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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

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2.17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B.2.2 Material Model Examples B. Using this integrated product.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.2.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B.2. springback and other applications.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.2.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.2.2.2.2.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.2004 .2.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.1. large deformation dynamics.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools.2.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.2.2.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B. 1. you can model your structure in ANSYS.2.2.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.2.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B. such as those required for droptest.2.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.2. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time. 20.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B.2.2.2. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.2.2.05. and complex contact/impact problems.2. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

20. you already know how to perform these steps. Many times. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA.. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3.2.05. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above. If you have not used ANSYS before..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis. The three main steps are: 1.2004 . and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. However. Likewise. you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output.RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. updates.05. or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the . ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates.. 20..2004 .

are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. you are ready to build the model.2004 . Before you build a model. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information. You may choose to read through it from front to back. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. However.3.05..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command). you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system.. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. but that may be useful in some situations. 20. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1. The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis.

. Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally. Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure.5.. see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. For detailed theoretical information.4. For detailed information on explicit elements. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem.2004 .

Wedge. and foam models. higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. For additional details.1. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density.1.. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern. See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation.. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. Therefore. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. plastic.2004 . reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements). or p-elements. and elastic modulus. Therefore. 2. pyramid. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. rubber. For example. By default. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. including details of input and output quantities.05. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. Solid and Shell Elements 2. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. midside nodes.e.. Poisson's ratio. 20. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. including elastic.1. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. These elements assume a linear displacement function. such as with foams.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated). these degenerate shapes should be avoided.05. 20. Therefore. You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 ... These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations.

2. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation.05.2004 . 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes.1.2. KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations.. As with solid elements. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay. 20. SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element. Therefore. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information.3.. the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended. for general analyses. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu. 6. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2. 7. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.

. 20. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu..1. 8. 2. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear. 2. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i.4. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5.1. so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations.05..e. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff.5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis. Has four integration points with no hourglassing. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay.

20.. Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set. This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented.05.. therefore. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1). provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements.2004 .

.R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements. so care is needed in interpretation of results. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0.NSET. while more points are required for nonlinear materials. The distribution of strain is always linear. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element. 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces.5774 0.9062 1.. as shown in Integration Points.2004 .0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness. For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i.. Typically. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law.e.7746 0.8611 0.. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point).05. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled. 20. For elastic materials. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials.

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Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
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Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

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3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

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Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

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For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
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Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

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Prev Additional Information Prev Beam and Link Elements Elements

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2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
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Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

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2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

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2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
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When the element rotates. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165. Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled.05. ET.they do not pin the nodes together. To represent a spring/mass system. By default. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. and TB commands.2004 . the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. However. However.3. hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. and material properties (R. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise). The force is applied along the element axis. you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. the line of action of the force also rotates. 20.2. Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . For example. because it does not have mass. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is. element type. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians). 2. for example. These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. In an automobile impact analysis. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants.. a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length).. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element.

(Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. shell. In the case of shell and beam elements. BEAM161. IYY. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies..05. The mass of each solid.. IYZ. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. therefore. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. IXY. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX. IZZ) via the element real constants. PLANE162.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. 20. To do so.4. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. SHELL163. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. SOLID164. IXZ. a rotational inertia is also added to each node. To use this option. You can not input a mass value for this option. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160. and LINK167.) Once you have set the analysis preference. a single value is used.2004 . and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Also..1. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model. 3. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3.2004 . you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model.) For some material models. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). To do so in batch or command mode. you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models). you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS.05. the EDMP command). More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. In the GUI. TB. you typically use the MP. In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system. Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements. review Material Models of this document.2.. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. After you select the appropriate material model. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis. Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. 20. and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model.

real constant set. we will discuss only a few key points in this section.05. you specify which previously defined element type. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions. and REAL commands. By this method. Use the TYPE.2004 . 20. line elements only).4. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model. a stress-strain curve). Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3.. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing.. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options.g.) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3. Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program..3. Mesh the Model After building the solid model. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly.. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes. For simple models (e. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing. MAT. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e.g. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM. Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. or EDPART. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. or elements may experience hourglassing. therefore.2004 . Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing.e. In the GUI. avoid areas with relatively small elements). Instead.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry. 20. or EDASMP commands. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh.. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls. If hourglassing is a problem. a long run time. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. A brief overview of that procedure is given here. these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes.) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. etc. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. with the EDCGEN command. In the GUI... meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above). VMESH.).05.5. mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH.

e. For the single surface contact algorithms. node components). For example. You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Once these components are created. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command.05. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact.. EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties.6. If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. 20. unyielding objects in the model.. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Use realistic values for material properties.) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i.. Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body. Another command. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART).

and EDREAD).CREATE command is issued repeatedly.7. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. these latter commands will only update the list.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3. EDDAMP. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID. The PART list can be created. 20. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. and MAT IDs. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. not overwrite it. For more information on the EDPART command. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE. and listed with the EDPART command. A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. the PART list is overwritten. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. They can also be created. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command.. issue the EDPART. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs.CREATE creates new PART IDs. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. If the PART list already exists.LIST command. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. REAL. For example. Any combination of TYPE. these elements will be assigned PART number 2.2004 . If the EDPART. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2.05. EDLOAD.UPDATE command. REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. EDCRB.UPDATE). If any of the TYPE. EDPART.K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. EDCGEN . EDDC. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. And so on. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. updated. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname..

Therefore. However. issuing EDPART.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART. d. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed.CREATE). but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list). Continue modeling. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The PART list is shown below (EDPART. Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. PART number 4 remains.. The following procedure is recommended: a. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2.2004 . contact specifications.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts.LIST).LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example.. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command. etc. Update the PART list (EDPART. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2.05. e. b. which includes the addition of new elements.CREATE) and list it (EDPART. c. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s). Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list. Create the PART list (EDPART. 20. issuing EDPART. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1.

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f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

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3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
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Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

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Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

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For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

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In addition. . it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval. Jobname. This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply.. delete. In order to properly model your structure’s behavior. Therefore. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt". these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. Note A new results file will be created for each loop..RS01 and Jobname. Loading After building the model. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution.05. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop. even if the mesh does not change. see Postprocessing. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL.RS02. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. however.

For this reason. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components.2004 . Hence. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses. etc. Additionally. VX) appear as degrees of freedom. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature. position in the model. Death Time. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. for certain kinds of loads. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time).1. all loads are applied in one load step. To apply these nodal loads.1. AY. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. In particular...05. for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. For example. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes. 20. Please refer to Birth Time. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. expected behavior. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. use the EDLOAD command. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. VY. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies.1. SF. Therefore. they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. the F. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command. To apply a load to your model.

2. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. Therefore.1. 20. However. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components. Or. ROTY. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component. consider the baseball example mentioned previously.2004 . and each entry of the second array specifying a load value.05. Therefore. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. The components must consist of either nodes or elements.) To define a component. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. etc. For the case of rigid bodies. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal. ROTX. You may define as many components as you wish. the nodes on the bat as another component. use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. FY. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. and the nodes on the wall as a third component. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. Otherwise. load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact.. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. ROTZ. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RIGID. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. In the GUI. FZ. To illustrate the use of array parameters. and then apply loads to each of them.. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later.). (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. with each entry of the first array specifying a time value. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. 4.MAT.

define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand.s.0.2004 .node nsel.6. Next. nodal accelerations.s.node.2.. cm... nsel. Further. cm.3.node. and material properties in your model..-2. dimensions.bathand.s. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat.node...4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command]...s. surface pressures. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces.. Finally.ballsurf.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces.node. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces.3. nsel..5. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models. etc.25.3. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads..4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default.ball.all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball.node nsel. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball.batsurf. This component will be used later in the contact specification. 20.. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined.zdisp.. additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0.4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim.. Likewise. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load.4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim. 4. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads... for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter).node ! define the component bathand nsel.time.-1.8.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim. moments.0.xdisp.all *dim. cm.. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different.-1.05.75. as listed below.. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads. It is important to note.0.3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0. You also need to define a third component named batsurf. In a more accurate simulation.1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Define an array named time to store the time values. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand.1.node nsel.ydisp.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

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Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

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In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

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2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

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. If CID is not specified.add. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values.11.KEY. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command. Death Time.05. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. 20. 4.1. The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command.5yforce(1)=0. CID..1.Cname . the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD . The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.X1.. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.6.Y1. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time.. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim...5.025. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command). the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition.11.Par2. see Birth Time.X2.0 As shown above...300.1.2004 .Z1.1. 4. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems.4.. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models.. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. Lab.ADD.BTIME.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession.ADD.Par1. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command.05.time.comp.DTIME).PHASE.add.. Some load types do not support birth and death time.. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels. see Birth Time. Death Time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.Y2. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined.1 *dim.LCID.100.5 time(1)=0.Z2). the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts.200.yforce.time. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.075.SCALE.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve.fy.

You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . However. It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body. and rivet (RIVET). The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction..ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command.ADD. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects.1. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). nodal rigid body (NRB). 4. Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model. but are based on a node component. No other values are valid. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command. The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4. You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command.NRB command are not associated with a part number. i. In the GUI. defining nodes where point loads will be applied. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body.STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements. Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution. shell edge to solid (STS).05. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command.2004 .e. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location. The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. The ENS option has many potential applications. Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints.ADD.2.ADD.2. you will need to apply constraints to your model. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. For a rigid joint. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS). 20... the value specified must always be 0 (zero). Additionally. see earlier discussion in this chapter). including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies.

Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. Coincident nodes are permitted. Unlike a spotweld.. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds. Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis. failure cannot be specified for a rivet.2.ADD. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command. In the GUI. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above.RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident. For a generalized weld. if you use coincident nodes. When a rivet is defined.2. For a massless spotweld.. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation.05. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. however. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. In such cases. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. 4. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. However. you must specify a valid nodal component. 20.

YC.2004 .VGEN. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX. a part [EDPART]. (e. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. 3. 2. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application. The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. Note To model a rotating body.3. cannot be used in the same analysis. Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom.. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC. and OMEGAZ fields)..) around a specified axis.VGEN.. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL. 20. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity.05. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. For the VELO option. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. Y. PID). etc. initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. VY. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. a nodal component [CM]. Due to the LS-DYNA architecture. OMEGAY. To define an initial velocity.g. EDPVEL. the two methods for defining initial velocities. For the VGEN option. part. use the following procedure: 1. For both the VGEN and VELO methods. This may be a single node. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. ANGY. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX.. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. with or without translations. or a part assembly [EDASMP].g. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation.2. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO. Likewise. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. EDVEL. and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4. and Z axes. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e.

Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies.velo. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. UY. CPNGEN. CERIG) can be used to define. Similarly. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. CEDELE.DELE commands (in the GUI.2004 .velo. CPLGEN. This means that if the structure rotates. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program. CPDELE. ROTZ) are not allowed. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete). delete. For each node in the coupled set. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number. the CE-family of commands (CE.-1600. Similarly. list.1. use the EDVEL..0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or. If CP is used in this manner.. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes. 20. use the EDPVEL. CPSGEN) can be used to define. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. ROTY. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed). modify. it could lead to nonphysical responses.. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete). if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4. delete.. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model.. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero.LIST and EDPVEL. For our baseball example. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set.05.3. CEINTF. CPLIST.ball. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly. This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node.LIST and EDVEL.. CPINTF. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. Also. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel.-1600. and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. CELIST.DELE commands (in the GUI. modify. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX.

Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4.GROUND.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. To define a nonreflecting boundary. respectively. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body. LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior.DELE.5. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162.4. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component.2004 . For example. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model. Therefore. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. SHELL163.1. 20. and SOLID164 element types..LIST and EDNB. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. use the commands EDNB .ADD. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases..05. For this type of analysis. the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model.

20. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. it defaults to zero. TUNIF. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. In addition.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes)... The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. use the BFDELE command.2004 . a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command. When LDREAD is issued. To use this method. In the explicit phase. overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. use the BFLIST command. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD . In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF.05. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus.. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. For all three methods of temperature loading. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component. This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). If the reference temperature is not specifically defined.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. or BFUNIF. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command.

Cname.OFF): In this case. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. EDLOAD .05. This is the default setting.DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. Par1. 2. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. Therefore. PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i.ANSYS).DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX.2004 . the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero.EDDRELAX.DYNA): This is similar to the previous case. Lab. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. In the former case. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command).6. 3. . At time zero. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve. ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. ADD. Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case. 4. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used. True dynamic relaxation is used. In this latter case. They are discussed below: 1. a slightly different approach is taken. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands. Par2. Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. 20. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution). then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one.. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload.e. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label.

you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI.) 5. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. after completing element definitions.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped. The header records.05. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used. Before issuing the SOLVE command. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Consequently. loading.DB. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements).. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load. If the EDOPT. modeling. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information. is written using all information that has been entered so far. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5. Jobname. meshing. (At this point. Solution Features 5. real constant and material property specifications. boundary/initial conditions.HIS. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves. are written on the two results files Jobname. The input file for the LS-DYNA program. At this point. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program. The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname.) 2. and termination controls). 20.1.HIS. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case.ADD. Solution Process After the model has been built (i.K. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname.e.2004 .ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label..RST and Jobname...RST and Jobname. 3. To work around this limitation. The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero.

If errors or warnings are produced.. To use this feature.05.You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). where details of the errors and warnings are written. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. (See the EDTERM command for details. you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings. The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM.3) analysis. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models.. and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.2. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached. These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time .You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position. You may set up multiple criteria using this command.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.2004 .3. messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window. you must have a machine with at least two processors. CPU time limit .2) or a full restart ( EDSTART. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART. Termination criteria . The other termination controls are optional.

.... This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i.SMP.... type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time... For more information on all of these methods.2004 . the calculations may be executed in different order.. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run..... the higher the potential for scalability.. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU... When used with more than 8 processors..78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05. any additional scalability is minimal.... Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time. you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN. (Unlike in ANSYS. or via the SETNPROC macro. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors.. 20..4.e.... This section describes how to use these sense switch controls.. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background.. you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times. you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP..ans file.. Specify the number of processors to be used.. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1..) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5. nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect.... When you are using shared memory parallel processing. Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses.. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress. you should close all other applications on those CPUs. 2. switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 2. via the /CONFIG command. Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly. If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available)... you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt.1). 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses. Because of this. To avoid these differences....00000E+00 time step.. please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.. the larger the problem.... If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one. Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status. You can set this value via the config60....

00000E-20 system damping energy. On a UNIX system.MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used.28205E+01 global z velocity. 0....... The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors. A restart file is written... The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT........ 20... To do so.00000E+00 total energy..... the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files...00000E+00 external work. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy..... etc.00000E+03 total energy / initial energy..00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718... 1..... 1........05. 0.. 0...... sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718.... By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.... glstat and matsum are ASCII files.......... 1....... 1...... 0. failed elements.00000E+00 global x velocity....00000E+00 sliding interface energy... This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed... a value of 30 should be sufficient. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point...... 1.. -1... warnings.) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp..) The files d3hsp... As the solution progresses.. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run.00000E-20 spring and damper energy...... The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above).. you can determine the progress of the solution. 0....00000E+03 internal energy. you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates. contact problems. The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA.2004 .00000E+00 global y velocity. use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run...... For m (the number of lines to be viewed)....... You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver.... ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run..... these files are written at requested time points..... Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum.....GLSTAT EDOUT.

6. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Option 2 . Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time..5. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements. The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes.05. except that all selected elements are plotted. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods..This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. ? Option 1 . This option produces the same plot as Option 1. or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. 20. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest).2004 . however. This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. It should be noted. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5. Option 3 . The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command.Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5. yellow (intermediate). There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size.

Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 4. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed. certain element types. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window.6.k.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. Jobname. 20. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. 5. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the input file will be named Jobname_nn.) 4. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26).R. After issuing EDWRITE. (In the GUI. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files..HIS. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. such as fabric.RST and Jobname. reside. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.05. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. Jobname.K. That is. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis. Jobname. Method B 1. go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. 3. reside).1. soil. and if it is a full restart. Using another window. (Remember. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. 2.2004 .HIS. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. etc. users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. 2.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. 5. 3.. Method A 1.2. After modeling has been completed.K. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. the input file will be named Jobname. For both Method A and Method B.RST and Jobname. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files.6. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files).

K. This allows you to take a pre-existing file. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. However. For a restart analysis. Next. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the original version. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6.. the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE).. Also. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command).HIS results file headers when only a file. see Restarting).K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis. 02. Jobname. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest. the argument “m=drelax” is also required. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support. where n is the desired amount of memory in words. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete.) In all cases. When using these methods to modify the file Jobname. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required. (For these reasons. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). etc. Using a Pre-existing File. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the . run the lsdynaxx script as described above. nodes and elements must not be changed. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”. will be shown. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist.K. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands. editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file. solve it using LS-DYNA.2004 .6.RST and .k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example. depending on what type of analysis you are running. 99) to be used as a starting point.K input file exists. However.) will not be available in the results files. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. (EDSTART command. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26. 5.05. . you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST. real constants. Then edit the . 20..0 and your input file is “crashtest.k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. first make sure that the model defined in the .3.. and not the modified version. you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors.K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files.k”. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. To use this method. element attributes (material properties. For any type of analysis.K.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname.K. Thus. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files.

as shown in the sample input listing below.BATSURF. PART ID definitions. tiebreak. ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM.1. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC.BATSURF. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses.S. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM..25. For most typical analyses. and ESS). STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type. nodes-to-surface (NTS).. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.. single edge.. drawbead. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL.05. there are no contact elements. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements. 20.. use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid). single surface.” For explicit dynamics. automatic single surface (ASSC). STEP 2: Identify contact entities. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact. This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis. and single edge contact (SE). are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult.. surface-tosurface. eroding. and/or part assembly ID definitions.BALLSURF..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis. You simply indicate the contact surfaces.S. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. You can do this by using nodal components. 6. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN... These contact types..2004 . tied. the type of contact between them. In other analyses. and other parameters related to the contact type. For this reason.NTS. and rigid contact options. When using contact or target components. automatic general (AG). Then. automatic general (AG)..BALLSURF.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition. which include node-to-surface.NODE. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible. SS..NODE.

28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC.. 20..STS. As explained later in this section.STS.1.. The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN. ESS.1. use great care when defining contact components.1. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS)...15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN...STS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively.34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis. as illustrated below: EDCGEN. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command..2. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum.25. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model.. Vrel. (FS. Therefore.1.15. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis.5.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. AG. and SS). VC (also input on EDCGEN )..05.. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command. no contact or target surface definitions are required. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command. N1.2...3.NTS.2004 .34. and the exponential decay coefficient (DC).N2. FD. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions.3.. A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN. no initial penetrations are allowed.6.1.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD)..ASSC.ESTS.

20. ESS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. and drawbead contact. ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding.. a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. you must specify a data curve ID (V1).2004 . tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness.. For rigid body contact. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements.05.. For eroding contact. Therefore.g. This information varies with contact type. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together. for rigid body contact. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. e. as outlined below. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. tiebreak. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). and an unloading stiffness value (V3).g. For both types of tiebreak contact. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. for sheet forming simulation. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material. rigid. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. e..

issue the command EDDC. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead. and INC fields of the EDPC command.00000 VDC = 0.. To delete all current contact definitions. or delete contact definitions.Targ. STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads. by issuing the command EDPC.1. Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. Use the NSEL.ALL.05. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. You can specify a minimum contact entity number.ALL and ESEL. issue the command EDDC.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0. which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. components or parts).20000 FD = 0. maximum contact entity number.2). In drawbead contact. which help restrain a blank during drawing operations. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions. Hence. 20. However.00000 VC = 0. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. 6. If contact has been incorrectly specified.2.1 for the above listing.00000 VC = 0. To delete a specific contact definition. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. and a drawbead depth (V3).08000 DC = 0. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis. A sample listing is shown below.1. MAX. you can list. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART.DELE. Therefore. then deactivate it at a later time.15000 DC = 0.00000 VDC = 0.. plot.Cont. you must input a load curve ID (V1). Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command. after plotting the contact entities. you can delete it using the EDDC command.10000 FD = 0. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command. you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ).2004 . The plot will consist of nodes or elements. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Listing. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands).1. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities. Ctype.DELE.

2004 .1. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS. you can achieve significant CPU time savings.Cont. you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed.3). By considering contact only when it is needed. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. you cannot delete. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART . nodes-to-surface contact. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1. Once a contact specification is defined. Therefore.Cont. deactivate. AG.DELE. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). 20. Thus..2. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS. and surface-to-surface contact.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC . each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed.Ctype. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis. in this section. and you must perform at least one small restart.05. With such a large number of contact options.DACT.Ctype.RACT.2. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis. (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC. FOSS 6. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact..Targ) contact in a small restart. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC .

the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA. ASTS. For shell elements. The convex surface is the contact surface. ESTS. The finer mesh is the contact surface. STS. 6. In fact. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. General (Normal) Contact (SS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. 3.2. DRAWBEAD. TDSS.. When it is defined. however. the following options may be used: 1. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. Unlike implicit modeling. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. there are often several contact options available. 2. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options. TDNS. RNTR. 20. OSTS. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. Therefore. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined. When using solid elements. In single surface contact.2004 .2. TNTS. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. ASS2D. TSTS. AG. NTS. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. they still are used for a wide range of applications. SE. FSTS. The coarser mesh is the target surface. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. FOSS. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact.. ASSC. Single Surface Contact (SS.05. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. ROTR. ANTS. ENTS. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas.

AG. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. rigid body contact (RNTR. When using eroding contact. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. 3. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. UY. Tied Contact (TDNS. the data curve ID (V1). In automatic contact. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. ENTS. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. TDSS. When defining tied contact. Therefore. It is important to note. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. 5. Eroding Contact (ESS. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. automatic.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. ASS2D. Thereafter. force calculation method (V2). the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. a symmetry plane option (V1). ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. or separate from. or eroding options. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. 4. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. 20. To do this. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. the target surface.. The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms. ANTS. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter.05. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached. ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. the contact search depth is always limited. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS.. For the rigid options. 2. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general. Automatic Contact (ASSC. However. after the failure criterion is exceeded. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. Only translational degrees of freedom (UX.2004 . upon application of loads or initial velocities. ASTS) Along with the general contact family. Rigid Contact (RNTR. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. 6. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

8. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction.05. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. For the TNTS option. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. Drawbead contact. The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force. 20.. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank. During drawing and stamping simulations. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces.. This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command. When using TSTS.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections.

1. For these contact types.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking. However. by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. TSTS. Forming Contact (FNTS. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact. Therefore. These methods are outlined below: 6. OSTS. contact options NTS.3.3. OSTS.. 6.3. Therefore. FSTS. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option.05.2. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications.2004 . you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface.. the neighboring segments are checked. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. and TDNS contact options. TNTS. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface.

a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets). and single surface (SS) contact definitions.05. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm.XMIN.4. automatic single surface (ASSC). 20. Cont. which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above.ZMIN. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. The bucket sort method is extremely robust. STS. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets.XMAX.ZMAX ADD. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth..Option..NTS. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies. . Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain. 6..YMIN. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells. A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact.Targ. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined. and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box.. EDBX.2004 . Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand. Therefore. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command. DTIME. DELETE. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS). The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types.YMAX. EDCGEN.BOXID1.3. a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box.3.BOXID . When you specify a contact box.

To control the contact penetration distance. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. and TSTS. NTS. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user.2004 . OSTS.. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. 20. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS. the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. Second. TNTS. and TSTS. In an explicit dynamic analysis. the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. OSTS. For these contact types. Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS. TNTS. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the contact depth is relatively large. 0. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6.6. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. TNTS. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated.4 x min side length.. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. For all of the contact options other than STS. and TSTS. 0.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6.05. NTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly. Therefore. OSTS. In cases where the contact is not genuine. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa).6. Contact Stiffness 6. For this reason. as explained above.5. NTS.1. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion.

Ideally. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). fs. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option. Together with the related mass. If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Without a contact stiffness. there should be no penetration. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. which will lead to numerical instabilities. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. bodies will pass through one another. the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur. In practice. overwriting user input for the scale factor.6. however. 6. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used.. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. The amount of penetration ( ). PENO of the EDCONTACT command.. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. The contact stiffness. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. but this implies that k = . which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. by setting PENO to 1. increasing the value of SFSI above 0. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.2004 . Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size.05. For example. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command. If the difference between the two time steps is small. this approach may not be necessary.1 by default) In almost all cases. 20. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise.2. or incompatibility. the program scales them to closer values.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur.

FS. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7. and DTIME.FD. 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements.DTIME For 2-D contact. . FD.05. 20. BTIME. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below.DC. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact. where applicable. BTIME. For additional information on each material model. the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. DC. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.7. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate.. The available materials are listed below.2004 . The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter.) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Cont.. Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements.. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. ASS2D.ASS2D.. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. The option.Targ.

. 20..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.2004 .

05. and TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. MPDATA. TB.2004 . MPTEMP. 20. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP.. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1.. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions.1. TBTEMP. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. The next section. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands.

You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. In the Material Models Available window on the right.. you can edit the data and click on OK again. 3. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. Equation of State. Nonlinear. do not define extraneous properties. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. 4. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. Also. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. Inelastic. double-click on LS-DYNA. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. copy. edit. the subcategories are: Elastic. Double-click on a material subcategory. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Foam Material Models. 2. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and click on OK. under the Nonlinear category. Discrete Element Properties. then choosing Edit > Delete. 20. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. or delete material models via the GUI.2. If you define. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied.05. There. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file. Enter the desired values.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. or Rigid Material. 5. you actually input a material data curve ID. For example.2004 .. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface.

2.1. PRXZ).Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i. This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).1. 7. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide.elastic modulus MP.NUXY .2.. 20.elastic moduli (also EY. Linear Elastic Models 7. Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix. For a multi-layer composite laminate. and L of the element (see the figure below). NUXZ). one value required MP.EX .Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ.1.2.GXY .ORTHO commands.1. Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model. To specify a material coordinate system.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7. See Composite Damage Model for more information. Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model. the other values will be automatically defined (e. For an example input listing. MP.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ.PRXY . one value required or MP..density MP.g.05..e. Because of symmetry. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP. If no material coordinate system is specified.DENS .1. use the EDLCS and EDMP. EZ).density MP.2. Use the MP command to input the required values. one value required MP. 7.DENS ..shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ). see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel.3.EX .NUXY . only 21 constants are required.2. use the TB. EY = EZ = EX). EX). material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. J.

the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. 19. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. C12. 13. C36 TBDATA. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus.MAT. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading. This discrepancy is not a computational error. C33 TBDATA. MP. 7. C25 TBDATA.2. C24. C14. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below.DENS EDMP. ANEL TBDATA.FLUID. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command.05. C26.2004 . C23. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above).VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. 1. C55.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.density TB. To specify a material orientation axis.. C11. EX. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. 20. C22. C44.2. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. DENS .ORTHO commands. C56. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB. C13. For an example input listing.4. If no material coordinate system is specified. C15. C16.EX MP. You input density using the MP command (DENS).NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). C46. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type. J.. MP. use the EDLCS and EDMP. C34. C45.2.1. and NUXY are all specified. 7. material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. C35.ANEL command. 7.

.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor. To use this input method. see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber.. a value greater than . smaller values may not work. MOONEY. V is the relative volume....2004 .2. and ij is the Kronecker delta. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model. MOONEY.05. 1. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command. you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. I2 .. C01 and : I1 . 20.2.2. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. (For Poisson's ratio.. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko.49 is recommended. For an example input listing.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. C10 TBDATA. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor.1. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB.2.2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY).2.. is the Poisson’s ratio. This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus. 2. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve.0 TBDATA.

both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values.2. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 1. C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction. 46. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. In compression. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. Alternatively. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model. 6. G0 . and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. thickness. Input these values with TB. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model.EVISC and locations 46. 3..05.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. EVISC TBDATA. 5.2. 48.3. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA. 7.2004 . For an example input listing. and width equal to 1. 47. V: p = K ln V. 2. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. In tension.. The parameters . 4. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length. The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 1. 20.

.BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.EX.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). .DENS MPTEMP. . . Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.) Input elastic modulus (Exx). you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command.NUXY. If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature. 7.EX1 .05.3. . You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength. Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. (These properties are temperature dependent.NUXY 1. 1. . Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Input density (DENS) with the MP command. 61. the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB.1. Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model.2.1.TEMP 1. 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material.1. .TEMP 2 .NTEMP command.EX ntemp MPDATA. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. see Viscoelastic Example: Glass. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input.2004 ...NUXY 2. 47.2. and density (DENS) with the MP command. BISO TBDATA. 1/ Note For this material option. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures.BISO..2. . . (A temperature dependent model is also available. . . Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). (The density is temperature independent.1. . 48. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command. EX 2 . K TBDATA. TBTEMP commands. TBDATA..2. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB.TEMPntemp MPDATA.3. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command. 20.3. For an example input listing. MP. . 7. Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.

4. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. . 1...ALPXntemp TB.ALPX1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA. 2.PLAW.. 1. Etan (tangent modulus) . NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP.ALPX2 . BISO. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. .2004 . PLAW. 1..1. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. . 2.. 2. . Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 2. Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA.. . 20. tangent modulus.7 TBDATA. plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 3. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only.. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.4 of the TBDATA command: TB..3. to the out of plane plastic strain rate. Input the yield stress. the analysis will terminate. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.ALPX.05. 1. 7. . . LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs.TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA. anisotropic hardening parameter. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model.TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA.7 and locations 1 .3. you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis. density (DENS).2. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. Otherwise.

1. the additional input parameters are specified using TB. you must input the density (DENS).4. The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section.3.PLAW.PLAW..2. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE). This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements.. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials. 20. For this model.LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience. 7..5. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA.4. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE).05.. elastic modulus (Exx).. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel.3.. y (yield stress) TBDATA.2.. TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing.10 TBDATA.10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command.2004 . Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. As shown below. In addition..R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA.

4.. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. 2. 3. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.. p eff is the effective plastic strain. tangent slope. Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic. kinematic. 1. is the strain rate. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.1 TBDATA. 6.. BKIN TBDATA. 20.3. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. density (DENS).BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. PLAW. or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. Input the elastic modulus (Exx)..2004 . hardening parameter. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. 1.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing. Input elastic modulus (Exx).5. density (DENS).1 and locations 1 . f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 7.2. Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters..6 of the TBDATA command: TB..PLAW..05. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.6. 5. and the failure strain with TB. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the yield stress. 7. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. strain rate parameters C and P. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only).2. 2.

Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available. All of the anisotropic material constants. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient.3. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2)..2. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions. density (DENS). and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For the exponential hardening option. and n is the hardening coefficient. p is the plastic strain. m is Barlat exponent.. 20. is the uniaxial tension in the direction.05. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential).7. and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants. 7.2004 . Input the hardening rule type.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. excluding p which is determined implicitly. a and c are anisotropic material constants. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 0 is the initial strain at yield. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above.

8. 7. R00 TBDATA.VAL1.05.3. m. the Barlat exponent. and then issue EDMP. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. 7. 1...2.. 5. Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA. R90 TBDATA. and R90 .. 6. Lege. 3. 20.S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . If CSID = 0. For an example input listing. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. R45 .ORTHO. and L of the element: If CSID = 2. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA..8. R00 .. the width to thickness strain ratio values.. CSID.PLAW. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented).S2 |m + |S2 . J.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2).. 4.2004 . m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA. R45 TBDATA. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 . and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes.3 TBDATA. the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I. Before specifying the material property. has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2.. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS. PLAW. 2. and the orthotropic material axes with TB.3 and locations 1 .S3 |m + |S3 .CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item.

PLAW. c TBDATA.. a TBDATA.6 TBDATA. 9. the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient..2. f. 7. and n is the hardening coefficient. 20.2004 ...Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.c( xx yy xx ) .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . PLAW. the flow potential exponent. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB. density (DENS). isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4. For this material option. b. 1.. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Input the strength coefficient. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. 3. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA..3. g. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. and h represent the anisotropic material constants.9. f TBDATA. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. p is the plastic strain.05. the hardening coefficient. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). the initial strain at yield. 4.6 and locations 1 .. 0 (initial strain) TBDATA. 0 is the initial strain at yield. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses.10 of the TBDATA command. g TBDATA. h For an example input listing..a( - where a. 2. 5. b TBDATA. 8. 7. c.b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . 6. TB. 10. The material model follows a Ramburgh .

LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. 20. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA.. strain. ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. 2. strain rate sensitivity coefficient. 5. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.2004 . you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6.. TB..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain. the tangent modulus.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 3. effective strain rate) TBDATA.. n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA. For shell elements.. for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... PLAW. hardening coefficient. 2. effective strain rate) TBDATA.. effective strain rate (optional).4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. density (DENS). and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing..10. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. instead of LCID4 in location 5. m is the hardening coefficient. In this model. 7.2. is the strain rate.4 and locations 1 . effective strain rate) TBDATA. Input the material constant.5 and locations 1 . k is the material constant. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. and initial strain rate with TB. density (DENS). effective strain rate (optional).. 3. 1.5 of the TBDATA command. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. PLAW. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. 4.PLAW.PLAW. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).. 1. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.4 TBDATA. to define failure of the material. Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion.05.5 TBDATA.3. strain rate. effective strain rate) TBDATA. k (material constant) TBDATA. LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.. 6.. effective strain rate. The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0. and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. 4. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength. effective strain rate using TB.

3.3. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY. transverse compressive strength... 7.. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants. NUXZ) with the MP command. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials. NUYZ. Gyz.1.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. Gxz). Input all values shown below with the TB. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA.2. (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state.12. the longitudinal tensile strength. shear moduli (Gxy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... COMP TBDATA.2. Eyy.CONCR. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally. 6. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). the shear strength.2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB.2 TBDATA.3. C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. 2. Input the elastic moduli (Exx. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates. see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel. 20.. 7.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. 3. 5. even if the failure capabilities are not used..2004 . 1. 4. Ezz).COMP and locations 1 . Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings..05. density (DENS). and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB.2.CONCR.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA.11. transverse tensile strength. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA.

6.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.16.49-58.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA.46. strain curve input and strain rate dependency.17.18.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA. especially for steel. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.9.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.14.2.12. v1 .A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).69-78.C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.59-68.A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.10.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. C and P are strain rate parameters. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.8.13.15.05. and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain.7.4.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7. 1 .13. which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.5.3. 20.11. 1 .19.2004 .20-32.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.47. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.33-45.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA. density (DENS)...13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.48.LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA.

PLAW.2. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the effective plastic true strain at failure. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). Input the strength coefficient. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters.. 20.6. PLAW.... 4. 3. If LCID 2 is used.2 TBDATA.. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. e is the elastic strain to yield. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses. Input the yield stress. LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.05.7. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.3. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used.. the strain rate parameter C. plastic true strain) TBDATA. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model. strain rate dependency is ignored.PLAW. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. For an example input listing.. the tangent modulus. the strain rate parameter P. hardening coefficient.7 of the TBDATA command: TB.2004 .. 1. Only true stress and true strain data are considered. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. and strain rate parameters C and P with TB. k is the strength coefficient. Further. 4. and n is the hardening coefficient. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.... if C and P are set to zero. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.14. 7. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel. 1. density (DENS).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves.. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. 5. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA.2 and locations 1 . k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper . effective plastic true strain.PLAW. 2. 2.8 TBDATA. 3. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB.8 and locations 1 .4 of the TBDATA command: TB.. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs.

therefore. 1 . the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus..C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.5-20. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified..Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA. true plastic strain curve.39.1..C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified.21-36. Page 82 of 180 7. Up to 16 data points may be specified.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA. Input the parameters described below with TB.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing.38.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA.4..4...45.C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA..Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.2004 .16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA. 20.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA. Input the density (DENS). Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values.3.40. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus.37.PLAW.1. elastic modulus (EX).C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.2. Eh .43. 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.2. 1 .4. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.05. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. f (failure strain) TBDATA.42.41.44.PLAW.9 TBDATA..2.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model.4. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and . and f 3 is the tension cutoff. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model.2. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present. is the trace of the stress tensor.2004 . with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid. The first invariant of the stress. 7.2.. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete.. 20. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. In this model. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below. Next. Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space. is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope. The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor.05. . f 2 is the cap surface. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. J 1.

K (bulk modulus) TBDATA. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above.1.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Input the parameters described below with the TB. TB.2004 .3. and the cap surface on the right. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA.05.9.2.6. the tension cutoff surface on the left. there is the tension cutoff surface.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically.5.7. 20.GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command.R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA.8. denoted f 3 in the figure. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material.4... is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA. TBDATA. Finally.W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA.GCAP TBDATA.

Input the yield stress constants a.2004 ..Toff (tension cut-off value. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. 1. 5. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero.5.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.12.13.2. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. and c. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a.2. however. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete.. Toff < 0. Foam Models 7. FOAM. For an example input listing.C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete... ij is the Kronecker delta. 4.N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA. 3. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure. TBDATA. 2. b.1 TBDATA. c TBDATA.1 and locations 1 . The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress. and c are user defined input constants.5. the ratio of foam to polymer density. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid. p o is the initial foam pressure. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain. 6. a TBDATA. 7. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. is the ratio of foam to polymer density. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model.1. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs. 20. Unlike honeycomb.FOAM.05.11. and the initial volumetric strain with TB. b TBDATA. b.. closed cell...10. the initial foam pressure.

The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.05 and 0..3 and locations 1 . 20. default = 1) TBDATA.2.. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA.0 . V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached..FOAM. and initial viscous coefficient. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). TC (tension cutoff stress. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. 7. strain. 2. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness. default=1E20) TBDATA.. 2. FOAM...3 TBDATA. 1.. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0.05..full energy dissipation) TBDATA. . DAMP (viscous coefficient. LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA.3.. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation.5 are recommended) TBDATA. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy.0 .2 and locations 1 . In compression. and density (DENS) with the MP command..0 . Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions..5... the tension cut off (tearing) stress. respectively. the hysteresis unloading factor. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs. 3. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs. FOAM. 5. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. values between 0. SHAPE (shape unloading factor. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient. and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated. the initial viscous coefficient. For uniaxial loading.2004 .4 of the TBDATA command: TB.5. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1.no energy dissipation (default) and 0. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU). the decay constant. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. (decay constant) TBDATA. 3. the viscous coefficient. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB.2. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems). and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB. . 4.2 TBDATA.. a decay constant ( ).FOAM.2. the shape factor for unloading.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. 4. The elastic stiffness. 6. 1.

FOAM. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E . density (DENS). the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading.0 bulk viscosity active) 7. It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads.5 are recommended) 7.. 1.3 of the TBDATA command: TB. 2.Ebbu) (E .Eccu ) (G . Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant.4 TBDATA.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. For stresses below the tensile cut off value.5.2..Eaau ) (E . the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). FOAM. volumetric strain) TBDATA. 1.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value. volumetric strain.. Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs.2. and t is time..4 and locations 1 .5. values between 0. In the formulation.Gabu) (G . LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs.Gbcu) (G ...no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1. and the viscous damping coefficient with TB.0 . The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads. 8.4. DAMP (viscous damping coefficient.05.0 .tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled. 3.05 and 0. 20. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0. the tension cutoff value. Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . E is the elastic modulus..

15. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs. 12. 4. HONEY TBDATA. 6. 13. (material viscosity coefficient. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. Input all values shown below with TB. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. This input is optional. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. 11. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 9. 10. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.05) TBDATA.. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 14. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. default = 0. Each curve must have the same abscissa values. 7. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 17. 5. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 8.V). Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. 20.2004 . LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. density (DENS)..HONEY and locations 1 . LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . 3.05. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 1. 16. 2. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.

05.LOC+4.2.LOC.LOC+5. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models.LOC+1..) TBDATA. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+7.C2 TBDATA. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.1.C6 TBDATA. 20.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7.C5 TBDATA.LOC+6. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded. You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.LOC+8.C4 TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) 7. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models.C1 TBDATA. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2.6.LOC+2.2.LOC+3. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density.C0 TBDATA. 7.6. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways..6.2004 .C3 TBDATA.

.) TBDATA.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA.6. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used. v1 .LOC+3 to LOC+12. 0 TBDATA. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.2004 .LOC+7.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.S2 TBDATA.05.LOC+3. S1.S1 TBDATA.) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.A TBDATA. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+1. a is the first order volume correction to 0.S3 TBDATA.LOC+13 to LOC+22.LOC. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve.C TBDATA.LOC+2.LOC.LOC+1. S2.2. 20.LOC+5.LOC+4.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy..3. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+2.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC+6. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma.

HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.2.EOS.05. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Input the parameters described below with TB.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening.1. For solid elements.. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.5.LOC+23 to LOC+32. p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.... n.2. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model. C.2004 . Input the density (DENS).21-26.2.6. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model.A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model. and m are material constants. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section).T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7. Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity.4. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants.. 7. 20. The model may be used for shell and solid elements.6. also called the viscoplastic model.4 TBDATA.3-20. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below). B.

6.1. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel.05.D2 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1.EOS and locations 1 .7. 20. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.10.15 of the TBDATA command: TB.2004 . density (DENS).Troom TBDATA.m TBDATA.8. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). Input the Young’s modulus (EX).B TBDATA.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model.EOSOPT TBDATA.14. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA.3.1. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.CP (specific heat) TBDATA.. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.2. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models.4.13.n TBDATA.15.... you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).EOS. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command.5.C TBDATA.12.9.D3 TBDATA.A TBDATA. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).D4 TBDATA.. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.D1 TBDATA.Tmelt TBDATA.11.pressure cut-off TBDATA.

1.05. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. 2.2004 . so you should use reasonable values. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.. see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness.2.. Optionally. density (DENS)..6. Erosion in tension and compression is possible. 20.6. and temperature. Pressure Cutoff ( 0. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA. Input the Young’s modulus (EX). strain rate.. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). 4. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA.2. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. you can define a viscosity. 3.4 of the TBDATA command: TB..6. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7.7. Input the parameters listed below with TB. EOSOPT TBDATA. EOS. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass.0) TBDATA.EOS and locations 1 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses.2.

.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).8.14.C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.Troom (room temperature) TBDATA. 7. The model must be defined with an equation of state. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.SPALL (Spall type.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.2.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.12.05.2004 ..19.) TBDATA.4.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command.18.EOSOPT TBDATA.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. Set SPALL = 1.7.8.9.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model.B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).11.2. 20.5.16.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure.. Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS).EOS. Input the parameters described below with TB. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).3.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA.6. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model.0 to use minimum pressure limit.0 to use maximum principal stress. SPALL = 3.13.1. SPALL = 2. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.15.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA..6. o (initial strain) TBDATA.3.10.G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .17.C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.

In this model. h. In this model. Tmo .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units. Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached. = o. and f are experimentally determined material constants.. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Here. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. p is the pressure. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations. 20.2004 . V is the relative volume.. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei.05. b.

Once spall is detected with this model. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff. limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. Whenever exceeds m. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command.. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated.EOS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit.. and the pressure cutoff value. SPALL = 1. The maximum principal stress spall model. The pressure limit model. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If tensile pressures are calculated. material melts. is set equal to m. Thus. and failure under tensile loads. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material. exceeds the limiting value -pcut . remains unchanged throughout the analysis.. SPALL = 3. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive).5.2004 . 20. p cut. max. while max is positive in tension. the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. p cut. The hydrostatic tension spall model. cracking. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. TB. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. the pressure is reset to pcut . pcut.. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. This option is not strictly a spall model. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. SPALL = 2. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. y and G are set to one half their initial values.05. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted.

see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel..f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).0 TBDATA.6.FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes.5. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB.DISCRETE.13.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11. set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA. 7.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA.14. Discrete Element Models 7.2.16.1. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.DISCRETE. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes..a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA..2. o (initial yield stress) TBDATA.7.2. Hardening and softening can be defined. Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model.PC (pressure cut-off.7.19-28...) TBDATA.15.10.4.2004 . o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA..7.17. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model.8.7.. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.9.18. 20.3.12...0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.1.2..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA.05.SPALL (Spall type.DISCRETE.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.2.1.A (atomic weight) TBDATA.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3).Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB.

3. displacement or moment vs.2.2.2 TBDATA..) TBDATA. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.7.3.2.DISCRETE.DISCRETE. 0. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes...2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB. The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading.. 20.) TBDATA. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency..2.2. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB.4...LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs.CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1.3.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening.7. Input the spring elastic stiffness. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness..1. displacement or moment vs. displacement/twist relationship.4.DISCRETE.) 7.3. Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA..05.2.0 is tension only.7 TBDATA.. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA.1..DISCRETE.3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.. Input the model parameters with the TB....LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs... 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.KU (Unloading stiffness. respectively...6.1. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.7.DISCRETE.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.) 7.KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA. 1.)) TBDATA.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.5. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.2004 .DISCRETE.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7.1.LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB..3 TBDATA. Inelastic Tension. Optionally.5 TBDATA.LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity.0 is compression only (default).DISCRETE..2.7.or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression.5.2.CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7.LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs.. Input the model parameters with the TB.0 is compression only.

7.3.9.(initial length . The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.2.6.1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes..2.. ) 7.TC (Cutoff time. If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.DISCRETE..DISCRETE.2004 . Input the model parameters with the TB..FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.2.DISCRETE.) where L is the change in length L = current length .DISCRETE.KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.DISCRETE.7.1. generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension.COPT (Time implementation option) 7..0... Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes. Input load curve ID with the TB.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables. 0). No force will develop in compression. The force is given by: F = K x max( L..1. The force..LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs.7.7. the offset should be positive.6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB.Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.4.. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined.. 0)....05.4 TBDATA.BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs. Input the damping constant with the TB.6 TBDATA.1.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7.DISCRETE.2. rate-of-rotation relationship. For an initial tensile force... the offset should be a negative length. Optionally..1 TBDATA... For a slack cable. F. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA.5. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.. 20.8.

Two independent rigid bodies.2004 . to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. it is hard to determine which constraints will be used. 20.8.MAT.e.2. however. A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid. This material number.Load Curve ID For an example input listing. multiple rigid material types must be specified.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified. Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead. Along with the EDMP command.. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command.8. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. the change in length over the initial length. along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading). Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes.. i. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP. if more than one node is constrained. issue: EDMP. However.RIGID.1. The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . cannot share a common node.. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body. Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain. see Cable Material Example: Steel.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.EX EDMP. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex). Rigid Model 7.DENS MP. Therefore. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type. to define a rigid body for material 2. and Z displacements VAL2 . For example. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body.2.CABLE.2. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). For this reason.05. Y. 7.

. the mass. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies. In addition. Therefore. see Material Models. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command.7.ADD. and displacements are transferred to the nodes. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. The motion of the body is then calculated. 20. After defining a rigid body. By default. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. NEQN.2. Hence. mass. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. center of mass. the command EDCRB.2004 . Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless. you can assign inertia properties. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom.. and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number.PARTM. see Rigid Material Example: Steel. For an example input listing. When using the EDCRB command. Y. When rigid bodies are defined. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass.05. the command EDMP.RIGID.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value.PARTS should be issued.

mass. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2. . edmp. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part.2450E+01.Ivect.. 0. TM is the translational mass. 10.Cvect.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. For batch input.. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia.PART. 0.ADD. The command format is EDIPART.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body . including the required array parameters. 0. 0 inert2(1) = 0. Option is the option to be performed (ADD.IRCS. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution. .2851E-03 ! EDIPART.2851E-03. 0. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8.TM.2004 .CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined.3 *dim.. 20.5000E+00.2.6 *dim.coord2. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command.coord2.0E-7. which is a rigid body. 0.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.1. 0.ircs. CID is a local coordinate system ID. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system. you can input all of the above parameters.inert2.Option. Specifying Inertia Properties By default.Vvect. 0. You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body.3150E-03.6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0. . you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity.velo2. . However.inert2.tm.rigid. . DELETE.05. or LIST)...velo2. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart.

for the rigid body load labels. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command. a PART number must be input instead of a component name.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. However. For example. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state.3. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart. long duration. To improve efficiency for this class of applications.RBUX. (Note that for other load types. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. and then back to deformable.2004 . a component name is input in this field. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later.05.2..RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable.. issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications. 20. PAR1. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis. then restart the analysis again. You need to stop the analysis. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. . Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP.ADD. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable. you can achieve significant savings in computation time.2. define the part switch. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage. Loading As described in Loading.

Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements. 7. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD.D2R. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command.ADD. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that. PART. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch. where COMP1 is a node component. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions.2004 . If you do not define the inertia properties..R2D. (In the GUI. PART In a new analysis. 6. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. simply leave MRB blank. the choice of element formulation is critical. For rigid body switching to work properly. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior.05. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. (In the GUI. and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161.4. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. then issue EDRD . COMP1. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged. 20.D2R with no additional arguments.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid.NRB. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.. To avoid instabilities in the calculations.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number. See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. After a deformable-to-rigid switch. they will be calculated by the program. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD. In the current LS-DYNA implementation.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number.

Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant.. triangular 2-D. 20. however. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). which is automatically calculated by the program. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time. It is generally not recommended. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity.. or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity.2004 . or beam elements. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes. commonly referred to as hourglassing modes. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized. In general. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls.05.e. but not triangular shell. These modes. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields..

and the sonic speed. However. and bending. for a given mesh. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations. As a general guideline.) Note that for a given set of material properties. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. l min.05. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model. the material number. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model. For this command. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). which is a function of material properties (density. You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model. elastic modulus. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model. However. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0.) Using this method. the hourglass coefficient. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed.HGLS. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1. Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10.. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes. Also. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files.2004 . When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy. and Poisson's ratio). the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. 20.15. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior. In these cases. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. the minimum time step size t min. c. (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. metal plasticity..

If DTMS is negative. mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis. depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive. When mass scaling is requested. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0.001% mass to the model.. 20.05. For example.2004 . when using mass scaling. Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. and mass scaling is applied to all elements.. ? Of the two methods listed above. Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.9). the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass. It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. the same time step size is used for all elements. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only .

can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly. Subcycling Subcycling. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. etc. elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. By part number for large vector blocks. also known as mixed time integration. 4th .05. 3rd. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model.2004 . 3. Thus.. To control the time step size after mass scaling. If subcycling is turned on. step depending on their size. the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd.. By element number in ascending order. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. 20. 2. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command. even the larger ones.

Note the distinction between the Jobname. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time. With an explicit dynamic analysis. this processor is not supported by ANSYS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs.2004 .RST and the Jobname. History (Jobname. thus.1.1.RST and Jobname. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled.HIS files: The Jobname.05. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq). 20. Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST. contains solutions for the entire model. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26).RST) vs.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname.1. Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors. POST1 and POST26. Results ( Jobname. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise. used primarily in POST1 processing. Output Controls 12. or to view animated results. Inc.. However. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and.RST file. Nodes that are included in constraint equations.. 12. consequently. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12. or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. rigid bodies.

While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting.RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL.elm1 EDHIST. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname. CM. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART). but for only a portion of the model. may exceed the system limit. For details on creating components. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26.elm1. In this case. used in POST26. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results.GLSTAT EDOUT.NSTEPS EDHIST.RST and Jobname.SPCFORC EDOUT.HIS and other output files.S.1. specify the number of time steps. the Jobname. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis. Furthermore. Therefore.05.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands). For example. Jobname..RST file is usually less than 100. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system..HIS. and the ASCII files to be written. !Specify the name of the element component.2. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit. it is usually 1000 or more.HIS file.nod1. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met.) As a comparison. CM. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. Create a component consisting only of those elements.RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results.2004 . For large models.MATSUM EDOUT. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname.1 !Select elements of material 1. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete..MAT. in the Jobname. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces). Generally.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.nod1 EDOUT. The Jobname. The remaining data will not be written. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME. the data to be stored in the results files. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space. 12. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command. 20. a system error may occur.RST and Jobname. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data).3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model.1. (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space. 12. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes. the number of time steps in the Jobname. the element and nodal components to be analyzed.elem !Create element component elm1. !Specify the name of the nodal component. NSLE !Select nodes from elements.HIS file. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics).node !Create nodal component nod1.

and the model will behave as expected physically. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. COMBI165. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program. for example..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. use the appropriate plotting command (for example. the printing or plotting command will be ignored.1. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. However.2004 .RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy). !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. failure strain). the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. show contour and vector displays. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results.2. When you display results in POST1. you may want to issue EDOUT.. When using POST1. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system. (During the LS-DYNA solution. If you are using command input. Stress data will be rotated during printout. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. You can display the deformed shape. PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below).ALL to write all possible ASCII files. the elements are still in the selected set.2.) 12.NODOUT EDOUT. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161.RST file. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 20. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types.05. or element table operations. display. resume. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example. and otherwise control the animation. Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail.SLEOUT EDOUT. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname. In some cases. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions. stop. Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1).

SHELL163. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL. Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. MASS166.. For faster plotting. For more than 5 layers. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. for that matter). the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL. Further. regardless of the BEAMIP setting.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. no matter how many layers exist. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command). “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. If NIP = 2. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. For beam elements. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. LINK167). By default.LOC command. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. for strain data. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration. If you set BEAMIP = 0. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER. To get results close to the element surface.2004 . the results at the top correspond to integration point 2..Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell. COMBI165. However.) Also by default. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)). see the ANSYS Elements Reference. but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results.NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results.05. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element.2. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2). SOLID164.Item.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. 20. BEAM161. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. However. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule. especially in bending. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). In this case. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule. By default. layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements.2. data is only available at the middle of the layer. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. there is no stress output.Item 12. PLESOL ).

and SOLID164 elements. As the number of elements in the model changes.EPPL] for these element types.DB file).Jobname.LIST ! ! SET. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step.Second mesh refinement Jobname. nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files. Note Because of the multiple results files. Therefore. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. However.2 ! ! PRNSOL.Third mesh refinement etc.First mesh refinement Jobname. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio.. .RS01 ! ! SET.1. /POST1 FILE. using the FILE and /SEG commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162. Also.RS03 . care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files. you could write a macro to create the desired animation.05. you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing). ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. 12.RS02 . Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL.2. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used. Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files..3. ..RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used. the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model. SHELL163. You should not resume the original model database (. . The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . Jobname.

MATSUM.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE.3. RCFORC.2004 .) 12. Care must be taken when reading from the . such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST.NCOMP are specified. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs.. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT.HIS file into POST26.RST.RST file.. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. however. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements.05. . with variable number 1 reserved for time. and reaction forces. NODOUT.HIS file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12.1.MERGE .Jobname. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. work. known as variables. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting.HIS and Jobname. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data.num2 ESOL NSOL STORE.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record. use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer. 20. !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.MERGE LAYERP26. The Jobname.num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26. such as different energies. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. SLEOUT.3. the results will be read from the Jobname. Each variable is assigned a reference number. SPCFORC. To generate results. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname.

respectively. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). To plot the results.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation). you can choose to plot unsmoothed.3. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables. MERGE for each layer. 20. and RBDOUT files. etc. MATSUM. 12.3. see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing. but if you are working in batch mode.3.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. respectively. After EDREAD. first issue FILE . you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables. NODOUT. 12. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . including POST1 and POST26. Once these arrays have been created. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12. LAYERP26. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data.2004 . The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points.4. or both sets of data. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field. Once stored.05. RCFORC. smoothed. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures.. SLEOUT. ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. If you are working in interactive mode.. Four arrays are required for smoothing data. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information.2. Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT. DATAP defaults to all points. SPCFORC.Jobname. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

. materials that are no longer important. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems.2004 . You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis.05. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. etc. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. 20. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. 13. After the completion of each stage.1. For example. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. d3dump02. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart. a restart "dump" file is written. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. To change the model and continue calculations.. By viewing the development of the error. The Restart Dump File By default.

The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname.. a simple restart. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. or a full restart.2.RST and Jobname.2. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted. a small restart..d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database. 13.1. A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname.2.2. then issue the SOLVE command.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI. 13..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13.05. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART . A New Analysis For a new analysis. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C)..DB) has not been changed. 20.HIS. you must issue the command EDSTART. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option).1. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary.2.. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. 13.3.2.. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example. For this type of restart. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL.2004 .

that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. If you do select such parts. Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). Be sure to issue EDSTART .R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number.. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. 20. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. In other results files. etc. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis.2004 . or even a series of restart analyses. Another example is mass scaling. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files. you may choose to perform an additional restart. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files.. deactivate. 3. ACLEAR. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. In some cases. results are appended according to the time value. it is important that you issue EDSTART .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete. In a small restart. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command). The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2.2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart. For example. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. even if no switch is being made.05.) Note When postprocessing the restart results. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. Furthermore. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command. After the first small restart analysis.RST. in Jobname.2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

K. parts having the same part ID). You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. To do this. If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model. 3. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed.2. Issue the commands needed to change the model. To initiate a full restart. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. 5.) When the EDSTART. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. Repeat step 3-6. PIDN. you may need to consider more materials..K. In a full restart.. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field. Post-process the results. you must issue the command EDSTART .. Jobname_01. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses). Page 119 of 180 13. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below. or to apply different loading conditions. 2. stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is.2004 . (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart. Typically. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized.3. you must issue the command EDIS. Create the initial model and run a new analysis.3 command is issued. For example. When LS -DYNA starts execution.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart. Issue the SOLVE command 6.ADD. to remove portions of the model. If you issue EDIS with no arguments.05. 4.2 with an appropriate d3dump file. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field. 7. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. Post-process the restart analysis results. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE).4. 1. For example. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. as needed. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties.K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands.. assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart. these are discussed below. You would issue the command EDSTART . 20.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. Issue EDSTART.d3dump01.

the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. In addition. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model.) To avoid a mismatch in parts. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. Again. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. However. During the initialization. material number. the part cannot be initialized. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. as stated above. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. material number. Mass scaling: As in a small restart.2004 . ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. all discrete elements will be initialized. use a different element type number.. 20. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis. However. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes.. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. the same number of elements. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis. as described below. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way. in the same order. the initialization is “all or nothing. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. or real constant number for those elements. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart.05. and previously existing parts will not be altered.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. stress initialization may fail for those parts. If this is not the case. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. For discrete elements (COMBI165).LIST and EDPVEL. Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. In this case. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart.DB). use a different element type number.LIST.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small). results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis. you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart. 02.RST and Jobname_nn.. ASCII output files. In a full restart. you need to use both solution methods. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution. To solve these problems. glstat. e.RST. The results in Jobname_nn. Just issue EDSTART.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart. For a small restart. Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa.…) automatically. however. the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01.3. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Each time EDSTART .HIS ). Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14.3 is issued. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn..1. new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. For a simple restart. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems.g. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). matsum. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname. etc.) are appended with consecutive time markings. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis. are not renamed and will be overwritten.).2004 . matsum..RST file (similar to a new analysis).RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1. Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena.05. Jobname_nn. the history file (Jobname. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code. In this chapter.RST. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses. 20. 14.HIS. For both the simple restart and small restart. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart. etc.

This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Specifically. In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. Solve and finish the analysis. 7. which is the driving force for springback. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed.DB. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. stresses. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations. 1. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. This release of energy. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. In the explicit metal forming analysis. and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. In most dynamic metal forming operations. This elastic energy. 8. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies. 2. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows.2004 . using Jobname1. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. Hence. 9.. In addition.05. 2. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. Then the deformed shape. Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components. 10. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. 6. The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). 11. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. 20. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis.

and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1. (Note that the 2-D explicit element. 3. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved..2004 .Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4.05. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command. 20. cannot be used in a sequential solution. Command(s): ETCHG. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved. see step 12). Re-enter the preprocessor. PLANE162.DB file at this point.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. Command(s): /FILNAME.ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. Redefine the key options.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. material properties. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten.. boundary conditions. real constants.

which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis). For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected.2004 . converted to null elements.) The TYPE. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. but you do need to redefine the other values. deleted. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. deleted. Also. REAL. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types. 20. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8.. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1.Update Geometry 9. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements. Command(s): SHPP. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis. you do NOT need to redefine the real constants.. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS. 7.05. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. or convert them to null elements. these elements must be unselected.

Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. Command(s): D. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred.. Command(s): NLGEOM. Re-enter the solution processor.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. otherwise.. in a metalforming analysis. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. For SOLID164. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc.2004 . and from SOLID164 to SOLID185). 12. only the stresses are transferred. the implicit analysis will be terminated. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11. Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13. Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. Turn large deformation effects on.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants. etc. 20. For SHELL163.05. or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12). you need to constrain the blank).

The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution.all upgeom.2004 ...list resume.n2.uz d....0..dyna.01. Solve and finish the analysis.stamp1.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14..1.0 esel.uy d.01.db /filename. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results. Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0.1 shpp.s.all.on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport..stamp1. 20..rst d.05.stamp2 /prep7 etchg..0.stamp1..2.0...181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle.ename..01 ddel..s..off finish /solution nlgeom.n1.eti r.n3.ux.uy..0..01. /batch.ux. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis.ux.all tbdelete..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14..

Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part. ? Slenderness of the structure. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part.1. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run.. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging. being very thin. ? ? 14. 20. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command). tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps. When the tools are removed.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. One node should be restricted from motion in all directions. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve.OFF. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis.2004 . you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. ? The model is improperly constrained.2.05. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM.. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. In each substep.

which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases. The first type. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15.. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution.2004 . This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. implicit-to-explicit. however. is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model.ON).05.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. 20..

different material models (e. you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax. adding plasticity).1. which are used only in forming applications.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15. In this implicit analysis. etc.05.. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure. the bird in a bird-strike problem). Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions.g. but are not used by LS -DYNA. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled. 20. 1. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.2004 .g. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. using Jobname1. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier. After defining additional loads. initial velocities. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted.... This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy..

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2.0). Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3.05. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D. 5. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1. the bird in a birdstrike simulation. Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1.2004 . or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest).ALL. 20. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis.DB file at this point. Command(s): /FILNAME.DB. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten.ALL. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example. but they need to be defined here nonetheless.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. Solve and finish the analysis.. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4.

but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG.. but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes. Re-enter the preprocessor. see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. PLANE162. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7. Note that the 2-D explicit element. 20.. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF.05. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. cannot be used in this type of sequential solution. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes .2004 . as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only.

you must first convert the element type using ETCHG.ITE.ITE.. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. real constants. boundary conditions. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4.05. REAL. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. optional node. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Also. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. however. However. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4. and loading values on the explicit elements.. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained. The TYPE. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF.2004 . 20. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. require a third (orientation) node. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10. above. their corresponding companion explicit element types. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. Redefine the key options. LINK160 and LINK167. Re-enter the solution processor. 8.

and temperatures from the implicit results file. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run.2004 . drelax..db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.drop1. /batch. if necessary. rotations. 20. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. Read nodal displacements. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. In this step. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. You can then return to the implicit solution.05. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14.. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file.list resume. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11.

etc. Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution..2. BFK.0216 ddel. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF.loc.list ! List parts edvel.uy.05. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued. LDREAD. Jobname. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above)..TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command). You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above.2004 . Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis. However.a...all tb.K. BFV.8 edmp.dens.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.drop1. BFUNIF. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file. TUNIF.all.dyna.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart.ux.0 nsel.loc.create ! Create parts for loading edpart.1. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).… ! Apply initial velocities edload.0 finish /solution rexport..drop2 /prep7 etchg.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body.7 edcgen. d. BFL.rbvx.. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above.add.plaw.2. 20.all.. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis.0 d.s.y... and TREF commands.load.7.assc nsel.rigid.x. In the explicit analysis phase.time. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis.1.0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15.. BFA. these include temperature loads applied with the BF. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis.1.ite mp.

you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1. 2.NODE. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload.05.. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. Solve and finish the analysis. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis.. VALUE).TEMP. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain.2004 . but they can be defined here if desired. 1. 20. Currently. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. Therefore. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15.

DB. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. Re-enter the preprocessor. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1.2004 . The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4.DB file at this point. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1. Command(s): /FILNAME.. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.05. 20. 5. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

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8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

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11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

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13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

500. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata.hgls.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam.93e11. 0.all nsel.1.alpx.all.ex.all. 1.ntip.8030. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 . 1.1.1 mp.502.etip.0 nsel. 0.nuxy.3.31.ext sf.1. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.z.all sfdele.c.all.s. 5e-5.1..11 cm. 0.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity.16.all save solve fini /post1 set.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.0e-5.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio.0e3 esel.0 edmp.all. 1100.300.20.temp.5e-5. 5. W/m-C ! specific heat.0.0 nsel.1.5 vmesh.conv. unitless mpdata.1.1.8e11. m/m-C mpdata.kxx.3 mp.temp /wait.2004 .0.34.0.1. 1.32.loc.all.0. 1.static time. degrees Celsius mptemp. 0. 700.0 d.explicit /prep7 bfdele.all.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.s.0. 0.1. 2. 900. 0..5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp. 6.1.5e-5.. 20.loc. 0.1. 0. 0.05.1.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion.33.78e-5. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.6.0.all etchg.last plnsol.all ddele. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity..z. 0.tte mp.all finish /solu antype.1.0 nsel.0 block.5e11.0e11. 6.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end .elem bf.11 esize.dens.s.density cannot be temp.hgen.1.node esln cm. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.9e11.

1. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution. ! ! Alternately.x.7000.10000.uy.g.0 d. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0). Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario..e.1.create eddamp..9000.1.rth bflist nsel.30000...all.7e6 edpart.1e6 tbtemp.biso.thermal. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.1..700 tbdata.ux.9e6 tbtemp.0.500 edhist.1.z. edrst.2e6 tbtemp.0.all time.last /dscale.10 plnsol.900 tbdata.. modulus of elasticity) are desired..loc.0. a thermal shock condition is created.1. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i.05.2004 .glstat save solve fini /post1 set.uz esel.last.0...epto.6 tbtemp.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb.8000.0 tbdata. 20.1.all nsel. Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8e6 tbtemp.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same ..20000..100 edhtime.01 fini /solu ldread. stop vibrating).1100 tbdata.3e6 tbtemp.etip edout.0.all.15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient.1200 tbdata.s..temp. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition.0.ntip edhist.500 tbdata..0..

Thus.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk).. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g.2. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target.05. For example. This reduces computation time. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the module automatically creates the target. For most drop tests. 20.. For all drop test cases. The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. For example. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g). contact surface friction coefficients. When this option is used. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module.1. rigid surface (the target). The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target. The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16.2004 . do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). Drop Test Module 16. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact. A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat. graphics mode. specify solution controls. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. In a typical drop test.

the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses.05.3. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is.. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. Thus. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows). 20. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped. properties. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. In the DTM. More advanced features. 16. Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3. Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. such as inclusion of surface friction effects. are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. and modification of the target size. including damping. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16.1. and orientation.3. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. neglecting surface friction. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection.. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity.1. All elements should be defined and all material properties. rigid surface (target). should be specified. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). Before you begin.1. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module.

2004 . To avoid time increment degeneration problems. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. 20. Velocity tab -. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Status tab -.2. and the estimated time at the end of solution. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. rotate the target. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As).Modify dimensions and material properties of the target. Otherwise. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM. The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g). object drop height. run time after impact.3. 16. and define contact and friction properties for the target. Target tab -. initial translational and angular velocity.1. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed.Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero. object orientation. tetrahedron.. no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. analysis start time..05. you will not be able to set up the DTM. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up.

see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. STEP 7: Solve Before solving. 32.3. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). 2.3. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool.1.4. If you choose the Status tab. 16. or you can type your own value. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab. Under the Gravity heading. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data.6. that is.. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. 20. 3. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages.05. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab.4. Reference point options include the lowest object point. check them in the ANSYS Output window.5. 16.RST) and to the time-history file ( file. etc. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM. as well as the run duration time after impact.3.2. Under the Number of Results Output heading.7. 16. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.1. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab.). Review the information under all of the tabs. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages.HIS). you type the drop height.1. 16. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g).2004 .1. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1.3.. and specify a reference point. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction.3. or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. Under the Drop Height heading. Under the Solution time heading.1. The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example).3.

screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity. You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. See Postprocessing and Postprocessing . because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. See Postprocessing . are defined automatically. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window. Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates.. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen. By redefining the object Y direction. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. Make changes if necessary. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field.3. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). 20. (g).3.1.2.1. screen Cartesian coordinates. then choose OK.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. At this time. you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. For animating results. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field.05. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined. (g).3. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object. 16. all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again. Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM. which are fixed..9. it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time. 16. 16. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information.

a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob.3. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name. ? During initialization. After doing so. it will require more computation time. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). Within the DTM. the initial angular velocity must be zero. However. or "out".2004 . The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object.05. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. To use the option to start the analysis near impact time. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped. You should avoid using this name. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). 16. as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. After you specify a drop height.. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. coupling of components within an object is allowed. by default.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view.) If you do not choose to orient the object.. However. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario.3. you will notice that. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM. You should avoid using these names. 20. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target. The keyword is DTFILT. so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively. The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way.

and Z components of the velocity. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four.05. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience. and specify contact surface friction coefficients. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. Y. 16.2004 .. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16.. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates. 16. modify the target's position and properties. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. however. as discussed below. 20.4. Object Initial Velocity By default.4. The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. After choosing the desired option.4. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab. simply input the X. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. Details on these features are included in the following sections. under Solution Time in this user's guide.1. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element.2. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation. in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities.

16.1. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. But if necessary.2.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.4.. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses.2.1TL. By default. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections. 16. size. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center.2. 20. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane.2004 . See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. orientation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position. Under the Dimensions heading. To change the target position.4. material properties. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity.

4. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab.5. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution. choose the Target tab. The modulus. it is preferred that you input them directly.05. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. and the target height is 0. If you change the target's size. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. If you know the actual target material properties. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. 16. Under the Orientation angle heading.1T sTL. Under the Dimensions heading.2004 . modulus of elasticity. then. To modify the target orientation.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL.2. and therefore normal to (g). a material density. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. Thus. density.2. 16. you can enter two target scaling factors. Target Orientation By default. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up.MAT.0 and Ts=0. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. 20. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s). For example. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen.7. To specify the properties. By default. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model.5. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation.4. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object. and Poisson's ratio. choose the Target tab. enter the Young's modulus. density. density.2. Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. the target is re-drawn automatically. 16. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module.4.RIGID.. under the Material Properties heading. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object. As an example. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.3. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. the target is re-drawn automatically. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model.. If you change the target's orientation. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS). and stores the corresponding material number. If you input Ls=2. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD).4.

The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages. The tabs. and the estimated time at the end of solution. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box. 20. in order from left to right. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab. then they have default values of 0.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information.5. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs. 16. The target is then created and loads are applied.5. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task.2004 . initial translational and angular velocity.5.2. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters..1. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity.0. with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. Target. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page. the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. are Basic. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. Velocity. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. and Status. or FD. then choosing the Target tab.05. including the target surface. before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16. If you do not change parameters FS.. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up.

. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped. Drop Height -..2 9. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM.81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below.4 32. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity. referenced to the screen coordinates.2004 . The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction. Gravity -. 20. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386.Specify the magnitude of gravity.

20.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. which is the case just before impact. By default. However.. ? Solution Time -. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. then the information is stored. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. the angular velocity must be zero. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed. Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact.. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. is not equal to the specified drop height. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. Therefore. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered. measured along the screen Y axis. .Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. Set Orientation -. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. To use this option. If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. If an initial translational velocity is applied.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide). this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. If this option is used. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information.05. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default). starting from when the object drops. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate. Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. and the calculation is not repeated. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box.

You may define additional nodes. See the EDHTIME command for details. See the EDRST command for details. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname.2004 . Refer to the EDHIST command for details.HIS. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .3.5. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.For further information about the options on the Basic tab.. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.05. Help: Displays this help topic. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.. ? ? Related Information -. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16.RST. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target. Number of Results Output -. On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname.

Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time. the initial angular velocity must be zero. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system. and it will automatically recreate the target.2004 . 20.. Translational Velocity -. as described below. If these conditions are not met. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default).Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped. and choose to start the analysis near impact time. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. If you apply a translational velocity other than zero. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity.. Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity.05. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time). the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities.

Dimensions -. ? ? Related Information -. Also.5.4. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Help: Displays this help topic. Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the target is automatically created.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity.05.Specify the target's position and size. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab. 20..2004 . use the Target tab to specify the options described below.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab.. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16.

05. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis.0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value.. ? Orientation angle -.1 times the default length. Then. divided by 2.2004 . ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1. Material Properties -. Therefore. Similarly.0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. The default length is determined by ANSYS. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes. A warning is printed to the screen.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below.. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped. and the target is returned to its previous orientation. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you). The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis. 20. divided by 2. The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes.AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . then the input is considered to be invalid. ? ? Contact -. The default thickness is equal to 0. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN . If only a single node exists on the object at this point.Specify the material properties of the target.

but not as robust. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab.. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. 20. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact. except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16. and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact.0) You type the static friction coefficient.5.05. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0. see the following sections in this user's guide.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body.2004 . Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient.5.. Help: Displays this help topic.

[red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution. Then. if necessary. Proceed with caution. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. Click OK to commit the settings. 20. Ready to drop. See error messages. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. See error messages. initial translational and rotational velocity.. Click OK to commit the settings. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur.2004 .. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. and the total time at the end of solution. a zero entry detected for the value of gravity).05. Unsuccessful set-up. [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The target will not be created in this situation. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. [black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.

The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16.. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity.. 2. 2.2004 .6. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. Related Information -. Pick the first node.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button. 3. 20. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction. 3.. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1.05. Pick the second node.. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. 4.For further information about the options on the Status tab. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Pick the first node. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic. Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.

1st Principal Stress. Stress.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example. von Mises Stress). Model result data radio buttons -..05..2004 . Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1).Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0.5 seconds). Stress-plastic). Maximum text fields -.Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing . Stress-total. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below. Animation time delay (sec) text field -. Result Set Range. 20. Display Type two -column selection list -. ? ? Range Minimum. Postprocessing .7. the default is the first data set.Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -. Load Step Range.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -. the default is the last data set. meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default).For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. The default is unchecked. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0.Animation Next 16.Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example. Increment result set text field -.Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0.

20.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16.. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide. ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing . the animation will be created and will be displayed.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Related Information -.2004 .Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. Postprocessing .Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . as well as changing its direction.05.8.. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box. ? After you choose OK. Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available.

as initially specified will be graphed or listed.2004 . Help: Displays this help topic.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing . y. ? ? Related Information -. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default). or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system.: Only the lowest point of the object. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt. Velocity. then select the x. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed.05. Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them. Initial Low Pt. 20..For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box.1. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A.. Center of grav.: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object.

20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.2004 . The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K].. and large time steps can be taken. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems. Convergence tools are provided.2. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). a central difference time integration method is used. Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems.1. ? ? ? A. Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence.05. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear. and F cont is the contact force.1. Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force.

the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties..2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces. Implicit Method For linear problems.2. No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required.1. Stability Limit A. 20. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled.2004 . Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit. the explicit method is useful only for very short transients. the time step can be arbitrarily large. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing . that is. For nonlinear problems. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector.2. A.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A.05. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the implicit solution is always stable.2. Due to this very small time step size.

4.9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. As an example. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step.2004 .. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity). Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l.05.. 20. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A.3. a scale factor of 0. For stability reasons. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod.

It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled.2004 . Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length. c. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS.05. For beam elements: l = length of the element. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands. Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA.. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed. are dependent on element type. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B. and the wave propagation velocity.1. 20. l. B. Inc. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

..2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20..05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table.

ex..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B.1..2. Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP.2.210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.1.05. Material Model Examples B.2004 .

nuxy.20 ! No units MP.2.gyz.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.20 ! No units MP.10.nuxz.121.18.1.1.1 TBDATA.499 ! No units TB.104e7 ! Pa B.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.6.2..ez. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP.358. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.21.2004 .1.ex.MOONEY.1e9 ! Pa MP.1.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA..1.2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA..2.1. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.dens.nuxy.358.1.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.9e9 ! Pa MP. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.18.gxy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP...20 ! C01 (psi) B.9e9 ! Pa MP..1.29 ! No units MP.307e9 ! Pa MP.44.2.15.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.126.gxz.20 ! No units MP.5.51.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.6.126.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.2. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.2.1.1.gxy.nuxy.1.4.1.dens.3.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.121. 20.48.3.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.1.24.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.9e9 ! Pa MP.nuyz.2.44.1.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.1.dens.05.1 TBDATA.5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.126.5.ey.4.dens.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.2..dens..1e9 ! Pa MP.1.ANEL.

PLAW.nuxy.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.1.10 TBDATA.dens.1.53 ! 1/ B.9.1.2.1.47.2..3.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA.nuxy.PLAW.2.128. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.dens.210e6..EVISC..1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA.1.2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.nuxy.1. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP.STRAIN.1.1..1 ! Yield stress vs.1.214e6.ADD..20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.218e6...30e6 ! Pa MP. Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.2.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.dens.1....00285 ! kg/m 3 TB..4.15.5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP..1 TBDATA.41 ! r-value TBDATA. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP.61.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.29 ! No units MP.1.Strain (1).5 Strain(1) = 0.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.YLDSTRES.1.4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.2390 TB.7.3.05.180e9 ! Pa MP.05. 20.1.1.5 *DIM.48.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE.7 TBDATA.31 ! No units MP...0.dens.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.ex.1.2.207e9 ! Pa MP..29 ! No units MP.60.ex.2004 .1.YldStres(1) B.27.BISO.8.46.5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA..2..ex.1...

2.2.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PLAW..4.40.nuxy..36 ! No units MP. m TBDATA.29. .4.0.BKIN..1 TBDATA.1 *DIM.ex.44 EDCURVE.0.05.2. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.1.1.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.5..40.dens..1.ex.mjstrn.40.27 ! No units MP.8...0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.1.ADD.34 ! No units MP.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.mnstrn (1).7865 ! kg/m 3 TB.mjstrn(1) B. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP.12.1.5..0 ! P TBDATA.6 *DIM.1 TBDATA..2.2.1.0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.ex.1..10.PLAW..mnstrn.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.1. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP. ..6.200e9 ! Pa MP.100e9 ! Pa MP.nuxy.50 mjstrn(1) = 80.73 ! R00 TBDATA.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.3 TBDATA.45.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.3.dens.1.39.4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.7.170 ! Barlat exponent..1.1.1.68 TBDATA.1.5.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.75 ! Failure strain B.6...-10.2.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.11.dens.nuxy.20.76e9 ! Pa MP.65 TBDATA.5..763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.

275e6.2.4.16.8.1.254 TBDATA..ex..2.33 MP.5 *DIM...002 TBDATA..PLAW.1. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP.2 *DIM.1.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.nuxy. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs..9861 TBDATA..13. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0..05..04 TBDATA.1.1.2720 TB.6.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.9...5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs.9861 TBDATA..5.29 MP.1..1.2..32 TBDATA.2004 ..1.PLAW.9.2.209e9 MP.7 TBDATA..1.1.dens.2.. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP.65 TBDATA.0 YldStres(1) = 207e6....34 MP.dens.nuxy.1.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.PLAW.nuxy..017 TBDATA. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.3.11 TBDATA.9761 TBDATA.ex.3..1 TBDATA.08.4.1.5 *DIM.4.2750 TB.22e5 TBDATA..250e6.75e9 MP.5 TBDATA.7850 TB. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP.14..7. 20.3.4 TBDATA..ElasMod.YldStres.dens.300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 1.290e6.15.6 TBDATA.StrnRate.1.5.ex..1.1.2.76e9 MP.1.023 TBDATA..

08.TruStran.gxy.5..05..TruStres.1.4.ADD.ex.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA.8 TBDATA.226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.4.17. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.ADD.1.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.16.1.ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.215e9.1.ADD. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.StrnRate(1).2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.1700 ! ksi MP.218e9 EDCURVE.1 ! LCID for true stress vs.0.0.69e9 MP. true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.75 TruStres(1)=207e6..0 TBDATA.1.2..2710 TB.5 *DIM...7 ! (ksi) TBDATA.nuxy.598 TBDATA.207e9 ! Pa MP..GCAP. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP..207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.2.5.33 MP.dens.nuxy...6500.3.1.2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB.1 TBDATA.211e9.2.3.30 ! No units MP..TruStran (1).18.1.16.1.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.dens....2 TBDATA.5 TruStran(1)=0.4..ex.PLAW..290e6.4.0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.275e6.StrnRate(1).PLAW.TruStres(1) B.6.1.40.2004 .1.2.dens.3000e6 EDCURVE.250e6.1.2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..YldStres(1) EDCURVE.2..1.2.1 TBDATA.3.1. 20.212e9.4.216 TBDATA...

30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.7.-.dens.1.1.62 !N B.4500 TBDATA.2.9.EOS.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.12.3.1.025 !c TBDATA.1.9..473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.11.240e6 TBDATA.nuxy.2 TBDATA...2.5.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA..7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.30 ! No units MP..1.15.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.4. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.6.nuxy.1.EOS.5.2.5 TBDATA.350.10.8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.05.1..10..022 !c TBDATA.1.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.1 TBDATA.1.09 !m TBDATA.19.5.7.2004 .8 TBDATA.1.6.-.0002 TBDATA.138e9 ! Pa MP.17.35 ! No units MP.3.1 TBDATA.30 TBDATA.31 !n TBDATA..1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.1.4.207e9 ! Pa MP..1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.1.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.2..36 !n TBDATA.18 TBDATA.291.2.6.1.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.0 !m TBDATA..61 TBDATA.. Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.10 TBDATA.1.14...dens.11.7.8. 20.13.8 TBDATA.ex.89.20.8.ex.1...

nuxy..3 ! No units MP.4.0 ! S2 TBDATA.15.18.97 ! TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA.4400 TBDATA..2.21.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B.10 TBDATA.13. 20.1.100e9 ! Pa MP.12 TBDATA.1..2004 .20.14.014 TBDATA.200e9 ! Pa MP.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.18..-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.2.2.1 TBDATA..2.dens.21..1. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP.EOS.22.20.2..0.-.1.1.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.17.5386 ! C TBDATA..54 TBDATA.8.EOS.nuxy.. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.16.02 TBDATA.16.0 TBDATA.2.240e6 TBDATA.394 TBDATA.19. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP...0 ! S3 TBDATA.10.03 TBDATA.ex.4.1.05.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA..489 TBDATA.dens.1.17.1.1.9.11.17.34 ! No units MP.3.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.2.1.23.0.0.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.0.1.0 TBDATA.0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.2 TBDATA.3.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.19.4.0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA..7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.-3.12..48 !A 0 B.1.89 TBDATA.1.21.ex..1.0.

18.31.2004 .06.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.29. 20.0 ! S2 TBDATA.5..nuxy.EngStres(1) B.4 EngStran(1) = .32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA.1.2380 ! Absolute melting temp.3 ! No units MP.2.ex.ADD.0.11..1.1.3 ! No units EDMP.43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA..2 ! Spall type TBDATA.16.0. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.215e6..1.EOS.200 ! Max.2.1.49 ! S1 TBDATA.30.7. TBDATA.35 !n TBDATA.gxy.11.cable.10.08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.1.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM....3..5.24.17..93 ! TBDATA. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.49.EngStres.-50 ! Min.nuxy.1..2 TBDATA.285 ! (kg/m3) TB.0 ! S3 TBDATA.33.dens. parameter TBDATA.210e6.1..7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.04.1.1.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.34.16e6 ! (Pa) MP.02.ex.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.25.1.1.220e6 EDCURVE.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA. parameter TBDATA..15..rigid.4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B.207e9 ! Pa MP.32..207e9 ! Pa MP.EngStran. temp. temp.EngStran (1).05.1.4 *DIM.7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP.1.2..457 ! C TBDATA.1.dens.

The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands.2004 . 20.k is created. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. not ANSYS commands. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples. The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA. However.k file. an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command). This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS. ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05.. ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table.

(ACLX. ACLZ.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20. RBMY. RBRZ. (RBUX.RBOX.2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. (FX. RBOY. RBFY. RBFZ. OMGX. FY. . . OMGY. . FZ. . ROTZ. . RBUZ. . MZ) EDLOAD. . VZ. RBVY. ROTX. VY. ROTY. . AZ) EDLOAD. RBRY. RBMX. (UX. RBMZ) EDMP. AY. OMGZ) EDLOAD. UZ. RBVZ. MY.TEMP EDLOAD. PRESS EDLOAD. RBVX. RBUY. (RBFX. RBOZ) EDLOAD.05. AX. ACLY.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. +RBRX.. VX. MX.. UY.

.2004 .05..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.

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