. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces).) As a comparison. may exceed the system limit. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command.RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results. Create a component consisting only of those elements. the number of time steps in the Jobname. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting.elem !Create element component elm1.nod1 EDOUT.HIS and other output files. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data).node !Create nodal component nod1. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes. Generally. Jobname. Therefore. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname.NSTEPS EDHIST. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system.elm1.2004 . in the Jobname. NSLE !Select nodes from elements.05. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART). specify the number of time steps.GLSTAT EDOUT.1 !Select elements of material 1.1. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results.HIS.elm1 EDHIST. !Specify the name of the element component. but for only a portion of the model. the data to be stored in the results files. CM. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics). choose a set of elements for which you want to review results.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results. For large models. The Jobname. a system error may occur. it is usually 1000 or more.. and the ASCII files to be written. !Specify the name of the nodal component.RST and Jobname.S. the element and nodal components to be analyzed. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands). CM. 12.nod1.SPCFORC EDOUT. the Jobname. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis.MAT. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space.HIS file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.3. 20. 12. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26.1.2. The remaining data will not be written. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME..MATSUM EDOUT. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met.RST and Jobname.RST file is usually less than 100. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. In this case. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points..

the printing or plotting command will be ignored.1. use the appropriate plotting command (for example. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. you may want to issue EDOUT. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. (During the LS-DYNA solution.. for example. or element table operations.2. and the model will behave as expected physically. the elements are still in the selected set. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. If you are using command input. When you display results in POST1.RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy).RST file. stop. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. 20. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail. COMBI165. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions.) 12. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below). and otherwise control the animation. Stress data will be rotated during printout. You can display the deformed shape.2.05..ALL to write all possible ASCII files. When using POST1.2004 . and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. display. and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1).SLEOUT EDOUT. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In some cases. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. However. show contour and vector displays. the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. resume. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161. failure strain). Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname.NODOUT EDOUT.

SHELL163. For more than 5 layers. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration..Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell.Item 12. By default.) Also by default. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule. For beam elements. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). the number of layers you specify using EDINT.05. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. LINK167). Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. If NIP = 2. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid.2. MASS166.NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. For faster plotting. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2). By default. To get results close to the element surface. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. data is only available at the middle of the layer. 20. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. SOLID164. the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. the results at the top correspond to integration point 2. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. regardless of the BEAMIP setting. Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. In this case. no matter how many layers exist. However. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. COMBI165. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element. there is no stress output.LOC command. especially in bending. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). If you set BEAMIP = 0.Item. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)). PLESOL ). for strain data. Further.2. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. However. for that matter).2004 . and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties.. BEAM161.

However. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. . care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio.05.Third mesh refinement etc.2. the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model. Note Because of the multiple results files.LIST ! ! SET.. using the FILE and /SEG commands.RS01 ! ! SET.Jobname. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step. Also. 12. The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162.. Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20. .Second mesh refinement Jobname. nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files. As the number of elements in the model changes.DB file).EPPL] for these element types. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files.First mesh refinement Jobname. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used. You should not resume the original model database (. SHELL163. Jobname.RS03 . /POST1 FILE. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing). Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL. and SOLID164 elements. Therefore.3.2 ! ! PRNSOL.RS02 ..1. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session.RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used. you could write a macro to create the desired animation.

num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST. such as different energies. work.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE..NCOMP are specified. !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Jobname.HIS and Jobname.RST file. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs. MATSUM. NODOUT.num2 ESOL NSOL STORE.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname. known as variables.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record. To generate results. 20. with variable number 1 reserved for time. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements.05. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26. Each variable is assigned a reference number. SPCFORC. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The Jobname.) 12. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. the results will be read from the Jobname.1.HIS file. . RCFORC. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer.3. however.2004 .MERGE .3..HIS file into POST26.MERGE LAYERP26.RST. SLEOUT.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. and reaction forces. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname. Care must be taken when reading from the .

see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12. or both sets of data. you can choose to plot unsmoothed. 12. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points. SPCFORC.2004 .. smoothed. NODOUT.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. 12. After EDREAD. To plot the results. Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables. respectively. respectively.4. Four arrays are required for smoothing data.3..2. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). but if you are working in batch mode.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter. SLEOUT. ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing.Jobname. MATSUM. including POST1 and POST26.3. If you are working in interactive mode. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation). The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data).3. Once these arrays have been created. MERGE for each layer. Once stored. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. 20. first issue FILE .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables. and RBDOUT files. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. LAYERP26. DATAP defaults to all points. etc.05. RCFORC. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only.

For example. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems.2004 .05. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. a restart "dump" file is written.. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis.1. By viewing the development of the error. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. The Restart Dump File By default. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. d3dump02. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. materials that are no longer important. 20. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis. To change the model and continue calculations. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. After the completion of each stage.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. etc. 13. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart.. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it.

d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. For this type of restart. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C).2. or a full restart.2.HIS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI.2.. 13. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary..1. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option). you must issue the command EDSTART.1. 13. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). then issue the SOLVE command.05.RST and Jobname. 13.DB) has not been changed. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART . a small restart. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST.3. A New Analysis For a new analysis.2. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted.. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname.2004 .. The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname.d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database.2.. you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example.. 20. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below.2. a simple restart.

Furthermore. in Jobname. etc. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). it is important that you issue EDSTART . in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart.. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. 20. Be sure to issue EDSTART .) Note When postprocessing the restart results. After the first small restart analysis. For example. The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. deactivate. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files. In some cases. Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete.2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart.05. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command). If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command. or even a series of restart analyses. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. ACLEAR. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis.. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. Another example is mass scaling. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart.2004 .2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description. that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. If you do select such parts. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. you may choose to perform an additional restart. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. In a small restart. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). results are appended according to the time value. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis.RST. In other results files. even if no switch is being made. 3. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis.

K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands.05. To initiate a full restart. 2. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. Repeat step 3-6. 5. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed. When LS -DYNA starts execution.. Typically.K. Issue the commands needed to change the model. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. or to apply different loading conditions. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01.ADD. 7. If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model. You would issue the command EDSTART . Post-process the results..2004 . The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other.2.. Issue the SOLVE command 6. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE). Page 119 of 180 13. If you issue EDIS with no arguments.) When the EDSTART.4. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties. as needed.K. 3. you must issue the command EDSTART . Create the initial model and run a new analysis. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart..3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart. To do this. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart. the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. For example.2 with an appropriate d3dump file. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below. you may need to consider more materials. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. In a full restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. Jobname_01. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname.d3dump01. 20. 1. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field.3. 4.3 command is issued. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must issue the command EDIS. parts having the same part ID). PIDN. Post-process the restart analysis results. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field. these are discussed below. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses). For example. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. Issue EDSTART. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized. to remove portions of the model.

. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. material number. 20. During the initialization. the initialization is “all or nothing. ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis. However. material number. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. However. as described below. In this case. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01.LIST and EDPVEL. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart.DB). and previously existing parts will not be altered. the part cannot be initialized. in the same order. use a different element type number. stress initialization may fail for those parts.2004 .” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. Again. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. all discrete elements will be initialized. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part.LIST. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is.05. or real constant number for those elements. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way.. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. For discrete elements (COMBI165). If this is not the case. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. In addition.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. the same number of elements. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. use a different element type number. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. as stated above. Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart.) To avoid a mismatch in parts.

For a small restart. For a simple restart.HIS.) are appended with consecutive time markings. In this chapter. Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. In a full restart. e. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa. you need to use both solution methods. new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.).g.RST file (similar to a new analysis). you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart.HIS ). matsum. etc.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small).HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat. however.1. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn. the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01.. ASCII output files. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. the history file (Jobname.…) automatically. To solve these problems. The results in Jobname_nn. 20. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis. are not renamed and will be overwritten.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart. Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13.. Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena.RST.3. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname. etc. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis.RST. For both the simple restart and small restart.3 is issued. Jobname_nn. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart.2004 . Just issue EDSTART. Each time EDSTART . while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code. 02. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. 14.. matsum.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1.RST and Jobname_nn.05. glstat.

the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations. In most dynamic metal forming operations. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 2. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. This release of energy. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. 11. Hence. In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). 2. This elastic energy. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. 6. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase.. 20. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. 9. 7. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185). springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. In the explicit metal forming analysis. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. which is the driving force for springback. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. stresses. Specifically.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. Then the deformed shape. using Jobname1. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. 1. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed.. 8.2004 .DB. 10. In addition. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. Solve and finish the analysis.

and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see step 12).DB file at this point. PLANE162. 3. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163. Redefine the key options.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. cannot be used in a sequential solution.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved. Command(s): ETCHG. 20.ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5..05. Command(s): /FILNAME. material properties..2004 . Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types. real constants. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. boundary conditions. and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. (Note that the 2-D explicit element. Re-enter the preprocessor.

Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. converted to null elements.) The TYPE.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8. these elements must be unselected. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis). Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling.. or convert them to null elements. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings.. but you do need to redefine the other values. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. deleted. deleted. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. 20. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration. 7. For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis.2004 . REAL.05. Also.Update Geometry 9. Command(s): SHPP.

Turn large deformation effects on. Command(s): NLGEOM. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185). in a metalforming analysis. etc. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. otherwise.. 20. only the stresses are transferred. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13. the implicit analysis will be terminated. 12. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. you need to constrain the blank). For SHELL163.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11.. For SOLID164.05. Command(s): D.2004 . the stresses and thicknesses are transferred. or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12). Re-enter the solution processor.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc.

2.list resume. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results.1..n3..stamp1..0.s.0 esel.on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport..stamp2 /prep7 etchg.. Solve and finish the analysis.stamp1.. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis..uz d.stamp1.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.n1.01.0.ux.....rst d.0.eti r.2004 .all..uy d...n2.db /filename.05..01.uy..01 ddel.0.ux...dyna.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14.off finish /solution nlgeom.ename.181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle..0.ux. /batch.all upgeom..01.all tbdelete. 20. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.s. The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution.1 shpp.

Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements. being very thin. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run. tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures.05. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below.. ? ? 14. you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle. ? Slenderness of the structure. Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part.1.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command).2. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom. In each substep. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis.OFF. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run. 20.2004 . try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. ? The model is improperly constrained. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. When the tools are removed..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part.

This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution.. implicit-to-explicit. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains. 20. however. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15.05.2004 . is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis. The first type.ON).) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization.

you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. adding plasticity). This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax.1.05. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file.. 1. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. initial velocities. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful.. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. different material models (e. In this implicit analysis. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15. etc.. the bird in a bird-strike problem).. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. 20.2004 .g. which are used only in forming applications. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions.g. using Jobname1.. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response. After defining additional loads. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled. but are not used by LS -DYNA. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry.

DB file at this point.2004 .. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis. Solve and finish the analysis. but they need to be defined here nonetheless.. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. Command(s): /FILNAME.DB. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest). 5.ALL.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D.0). Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. the bird in a birdstrike simulation.ALL.05. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2. 20.

) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file.. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only. as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes. Re-enter the preprocessor.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. Note that the 2-D explicit element. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution.05.2004 . but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition. see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.. PLANE162. 20.

Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. 8. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. REAL. However. you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well. Also. Redefine the key options. their corresponding companion explicit element types. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. LINK160 and LINK167..ITE. and loading values on the explicit elements. require a third (orientation) node. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4.05. above. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. however.ITE. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. boundary conditions. real constants. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node.2004 . The TYPE. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4.. Re-enter the solution processor. optional node. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. BEAM4 allows you to define a third.

. Read nodal displacements.2004 . 20. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. drelax. if necessary. In this step. /batch. rotations. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14..list resume. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. and temperatures from the implicit results file. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis.05. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.drop1. You can then return to the implicit solution. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis.

s. 20. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis.. d.ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart.ite mp. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above).7. TUNIF.rigid.all tb. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued.uy.0 nsel.all. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body..create ! Create parts for loading edpart...rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax. BFUNIF.time.7 edcgen. BFK.2004 .1.x.K. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).2..list ! List parts edvel. and TREF commands. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF.2. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file. In the explicit analysis phase.a.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command).assc nsel. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.loc.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.0 finish /solution rexport. Jobname.… ! Apply initial velocities edload.1. etc.1.8 edmp.rbvx..0 d.dyna.load.. these include temperature loads applied with the BF.05.drop1.1. BFV.0216 ddel.plaw.drop2 /prep7 etchg..y.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15. Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above.dens.add. LDREAD. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis.. BFL. BFA. However..all. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above.loc.ux.

The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis.2. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain.. Therefore. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D.. but they can be defined here if desired. Currently.05. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. 20. 2. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.TEMP.2004 . the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. 1. VALUE).NODE. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. Solve and finish the analysis. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1.

Command(s): /FILNAME.DB file at this point.. Re-enter the preprocessor. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved.DB. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.2004 .05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten. 20.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. 5.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

05.1.20. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity. 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.etip.0.loc.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion.9e11.all nsel.1.0e3 esel.34.1.2004 .0.502.. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.32.8e11.ext sf.1.c.1.1. 1.8030. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 .0e-5.loc.1.all. W/m-C ! specific heat.0 nsel.31. 700. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata. 1. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.all etchg.0.0 edmp.all. 0. 5e-5.1. degrees Celsius mptemp.all.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end .conv.all ddele.all sfdele.last plnsol.1.0.1 mp.0 nsel. 500. 0.density cannot be temp.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio.hgen.all.5 vmesh.11 esize.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam. 0. 6.hgls.0 nsel.0e11.6.0.3 mp.dens.0.1.alpx.s.ex.static time. 1100.s. 1.5e11. 2. 5..93e11.300.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp.z.s. 0. 900.5e-5.1..ntip.0 block.3.node esln cm. 20.tte mp.temp /wait. m/m-C mpdata.0 d.elem bf. 0.all finish /solu antype.explicit /prep7 bfdele.1.all save solve fini /post1 set.all.temp. 0.1. 1.nuxy.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.kxx.11 cm.33. 0. 0.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity.16. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.1.all.z. 6. 0.78e-5.5e-5. unitless mpdata..

Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1..rth bflist nsel..1.2e6 tbtemp.all nsel.15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0)..1. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario.last /dscale..3e6 tbtemp..10 plnsol. ! ! Alternately..700 tbdata.0.1.thermal.7e6 edpart.uz esel.. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e..create eddamp.e.0.all time..x.g. modulus of elasticity) are desired.0.0 tbdata.1.7000.1100 tbdata.8e6 tbtemp..glstat save solve fini /post1 set. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition..1.ux.1200 tbdata.biso.etip edout..05. stop vibrating)..1.8000.1e6 tbtemp.s. 20.all.ntip edhist.30000.01 fini /solu ldread. a thermal shock condition is created.0.loc.500 edhist.9e6 tbtemp.900 tbdata.20000.temp.all.0.epto.2004 .uy.last.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb. edrst.10000.100 edhtime.9000. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution.6 tbtemp..z.0.0 d.500 tbdata. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i.

For most drop tests. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. This reduces computation time.. graphics mode. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk). In a typical drop test. For example. For example. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. Drop Test Module 16. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target. Thus. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. When this option is used. do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). For all drop test cases.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target.05. specify solution controls. The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module. the module automatically creates the target. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g).2. rigid surface (the target). A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. contact surface friction coefficients. 20. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test. Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis.1..2004 . the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact.

05. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. neglecting surface friction. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is.3. such as inclusion of surface friction effects. properties.3. In the DTM. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16. All elements should be defined and all material properties. and orientation. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details. and modification of the target size..1. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.3.2004 . the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped. should be specified. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses. Before you begin. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows). More advanced features. Thus. 20. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. rigid surface (target). explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model. including damping. 16. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module.1.1..

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero.3. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. 20. 16. Velocity tab -.1. Otherwise. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. initial translational and angular velocity. and define contact and friction properties for the target. tetrahedron. Target tab -. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular. no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. To avoid time increment degeneration problems... A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. rotate the target. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As). See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. Status tab -. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g). You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis.Modify dimensions and material properties of the target. object orientation. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. and the estimated time at the end of solution. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM.Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. run time after impact. you will not be able to set up the DTM. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.05.2004 .2. analysis start time. object drop height.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.

2. and specify a reference point. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data. 16.RST) and to the time-history file ( file. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16. or you can type your own value. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis. 16. see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. STEP 7: Solve Before solving.5. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. 16. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386. Under the Number of Results Output heading. 3.1. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab. that is. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. 20.3. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages.2004 .3.1. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM.3. 16. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages.1.6.2. Under the Drop Height heading.3. as well as the run duration time after impact. 32. Under the Solution time heading. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g).3. Review the information under all of the tabs.7. Reference point options include the lowest object point.). You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1.1.05. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.4. etc.HIS). check them in the ANSYS Output window.. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction.3. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example). you type the drop height. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.1. If you choose the Status tab.4.. Under the Gravity heading.

Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. 16. See Postprocessing . which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). See Postprocessing and Postprocessing . and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed.. (g). it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined.3. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity.9.. Make changes if necessary.8. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field.2. Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction.1. 20. which are fixed. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve.2004 .1.3. By redefining the object Y direction. screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen. screen Cartesian coordinates.3. At this time. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates. you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. (g). 16. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS. all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. are defined automatically. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. then choose OK. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information. 16. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. For animating results.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box.05.

the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). After you specify a drop height. You should avoid using this name. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. To use the option to start the analysis near impact time. it will require more computation time. the initial angular velocity must be zero.3.. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. You should avoid using these names. ? During initialization. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed.. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target.2004 . This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario. However.3. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. or "out". However. 20. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped.05. you will notice that. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. coupling of components within an object is allowed. by default. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The keyword is DTFILT. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object. 16. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. Within the DTM. as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase. so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way.) If you do not choose to orient the object. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. After doing so. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”.

4.1. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. simply input the X. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry.. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four.05. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates.. in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. and Z components of the velocity. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. Y. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. Details on these features are included in the following sections. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab.2. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.4. After choosing the desired option.4. under Solution Time in this user's guide. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact.2004 . This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. and specify contact surface friction coefficients. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". 16. Object Initial Velocity By default. however. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. modify the target's position and properties. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. as discussed below. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. 20. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . 16.

there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane.. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL. Under the Dimensions heading.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center.2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. size. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L.05. material properties. orientation.1TL. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity. By default.1.4.. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections. 20. 16. To change the target position. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses.2.2004 .4. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. 16. But if necessary.

5. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus. 16. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model.3. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. and therefore normal to (g).2.2004 . density. 16.2. the target is re-drawn automatically. the target is re-drawn automatically.4. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object. If you change the target's orientation.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. 20.MAT.RIGID.4.. a material density. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up.5. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution. and Poisson's ratio.4.. and stores the corresponding material number. If you input Ls=2. If you know the actual target material properties. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. To specify the properties. To modify the target orientation. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. density. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. modulus of elasticity. By default. For example. Under the Dimensions heading. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model. it is preferred that you input them directly. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. If you change the target's size. Thus. you can enter two target scaling factors. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS). Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. enter the Young's modulus.4. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. Target Orientation By default.2. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. As an example. density.7. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid.05. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material. and the target height is 0. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis.0 and Ts=0. under the Material Properties heading. choose the Target tab. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s). 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab. choose the Target tab. The modulus. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. then. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. Under the Orientation angle heading.1T sTL.

you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters.. and the estimated time at the end of solution. before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box).05.5.. including the target surface. in order from left to right. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. If you do not change parameters FS.0. then choosing the Target tab. are Basic. The tabs. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Velocity. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .5. The target is then created and loads are applied. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task. or FD. Target.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. then they have default values of 0. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages.5. initial translational and angular velocity. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box.2004 . the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. and Status. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab.1. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16. 20.2. 16. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page.

Gravity -. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object. referenced to the screen coordinates.Specify the magnitude of gravity. Drop Height -.2 9. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM..05..2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below.4 32. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped.81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped. 20.Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved.

or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then the information is stored. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. ? Solution Time -. By default.Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. To use this option. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. which is the case just before impact. Therefore. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. starting from when the object drops. is not equal to the specified drop height.. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide). If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. and the calculation is not repeated. However. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. Set Orientation -. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. measured along the screen Y axis.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. . Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered.05. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. the angular velocity must be zero. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box.. If this option is used. If an initial translational velocity is applied. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box.

see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16. Number of Results Output -. See the EDHTIME command for details.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file.. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 20.05. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname. See the EDRST command for details. You may define additional nodes. Refer to the EDHIST command for details.For further information about the options on the Basic tab.3. ? ? Related Information -.5. On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target.HIS. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Help: Displays this help topic.RST.

and choose to start the analysis near impact time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. the initial angular velocity must be zero. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. and it will automatically recreate the target. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). If you apply a translational velocity other than zero. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity.05. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -. If these conditions are not met. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time).Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped.. as described below. 20.Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time.. Translational Velocity -. Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change.2004 .

Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity..05. the target is automatically created. ? ? Related Information -. Also.5. Dimensions -. use the Target tab to specify the options described below.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab. Help: Displays this help topic.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab.. 20. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16.4.Specify the target's position and size.

The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes. The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis.0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value. If only a single node exists on the object at this point. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you). then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point. ? ? Contact -. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis. A warning is printed to the screen. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis.. Then. and the target is returned to its previous orientation. then the input is considered to be invalid. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. ? Orientation angle -. Therefore.. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. The default thickness is equal to 0. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN .ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. divided by 2.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio.1 times the default length. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. 20. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value.Specify the material properties of the target. divided by 2.2004 . the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes.05. The default length is determined by ANSYS.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . Similarly.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. Material Properties -.

Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient.5. Help: Displays this help topic. Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0.0) You type the static friction coefficient. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand. but not as robust. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact.2004 .05.5.. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact. see the following sections in this user's guide.

if necessary. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. Ready to drop.05. and the total time at the end of solution. Unsuccessful set-up. [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings. Proceed with caution. Click OK to commit the settings. 20. The target will not be created in this situation. a zero entry detected for the value of gravity). See error messages. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. Then. Click OK to commit the settings.. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution.2004 . Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. See error messages. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur. initial translational and rotational velocity. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems..

The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. 3. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node. Related Information -. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. 20.For further information about the options on the Status tab.2004 . The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. Pick the first node. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction. Pick the first node.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button.. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. Pick the second node. 2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1. 4.6. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. 2. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box..05.. 3.

Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0.05. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0. Maximum text fields -. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below. Stress. The default is unchecked. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -. von Mises Stress). 20. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default). meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation.5 seconds). see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing . Animation time delay (sec) text field -.For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. Stress-plastic).2004 . Postprocessing . Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing . Increment result set text field -.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. Display Type two -column selection list -.. Stress-total. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. Load Step Range. Result Set Range. the default is the first data set.Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1)..Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example. ? ? Range Minimum. the default is the last data set.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -. 1st Principal Stress. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.7.Animation Next 16.Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated.Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Model result data radio buttons -.

. 20.. the animation will be created and will be displayed. Postprocessing .8. Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide.2004 . ? After you choose OK. Related Information -. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. as well as changing its direction. Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box.05. ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing .Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing .Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.

20.: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.. y. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing . Velocity. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default). Help: Displays this help topic.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed. Center of grav.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. ? ? Related Information -. Initial Low Pt.For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box.. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system.05. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above.: Only the lowest point of the object.1.2004 . Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system. then select the x.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them.

The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K]. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Convergence tools are provided.05.. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems. 20. and large time steps can be taken. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence.2. ? ? ? A.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.1.. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear. a central difference time integration method is used.1. and F cont is the contact force. Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method.2004 .1. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force.

1..2. Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing . No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the time step can be arbitrarily large. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector. that is. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties. Stability Limit A.2.05.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces. the implicit solution is always stable.2.. Due to this very small time step size. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. Implicit Method For linear problems. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly).2. 20. the explicit method is useful only for very short transients. A. For nonlinear problems. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled.

05. For stability reasons..2004 . Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity). 20. a scale factor of 0. As an example. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed).3.9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A.4. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step.. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l.

and the wave propagation velocity.1. 20. Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled..05. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS.2004 . and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. Inc. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands. B. c..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length. For beam elements: l = length of the element. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model. Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only. l. are dependent on element type.

2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20. ..05.

2.ex. 20.2004 . Material Model Examples B.210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.2..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B.1. Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP..1.

2.3.20 ! No units MP.121.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.05.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.1e9 ! Pa MP.29 ! No units MP.gyz.5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.1.nuyz.48..MOONEY.gxy.358.44.126.1..1 TBDATA.1.5.nuxy. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.6.1e9 ! Pa MP.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.15.1.1.2.. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.499 ! No units TB.51.1.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.2004 .5.20 ! C01 (psi) B.44..121.2.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.1.gxy.2.307e9 ! Pa MP.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.126.1. 20.6.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA.1. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.ey.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP..1.nuxy.4.20 ! No units MP.18.dens.ANEL.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.4.1.9e9 ! Pa MP.ez.3750 ! kg/m 3 B. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP..126.2.ex.3.dens.2.1.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.2.358.10.18.dens.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.nuxy.9e9 ! Pa MP.9e9 ! Pa MP.1..dens..gxz.24.1 TBDATA.1.1.nuxz.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.2.dens.21.104e7 ! Pa B.20 ! No units MP.

1.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.STRAIN.2.41 ! r-value TBDATA.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA.9..2004 ...BISO.2390 TB.2..1..dens..dens.5 Strain(1) = 0.1.00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.128.1.1.3.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.29 ! No units MP..1.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.10 TBDATA. Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP.1.7 TBDATA.ex.1.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.7.05.PLAW.60.2.1 TBDATA... Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.0.YLDSTRES.3.dens. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP.1.05.2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..4.53 ! 1/ B...1.1.31 ! No units MP.180e9 ! Pa MP.YldStres(1) B.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.1.218e6.EVISC.210e6...5 *DIM.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.ex. 20.214e6.1.1.27.2..5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.2.nuxy.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE.46.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.Strain (1).47..30e6 ! Pa MP.61.2.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA..ADD.nuxy.1 ! Yield stress vs.29 ! No units MP.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.8.PLAW..207e9 ! Pa MP.dens.48.nuxy.1.15..ex.

.1 TBDATA. .12.1.2.3 TBDATA.36 ! No units MP..2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.11.dens.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.44 EDCURVE.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA..0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.4..BKIN.76e9 ! Pa MP.05.nuxy.ADD.4.mjstrn.6.40...68 TBDATA.. m TBDATA.1.mjstrn(1) B..1.nuxy.-10.ex.ex.6 *DIM.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.20.1.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.0 ! P TBDATA..2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.45.1 *DIM.1 TBDATA.39. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP..34 ! No units MP.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.1.mnstrn.1.5.5.50 mjstrn(1) = 80..1.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.40.2.10.75 ! Failure strain B..100e9 ! Pa MP.1.mnstrn (1).0.1.29.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.2.73 ! R00 TBDATA.1.1.dens.ex.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B..2.1.200e9 ! Pa MP.170 ! Barlat exponent. .27 ! No units MP.PLAW.1.8.65 TBDATA.. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.0..nuxy.6.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.2.3.PLAW..7.dens.40.763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.5.2.

8..1.StrnRate.1.65 TBDATA.3..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.75e9 MP.9.13..nuxy.1.ex.9861 TBDATA.ElasMod.6.nuxy..5.1 TBDATA..5.7.22e5 TBDATA.2.34 MP..2..1.PLAW.9861 TBDATA.1..1.2.PLAW..023 TBDATA.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.2..dens.7850 TB.15.9761 TBDATA. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP..ex.9.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs..290e6.7 TBDATA.76e9 MP.1.2. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0..16.4.6 TBDATA.14.32 TBDATA.29 MP.1.2.1.0 YldStres(1) = 207e6. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP.33 MP.3.250e6..002 TBDATA.05.YldStres.017 TBDATA..08.2004 .254 TBDATA.4....1.. 1.nuxy.5 *DIM.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.209e9 MP.11 TBDATA.1.dens. 20.ex..2750 TB.4.2 *DIM.1. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.3.1.5 *DIM. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs.04 TBDATA.PLAW.1..300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh....275e6.2720 TB.5 TBDATA...1... Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.4 TBDATA.1.dens.

..226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB...1.5 TruStran(1)=0..30 ! No units MP.207e9 ! Pa MP.3000e6 EDCURVE.0.215e9.16.2.GCAP.ex.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.69e9 MP.212e9.5 *DIM.75 TruStres(1)=207e6.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1 TBDATA.TruStres.598 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9..40.1. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.2 TBDATA.1.nuxy.3...7 ! (ksi) TBDATA.2. 20.1.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.05.StrnRate(1).1.33 MP.275e6.YldStres(1) EDCURVE..gxy...0.ADD.0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA...1.nuxy.1..1.dens.8 TBDATA.4. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.TruStran.4.1.2.4.ADD.1 TBDATA..1.250e6.1.PLAW.2.dens.2..ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.5..2.218e9 EDCURVE..ex.StrnRate(1).17.290e6.1.18.1.2.08.ADD.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA.2004 .6500.dens.TruStran (1).5.2710 TB.TruStres(1) B.4.211e9..3.3.0 TBDATA.1700 ! ksi MP.6.4..16.PLAW.1 ! LCID for true stress vs.216 TBDATA.

.20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B..8.1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.4.dens.473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.-..2 TBDATA.9.1.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.2004 .7.61 TBDATA.1.0 !m TBDATA.1....18 TBDATA.1.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6.ex.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.30 TBDATA.1.17.1..1.240e6 TBDATA.1.1.3.11.EOS..1.nuxy.19.1 TBDATA. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.8 TBDATA.36 !n TBDATA.11.3.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.291.ex.20.10.1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP.1.2..30 ! No units MP..4.1 TBDATA.31 !n TBDATA.EOS.350..1.dens..275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA...7.138e9 ! Pa MP.62 !N B.5.2.6..9.7.207e9 ! Pa MP.13.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.14..15.5.1.35 ! No units MP.2.4500 TBDATA.89.nuxy.12. 20.8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.8 TBDATA.05.1.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.6.1.09 !m TBDATA.0002 TBDATA.022 !c TBDATA.-.10.5 TBDATA.7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.10 TBDATA.1.025 !c TBDATA.8.5.2.

20.11. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP.20.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.14.19..48 !A 0 B.18.2004 .014 TBDATA.ex.1.3.2.10 TBDATA. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2..5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.489 TBDATA.54 TBDATA. 20.17.2.0..1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.12 TBDATA.2.EOS.1.3 ! No units MP.34 ! No units MP.18.2.7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.9.10.0 ! S3 TBDATA.16.8..0 TBDATA.0 ! S2 TBDATA.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.16.17.-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.03 TBDATA..1.21.nuxy.-3.23.1.240e6 TBDATA.1..-.dens.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.1 TBDATA.1.4.12.02 TBDATA.100e9 ! Pa MP.394 TBDATA.2.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.200e9 ! Pa MP.1.0..1.EOS.15.0.2.1.0.97 ! TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA..19.dens.05...5386 ! C TBDATA.1.3..21.22.1.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B.1.4400 TBDATA..4..nuxy.21.0.1.0 TBDATA.89 TBDATA.13..ex.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA..2 TBDATA.17.4.1.0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.

.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.24..ADD.207e9 ! Pa MP.02.cable.1.ex.1.2.-50 ! Min.0.EngStran.06.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM..33.1.2 ! Spall type TBDATA.43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA.93 ! TBDATA. temp. parameter TBDATA..dens. TBDATA.nuxy.1.1.11.30.4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B. temp.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.207e9 ! Pa MP.EngStres(1) B..2.0 ! S3 TBDATA.2004 .3.2 TBDATA.16e6 ! (Pa) MP.11.. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.215e6.dens.rigid..3 ! No units MP...08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.EngStres.04.1.05.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.49 ! S1 TBDATA.1.ex.1.1.200 ! Max.1.34.0 ! S2 TBDATA.1.3 ! No units EDMP.16.4 EngStran(1) = .2.29. parameter TBDATA.EngStran (1).5.10.35 !n TBDATA.17.0.1.457 ! C TBDATA.nuxy.gxy.2380 ! Absolute melting temp..220e6 EDCURVE.1. 20.1. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.210e6.5.EOS...3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.4 *DIM.1..18.15.25.7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP.31.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA.7.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.32..49..

ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table.. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS..k is created.2004 .05. an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command). However. 20. not ANSYS commands. ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.k file.

RBUZ. . MZ) EDLOAD. . UZ. RBMZ) EDMP. RBOY. +RBRX.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. RBRZ. VZ. FY. OMGY. . RBMY. (ACLX.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20.TEMP EDLOAD.05.. ACLZ. AZ) EDLOAD.2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. . PRESS EDLOAD.. AX. ROTZ. RBUY. . UY. RBVY. RBFY. AY. OMGZ) EDLOAD. ROTY. MX. RBFZ. MY. RBVZ. (FX. (UX. RBRY. . RBOZ) EDLOAD. . OMGX. VX. (RBFX. VY. ACLY. RBVX. (RBUX.RBOX. RBMX. . FZ. ROTX.

05..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.2004 ..

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