ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev

Page 1 of 180

Next

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.2 Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis 1.3 A Guide to Using this Document 1.4 Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems 1.5 Additional Information 2 Elements 2.1 Solid and Shell Elements 2.1.1 SOLID164 2.1.2 SHELL163 2.1.3 General Shell Formulations 2.1.4 Membrane Element Formulation 2.1.5 Triangular Shell Formulations 2.1.6 PLANE162 2.2 Beam and Link Elements 2.2.1 BEAM161 2.2.2 LINK160 2.2.3 LINK167 2.3 Discrete Elements 2.3.1 COMBI165 Spring-Damper 2.3.2 MASS166 2.4 General Element Capabilities 3 Modeling 3.1 Define Element Types and Real Constants 3.2 Specify Material Properties 3.3 Define the Model Geometry 3.4 Mesh the Model 3.5 Define Contact Surfaces 3.6 General Modeling Guidelines 3.7 The Definition of PART 3.7.1 Part Assemblies 3.8 Adaptive Meshing 4 Loading 4.1 General Loading Options 4.1.1 Components 4.1.2 Array Parameters 4.1.3 Applying Loads 4.1.4 Data Curves 4.1.5 Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System 4.1.6 Specifying Birth and Death Times 4.2 Constraints and Initial Conditions 4.2.1 Constraints 4.2.2 Welds

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.2.3 Initial Velocity 4.3 Coupling and Constraint Equations 4.4 Nonreflecting Boundaries 4.5 Temperature Loading 4.6 Dynamic Relaxation 5 Solution Features 5.1 Solution Process 5.2 LS-DYNA Termination Controls 5.3 Shared Memory Parallel Processing 5.4 Solution Control and Monitoring 5.5 Plotting Small Elements 5.6 Editing the LS-DYNA Input File 5.6.1 Method A 5.6.2 Method B 5.6.3 Using a Pre-existing File.K 6 Contact Surfaces 6.1 Contact Definitions 6.1.1 Listing, Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities 6.2 Contact Options 6.2.1 Definition of Contact Types 6.2.2 Definition of Contact Options 6.3 Contact Search Methods 6.3.1 Mesh Connectivity Tracking 6.3.2 Bucket Sort Method 6.3.3 Limiting the Contact Search Domain 6.4 Special Considerations for Shells 6.5 Controlling Contact Depth 6.6 Contact Stiffness 6.6.1 Choice of Penalty Factor 6.6.2 Symmetry Stiffness 6.7 2-D Contact Option 7 Material Models 7.1 Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models 7.2 Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions 7.2.1 Linear Elastic Models 7.2.2 Nonlinear Elastic Models 7.2.3 Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.2.4 Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7.2.5 Foam Models 7.2.6 Equation of State Models 7.2.7 Discrete Element Models 7.2.8 Rigid Model 8 Rigid Bodies 8.1 Specifying Inertia Properties 8.2 Loading 8.3 Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid 8.4 Nodal Rigid Bodies 9 Hourglassing 10 Mass Scaling 11 Subcycling 12 Postprocessing 12.1 Output Controls 12.1.1 Results (Jobname.RST ) vs. History (Jobname.HIS) Files 12.1.2 Creating Components for POST26 12.1.3 Writing the Output Files for POST26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

Page 2 of 180

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 12.2 Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.2.1 Animating Results 12.2.2 Element Output Data 12.2.3 Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing 12.3 Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA 12.3.1 Nodal and Element Solutions 12.3.2 Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data 12.3.3 Data Smoothing 12.4 Finding Additional Information 13 Restarting 13.1 The Restart Dump File 13.2 The EDSTART Command 13.2.1 A New Analysis 13.2.2 A Simple Restart 13.2.3 A Small Restart 13.2.4 A Full Restart 13.3 Effect on Output Files 14 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.1 Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution 14.2 Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis 14.2.1 Springback Stabilization 15 Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution 15.1 Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload 15.1.1 Special Considerations for Thermal Loading 15.2 Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution 16 Drop Test Module 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module 16.3 Typical Drop Test Procedure 16.3.1 Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3.2 Screen Coordinates Definition 16.3.3 Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM 16.4 Advanced DTM Features 16.4.1 Object Initial Velocity 16.4.2 Modifying the Target 16.5 Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.1 Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.2 Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.3 Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.4 Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.5 Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.6 Picking Nodes 16.7 Postprocessing - Animation 16.8 Postprocessing - Graph and List Time-History Variables A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A.1 Time Integration A.1.1 Implicit Time Integration A.1.2 Explicit Time Integration A.2 Stability Limit A.2.1 Implicit Method A.2.2 Explicit Method A.3 Critical Time Step Size of a Rod A.4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size B Material Model Examples B.1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

Page 3 of 180

20.05.2004

You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS/LS -DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses.2. 1.2. 20.18 Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete B.1 Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel B. you can model your structure in ANSYS.3 Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium B. Overview of Steps in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.11 Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel B.2.13 Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum B. springback and other applications. and complex contact/impact problems.24 Cable Material Example: Steel B.4 Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber B.2.2.19 Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel B.1.2.15 Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel B.20 Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper B.2.2. and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools.6 Viscoelastic Example: Glass B.2.16 Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel B. Using this integrated product.12 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 B.7 Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy B.21 Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass B..2.9 Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel B.2.5 Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber B.2. large deformation dynamics. quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites.8 Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel B.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide B.2.2. The explicit method of solution used by LSDYNA provides fast solutions for short-time.2. Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA combines the LS -DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful preand postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program.2.2.2004 .17 Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 B.10 Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy B.23 Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel B.22 Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum B.2.2.14 Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum B. such as those required for droptest.2.2.05.25 Rigid Material Example: Steel C ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Bibliography Page 4 of 180 Prev Example of a 2D Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method (Command Method) Prev Introduction ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Introduction Next Chapter 1.2 Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide B.2.2.2.2. obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA..2 Material Model Examples B.

you choose similar options from the ANSYS program’s graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models. If you are familiar with the ANSYS program. you should review the following two manuals (in addition to this document) to learn the basic analysis procedures: ? ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide ? When using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. However.. Build the model (with the PREP7 preprocessor) 2. some commands are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis. you already know how to perform these steps. and this document will provide additional information you need to perform an explicit dynamic analysis.05. If you have not used ANSYS before. these settings are appropriate for solving the problems. Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform an explicit dynamic analysis that you use to do any other type of ANSYS analysis.. Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Dynamic Analysis Commands Used in an Explicit Dynamic Analysis Prev Introduction Next 1. Apply loads and obtain the solution (with the SOLUTION processor) 3.2004 .2. It does not describe all details of the three steps listed above. These commands are: EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCLIST EDCMORE EDCNSTR EDCONTACT Activates adaptive meshing Creates a part assembly Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry Specifies bulk viscosity coefficients Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition Specifies adaptive meshing controls Specifies contact parameters Lists contact entity specifications Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition Defines various types of constraints Specifies contact surface controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Many times. it is recommended that you use the default settings provided by the program. The three main steps are: 1. 20. Likewise. Review the results (with the POST1 and POST26 postprocessors) This document describes procedures and concepts that are unique to an explicit dynamic analysis performed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 5 of 180 The procedure for an explicit dynamic analysis is similar to any other analysis that is available in the ANSYS program.

or lists parts EDPC Selects and plots contact entities EDPL Plots time dependent load curves EDPVEL Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies EDRC Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls EDRD Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable EDREAD Reads output from LS -DYNA ASCII files into POST26 variables Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable EDRI part is switched to rigid EDRST Specifies time increment for output to the .2004 .RST file EDSHELL Specifies shell computation controls EDSOLV Specifies "explicit dynamic solution" as the subsequent status topic EDSP Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities EDSTART Specifies status (new or restart) of the analysis EDTERM Specifies termination criteria EDTP Plots elements based on their time step size EDVEL Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components EDWELD Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld EDWRITE Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC Page 6 of 180 Specifies CPU time limit Merges two rigid bodies Specifies whether subcycling will be used Specifies mass scaling Specifies data curves Defines system damping Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact entity specifications Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the EDDRELAX explicit analysis EDDUMP Specifies output frequency for the restart file (d3dump) EDENERGY Specifies energy dissipation controls EDFPLOT Specifies plotting of load symbols EDHGLS Specifies the hourglass coefficient EDHIST Specifies time-history output EDHTIME Specifies the time-history output interval EDINT Specifies number of integration points for output EDIS Specifies stress initialization in a full restart analysis EDIPART Defines inertia for rigid parts EDLCS Defines a local coordinate system EDLOAD Specifies loads EDMP Defines material properties EDNB Defines a nonreflecting boundary EDNDTSD Smooths noisy data and provides a graphical representation of the data EDNROT Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint EDOPT Specifies the type of output. 20. ANSYS or LS-DYNA EDOUT Specifies LS-DYNA ASCII output files EDPART Creates... updates.05.

The typical aspects of model building are presented in: Modeling Contact Surfaces Rigid Bodies Loading Features related to solving and postprocessing are discussed in: Solution Features Postprocessing Other more advanced capabilities that are not required to complete an analysis..3. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. you are ready to build the model. Prev Introduction Prev A Guide to Using this Document Introduction Next A Guide to Using this Document Next 1. 20. it may be more useful to read the chapters in a sequence that corresponds with the process of planning and performing an explicit dynamic analysis. However.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PARTSEL RIMPORT REXPORT UPGEOM Page 7 of 180 Selects a subset of parts Imports initial stresses from an explicit run into ANSYS Exports displacements from an implicit run to ANSYS/LS -DYNA Adds displacements from a previous analysis and updates the geometry to the deformed configuration For detailed alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands (including specific menu path information for each command).05.. but that may be useful in some situations. Before you build a model. You may choose to read through it from front to back.2004 . are presented in: Hourglassing Mass Scaling Subcycling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The following chapters provide the background information you need to make these decisions: Elements Material Models After choosing appropriate element types and material models. A Guide to Using this Document This document contains both procedural and reference information. you must decide which element types and material models will best represent your physical system.

the appendices contain reference information on the following topics: Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping Page 8 of 180 Prev Next Commands Used in an Explicit Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Dynamic Analysis Example Problems Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Introduction Next 1. Elements The following elements can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis: ? LINK160 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For detailed theoretical information.2004 . Prev A Guide to Using this Document Prev Additional Information Introduction Next Additional Information Next 1. see the ANSYS Elements Reference.. Prev Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems Prev Elements ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Elements Next Chapter 2.05.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Restarting Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Finally. Where to Find Explicit Dynamics Example Problems The Explicit Dynamics Tutorial describes a sample explicit dynamic analysis problem.5. see the Livermore Software Technology Corporation’s LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.. 20. see Chapter 14 in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. Additional Information For a more detailed overview of the explicit dynamic analysis procedure. For detailed information on explicit elements.

See also the ANSYS Elements Reference for a complete description of each element. Unless stated otherwise (see Contact Surfaces). such as with foams. 20. reduced integration is not the default for mass or link elements). A fully integrated solid formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2) is also available. plastic. higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. See Material Models of this document for detailed information on the material properties that can be used in an explicit dynamic analysis..e. see Hourglassing and also the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. and elastic modulus. 2. the minimum material property requirements for all elements are density.1. and all have reduced integration by default when applicable (for example. Poisson's ratio. including details of input and output quantities. Therefore. including elastic. but it is about four times more costly in terms of CPU time. These elements assume a linear displacement function. the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions. rubber. Reduced integration means that the number of points for numerical integration in the element formation process is less than that necessary for exact integration. the SOLID164 element supports more than 20 different material models. For example. the fully integrated formulation may perform better because hourglass control is not required.1.05. pyramid. Wedge. The material properties that can be used for each element are also listed. By default. and tetrahedra shaped elements are simply degenerate bricks (i. All of the explicit dynamic elements listed above are three-dimensional except for PLANE162. Solid and Shell Elements 2..1. One point integration is advantageous due to savings on computer time and robustness in cases of large deformations. If hourglass phenomenon is a concern.2004 . SOLID164 The SOLID164 element is an 8-node brick element. For additional details. Full integration options are also available for the solid and shell elements. midside nodes. one integration point is the default formulation for both solid and shell elements.. and foam models.3 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure. It should be noted that the explicit elements are not linked directly to material properties. Therefore. it uses reduced (one point) integration plus viscous hourglass control for faster element formulation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 9 of 180 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 ? ? ? ? ? ? This chapter gives a summary of each element’s capabilities. some of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. see the element description for SOLID164 in the ANSYS Elements Reference and Section 3. or p-elements.

You can use any of the following material models for solid elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Geological Cap Piecewise Linear Plasticity Honeycomb Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Viscous Foam Crushable Foam Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Johnson-Cook Plasticity ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. These shapes are often too stiff in bending and cause problems in some situations.05.. these degenerate shapes should be avoided. Therefore..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 10 of 180 nodes are repeated).2004 .

05.default ? Very fast and is recommended for most applications Uses reduced integration (one point) Should not be used when elements experience excessive warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Wong-Chiang (KEYOPT(1) = 10) ? 25% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Uses reduced integration (one point) Generally gives correct results for warping ? ? ? Belytschko-Leviathan (KEYOPT(1) = 8) ? 40% slower than Belytschko-Tsay Reduced integration formulation (one point) Includes physical hourglass control automatically ? ? ? Hughes-Liu (KEYOPT(1) = 1.2. for general analyses. Has one-point integration and is 250% slower that Belytschko-Tsay. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information.2004 . KEYOPT(1) = 1 General Hughes-Liu. KEYOPT(1) = 11 Fast (co-rotational) Hughes-Liu. 2.3. Has one-point integration and is 150% slower than Belytschko-Tsay. 6. SHELL163 Twelve different formulations are available for the SHELL163 element.1.. Coordinate systems for output of quantities associated with SHELL163 may vary for different formulations. 7. As with solid elements. Use KEYOPT(1) to specify the desired formulation. the number of integration points per element directly impacts CPU time. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 11 of 180 Null Zerilli-Armstrong Bamman Steinberg Elastic Fluid ? ? ? ? 2.1. 20. Therefore. General Shell Formulations ? Belytschko-Tsay (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) . the reduced integration shell formulations are recommended. 11) = > four different formulations which can offset the mid-plane of element away from the nodes.. The following is an outline of the different formulations available for SHELL163.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 12 of 180 KEYOPT(1) = 6 S/R Hughes-Liu. 20. Has four integration points in plane and does not need hourglass control. KEYOPT(1) = 12 Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell.. 8. 2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8 times slower than Belytschko-Tsay..1.05.5 times slower than reduced integrated Belytschko-Tsay element. where large in-plane compressive stresses try to collapse the thin fabric elements) ? ? ? Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 9) ? Significantly slower than general membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) Four integration points in plane No hourglassing ? ? 2. Recommended if hourglass modes are a problem in the analysis.1. 2. Recommended if hourglassing is a problem in an analysis..4. Has four integration points with no hourglassing but is 20 times slower that Belytschko-Tsay. KEYOPT(1) = 7 S/R co-rotational Hughes-Liu. Triangular Shell Formulations ? C0 triangular shell (KEYOPT(1) = 4) ? Based on Mindlin-Reissner Plate Theory Formulation is rather stiff. Membrane Element Formulation ? Belytschko-Tsay Membrane (KEYOPT(1) = 5) ? Fast and recommended for most membrane applications Reduced (one-point) integration Good for fabrics where wrinkling is a concern (i. Has four integration points with no hourglassing. Shear locking is remedied by assumed strain for the transverse shear.e.5.2004 . so not recommended for entire mesh Reduced integration formulation ? ? ? BCIZ Triangular Shell (KEYOPT(1) = 3) ? Based on Kirchhoff Plate Theory Slower than C 0 triangular shells Reduced integration formulation ? ? The description of SHELL163 in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide also has a complete list of available shell formulations.

This program-chosen formulation is required to address the special needs of the hyperelastic material. All shell element formulations can have an arbitrary number of integration points through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 13 of 180 Degenerate quadrilateral shell elements are prone to lock under transverse shear. C0 triangular shell elements (based on work by Belytschko and co-workers) have been implemented. therefore.2004 . Triangular shells can be mixed with quadrilateral shells within the same material property set. the LS-DYNA code will automatically use a total Lagrangian modification of the Belytschko-Tsay formulation instead of using the formulation you specify via KEYOPT(1). You can use any of the following material models for shell elements: ? Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Blatz-Ko Rubber Bilinear Isotropic Power Law Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (see note below) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic FLD Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Note When the Mooney-Rivlin Rubber material model is used with SHELL163 elements.05.. 20. provided that the element sorting flag (the ITRST field on the EDSHELL command) is set to 1 (which is the default)..

The distribution of strain is always linear. Typically.NSET.8611 0.. The through-the-thickness integration is needed to calculate bending moments and inplane forces. The integration points are stacked vertically at the centroid of the element.2004 . For nonlinear materials the usual procedure is to choose four or five integration points through the thickness and to ignore the inaccuracy (i. as shown in Integration Points. not at the surfaces (despite the nomenclature of postprocessors. Two integration points are sufficient for linear elastic materials. Integration Points Through-thickness directions at each node are initially normal to the element surface but rotate with the nodes.e. so care is needed in interpretation of results. which refer to top and bottom surfaces). 2 integration points (default) are required through the thickness for elastic behavior. The locations of the outermost integration points of Gauss quadrature are given in the following table: Mid Plane 2 points Outermost Point 3 points 4 points 5 points Outer Surface 0 0.05.9062 1. the difference in stress between the surface and the outermost integration point). stresses can be extrapolated to the surfaces. Stress output is given at the outermost integration points.. but it is not done in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because nonlinear behavior is generally being modeled. whereas the stress is more complicated in nature and depends on the material law..7746 0. while more points are required for nonlinear materials. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 14 of 180 thickness. For elastic materials. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5774 0. these update the stress tensor such that the stress component normal to the shell mid surface is zero. The number of integration points through the thickness is controlled using the second real constant: R.0000 Note Keep in mind that this integration could be made exactly beforehand when linear elastic material is used. while 3 or more integration points are required for plastic behavior..R2 where R2 = number of integration points (NIP) Three-dimensional plane stress constitutive subroutines are implemented for the shell elements.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide

Page 15 of 180

Also, for elements using full integration, the output stress is the averaged stress values from the 2x2 integration points of the same layer.

2.1.6. PLANE162
The PLANE162 element is a two-dimensional, 4-noded solid element that can be used either as a planar (X-Y plane) or as an axisymmetric (Y-axis of symmetry) element. KEYOPT(3) allows you to specify a plane stress, axisymmetric, or plane strain option for the element. For the axisymmetric element formulation, you can specify either an area or volume weighted option using KEYOPT(2). The PLANE162 element is typically defined by four-nodes. A three-node triangle option is also available, but not recommended because it is often too stiff. There are no real constants for this element. It is important to note that models containing PLANE162 elements must consist only of this element type. ANSYS/LS -DYNA does not allow a mixed two and three-dimensional finite element model. The material models available to use with this element will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. For KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, or 2 (plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric), you can choose the following materials:
?

Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Power Law Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity Composite Damage Johnson-Cook Plasticity Bamman

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

For the plane stress option (KEYOPT(3) = 0), you can also choose the following materials:
?

3-Parameter Barlat Plasticity

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
?

Page 16 of 180

Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD

?

?

For the axisymmetric and plane strain options (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2), you can also choose the following materials:
?

Anisotropic Elastic Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Closed Cell Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Null Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Elastic Fluid

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

Prev Additional Information Prev Beam and Link Elements Elements

Next Beam and Link Elements Next

2.2. Beam and Link Elements
2.2.1. BEAM161
The BEAM161 element has two basic formulations: Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Schwer. BEAM161 is best suited for rigid body rotations because it does not generate any strains. Three nodes must be used to define the element; a node at each endpoint and an orientation node are required. For both formulations, several beam cross sections can be defined using KEYOPTs (4) and (5). In general, BEAM161 is efficient and robust for 2x2 gauss quadratic integration (default). Several different integration formulations can be defined with KEYOPT(2). The Hughes-Liu beam (default) is a conventionally integrated element that can model rectangular or circular cross-sections using an array of integration points at the mid-span of the element. Alternatively, you can specify a cross-section integration rule to model arbitrary cross-sections. The beam effectively generates a constant moment along its length, so, as with the brick and shell elements, meshes need to be reasonably fine to achieve adequate accuracy. Because of the location file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide

Page 17 of 180

of the integration points, yielding is detected only at the element center. Therefore, a cantilever beam model will yield at slightly too high a force because the fully plastic moment must be developed at the center of the clamped element rather than at the outer surface. The Belytschko-Schwer beam (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, or 5) is explicitly formulated and generates a moment which varies linearly along the length of the beam. The elements have the "correct" elastic stresses and detect yielding at their ends. For example, a cantilever loaded statically at its tip can be represented accurately in both elastic and plastic regimes using a single element As with the HughesLiu beam, the mass is lumped onto the nodes, so finer meshes may be required for dynamic problems where a correct mass distribution is important. You can use any of the following material models for beam elements (with some restrictions for certain element formulations):
?

Isotropic Elastic Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic Viscoelastic Power Law Plasticity Piecewise Linear Plasticity

?

?

?

?

?

2.2.2. LINK160
The LINK160 spar (truss) element is similar to the Belytschko-Schwer beam, but carries axial loads only. This element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end. The materials you can use for this element are isotropic elastic, plastic kinematic (rate dependent), and bilinear kinematic.

2.2.3. LINK167
The LINK167 element is a tension only spar that can be used to model cables. It is similar to a spring element in that the relationships between force and deformation are input directly by the user. This element requires that the cable option be specified with the EDMP command (see the EDMP command description).

Prev Elements Prev Discrete Elements Elements

Next Discrete Elements Next

2.3. Discrete Elements
2.3.1. COMBI165 Spring-Damper
Spring elements generate a force which depends on displacement; that is, change of length of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

hence reducing the total computation time required to obtain a solution.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 18 of 180 element. the line of action of the force also rotates. you must add mass by also defining MASS166 elements. you can overlay two COMBI165 elements). These are selected by setting KEYOPT (1) = 1. Rotational (torsional) springs and dampers are also available. Damper elements are treated as a subset of spring elements: both linear viscous and nonlinear viscous dampers can be modeled. When the element rotates. Mass elements can often be used in a model to realistically characterize the mass of a structure without incorporating a large number of solid or shell elements. mass elements can model engine components whose deformation behavior is not of primary interest. In an automobile impact analysis. Such a use of mass elements will reduce the number of elements required in an analysis. and TB commands.3. ET. and the moments are applied about the element axis (positive clockwise). The rest of the input is the same as for translational springs.2. you can define separate spring and damper elements that use the same nodes (that is.05. 20.. the element axis lies along the line from node 1 to node 2. The COMBI165 element can be used in combination with any other explicit element. for example. the given force-displacement relationship will be treated as moment-rotation (rotation in radians).2004 . Rotational springs affect only the rotational degrees of freedom of their nodes . and material properties (R. You can use any of the following material models for COMBI165: ? Linear Elastic Spring Linear Viscous Damper Elastoplastic Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Nonlinear Viscous Damper General Nonlinear Spring Maxwell Viscoelastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring ? ? ? ? ? ? ? When using COMBI165. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You cannot define both spring and damper properties for the same COMBI165 element.they do not pin the nodes together. because it does not have mass.. However. However. 2. For example. a positive force (tension) acts along the positive axis direction on node 1 and along the negative axis direction on node 2. respectively) for each part to ensure that parts are uniquely defined. The force is applied along the element axis. be sure to specify a unique set of real constants. COMBI165 cannot be the only element type in an analysis. element type. To represent a spring/mass system. By default. MASS166 The mass element is defined by a single node and a mass value (Force*Time 2 /Length).

IXY. (Note that setting the preference to LSDYNA explicit does not activate an LS-DYNA solution. General Element Capabilities The following element types can be declared as rigid bodies: LINK160.. BEAM161. To do so. 20. IYY. Modeling The first step in an explicit dynamic analysis is to create the model that will represent the physical system to be analyzed. To use this option. a single value is used. and LINK167. you can build the model as you normally would for any analysis type: ? Define the element types and real constants Specify material models Define the model geometry Mesh the model ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHELL163. so that the effect is to distribute the mass spherically around the node. you must define a second mass element at the same node (with KEYOPT(1) = 0) to account for mass. Use the PREP7 Preprocessor to build the model. it is important to first set the Preferences options (Main Menu>Preferences) to “LS-DYNA Explicit” so that menus are properly filtered to show explicit dynamics input options. IYZ. shell.05. and beam element is distributed equally on the nodes of the element. Prev Discrete Elements Prev Modeling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Modeling Next Chapter 3.2004 .. a rotational inertia is also added to each node. In the case of shell and beam elements.) Once you have set the analysis preference. PLANE162. SOLID164. IZZ) via the element real constants. IXZ. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the MASS166 element definition and input six moment of inertia values (IXX. therefore. you must specify an explicit element type such as SHELL163. The mass of each solid. If you perform your analysis through the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI).4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 19 of 180 You can also use the MASS166 element to define a lumped rotary inertia at a node. Prev Beam and Link Elements Prev General Element Capabilities Elements Next General Element Capabilities Next 2. Rigid bodies are covered in detail in Rigid Bodies. You can not input a mass value for this option.

To do so in batch or command mode.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 20 of 180 Define contact surfaces If you have never used an ANSYS product before.05. review Material Models of this document. you specify element types using the ET command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type). you must define all of the properties associated with the model (as described in Material Models). In the GUI. which contains detailed descriptions for all of the available material models. you may also need to use the EDCURVE command to define data curves file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. After you select the appropriate material model. 20. Prev General Element Capabilities Prev Specify Material Properties Modeling Next Specify Material Properties Next 3. 3. Also. It is recommended that you read these descriptions carefully before deciding which element types to use in your model.. Once you have decided which material model (or models) to use in your analysis.2004 . Each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference lists all real constants that are associated with the element. More detailed descriptions of each explicit element can be found in the ANSYS Elements Reference. you should review the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide to learn the general procedures used to build a model in ANSYS. and TBDATA commands (and in some cases. the EDMP command).) For some material models. TB. Specify Material Properties There are numerous material models available for use in an explicit dynamic analysis.1. You must determine which real constants (if any) are required for each element type you include in the model. In order to specify an orthotropic model that is not aligned with the global Cartesian coordinate system..2. You should refer to the element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference to find out which material models are valid for a particular element. you must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command (menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Local CS>Create Local CS. material models are defined via the following menu path: Main Menu>Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models See Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models for more information. Once you have chosen appropriate elements to represent your physical system. you typically use the MP. you will be prompted to define the necessary properties for that model. Then specify the real constants using the R command (or in the GUI pick Main Menu> Preprocessor>Real Constants). Define Element Types and Real Constants Element types available for an explicit dynamic analysis are described briefly in Elements.

By this method. we will discuss only a few key points in this section. (To access EDCURVE in the GUI. Refer to Solid Modeling in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for detailed information on all solid modeling functions.. you may choose to use the direct generation modeling method. Meshing involves three main steps: ? Set the element attributes Set mesh controls Generate the mesh ? ? To set the element attributes.g. a stress-strain curve).05. Since all of the details are contained in that chapter.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 21 of 180 associated with the material (e.4. pick Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options. you define the nodes and elements of the model directly. and REAL commands. If you are not familiar with ANSYS meshing.g. you specify which previously defined element type. and material property set to use for subsequent meshing. Mesh the Model After building the solid model..3.. real constant set. Use the TYPE. you should review that chapter before meshing an explicit dynamics model. The procedure for generating the mesh is outlined in Generating the Mesh in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. See Direct Generation in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details. Define the Model Geometry The easiest way to create the model geometry is with the solid modeling capabilities of the ANSYS program. or menu paths: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Attributes-Define>Default Attribs Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>Elements>Elem Attributes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you are ready to mesh the model with nodes and elements. For simple models (e.) Prev Modeling Prev Define the Model Geometry Modeling Next Define the Model Geometry Next 3.. MAT. 20. line elements only).2004 . Prev Specify Material Properties Prev Mesh the Model Modeling Next Mesh the Model Next 3.

Define Contact Surfaces An explicit dynamic analysis often includes contact between surfaces. use the ESIZE and related commands to control element sizes. avoid areas with relatively small elements). a long run time. Contact Surfaces of this document describes the types of contact available and the procedure to define contact.2004 . these controls are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>Mesh Tool. There are numerous mesh controls available in the ANSYS program (see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details). In the GUI. therefore.. mass scaling (see Mass Scaling) can be used to increase the minimum time step. or elements may experience hourglassing. 20. If hourglassing is a problem. Avoid poorly shaped elements which can cause hourglassing...) ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Instead. A large difference in element sizes can cause a small minimum time step size and. or EDASMP commands. meshing functions are accessed by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Meshing-Mesh (or via the Mesh Tool mentioned above). Defining contact involves four basic steps: ? Determine the type of contact which best defines the physical model (EDCGEN command) Identify contact surfaces (CM. If a relatively few number of small elements are required to mesh a particular geometry. try to use fully integrated elements in a part of the model or in the entire model. ? ? ? ? ? After specifying the desired mesh controls.e.05.5. Do not make the mesh too coarse when reduced element formulations are used.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 22 of 180 Mesh controls allow you to indicate the general size and shape of elements to use during meshing. etc.). with the EDCGEN command. Prev Define the Model Geometry Prev Define Contact Surfaces Modeling Next Define Contact Surfaces Next 3. Do not use the SmartSizing method of element size control (SMRTSIZE command). or EDPART. Keep the following points in mind when choosing mesh controls: ? Avoid degenerate shell and solid element shapes (such as a triangular shell or a tetrahedral solid). VMESH. In the GUI. A brief overview of that procedure is given here. mesh the model using typical meshing commands (AMESH. which can create a large variation in element sizes within the mesh. Try to achieve a mesh with uniform element sizes (i. They are generally too stiff and less accurate than quadrilateral and hexahedral shapes.

If you have performed 2-D dynamic analyses with the regular ANSYS program. and do not use unrealistic thickness values for shell elements. Consider using damping (EDDAMP command) to prevent unrealistic oscillations in your model’s structural response. do not use an unrealistically high elastic modulus to represent a rigid body. General Modeling Guidelines The following are guidelines that you should consider when planning your explicit dynamics model: ? Use rigid bodies whenever possible to represent relatively stiff. The EDCGEN command is also used to specify friction coefficient parameters and other input specific to different contact types. or by an assembly of parts (using EDASMP rather than by a node component. For example. Part and assembly definitions are discussed in detail later in this chapter. use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired surfaces (i. EDCONTACT is used to specify miscellaneous contact controls such as contact penetration checking and sliding interface penalties. the outer surfaces of the contacting bodies are determined by ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for detailed information. Note Contact surfaces can alternatively be identified by a PART number (using EDPART). You may achieve more accurate results in a shorter run time.. You must also identify the type of contact with the EDCGEN command. Use realistic values for material properties. contact surfaces are defined by grouping the nodes on each surface into a component with the CM command. Another command. unyielding objects in the model.) Prev Mesh the Model Prev General Modeling Guidelines Modeling Next General Modeling Guidelines Next 3. For the single surface contact algorithms. Once these components are created.2004 ..e. 20.6. Note that the submodeling and substructuring features of the ANSYS program cannot be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 23 of 180 Specify friction coefficient parameters (EDCGEN command) Specify additional input required for the chosen contact type (EDCGEN and EDCONTACT commands) ? If automatic contact is not being used.05. (Contact options are found in the GUI under Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Contact. node components).. Using rigid bodies simplifies the solution and results in shorter run times. ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. consider extruding these models to 3-D and analyzing them with ANSYS/LS-DYNA.

2004 . these latter commands will only update the list. REAL = 1 and MAT = 2.7. They can also be created.. The following example shows a 15-element model with 2 MATs. The Definition of PART A group of elements having a unique combination of TYPE.ANSYS/ LSDYNA/BOTH command if a previously defined PART-related commmand refers to an unused PART. REAL and MAT IDs is designated as a PART and is assigned a PART ID.K at the start of the model solution by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.UPDATE). A warning is issued at the SOLVE or EDWRITE. REAL or MAT IDs change in the element list. If any of the TYPE. REAL and MAT which is not referred to by any selected element will render the corresponding PART unused. There are a number of ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands which refer to the PART ID directly (for example. These PART IDs can be listed using the EDPART. the PART list is overwritten. For more information on the EDPART command. If the next one hundred elements have TYPE = 2.LIST command. and EDREAD). if the first ten elements have TYPE = 1. If the PART list already exists.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 24 of 180 Prev Define Contact Surfaces Prev The Definition of PART Modeling Next The Definition of PART Next 3.CREATE creates new PART IDs.CREATE command is issued repeatedly. This will be evident from the zero value printed on the fifth (USED) column of the PART list. If the EDPART.. issue the EDPART. and MAT IDs. The PART list can be created. EDPART. not overwrite it. 3 TYPEs and 3 REALs. It is also created and remains permanent if the SOLVE command is issued or if the EDWRITE command is used with the ANSYS/LSDYNA/BOTH option. and listed with the EDPART command. For example. REAL = 2 and MAT = 3. EDCGEN . Any combination of TYPE. 20. EDLOAD. In order to get the actual PART list after modifications or additions to the model. EDDC. then these ten elements will be assigned PART number 1. EDDAMP.UPDATE command. The PART IDs are automatically created and written to the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. the next PART ID number will be assigned to that group of elements. REAL. And so on. The list shows the status of PARTS at the time of creation or update (EDPART. these elements will be assigned PART number 2. updated.05. This extends the existing PART list without changing its order and allows elements to be added to an existing part comprised of the same TYPE. An ELIST command produces the following element list: ELEM MAT TYP REL ESY TSHA 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 11 3 1 1 1 0 21 4 1 1 1 0 31 5 1 1 1 0 41 6 1 2 3 0 51 NODES 4 5 6 14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 2 12 22 32 42 52 3 13 23 33 43 53 7 17 27 37 47 57 8 18 28 38 48 58 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The PART IDs are created from a sequential list of selected elements. refer to the description of this command in the ANSYS Commands Reference. updated and listed using the CREATE/UPDATE/LIST options on the EDPART command. EDCRB.

d.05.UPDATE) if the elements or their attributes have changed. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 6. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 3. TYPE = 2 and REAL = 3 and form PART 2. This can invalidate previously defined PART-based loading. Elements 8 and 9 have MAT = 2. Use the appropriate PART number(s) from the list for the command(s). However.CREATE).LIST): PART MAT TYP REAL USED 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 3 2 1 6 1 3 2 1 Note For this example.2004 . PART number 4 remains.UPDATE will not effect the status of this PART list.CREATE) and list it (EDPART. etc. Build the model as usual until you have to specify a PART number on a PART-related command. e.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Page 25 of 180 Elements 1 through 5 have MAT = TYPE = REAL = 1 and form PART 1. Element 10 had MAT = TYPE = REAL = 2. issuing EDPART. c. Create the PART list (EDPART. but is flagged as unused (0 in the USED column of the PART list). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. which includes the addition of new elements.LIST). contact specifications. The PART list is shown below (EDPART. Therefore. Elements 11 and 12 have MAT = 2.. but was deleted after the creation of the PART list (EDPART. Elements 13 through 15 have MAT = 1. TYPE = 3 and REAL = 2 and form PART 5. issuing EDPART.CREATE will create a new PART list with only 5 parts. PART 5 will become the new PART 4 and PART 6 will become the new PART 5. Elements 6 and 7 have MAT = 1. Continue modeling.. 20. The following procedure is recommended: a. b. Update the PART list (EDPART.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide

Page 26 of 180

f. List the updated PART numbers and make use of them on further PART-related command(s). In addition to listing parts, you can also select parts (by PART number) and plot parts using the PARTSEL command. Similar to other ANSYS select options, there are several possible selection types that are identified by specific labels: ‘S’ for select, ‘R’ for reselect, ‘A’ for additionally select, etc. (Because PARTSEL is a command macro, the label must be enclosed in single quotes if the command is typed in or contained in a batch file.) The range of part numbers to select is controlled with the PMIN, PMAX, and PINC fields of the PARTSEL command. For example, you would issue the following command to select PART numbers 2 and 4 from a defined part list:
PARTSEL,‘S’,2,4,2

When the PARTSEL command is executed, an element component is automatically created for each existing part. You can plot these components by picking Utility Menu>Plot>Parts in the GUI or by issuing the command PARTSEL,‘PLOT’.

Note
You should not attempt to use the components that are created by the PARTSEL command in other portions of the analysis because they may be redefined if the part list changes.

Note
It is not recommended to select or plot parts consisting of COMBI165 elements. The CDWRITE command writes the PART information to the Jobname.CDB file. This information can then be automatically read into ANSYS with the CDREAD command. However, if more than one Jobname.CDB file is read, the PART list from the last Jobname.CDB file overwrites the existing PART list, if any. In general, you must issue the EDPART,CREATE command to recreate the PART list of the total model. This will affect all PART-related commands contained in the Jobname.CDB file. Therefore, you can join models, but not PART -related inputs, which must be modified using the newly-created PART numbers. In limited cases, an update of the PART list (EDPART,UPDATE) is possible. This requires that no used combination of MAT/TYPE/REAL appears more than once in the list. However, partial changes to the PART-related commands may be necessary.

3.7.1. Part Assemblies
Part assemblies, which are created using the EDASMP command, are entities that are made up of several different parts. Part assemblies can be used as input on several ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands. They can be particularly useful when defining contact between two entities consisting of several parts (see Contact Surfaces in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide). Using the EDASMP command, you can define as many as 16 parts in a part assembly after you provide an ID number. The part ID number must be greater than the highest currently defined part number (use EDPART,LIST to determine the highest part number). You can also list and delete part assemblies using the EDASMP,LIST and EDASMP,DELE options, respectively. As an example, to specify part assembly ID number 10 consisting of parts 1,2 and 4, the following command would be issued:
EDASMP,ADD,10,1,2,4

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev General Modeling Guidelines Prev Adaptive Meshing Modeling

Page 27 of 180 Next Adaptive Meshing Next

3.8. Adaptive Meshing
In metal forming and high-speed impact analyses, a body may experience very large amounts of plastic deformation. Single point integration explicit elements, which are usually robust for large deformations, may give inaccurate results in these situations due to inadequate element aspect ratios. To counteract this problem, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program has the ability to automatically remesh a surface during an analysis to improve its integrity. This capability, known as adaptive meshing, is controlled with the EDADAPT and EDCADAPT commands. The EDADAPT command activates adaptive meshing within a specific PART ID. (Use the EDPART command to create and list valid PART IDs.) For example, to turn on adaptive meshing for PART ID #1, you would issue the following command:
EDADAPT,1,ON

Note
Adaptive meshing is only valid for parts consisting of SHELL163 elements. When adaptivity is turned on for a part, the mesh for that part will be automatically regenerated during an analysis to ensure adequate element aspect ratios are maintained throughout the deformation process. Adaptive meshing is most commonly used in the analysis of large deformation processes such as metal forming (adaptive meshing is typically used for the blank). To activate adaptive meshing for more than one part within a model, you must reissue the EDADAPT command for each different PART ID. By default, adaptive meshing is off for all parts within a model. After specifying which parts will be adaptively meshed, you must also define adaptive meshing parameters using the EDCADAPT command. The EDCADAPT command globally sets the control options for all PART IDs that are to be adaptively meshed as defined by the EDADAPT command. The parameters controlled by the EDCADAPT command are listed below.
?

Frequency ( FREQ) - The time interval between which adaptive mesh refinements will take place. For example, if FREQ is set to 0.01, elements will be adaptively remeshed every .01 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds) if they are above the specified angle tolerance. Since the default value for the FREQ field is 0.0, this field must be specified when using adaptive meshing in an analysis. Angle Tolerance (TOL) - The adaptive angle tolerance (in degrees) for which adaptive meshing will occur (default = 1e31). The TOL field controls the aspect ratio between elements and is very important for ensuring accurate results. If the relative angle between elements exceeds the specified TOL value, the elements will be automatically refined. Adaptivity Option ( OPT) - There are two different angle options available for mesh adaptivity. For OPT = 1, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the original mesh configuration. For OPT = 2, the angle change that is compared to the specified TOL value is computed based on the previously refined mesh.

?

?

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
?

Page 28 of 180

Mesh Refinement Levels ( MAXLVL) - The MAXLVL field controls the number of times an element can be remeshed during the entire analysis. For a single original element, a MAXLVL of 1 would allow the creation of one additional element, a MAXLVL of 2 would allow the creation of up to four additional elements, and a MAXLVL of 3 would allow the creation of up to 16 additional elements. High values of MAXLVL will yield more accurate results, but can dramatically increase the model size. Remeshing Birth and Death Times ( BTIME and DTIME) - The remeshing birth and death times control when adaptive meshing is turned on and off in an analysis. For example, if you set BTIME = .01 and DTIME = .1, adaptive meshing will only take place in the analysis between .01 and .1 seconds (assuming the time unit used is seconds). Interval of Remeshing Curve ( LCID) - This data curve (specified on the EDCURVE command) defines the interval of remeshing as a function of time. The abscissa of the data curve is time, and the ordinate is the varied adaptive time interval. If this option is nonzero, the adaptive frequency ( FREQ) will be replaced by this data curve. Note, however, that a non-zero FREQ value is still required to initiate the first adaptive loop. Minimum Element Size ( ADPSIZE) - Minimum elelement size to be adapted based on element edge length. If this parameter is undefined, the edge length limit is ignored. One or Two Pass Option ( ADPASS) - If ADPASS = 0, two pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is repeated after adaptive remeshing (this is the default). If ADPASS = 1, one pass adaptivity is used, and the calculation is not repeated after adaptive remeshing. See Figures 30.9(a) and 30.9(b) in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for graphical representations of these two options. Uniform Refinement Level Flag ( IREFLG) - Values of 1, 2, 3, etc. allow 4, 16, 64, etc. elements, respectively, to be created uniformly for each original element. Penetration Flag ( ADPENE) - Depending on whether the value of ADPENE is positive (approach) or negative (penetrate), the program will adapt the mesh when the contact surfaces approach or penetrate the tooling surface by this value. The tooling adaptive refinement is based on the curvature of the tooling. If ADPENE is positive, the refinement generally occurs before contact takes place; consequently, it is possible to use one pass adaptivity (ADPASS = 1). Shell Thickness Level ( ADPTH) - Absolute shell thickness level below which adaptivity should begin. This option works only if the adaptive angle tolerance ( TOL) is nonzero. If thickness based adaptive remeshing is desired without angle change, set TOL to a large angle. (If ADPTH = 0.0, this option is not used.) Maximum Element Limit ( MAXEL) - Maximum number of elements at which adaptivity will be terminated. Adaptivity is stopped if this number of elements is exceeded.

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

For most problems, you should do an initial analysis without adaptive meshing. If the results of the initial analysis show a highly distorted mesh and if the solution appears to be incorrect, then you can rerun the analysis with adaptive meshing turned on. Adaptive meshing may also be used when an analysis terminates in LS-DYNA with a “negative volume element” error. When adaptive meshing is turned on, the number of elements within the model will change during the solution. After each adaptive loop, the mesh will be updated and a new results file will be written with the extension RSnn, where nn is the adaptive mesh level. (An adaptive loop will occur at every time increment specified by FREQ or at the time intervals specified by LCID.) For example, a model

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

This chapter discusses the following topics related to loads: ? General loading options ? The use of components or part IDs and array parameters How to apply. In addition. .2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RS02. it is necessary to apply loads with respect to a specified time interval.. however.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 29 of 180 that is adaptively remeshed two times will produce two results files. For details on postprocessing adaptively meshed results. Note A new results file will be created for each loop. In order to properly model your structure’s behavior. EDPVEL] to your model ? ? ? ? ? Coupling and constraint equations ? Coupling degrees of freedom [CP] 20.. even if the mesh does not change. these files may not be as useful for postprocessing as the RSnn files.05. Prev The Definition of PART Prev Loading ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Loading Next Chapter 4. Therefore. LS-DYNA creates a set of adaptive meshing files with the root name "adapt". see Postprocessing. the next step is to apply loads to the structure in preparation for solution. you should not use "adapt" as your jobname when adaptive meshing is activated. Jobname. and list general loads [EDLOAD ] How to plot the explicit dynamics load curve [EDPL] How to define a data curve [EDCURVE] How to show and hide load symbols ? ? ? ? ? Constraints and initial conditions ? How constraints [D. A new time history file having the extension HInn is also written each loop.RS01 and Jobname. EDNROT ] are used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA How to define sliding and cyclic symmetry planes [EDBOUND] How to define other miscellaneous types of constraints [EDCNSTR] How to define welds [EDWELD] How to apply initial velocities [EDVEL. delete. Loading After building the model.

they are not physical DOFs and cannot be constrained with the D command. For example. if you want to analyze a baseball being hit into a wall. Death Time.1.1. and when the load is removed (death time) using the EDLOAD command. all loads in ANSYS/LS -DYNA are applied using a pair of array parameters. the F. you would probably define the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the D command can only be used to define constrained nodes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 30 of 180 Constraint equations between degrees of freedom [CE] ? Nonreflecting boundaries [EDNB ] Temperature loading Dynamic relaxation ? ? 4. you will need to follow these steps: ? Designate portions of the model that will receive the load as components (or parts. VY. expected behavior. For this reason. all loads in an explicit analysis must be time-dependent in nature. you can also specify when a load is imposed on a body (birth time)..2004 . for rigid bodies) Define array parameters containing time intervals and load data values Specify load curves Define the load direction using the EDLCS command if the load is not acting in the global coordinate system Apply loads to the model ? ? ? ? 4. AY. and BF family of commands are not applicable in ANSYS/LS-DYNA because they can only be used to specify time-independent loads. Therefore. all loads are applied in one load step. use the EDLOAD command. Each component should consist of those portions of the model that will receive the same loads and that are related to each other through such things as material properties. for certain kinds of loads. when using ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Hence. This is much different from an implicit analysis where loads are often applied in multiple steps. Components With the exception of loads on rigid bodies. Additionally. many of the standard ANSYS commands are not valid. AZ) and nodal velocities (VX. In particular. 20.1..05. the first step in applying loads is to gather portions of your model into nodal or element groups called components. and CID Support in the EDLOAD command to check the applicability of the birth/death time. In ANSYS/LS -DYNA. Note Although nodal accelerations (AX. To apply a load to your model. all loads are applied to components in an explicit analysis. one corresponding to the time and the other corresponding to the loading condition. To apply these nodal loads. SF. VX) appear as degrees of freedom. position in the model. Please refer to Birth Time. etc. General Loading Options Unlike most implicit analyses.

load values outside of the specified time range are not extrapolated by the program. loads are applied to a specific part number rather than to components. the results near the solution end time may be invalid due to premature load removal.) To define a component. See Selecting and Components in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on components. Array Parameters It is important to remember that in an explicit dynamic analysis the loading is applied to the structure over a specified time interval.05. ROTZ. FZ..MAT. and then apply loads to each of them. but also the time history of the load for the time interval of interest. ROTX. The components must consist of either nodes or elements. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Once you define a set of array parameters that represent a time dependent load. The load entries in the second array correspond to the time values specified in the first array.2. Suppose that you wish to examine the distortion of the ball from the moment of impact with the bat to one second later. you should ensure that the load time range is at least equal to the solution time. Assume that the displacement of the bat handle is known as a function of time and that the ball is initially traveling at 1600 in/sec (91 MPH) just prior to impact. etc. you will not only define what type of load you would like to apply to your model (FX. The corresponding load curve ID (LCID) can then be input on the EDLOAD command. consider the baseball example mentioned previously. the nodes on the bat as another component. Therefore. you may choose to input the array parameters on the EDCURVE command to define a load curve. 20.). use this menu path to define an array parameter: Utility Menu>Parameters>ArrayParameters>Define/Edit. ROTY.1. and each entry of the second array specifying a load value. However. This is due to the fact that rigid bodies already consist of a specific set of nodes and elements as defined by the command EDMP. Note Load values for intermediate time points are obtained by linear interpolation. 4. To illustrate the use of array parameters. with each entry of the first array specifying a time value.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 31 of 180 nodes of the ball as one component. you can apply the load by inputting the array parameters directly on the EDLOAD command. Or. (Components consisting of elements are only used when applying pressure loads. For the case of rigid bodies. Time intervals and their corresponding load values are grouped together and defined as array parameters. These array parameters should be defined in sets of two.RIGID. Otherwise. See Array Parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide for more information on how to define array parameters. In the GUI.2004 . Therefore. Then use the CM command or the following menu path in the GUI to define the component: Utility Menu>Select>Comp/Assembly> Create Component. and the nodes on the wall as a third component.. You may define as many components as you wish. This is done so that you may observe the model's transient behavior for applied loads over the specific time period. FY. you must first select only those entities that you want to be included in the component.

3 ! X displacement of the bat handle ydisp(1)=0.4 ! dimension the array parameter ydisp *dim.ydisp. Then create a second component named ballsurf which contains only the nodes on the surface of the ball..3. etc. cm. which contains the nodes on the surface of the bat.all ! ! ! ! ! ! select define select define select define all the the the the the nodes comprising the ball component ball nodes on the ball surface component ballsurf nodes on the bat surface component batsurf Now select the nodes at the base of the bat handle (bathand) for which a displacement versus time loading curve will be applied. Finally. the ball is a composite of several different materials and material models. It is important to note..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 32 of 180 You will first need to define some nodal components that will be used to define the loading and contact surfaces. cm. 20. Create a component named ball that contains all of the nodes of the ball.6. and material properties in your model.5.3.0.s.9 ! Z displacement of the bat handle The example given is actually a simple version of a more complex phenomenon. for which an initial velocity (EDVEL) of 1600 in/sec will be applied (discussed later in this chapter). additional displacement locations (and corresponding load curves) should be defined to better simulate the true motion of the bat handle. Likewise.time.ballsurf. nsel.. You also need to define a third component named batsurf.4 ! Y displacement of the bat handle zdisp(1)=0..node ! define the component bathand nsel.node.s.2.bathand. surface pressures. moments.. nodal accelerations.s. This component will be used later in the contact specification. define arrays ydisp and zdisp to contain the corresponding Y and Z displacements of bathand.1..batsurf..2004 .4 ! dimension the array parameter zdisp time(1)=0.3..node nsel.. You may now choose to add loads (via the ADD label on EDLOAD) such as forces.-1.0.-2.node nsel.75. Loads applied with the EDLOAD command are in the global Cartesian direction by default..-1..s..05.zdisp.node. nsel. Contact algorithms are discussed in Contact Surfaces..node nsel. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..4 ! dimension the array parameter xdisp *dim. Further. define an array named xdisp to contain the corresponding X displacements of the component bathand. Applying Loads Once you have defined the components and array parameters. In a more accurate simulation.ball. that all load labels are not valid for all components or part numbers..1.. the initial velocities of the nodes comprising the bat are all different.xdisp.1 ! times at specified displacements xdisp(1)=0. ! select the nodes at the bat handle base cm.8. as listed below. you are ready to apply loads to your model [EDLOAD command].all *dim. In the GUI choose the following menu path: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads. 4.node.25. as well as the components and parameters that have been previously defined. cm.node.. Next.0. Define an array named time to store the time values. Remember to use time values that are consistent with all loads. dimensions. You simply choose the desired load label along with the combination of components (part numbers for rigid bodies) and array parameters (or previously defined load curve ID) you wish to use for that load.. The dialog box in the GUI will give you a listing of all valid loads.4 ! dimension the array parameter time *dim.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide The following load labels are valid only for nodal components: Forces: FX, FY, FZ Moments: MX, MY, MZ Displacements: UX, UY, UZ Rotations: ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Velocities: VX, VY, VZ Nodal Accelerations: AX, AY, AZ Body Accelerations: ACLX, ACLY, ACLZ Angular Velocities: OMGX, OMGY, OMGZ Temperature: TEMP

Page 33 of 180

Note
Although V (X, Y, Z) and A (X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for postprocessing. The following labels are valid only for rigid bodies (part numbers): Forces: RBFX, RBFY, RBFZ Moments: RBMX, RBMY, RBMZ Displacements: RBUX, RBUY, RBUZ Rotations: RBRX, RBRY, RBRZ Velocities: RBVX, RBVY, RBVZ Angular Velocities: RBOX, RBOY, RBOZ The following label is valid only for element components: Pressure: PRESS Returning to our baseball example, the necessary displacement versus time load curves are automatically created with the EDLOAD command from the time and x/y/zdisp array parameters.
edload,add,ux,,bathand,time,xdisp edload,add,uy,,bathand,time,ydisp edload,add,uz,,bathand,time,zdisp ! X displacement of bathand ! Y displacement of bathand ! Z displacement of bathand

Alternatively, the very stiff bat could have been modeled as a rigid body to simplify the required input and to reduce the CPU time. For this case, the appropriate rigid body loads would be applied to valid part numbers (and not to nodal components).
edload,add,rbux,,2,time,xdisp edload,add,rbuy,,2,time,ydisp edload,add,rbuz,,2,time,zdisp ! X displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Y displ. (if bat = part #2) ! Z displ. (if bat = part #2)

If the pressure that the bat imparts on the baseball was known as a function of time, the loading could be accomplished without defining any contact surfaces. Instead, the element component containing the elements on the surface of the ball would be loaded with the “PRESS” label of the EDLOAD command.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide
edload,add,press,1,cover,battime,batload

Page 34 of 180

In this last scenario, the elements contained in the element component cover are loaded on face number one (face number is input in the KEY field) with the load curve produced by the battime and batload array parameters. It is important to note that in the examples listed above, only the pressure load uses the KEY field of the EDLOAD command. Load keys (1,2,3, etc.) are associated with surface loads and are listed under "surface loads" in the input data tables for each element type in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For most loads other than pressure loads, you can use the KEY field to define a coordinate system identification number, CID. The load will act in a direction you define as CID on the EDLCS command, or the global coordinate system if CID is not specified. See Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System for more information.

Note
To avoid timing problems on some platforms, it is a good practice to always add a very small time value (such as 1.0 × 10-6) to the value in the final item in the time array. For example, instead of the value 3.0, such an array might contain the following value for the last item:
timeint(1)=0,1,2,3.00001

The addition of this very small “padding” factor does not affect the accuracy of the results. In addition to adding loads, you can also list and delete loads with the commands EDLOAD ,LIST and EDLOAD ,DELE. You can display load symbols on the element plot with the EDFPLOT command, and you can plot load curves with the EDPL command.

4.1.4. Data Curves
Data curves, which are defined with the EDCURVE command, have various uses in ANSYS/LSDYNA. They can be used to define material data curves (for example, stress-strain) and load data curves (force-deflection) associated with explicit dynamics material models. Data curves can also be used to define load curves that represent time dependent loads (force, displacement, velocity, etc.). These load curves can then be input on the EDLOAD command. 4.1.4.1. Using Data Curves with Material Models Certain material models (for example, TB,PLAW or TB,HONEY) require specification of material property data which may be a function of effective strain rate, plastic strain, or volumetric strain. For such data, property curves need to be defined using the EDCURVE command prior to specifying the material behavior with the data table [TBDATA] command. Data curves are also used for defining force deflection behavior in rigid-body and drawbead contact. Similar to placing loads on components, data curves are grouped into array parameters and then associated with a particular curve reference number (LCID) which can be used by a specified material model (PLAW, HONEY, etc.) or contact type (RNTR, ROTR) and drawbead. Use the following steps to specify data curves: 1. Define an array parameter that contains the abscissa values for the material or friction force behavior (e.g., effective plastic strain, effective strain rate, displacement, etc.).

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide

Page 35 of 180

2. Define a second array parameter that contains the ordinate values for the material behavior or friction force (e.g., initial yield stress, elastic modulus, force, etc.). 3. Specify the data curve that will be used to identify this data [EDCURVE]. During this step you will choose a data curve ID number that will be used to associate this data with a particular material behavior when setting up the data table [TBDATA]. After the parameters have been specified, use one of the following menu paths in the GUI to define a data curve: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Curve Options Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options Defined data curves can be listed using EDCURVE,LIST. They can be plotted using EDCURVE,PLOT and can be deleted using EDCURVE,DELETE. The following example shows how data curves can be used to define a piecewise linear plasticity curve (TB,PLAW,,,,8) for steel:
! "3" was arbitrarily chosen as the material reference (MAT) number. mp, ex,3,30.0e6 ! elastic (Young’s) modulus (psi) mp,dens,3,7.33e-4 ! mass density (lbf-sec^2/in^4) mp,nuxy,3,0.30 ! Poisson’s ratio (unitless) !Note: First convert engineering stress versus engineering strain data ! into true stress versus true (hencky) strain data. Then subtract ! off the elastic true strain from the total true strain to find ! the plastic true strain, which is used with the total true stress ! in LS-DYNA *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY material model #24. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Stress-Strain Data used with Piecewise Linear Plasticity (Power Law 8): !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! Total Total Total Total Elastic Plastic ! Stress/ Eng. Eng. True True True True ! Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Strain Strain ! Point (psi) (in/in) (psi) (in/in) (in/in) (in/in) !-----------------------------------------------------------------------! 1 0 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 ! 2 60,000 0.0020 60,120 0.0020 0.0020 0.0000 ! 3 77,500 0.0325 80,020 0.0320 0.0027 0.0293 ! 4 83,300 0.0835 90,260 0.0802 0.0030 0.0772 ! 5 98,000 0.1735 115,000 0.1600 0.0038 0.1562 ! 6 98,300 0.2710 124,940 0.2398 0.0042 0.2356 ! 7 76,400 1.2255 170,030 0.8000 0.0057 0.7943 !-----------------------------------------------------------------------!Note: The first point on the stress/strain curve is NOT entered. ! Start with the second point (where ordinate = yield stress). ! Also, please follow the limits imposed by the *SET command. *dim,strn,,6 ! define array for effective plastic true strain data *dim,strs,,6 ! define array for effective total true stress data strn(1)= 0.0, 0.0293, 0.0772, 0.1562, 0.2356, 0.7943 ! strain (in/in) strs(1)= 60120., 80020., 90260., 115000., 124940., 170030. ! stress (psi) edcurve,add,1,strn,strs ! curve #1: abscissa=strain & ordinate=stress tb,plaw,3,,,8 ! specify power law #8 for material (MAT) #3 tbdata,6,1 ! use load curve #1 for stress/strain data !Note: If desired, a plastic failure strain can be defined. Further, ! strain rate effects can be included by specifying the necessary ! strain rate parameters or the load curve defining the strain rate ! scaling effect on the yield stress. Please refer to Chapter 7 of ! this guide for a complete description of this material model.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

the LCID is referenced in the ninth field of the EDLOAD command. 4. the load will act in the global Cartesian coordinate direction... Death Time. ! Step 1: Define Array Parameters *dim.KEY. The following 3-step example shows how load curves are used with the EDLOAD command. After you define a load curve with the EDCURVE command.. Using an LCID instead of array parameters on the EDLOAD command is particularly useful when a specific load curve is to be applied to multiple components or load labels..Par2.yforce.PHASE.075.300.X1.comp. except that the first array parameter must contain the time values and the second array parameter must contain the corresponding load values. It is important to note that if you use an LCID with the EDLOAD command.2. Using Data Curves for Loading Page 36 of 180 In addition to their use with certain material models. data curves (also known as load curves) can be used in the definition of time dependent loads.100. see Birth Time. array parameters should not also be specified to define the load.. This is accomplished using the KEY field of the EDLOAD command in conjunction with the local coordinate system (EDLCS command).1 *dim. These options allow you to activate a load at any time during an analysis and then deactivate it at a later time. the local coordinate system ID ( CID) is used in the KEY field of the EDLOAD command to define the direction in which the load acts. Death Time.05.Z1.add. Some load types do not support the use of local coordinate systems.11.Cname ..1. Such an option can be very useful in applications such as a multi-stage forming process where more than one load is applied in succession.025.0 As shown above.Z2).add.SCALE.4.5yforce(1)=0.time.1.fy. the corresponding load curve reference number (LCID) can be input on the EDLOAD command. Prev Adaptive Meshing Next Constraints and Initial Conditions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information. If CID is not specified. Once a local coordinate system has been defined with the EDLCS command (EDLCS. Lab.5 time(1)=0..Par1.ADD. Defining Loads in a Local Coordinate System ANSYS/LS-DYNA allows you to prescribe motion to a component or part in any coordinate direction for which a local coordinate system has been defined. 4.05. Some load types do not support birth and death time.11.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 4.400 ! ! Step 2: Define Load Curve and Corresponding LCID (#11) edcurve.2004 .BTIME. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using the BTIME and DTIME fields of the EDLOAD command (EDLOAD .Y1.5..Y2. Specifying Birth and Death Times For each load definition. and CID Support Table in the Notes section of the EDLOAD command for more information.1.6..1. 20. The procedure to define a load curve is the same as described above for material data curves.. CID.DTIME).ADD.yforce ! ! Step 3: Refer to LCID on the EDLOAD Command edload.200.time. see Birth Time...X2.LCID.

The solid element nodes that define the fiber remain linear (straight) throughout the analysis but can move relative to each other in the fiber direction. portions of different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. you may wish to set initial velocities for moving objects. including placing nodes where joints will be attached between rigid bodies. but are based on a node component. defining nodes where point loads will be applied. and rivet (RIVET).2..05. the value specified must always be 0 (zero). The ENS option has many potential applications. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does distinguish between zero and nonzero constraints. You use nodal components to identify the boundaries and a direction vector to define a normal (sliding symmetry) or axis of rotation (cyclic symmetry). Constraints Unlike the ANSYS implicit program. i.ADD. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. 20. No other values are valid. the rigid joint can be easily defined using a nodal rigid body. In the GUI. Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. You must first define the local coordinate system with the EDLCS command. Only zero constraints can be applied with the D command. It is difficult to define this type of rigid body with a unique MAT ID (and corresponding part number). other options that use rigid bodies (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Constraints and Initial Conditions Loading Page 37 of 180 Prev Next 4. You can use the EDBOUND command to define symmetry boundary planes for sliding or cyclic symmetry. you access these constraints by picking: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Apply>Additional Nodal The extra node set constraint type (EDCNSTR. However.2. The nodal component that is added must not be attached to any other rigid body. The shell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You may use symmetry/antisymmetry boundary conditions to apply these “zero” constraints. you will need to apply constraints to your model. The extra nodes that are added to a rigid body may be located anywhere in the model. For a rigid joint.. nodal rigid bodies defined with the EDCNSTR. shell edge to solid (STS). you may need to define sliding or cyclic symmetry. Non-zero constraints are handled as loads (together with a load curve.ADD.ADD. The shell to solid edge option (EDCNSTR . nodal rigid body (NRB). and may have coordinates outside those of the original rigid body. and defining a lumped mass at a specific location.2004 . Additionally. As shown in Constrained Shell to Solid.e. as the D constraints are only used to fix certain portions of the model.STS) ties regions of solid elements to regions of shell elements.. When modeling small symmetric sections of a geometry. a single shell node may be tied to up to nine solid nodes that define a 'fiber' vector. Constraints and Initial Conditions Before initiating the solution.NRB command are not associated with a part number. 4. The NRB option can be advantageous when modeling rigid (welded) joints in a model. The available constraint types are extra node set (ENS). Various other types of constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS-DYNA using the EDCNSTR command.ENS) allows the addition of nodes (via a nodal component) to an existing rigid body that was defined with the EDMP command. You can use the EDNROT command to apply zero constraints in terms of a rotated nodal coordinate system. see earlier discussion in this chapter).

Welds In an explicit dynamic analysis..ADD. Nodes connected by the EDWELD command cannot be constrained in any other way. Two different types of welds can be modeled: massless spotwelds and generalized welds. you must specify two noncoincident nodes. 20. use the following menu path to define a generalized weld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Genrlizd Spotwld file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. When a rivet is defined.2. 4.2004 . However. Nodes connected by a rivet cannot be part of any other constraints specified in the model. you must specify a local coordinate system (EDLCS) which will be used for output data. Constrained Shell to Solid Page 38 of 180 Similar to spotwelds defined with the EDWELD command. failure cannot be specified for a rivet. Unlike a spotweld.. Failure within the generalized weld is also defined with the failure parameters on the EDWELD command using the same relationship as shown in the equation above. In such cases. if you use coincident nodes. welded constraints can be modeled in ANSYS/LS -DYNA using the EDWELD command. This failure is based on the following relationship: In the GUI. you must specify a valid nodal component. Coincident nodes are permitted.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide node must be coincident with one of the solid element nodes along the fiber. You can define failure within the spotweld by inputting failure parameters on the EDWELD command.RIVET) defines a massless rigid constraint between two nodes that are noncoincident. For a massless spotweld.2. it is common to model components that are physically welded together. For a generalized weld. the RIVET option (EDCNSTR . In the GUI. This is especially true in automotive applications where parts are often assembled using welds. use the following menu path to define a massless spotweld: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Spotweld>Massless Spotwld A generalized weld is typically used to model a long-welded section of two parts. however.05. the distance between the nodes is kept constant throughout any motion that occurs during a simulation.

The VELO method applies the rotational velocities directly to each node's rotation degree of freedom.. If you do not specify initial velocities using EDVEL or EDPVEL.g. Use EDVEL to apply velocities to a nodal component or to a single node. Note To model a rotating body.2. Cname) or the PID field on the EDPVEL command.) around a specified axis. The VGEN method applies a rigid body rotation to an entity (node component. 2. and Z axes.g. Specify the initial velocity [EDVEL or EDPVEL] by using one of the following menu paths in the GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Nodal Rotate (VELO option) Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-w/Axial Rotate (VGEN option) For either the VELO or the VGEN option. Y. This may be a single node. all initial velocities in the model will be zero. initial velocities are defined using the EDVEL and EDPVEL commands. input the translational velocities relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system ( VX. use the following procedure: 1. You can use these commands to apply both translational and rotational velocities to various entities. a part [EDPART]. The EDVEL and EDPVEL commands provide two methods for specifying rotational velocities. PID). zero initial velocities will be applied since the remaining fields on these two commands default to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if you only specify the Cname field on the EDVEL command (e. it is often necessary to specify initial conditions.. part. EDPVEL.VGEN. Option = VELO and Option = VGEN. Initial Velocity In transient dynamic simulations. the coordinate axis for rotation ( XC.. Due to the LS-DYNA architecture. a nodal component [CM].05. the rotations input with the VELO method are only applicable to SHELL163 and BEAM161 elements. you should use Option = VGEN since this method applies a rigid body rotation. YC. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. EDVEL. Likewise.2004 . and VZ fields on the EDVEL or EDPVEL command). Since only shell and beam elements have rotation degrees of freedom. input the nodal rotations in terms of the global Cartesian coordinate system ( OMEGAX. and ZC fields) and directional angles ( ANGX. etc. and ANGZ fields) relative to the global X.3. For the VELO option. the two methods for defining initial velocities.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 39 of 180 4. ANGY. (e. For both the VGEN and VELO methods. use EDPVEL to apply velocities to a part or part assembly. To define an initial velocity. input the magnitude of the angular velocity (OMEGAX). For the VGEN option. with or without translations. cannot be used in the same analysis.VGEN. 20. Define the entity to which you want to apply the initial velocity. VY. Option = VGEN and Option = VELO. the translational velocities are always defined relative to the global Cartesian coordinate system. or a part assembly [EDASMP]. OMEGAY. and OMEGAZ fields). 3. Decide whether the VELO or VGEN option is appropriate for your application..

ROTZ) are not allowed. 20. Only the applied forces and the reaction forces will satisfy the moment equilibrium in the model. CELIST. just respecify a new velocity with the same part or part assembly ID number.LIST and EDVEL. just respecify a new velocity with the same component name or node number. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to node components or nodes. Similarly. When used in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamics program.DELE commands (in the GUI. the initial velocity of the baseball would be specified as follows: edvel. assuming the component ball was part number 1 in the model.. This means that if the structure rotates. CEDELE. For our baseball example.05.velo.3. To list or delete initial velocities previously applied to parts or part assemblies. the set of coupled nodes will rotate. Page 40 of 180 If you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDVEL. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Parts-Delete). This new value will overwrite the old data for the component or node.LIST and EDPVEL. CPNGEN. CPLGEN. modify. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if you wish to change an initial velocity previously specified using EDPVEL.-1600. the result of satisfying the moment will depend on the distance from the node to the center of the coupled set. Similarly. Since the rotational DOFs (ROTX. use the EDVEL. modify.0 ! Part number 1 initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Prev Loading Prev Next Coupling and Constraint Equations Coupling and Constraint Equations Loading Next 4.velo. delete. CERIG) can be used to define. the CP and CE commands can be used only with UX. list. you could specify the velocity of the baseball as: edpvel. CPLIST. CPSGEN) can be used to define..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide zero. the CP family of commands should not be used in an explicit analysis to model rigid body behavior that involves rotations. use Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-List and Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity>-On Nodes-Delete). it could lead to nonphysical responses. be aware that a coupled set containing nodes that are not coincident or nodes that are not along the line of the coupled degree of freedom does not produce a moment constraint.ball.0 ! Component ball initially moving ! in -Z direction at 1600 in/sec Or..1. use the EDPVEL.. Coupling and Constraint Equations The CP-family of commands (CP. Also.2004 . and list constraint equations between different DOFs of a structure. If CP is used in this manner. This new value will overwrite the old data for the part or part assembly.-1600. the CE-family of commands (CE. and generate coupling between different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a structure. delete.. CEINTF. UY. and UZ DOFs (rotational DOFs are not allowed). For each node in the coupled set. ROTY.DELE commands (in the GUI. CPDELE. CPINTF..

To define a nonreflecting boundary. select the nodes (NSEL command) that make up the desired boundary along the external surface of a SOLID164 body. 20. For example. the finite element mesh should be constructed so that all significant nonlinear behavior is contained within the discrete model. you can use nonreflecting boundaries at the exterior of the model to limit the overall size of the model. or to include the effects of thermally induced stresses. Temperature loading is applicable to the PLANE162..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 41 of 180 and the direction of displacement will depend on the resulting moment. respectively.1.2004 .05.1 To list and delete defined nonreflecting boundaries. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program offers several types of temperature loading: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.GROUND. Prev Coupling and Constraint Equations Prev Temperature Loading Loading Next Temperature Loading Next 4. use the commands EDNB . For this type of analysis. and SOLID164 element types. and to turn on the dilatational and shear activation flags. Prev Constraints and Initial Conditions Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Loading Next Nonreflecting Boundaries Next 4. Therefore.. When nonreflecting boundaries are included in the model.5. the following command defines a nonreflecting boundary on the component “ground”: EDBOUND. You apply these boundaries to the surface of SOLID164 elements that are being used to model an infinite domain. an infinite domain is often required to represent the ground or other large solid body.DELE. See Coupling and Constraint Equations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for details on defining coupling and constraint equations. Nonreflecting boundaries will prevent artificial stress wave reflections generated at the boundary from reentering the model and contaminating the results. Use the EDNB command to apply the nonreflecting boundary to that nodal component.ADD.LIST and EDNB. Nonreflecting Boundaries When modeling geomechanical systems. SHELL163. then define a component from these nodes (CM command). LS-DYNA computes an impedence matching function for all boundary segments based on an assumption of linear material behavior.4. This may lead to a nonphysical response in some cases. Temperature Loading You may need to define temperature loading in an explicit dynamic analysis in order to accommodate temperature dependent materials.

Note It is important to note that the EDLOAD method of temperature loading cannot be used together with the LDREAD or TUNIF / BFUNIF methods of temperature loading. This model can be used to represent a thermoelastic material by omitting the yield strength and tangent modulus. also requires a sequential solution) ? ? The first method utilizes the EDLOAD .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 42 of 180 Time-varying temperature applied to a nodal component (EDLOAD ) Constant temperature applied to all nodes in the model (TUNIF / BFUNIF) Temperature results from an ANSYS thermal analysis applied as non-uniform temperature loads (that do not vary with time) in a subsequent explicit dynamic analysis (LDREAD. To use this method. use the BFLIST command. You can only transfer the temperatures from one specified time point in the thermal analysis. Any nodes that are unselected at the time LDREAD is issued will take on the temperature load defined by the TUNIF or BFUNIF command.TEMP command to apply this type of temperature load. When LDREAD is issued. You can also scale the temperature values using the SCALE parameter on EDLOAD. The second method allows you to apply a uniform constant temperature to all nodes in the model. use the BFDELE command.. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature.. In order for any of these thermal loads to take effect. See General Loading Options for a complete description of how to apply this type of load..2004 . Please refer to Material Models of this guide for a complete description of this material model.TEMP command and the general loading procedure to apply a time-varying temperature to a specific nodal component.05. You can use the TUNIF command or the BFUNIF. 20. In the explicit phase. This method is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. you must perform an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The third method allows you to apply the temperatures calculated in an ANSYS thermal analysis as loads in an explicit dynamic analysis. You must define two array parameters to represent the load. In addition. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. overwriting any temperature loads defined by TUNIF or BFUNIF. You can use LDREAD and TUNIF (or BFUNIF) together in the same explicit dynamic analysis. a reference temperature can be input via the TREF command. To delete the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). This method may be used to model a structure subjected to steady-state thermal loading. it applies temperature loads to the selected nodes. For all three methods of temperature loading.RTH) and apply them as loads to the nodes in the model. TUNIF. Refer to Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide for a detailed description of this loading procedure. You may choose to define a load curve with these parameters or to input them directly on the EDLOAD command. it defaults to zero. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model. or BFUNIF. the first parameter contains the time values and the second parameter contains the temperature values. EDLOAD cannot be used to list or delete temperatures applied with LDREAD. you use the LDREAD command to read the temperature data from the thermal (implicit) analysis results file ( Jobname. To list the temperature loads defined by LDREAD (at selected nodes or all nodes). If the reference temperature is not specifically defined.

ANSYS/LSDYNA supports both methods. dynamic relaxation capability has been added to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program (EDDRELAX command).. Dynamic Relaxation In order to conduct implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions (see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution). . the structure is instantly unloaded and free to vibrate. 3. a slightly different approach is taken.OFF): In this case. In this latter case. Par2. which occur in pseudo time before the transient portion of the analysis begins at time zero. Stress Initialization with a No-Load Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX.DYNA): This case basically uses the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver to approximate the solution of a static analysis that is really best handled by an implicit solver such as ANSYS. True dynamic relaxation (EDDRELAX.DYNA) allows an explicit solver to conduct a static analysis by increasing the damping until the kinetic energy drops to zero. PHASE PHASE: 0 Load curve for transient analysis only (default) or for implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions 1 Load curve for dynamic relaxation only 2 Load curve for both transient and dynamic relaxation analyses There are essentially five different types of analyses that can be conducted with ANSYS/LS -DYNA concerning dynamic relaxation. They are discussed below: 1. 2. the nodal displacement results from the implicit solution). The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command is set to one. ADD. Lab. if a ramped load curve is needed for the explicit solver to accurately converge on the static solution.DYNA): This case is the same as the previous case.e.2004 .DYNA): This is similar to the previous case. the solver will check the kinetic energy every 250 cycles (by default) until the kinetic energy from the applied preload is dissipated. Par1. When an implicit solver is used to provide the preload (EDDRELAX. If a ramped load curve is used instead of a constant load curve..EDDRELAX. This is the default setting.ANSYS). Stress Initialization with a Loaded Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. EDLOAD .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Nonreflecting Boundaries Prev Dynamic Relaxation Loading Page 43 of 180 Next Dynamic Relaxation Next 4. 4. the PHASE parameter of the EDLOAD command is set to zero and dynamic relaxation is not used.05.. the first (with PHASE = 1) to apply the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Transient Dynamic Analysis Only (default . 20. then the structure will unload at time zero and reload again. True dynamic relaxation is used. At time zero. except that the load curve specified by the EDLOAD command (via PHASE = 2) will be used in both pseudo time for the dynamic relaxation to obtain the preload and in real time for the transient analysis. The termination time (TIME command) must be set to zero to prevent unloading of the static load. Stress Initialization Only with No Transient Analysis (EDDRELAX. the explicit solver only uses 101 time steps to apply the preload. In the former case. Therefore.6. The EDLOAD command specifies the analysis type through the PHASE label. except that the termination time is set to the desired value. Cname. it would be better to use two EDLOAD commands. in that the stress initialization is based on a prescribed geometry (i.

are written on the two results files Jobname. modeling.2004 . The PHASE parameter on the EDLOAD command must be set to zero. is written using all information that has been entered so far. 3. Before issuing the SOLVE command. Control is transferred from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to the LS-DYNA program.ADD. boundary/initial conditions. Jobname.K. and termination controls). Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions (EDDRELAX. you cannot use multiple values of the PHASE parameter for a given component (or Part ID) and load label. after completing element definitions.HIS.. To work around this limitation. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database should contain all relevant information. The input file for the LS-DYNA program.RST and Jobname. Consequently. you must use duplicate nodal components for the stress initialization and transient curves.05. If the EDOPT. loading. At this point. (This workaround is applicable only if you use components to define the load.HIS. Fields 2-6 of the EDDRELAX command are ignored for this case. This scenario is explained in detail in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution of this guide. results files for the LS-POST postprocessor (files d3plot and d3thdt) will also be written. the values associated with the last EDLOAD command are used.BOTH option was specified before issuing the SOLVE command. pick Main Menu>Solution>Solve).. Solution Features 5. including geometric quantities (such as nodes and elements). The solutions produced by the LS-DYNA solver are written to the results files Jobname. 20.) 2.e. several steps are performed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program: 1. Solution Process After the model has been built (i.. Note If you issue EDLOAD multiple times for the same component (or Part ID) and the same load label. real constant and material property specifications. you should issue a SAVE command to write all model information to the file Jobname.DB.) 5. The header records. meshing.RST and Jobname.ANSYS): This case uses the displacement results from the ANSYS implicit solver to apply the preload for the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit solver via stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. (At this point. you can start the solution process by issuing the SOLVE command (in the GUI. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 44 of 180 preload using a ramped load curve and the second (with PHASE = 0) to continue the load with a load curve that is not ramped.. Prev Temperature Loading Prev Solution Features ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Solution Features Next Chapter 5.

the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI notifies the user that the solution is done. and make reference to the LS-DYNA messag file. if the previous analysis terminated due to a satisfied termination criteria that was set by EDTERM. you must change or delete that criteria so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 45 of 180 When the solution is complete without errors or warnings. The calculation will stop when that time limit is reached. The messages state the number of errors and warnings that were produced. 20. When you are performing a small restart (EDSTART. The results can be viewed using the POST1 and POST26 processors of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. LS-DYNA Termination Controls The point at which the LS -DYNA solution terminates will depend on the termination controls you specify when setting up the model. Termination criteria . and control is transferred back to the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.2. The other termination controls are optional.2004 .You can use the EDCPU command to specify a CPU time limit (in seconds). You may set up multiple criteria using this command. you must have a machine with at least two processors. Prev Solution Features Prev Next Shared Memory Parallel Processing Shared Memory Parallel Processing Solution Features Next 5. messages pop-up and are also displayed in the ANSYS Output Window.3. The calculation will stop when the accumulation of time steps reaches that end-time. (See the EDTERM command for details.) ? ? You should always specify an analysis end-time using the TIME command.3) analysis. Prev Dynamic Relaxation Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Features Next 5. If errors or warnings are produced.05. Shared Memory Parallel Processing For large models..2) or a full restart ( EDSTART. CPU time limit . These same details are also written to the LS-DYNA d3hsp file. you can use the shared memory parallel processing (SMP) capabilities of ANSYS/LS-DYNA to shorten the elapsed time necessary to run an analysis.. where details of the errors and warnings are written. Several types of termination controls are available: ? Termination time . To use this feature.Use the TIME command to specify an end-time for the analysis. and you must purchase the appropriate number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The solution will terminate when any one of the specified termination criteria is met. or when a specific node comes into contact with another surface.You can use the EDTERM command to specify that the solution stop when a specific node or rigid body reaches a certain position.

you may see slight differences in the results when you run the same job multiple times.. Maintaining consistency can result in an increase of up to 15% in CPU time.. When used with more than 8 processors..... 2. Any calculations or machine resources that compete with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA application running in SMP mode will reduce the SMP performance significantly.00000E+00 time step. You can set this value via the config60... switches) in the console window of ANSYS/LS-DYNA.ans file.. you can specify that consistency be maintained (EDRUN.78623E-05 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. nor will the EDRUN command settings have any effect. When you are using shared memory parallel processing..... Solution Control and Monitoring The ANSYS/LS-DYNA program allows certain sense switch controls that enable you to interrupt the solution process and to check the solution status. If you do not set the number of processors to be greater than one.) Prev Next LS-DYNA Termination Controls Solution Control and Monitoring Solution Control and Monitoring Prev Solution Features Next 5. and the LS-DYNA solver will continue to run in the background. To avoid these differences..... If you are using all CPUs on a platform (ANSYS recommends always running one fewer CPU than is available)........2004 .. the higher the potential for scalability.... (Unlike in ANSYS.. any additional scalability is minimal. the calculations may be executed in different order... For more information on all of these methods. or via the SETNPROC macro.... you should close all other applications on those CPUs.. Issue the EDRUN command to specify an SMP run.05.) A typical segment of output from the console window is shown below: ______________________________________________________________ initialization completed dt of cycle 1 is controlled by shell element 31 time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 46 of 180 ANSYS/LS-DYNA SMP licenses. To use the SMP capabilities you need to: 1. you will not be able to see the appropriate menu selections in the GUI to specify SMP. type CTRL-C in the console window of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.. 0... the larger the problem.e.....1).. This interrupts the LS-DYNA program execution and lets you enter program control commands (i. Please contact your ANSYS sales representative for more information on purchasing the appropriate licenses. The SMP capability is expected to scale linearly when used with up to 8 processors. Because of this..... please refer to Activating Parallel Processing in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. While the LS-DYNA execution is in progress.4. Specify the number of processors to be used. depending on CPU availability and the workload on each CPU. via the /CONFIG command.SMP. you are not thrown out of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI by the CTRL-C interrupt. 2... 20.. This section describes how to use these sense switch controls.

.... 1.... a value of 30 should be sufficient...00000E+03 total energy / initial energy.......... To do so....28205E+01 global z velocity....00000E+00 total energy. This allows sw2 you to see how far the solution has actually progressed... 0. 20. By looking at the current "time" value of the solution from the last 30 lines of any one of these files and comparing this "time" value against the specified "end time" value on the TIME command.. sw3 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a restart file and continues to run. 1. then type the sense switch sw2 to get a better estimate of the execution time and cycle numbers...... For m (the number of lines to be viewed)... 1.00000E-20 spring and damper energy........ On a UNIX system.. A restart file is written.. sw4 ANSYS/LS-DYNA writes a results data set and continues to run.... 1...2004 . You can use CTRL-C to interrupt the execution of the LS-DYNA solver... As the solution progresses.. The files glstat and matsum will be created only if the following commands were issued in the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors of ANSYS/LS-DYNA: EDOUT. the progress of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution can also be checked by reading the last lines of certain ASCII output files.........00000E+00 time per zone cycle= 434 microseconds estimated total cpu time = 718..... use another window to go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program was started.. warnings.... 0.. -1.) The files d3hsp.. contact problems.MATSUM (See Postprocessing of this manual for more information on how output control commands are used............ The ANSYS/LS -DYNA program writes all important messages (errors.. etc. 1.... you can determine the progress of the solution.... The d3hsp file will always be created by ANSYS/LS -DYNA..... you can enter one of the following four switches: sw1 ANSYS/LS-DYNA terminates.....05.00000E+00 global y velocity.. sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) estimated cpu time to complete= 718.00000E+03 internal energy.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh................ 0...00000E+00 external work. 0.. these files are written at requested time points.GLSTAT EDOUT.. 0..00000E-20 system damping energy. Type the following command at the system prompt: tail -m filename where filename = d3hsp or glstat or matsum..... sec ( 0 hrs 11 mins) enter sense switch: ______________________________________________________________ Page 47 of 180 At this point. glstat and matsum are ASCII files. The first estimate of CPU time reported in the console window (before the issuance of CTRL-C) is usually inaccurate (see “estimated total cpu time” in the output example shown above)......00000E+00 global x velocity..) to the ANSYS/LSDYNA console window and to the LS-DYNA ASCII output file d3hsp. ANSYS/LS-DYNA responds with time and cycle numbers and continues to run..00000E+00 sliding interface energy.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide kinetic energy.. failed elements.

20. Some examples are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 48 of 180 Prev Shared Memory Parallel Processing Prev Plotting Small Elements Solution Features Next Plotting Small Elements Next 5.. except that all selected elements are plotted.Plot and list the elements with the smallest time step sizes.05. There are three options available ( OPTION field of EDTP) for plotting elements based on time step size. This option produces the same plot as Option 1. Prev Next Solution Control and Monitoring Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Editing the LS -DYNA Input File Prev Solution Features Next 5. ? ? In the plot produced by EDTP the elements are shaded red (smallest). Option 3 . The overall time step for an entire model is then based on the smallest critical time step value of all the elements within the model. Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Most of the major LS -DYNA capabilities are supported in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and can be conveniently accessed through the graphical user interface of this program. Note Care should be taken when using the EDTP command for large models because the time step size calculations may take a significant amount of CPU time.6.2004 . Each element is shaded red or yellow based on its time step size. however.. or blue (largest) based on their time step sizes.This option produces a plot similar to Option 1. ? Option 1 .Plot the elements with the smallest time step sizes. Option 2 . ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically calculates the critical time step size of each element in a model based on its material properties and size. with the degree of translucency based on the VALUE2 field of the EDTP command. and also provides a listing of the smallest elements. This allows you to monitor areas of the model that have small elements. The number of elements plotted is based on the VALUE1 field (default = 100) of the EDTP command. Plotting Small Elements As outlined in Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods. Elements beyond the number specified by VALUE1 are blue and translucent. that there are a number of other capabilities in the LS-DYNA program that cannot be directly accessed through the GUI of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. You can plot explicit dynamic elements based on their time step sizes using the EDTP command. It should be noted. yellow (intermediate).

After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. the input file will be named Jobname. The procedure for including additional features is outlined below.RST and Jobname. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname. soil.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 49 of 180 several material properties. such as fabric. enter the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program and view the results using the postprocessors (POST1 and POST26). Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory (where the two results files.HIS. (Remember.R.) The difference between the EDWRITE command and the SOLVE command is that step number 3 discussed under “Solution Process” at the beginning of this chapter will not be executed. (In the GUI. 20. After issuing EDWRITE. Method A 1. certain element types. Method B 1. such as seatbelt application of constraints on rigid bodies in the local coordinate system ? ? Although these capabilities cannot be directly accessed.. 3. 5. Jobname. the input file will be named Jobname_nn. For both Method A and Method B. and if it is a full restart.K will be written (along with headers to the ANSYS results files).RST and Jobname. The solution produced by the LS -DYNA executable will be appended to these results files. but the solution process of the LS-DYNA program will not be started. After modeling has been completed.05. users who are familiar with the LS-DYNA program can still use these features indirectly in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.K.) EDWRITE will create the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.2. etc.. Using another window. That is. you have not exited the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. Edit the LS-DYNA input file Jobname.) 4. reside. you can issue the EDWRITE command instead of issuing the SOLVE command. Jobname. use one of the following two methods to include additional functionality in the explicit dynamic analysis. Execute the LS -DYNA executable separately in the same directory where the two results files.1. go back to the original window and view the results using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA postprocessors. 5. 2. 2.HIS.k.6. (Note that if the analysis is a small restart.6. Jobname.K.2004 .K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. After completion of the LS-DYNA execution. you execute the LS -DYNA program by running the lsdynaxx script (where xx is the ANSYS release number) with the correct arguments: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. go to the directory where the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program was started. 3. Do not exit the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program in the original window. The solution produced by the LS-DYNA executable will be appended to these results files.K to incorporate the items that are not supported directly through the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program. reside). 4. pick Main Menu>Solution>Write Jobname. Exit the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.

editing the LS-DYNA keyword input file.05. 02.. Using a Pre-existing File.0 and your input file is “crashtest. Also. Contact Surfaces Contact surfaces in ANSYS/LS-DYNA allow you to represent a wide range of types of interaction file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you will also be able to postprocess the results using LS -POST. This allows you to take a pre-existing file. if you have ANSYS/Mechanical with LS-DYNA at ANSYS Release 6.RST and . Thus.) In all cases. the LS-DYNA solver also has the ability to create the . see Restarting).K input file exists. the complete set of results can be postprocessed in the LS-POST postprocessor (assuming you requested LS-DYNA results files via the EDWRITE command). the original version. if an attempt is made to view the modified items in the PREP7. you can specify the memory to be used by including the command line argument “memory=n”. depending on what type of analysis you are running. and then postprocess the results with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program.6. the argument “r=d3dumpnn” is also required. note that the ANSYS/LS-DYNA database is not updated with the changes you make in file Jobname. Then edit the . etc.k”. For a restart analysis. will be shown.K. 99) to be used as a starting point. the argument “m=drelax” is also required. Jobname. Next.K In a typical ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis.K. where n is the desired amount of memory in words..K file so that the *DATABASE_FORMAT command is set to either 1 for ANSYS only results files. or 2 for ANSYS and LS-DYNA results files. first make sure that the model defined in the .. If you requested LS-DYNA results files. and not the modified version. nodes and elements must not be changed. you should still be able to postprocess the results using the ANSYS postprocessors. see Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution).K.HIS results file headers when only a file. (EDSTART command. real constants.k p=ansysds You may need additional command line arguments. For an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution (REXPORT and EDDRELAX commands.) will not be available in the results files.2004 . the results file headers are written when you issue the SOLVE command (or when you issue EDWRITE). For any type of analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide lsdynaxx i = jobname. you would type: lsdyna60 i=crashtest. When using these methods to modify the file Jobname.. solve it using LS-DYNA. is NOT a supported feature of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. If the corresponding ANSYS database does not exist. However. 20. To use this method. (For these reasons. POST1 or POST26 processors after the solution is complete.K. 5.k p = product name Page 50 of 180 For example. run the lsdynaxx script as described above. Prev Plotting Small Elements Prev Contact Surfaces ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Contact Surfaces Next Chapter 6.K file does not contain any features that ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support. element attributes (material properties. You can then postprocess the results using POST1 and POST26. where nn is the number of the dump file (01. However.3. .

2004 . These contact types. 6. drawbead. Contact Definitions Due to complicated large deformation dynamics which typically occur during an explicit dynamic analysis. All contact surfaces are defined in ANSYS/LSDYNA through the use of the EDCGEN command. and ESS). This chapter provides guidelines for defining physically realistic contact in an explicit dynamic analysis... use the EDCGEN command to specify contact between the desired components such as the ball and bat surfaces of the example problem discussed in Loading: NSEL. 20.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BATSURF EDCGEN. STEP 1: Determining Contact Type In order to adequately describe interaction between complex geometries during large deformation contact and dynamic impact. Use the following steps when using the EDCGEN command: STEP 1: Determine the type of contact surface which best defines your physical model. a large number of contact surface options have been incorporated into the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. Then. and single edge contact (SE). You can do this by using nodal components. automatic single surface (ASSC). STEP 2: Identify contact entities. For most typical analyses. STEP 2: Defining Contact Entities With the exception of the single surface (ASSC. In other analyses.S.NODE. You simply indicate the contact surfaces.” For explicit dynamics.1. It should be noted that contact is represented differently in an explicit dynamic analysis than it is in other types of ANSYS analyses.BALLSURF. there are no contact elements.. tiebreak. eroding. PART ID definitions. as shown in the sample input listing below. single surface.S. the type of contact between them. For this reason. SS. and rigid contact options. which include node-to-surface. use select logic and the CM command to group the nodes (only nodal components are valid).25...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 51 of 180 between components in a model.. determining contact between components in a model can be extremely difficult. and surface-to-surface (STS) contact options are recommended. STEP 4: Specify any additional input which is required for a given contact type. the contact is represented by actual “contact elements.05.BALLSURF.BATSURF. are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading “Contact Options”.NTS. special features have been included in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to make defining contact between surfaces as efficient as possible.. surface-tosurface.23 ! Generate node-to-surface ! contact between components ! BALLSURF and BATSURF file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.BATSURF.. ! Select a set of nodes on bat surface CM. single edge.. and other parameters related to the contact type.. STEP 5: Specify birth and death times for the contact definition. STEP 3: Specify friction coefficient parameters.NODE.NODE ! Place selected nodes into component ! BALLSURF NSEL. automatic general (AG). ! Select a set of nodes on ball surface CM. nodes-to-surface (NTS). When using contact or target components. tied. all of the contact options require you to identify contact and target surfaces for which contact can occur... and/or part assembly ID definitions. automatic general (AG).

ESTS. The program will ignore any contact and target surfaces defined for single surface contact and will issue a warning message upon execution of the EDCGEN command.05.2. 20..2. ESS.5.STS. Part assembly numbers are defined with the EDASMP command. STEP 3: Specifying Friction Coefficient Parameters The frictional coefficient used for contact is determined from the static friction coefficient (FS).1.1.15 ! Generate eroding surface-to-surface ! contact between PART 1 and component N2 EDCGEN. contact can be defined between contact and target surfaces using a combination of PART / part assembly and component definitions. of the surfaces in contact: The coefficient for viscous friction... The input line below demonstrates how the EDCGEN command is used to define contact between two different parts / part assemblies in a model: EDCGEN.. the dynamic friction coefficient (FD).. no contact or target surface definitions are required.34 ! Generate automatic single surface ! contact for the entire model Note--When defining contact entities in an explicit analysis.1. (FS.. contact surfaces can be specified using part numbers or part assembly numbers that are currently defined within the finite element model.) The frictional coefficient is assumed to be dependent on the relative velocity. no initial penetrations are allowed.... A typical command for single surface contact is presented below: EDCGEN.. Therefore.28 ! Generate node-to-surface contact ! between component N1 and PART 2 EDCGEN.28 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between part assemblies 5 and 6 For the specialized case of single surface contact (ASSC. as illustrated below: EDCGEN. use great care when defining contact components. and SS). AG.25..ASSC.. Vrel.3. can be used to limit the friction force to a maximum...N2. single surface contact is the most general type of contact definition as all external surfaces within a model can be in contact at any point during an analysis.2004 . FD.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 52 of 180 Alternatively. and DC can be input on the EDCGEN command.1 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PART 1 and itself You can also use the EDCGEN command for defining contact between part assemblies as shown in the following sample input: EDCGEN.1..15.6. As explained later in this section.23 ! Generate surface-to-surface contact ! between PARTS 1 and 2 Additionally. VC (also input on EDCGEN ).STS. N1.STS.NTS.3.1. and the exponential decay coefficient (DC)..34. A limiting force is computed: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

g.g.. Therefore. For both types of tiebreak contact. and drawbead contact. rigid. a force calculation method type (V2) applicable to the specified rigid contact option. tiebreak. ESS. e. additional information (fields V1-V4 on the EDCGEN command) may also be required. V1-V3 are defined as follows: the boundary condition symmetry option key (V1) determines whether a symmetry condition will be retained along a surface where elements fail. tensile (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses are used to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and ESTS) are used when surfaces of solid elements fail and contact needs to be redefined with the remaining internal elements.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 53 of 180 where Acont is the area of the segment contacted by the node in contact. you must specify a data curve ID (V1).2004 . a contact damping perpendicular to the contacting surfaces is applied. In order to avoid undesirable oscillation in contact. a user defined force deflection curve is used to resist penetration rather than a linear stiffness. The contact damping coefficient is calculated as follows: Damping coefficient VDC is the viscous damping coefficient (input on EDCGEN command as percent of critical damping. and an unloading stiffness value (V3). For rigid body contact. The suggested value for VC is to use the yield stress in shear: where o is the yield stress of the contacted material.. the adjacent material key (V3) determines whether solid element faces are included for erosion along free boundaries. ANSYS/LS-DYNA: is determined in the following fashion by where STEP 4: Specifying Additional Input For eroding. VDC = 20 indicates 20%). for sheet forming simulation. This information varies with contact type.. Rigid body contact (RNTR and ROTR) is normally used for multi-body dynamics. as outlined below. Eroding surface contacts (ENTS. e. 20. Tiebreak contact (TSTS and TNTS) is used to define contact failure when surfaces are ‘glued’ together.. the interior erosion option key (V2) specifies whether erosion can subsequently occur along internal surfaces when the exterior surface fails. for rigid body contact. For eroding contact.05.

05. and contact entity number increment by using the MIN. you can delete it using the EDDC command. The plot will consist of nodes or elements. Use the EDCLIST command to list all currently defined contact entities.08000 DC = 0.2).1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 54 of 180 calculate the failure criterion and are required for input. by issuing the command EDPC. Plotting and Deleting Contact Entities Once you define contact using the EDCGEN command. You can specify a minimum contact entity number. You cannot delete contact specifications in a small restart analysis (EDSTART. In drawbead contact.Targ.Cont.. issue the command EDDC. However.0000 2 Automatic Single Surface Contact Defined For: All External Surfaces of Model FS = 0. and a drawbead depth (V3).20000 FD = 0. 6.0000 You can use the EDPC command to select and plot contact entities. Note EDPC selects the nodes and/or elements of the specified contact entities. you can list. This allows you to activate contact at any time during the transient analysis.00000 VDC = 0. maximum contact entity number. You may optionally include a curve ID (V2). you must reselect all nodes and elements required for subsequent operations (such as SOLVE ). or delete contact definitions. To delete a specific contact definition. you file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must input a load curve ID (V1). which gives the bending component of the restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement. plot. the defined entities for the STS and ASSC contact would be selected and plotted. Ctype. Hence. MAX. which gives the normal restraining force as a function of drawbead displacement and the number of equally spaced integration points (V4) along the drawbead. after plotting the contact entities. To delete all current contact definitions. A sample listing is shown below.2.00000 VC = 0. If contact has been incorrectly specified. you can specify a birth time and a death time by using fields BTIME and DTIME on the EDCGEN command.15000 DC = 0.ALL. For tiebreak nodes-to-surface contact. all external surfaces in the model will be selected and plotted. issue the command EDDC.1.DELE. exponents for the normal force (V3) and the shear force (V4) can also be specified to define the failure criterion.00000 VDC = 0. where Ctype is the contact type and Cont and Targ are the contact and target parts or components for which contact has been defined. 20.ALL and ESEL. CURRENT EXPLICIT DYNAMIC CONTACT DEFINITIONS 1 General Surface to Surface Contact Defined Between: Nodal contact Entity N1 And Nodal Target Entity N2 FS = 0.1 for the above listing.ALL commands (or other appropriate forms of these commands). Each contact definition is given a contact entity reference number that can be used when plotting contact definitions. and INC fields of the EDPC command. components or parts). STEP 5: Specifying Birth and Death Times For each contact definition. then deactivate it at a later time. Use the NSEL..10000 FD = 0. Drawbead contact (DRAWBEAD) is typically used in specialized cases to represent drawbeads. which help restrain a blank during drawing operations.2004 . Therefore.00000 VC = 0.1. It is important to note that for single surface contact definitions. depending on the method that was used to define the contact surfaces (that is. Listing.DELE.

FOSS 6. its definition is removed from the database and you cannot reactivate it in a later restart. you can choose from three basic contact types in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program: single surface contact. To use this feature you must define all contact specifications (EDCGEN command) in the new analysis. deactivate.3). Once a contact specification is defined.Targ) contact in a small restart.Targ) or reactivate (EDDC . Thus. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. AG. With such a large number of contact options.2004 . in this section.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 55 of 180 can use the EDDC command to deactivate (EDDC .DACT. Table 6-1 Contact Types Single surface Nodes to surface Normal SS NTS Automatic ASSC. nodes-to-surface contact. or reactivate contact specifications in a full restart that were defined in a previous analysis. Definition of Contact Types As shown in the columns of Table 6-1. it is extremely important for a user to have an understanding of each contact type so that the proper contact option can be used to realistically model a physical phenomenon. (Remember that if you delete contact in a new analysis using EDDC. OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS. twenty-four different contact types have been incorporated in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program (see the table below). you cannot delete.2. Prev Editing the LS-DYNA Input File Prev Contact Options Contact Surfaces Next Contact Options Next 6.Ctype. ASS2D ANTS Rigid RNTR Tied TDNS Tied with failure TNTS Eroding ESS ENTS Edge Drawbead DRAWBEAD Forming FNTS Surface to surface STS.DELE. and you must perform at least one small restart.1.Ctype. Contact Options In order to adequately characterize the complex interaction between surfaces in an explicit dynamic analysis. you can deactivate it in a restart when it is not needed. and surface-to-surface contact.2. Therefore..Cont. This capability is useful when you know at what stages in an analysis certain types of contact will occur. and reactivate it in a later restart when it is needed.05.RACT.) The EDDC command is not supported in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis (EDSTART . 20. each of the contact options available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program will be discussed. you can achieve significant CPU time savings.Cont. By considering contact only when it is needed. TSES TSTS ESTS SE FSTS..

ESTS. 2. where over-defining contact will significantly increase computation time. The coarser mesh is the target surface. This type of contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 1. ESS) Page 56 of 180 Single surface contact is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. In single surface contact. Single Surface Contact (SS. STS. RNTR. using single surface contact in an explicit analysis will cause only minor increases in CPU time. single surface contact allows all external surfaces within a model to come into contact. the bead is always the nodal contact surface and the blank is always the target surface. ANTS. TDSS. Surface-to-Surface Contact (STS. single surface contact is the simplest type to define because no contact or target surface definitions are required. This type of contact is commonly used for general contact between two surfaces. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. they still are used for a wide range of applications.. ASSC. the NTS and STS options are two of the three recommended options for ANSYS/LSDYNA. Unlike implicit modeling. TDNS. OSTS. The finer mesh is the contact surface. SE. Surface-to-surface contact is the most general type of contact as it is commonly used for bodies that have arbitrary shapes with relatively large contact areas. Most impact and crash-dynamic applications will require single surface contact to be defined. When it is defined. FSTS. ASS2D.2. The convex surface is the contact surface. FNTS) Node-to-surface contact is a contact type which is established when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. When using solid elements. AG. Definition of Contact Options For each of the three contact types. it is recommended as the first choice for self contact and large deformation problems when the contact conditions are not easy to predict. The primary advantage of using the general contact algorithms is that they are extremely fast and robust. you must set the contact surface file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the following options may be used: 1. The contact surface orientation defines which side of a surface is solid and which side is ‘air'. there are often several contact options available. TSES) Surface-to-surface contact is established when a surface of one body penetrates the surface of another body. Therefore. 20. 6. ? In the case of Drawbead contact. DRAWBEAD. ASTS. however. For shell elements. OSTS) Although the general contact options use the simplest contact algorithms. General (Normal) Contact (SS. In fact. The only concern when working with the general contact options deals with contact surface orientation. such as a block sliding on a plane or a sphere sliding within a groove. TNTS.2004 . TSTS. Node-to-Surface Contact (NTS. ENTS. Since automatic general (AG) contact is very robust and includes shell edge (SE) contact as well as improved beam contact. FOSS.05. ROTR. Use the same rules as in ANSYS implicit to determine which surfaces are target or contact: ? The flat or concave surface is the target. the ANSYS/LSDYNA program automatically determines which surfaces within a model may come into contact. NTS.2. This option can be very powerful for self-contact or large deformation problems when general areas of contact are not known beforehand. 3.. ANSYS/LS-DYNA automatically sets the contact orientation correctly for the general contact options.

The main difference between the automatic and general options is that the contact surface orientation for shell elements is automatically determined by the automatic contact algorithms.. the data curve ID (V1). checks are made for contact on both sides of shell elements. These contacts are typically used for multi-body dynamics where all of the bodies are rigid. the contact nodes (surfaces) are forced to maintain their isoparametric position within the target surface. Eroding contact should be used with solid elements in penetration problems and other applications which experience surface failure.05. the contact nodes (surfaces) are allowed to slide relative to. a user-defined forcedeflection curve is used. When using eroding contact. Only translational degrees of freedom (UX. The tiebreak contact options are typically used to represent spot-welded or bolted file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. UY. Tied Contact (TDNS. It is important to note. after the failure criterion is exceeded. try using general contact with an infinite or a large search depth. 2. 20. the contact search depth is always limited. AG.2004 . ENTS. rigid body contact (RNTR. ROTR) cannot be used with deformable bodies. ASS2D. and an adjacent material treatment option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. 6. To do this. upon application of loads or initial velocities. ASTS) Along with the general contact family. the body with the coarser mesh should always be defined as the target surface. However. and UZ) are affected by tied contact. and unloading option (V3) must be specified on the EDCGEN command. or separate from. Automatic Contact (ASSC. ESTS) The eroding contact options are needed when the elements forming one or both exterior surfaces experience material failure during contact. the reorientation will occur only if there is no initial penetration of the shell surface. an interior/exterior node erosion option (V2). ROTR) The rigid body contact options are similar to the general contact options NTS and OSTS except that. the automatic contact options are the most commonly used contact algorithms. This is done by 'pinning' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target using a penalty stiffness. For the rigid options. force calculation method (V2). 4. The contact and target surfaces must be initially coplanar so that during initialization. When defining tied contact. Rigid body contacts are beneficial because they can allow inclusion of energy absorption without the need for modeling deformable elements. Therefore. TDSS. 3. automatic. TSTS) Tiebreak contact is identical to tied contact except that the contact nodes (surfaces) are tied to the target surfaces only until a failure criterion is reached.. Eroding Contact (ESS. If this is considered to be the reason for breaking through a contact surface. 5. rather than using a linear stiffness to resist penetration. See Controlling Contact Depth later in this chapter. Tiebreak (Tied with Failure) Contact (TNTS. a symmetry plane option (V1). the target surface. Contact is allowed to continue with the remaining interior elements. The contact of a rigid body to a deformable body must be defined with general. TSES) The tied contact options actually 'glue' the contact nodes (surfaces) to the target surfaces. Rigid Contact (RNTR. an isoparametric position of the contact node (surface) within the target segment is calculated. The effect of tied contact is that the target surfaces can deform and the slave nodes are forced to follow that deformation. set the ORIE field of the EDCONTACT command to 2 to activate automatic reorientation of the contact surfaces. or eroding options. In automatic contact. Thereafter.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 57 of 180 orientation when using general contact. ANTS.

The main difference between TNTS and TSTS is that the TSTS failure is based on a failure stress and the TNTS is based on a failure force. which allows implementation of bending and frictional restraining forces. During drawing and stamping simulations. 20. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure forces and normal (V3) and shear (V4) force exponents must be supplied using the EDCGEN command. Edge Contact (SE) The single edge contact option should be used when contact occurs orthogonal to the shell surface normal direction.. Drawbead Contact (DRAWBEAD) Drawbead Contact is typically used in metal forming operations in which special care must be taken to restrain the blank.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 58 of 180 connections.05. Drawbead contact.. For the TNTS option.2004 . helps to ensure that the blank will remain in contact the entire length of the drawbead depth. LS-DYNA drawbead representation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the normal (V1) and shear (V2) failure stresses must be specified using the EDCGEN command. 8. Failure of the connection will occur when: 7. When using TSTS. it is common for the blank to lose contact with the forming surfaces. This contact option does not require contact or target surface definitions. Single edge contact is often used in sheet metal applications which have their surface normals orthogonal to the impact direction.

by setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to be positive.3. OSTS.2. Bucket Sort Method file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Prev Contact Surfaces Prev Contact Search Methods Contact Surfaces Next Contact Search Methods Next 6.3. These methods are outlined below: 6. However.05.3.1. the contact search algorithm uses shared nodes of neighboring element segments to identify possible sources of contact. 6. 20. FOSS) The forming contact options are primarily used in metal forming applications. contact options NTS. but the orientation of the tooling meshes must be in the same direction. the tools and dies are typically defined as the target (master). OSTS.. Therefore. FSTS. Therefore.. you should specify different contact sets for distinct regions. but has the disadvantage of requiring that the mesh must be continuous for the contact algorithm to work correctly. Forming Contact (FNTS. TNTS.2004 . and TDNS contact options.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 59 of 180 9. Contact Search Methods There are two different contact search algorithms used by ANSYS/LS-DYNA for determining which target surface is being contacted by which contact surface. The forming contact options are based on the Automatic contact types and are therefore very robust in metal forming applications. For these contact types. and TDNS will use the bucket sort method. while the workpiece is defined as the contact (slave) surface. TSTS. Mesh connectivity is not required for the forming contact option. The mesh connectivity method is beneficial because it is very fast. when a target segment is no longer in contact with a contact surface node. the neighboring segments are checked. The mesh connectivity method is used by the NTS. Mesh Connectivity Tracking In mesh connectivity tracking.

a BOXID can be used in the BOXID1 and BOXID2 fields of the EDCGEN command. Special Considerations for Shells Modeling rigid bodies with shell elements requires special consideration. automatic single surface (ASSC).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 60 of 180 The bucket sort algorithm. .ZMAX ADD. it is necessary to ensure that realistic thicknesses are specified for the rigid body shells. shell thickness is taken into account for the contact formulation for both the determination of the contact surface as well as the search depth.BOXID2 Prev Contact Options Prev Next Special Considerations for Shells Special Considerations for Shells Contact Surfaces Next 6.ZMIN. When you specify a contact box. EDBX.BOXID . Cont.2004 . A thickness that is too small may result in the loss of contact. For the automatic nodes-tosurface (ANTS).YMAX.05. 20. An advantage of this feature is that it minimizes CPU time when you know the potential contact area of two bodies beforehand.XMAX. DTIME. 6. Therefore.NTS..Targ.3. LIST BOXID User defined List ID number XMIN Minimum x coordinate XMAX Maximum x coordinate YMIN Minimum y coordinate YMAX Maximum y coordinate ZMIN Minimum z coordinate ZMAX Maximum z coordinate Option Once defined. STS. Setting the SHTK field of the EDCONTACT command to 1 or 2 has several affects on the NTS. and single surface (SS) contact definitions.. a contact search will only be performed within the volume specified by the coordinates of the box.4..YMIN. The bucket sort method is extremely robust.BOXID1.Option. divides the target surface region into cubes (buckets).3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The contact box option is only valid when defining contact with parts or part assemblies. Contacting nodes can contact any segment of the target surface in the same bucket or adjacent buckets.XMIN. The shell thickness contact option field SHTK of the EDCONTACT command is ignored for the above contact types. EDCGEN. The contact box is defined using the EDBX command. BOXID1 corresponds to the contact box and BOXID2 corresponds to the target contact box. DELETE. but can be somewhat slower than the mesh connectivity tracking method if the target surface contains a large number of elements. automatic surface-to-surface (ASTS). and a value that is too large may result in degradation of speed in the contact sorting algorithm. Limiting the Contact Search Domain You can limit the overall region for which a contact search will be executed by defining a contact box domain.. which is used by all the contact options other than those specified above.

the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program allows you to specify a maximum contact depth. any time a contact node passes behind a target surface (or vice-versa). the contact penetration depth is automatically limited by the element thickness and cannot be adjusted by the user. For these contact types. the contact search algorithm becomes Bucket Sort. 20. The expressions for contact depth in shell and solid elements are listed below: shell elements: contact depth = min [shell thickness. You can change the penetration checking of each individual contact definition of these same types by using the EDSP command. The first is that that the contact depth is directly computed (see the equations in Controlling Contact Depth) based on element thickness for shells and edge length for solids and cannot be controlled by the user. OSTS.5. set the PENCHK field of the EDCONTACT command to a value of 1 or 2. as explained above. Choice of Penalty Factor file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must be sure that spurious contact is not defined between components in a model. Contact Stiffness 6. beyond which the contact penetrations are considered spurious and will be ignored. TNTS. In cases where the contact is not genuine.. OSTS. NTS. Therefore. Second. a contact depth of 1 x 10 10 (nearly infinite) is assumed by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program.4 x min side length. so mesh connectivity is not necessary for the contact to work correctly. The PENCHK field discussed above controls penetration checking for all contact definitions in the model of types STS.6. Controlling Contact Depth For the contact options STS. To control the contact penetration distance. 0.1. and TSTS.2004 . NTS. and TSTS. In an explicit dynamic analysis. TNTS.05. and TSTS. For all of the contact options other than STS. NTS.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 61 of 180 and OSTS contact options.. TNTS. 0. the contact forces can become large and cause the model to become unstable. contact is defined and a force proportional to the contact depth is generated.6. it is common for unwanted spurious contact to be defined because of the geometry of parts which may be in relative motion. For this reason. and the contact depth is relatively large. OSTS. Prev Contact Search Methods Prev Controlling Contact Depth Contact Surfaces Next Controlling Contact Depth Next 6.5 x ] solid elements: contact depth = min Prev Special Considerations for Shells Prev Contact Stiffness Contact Surfaces Next Contact Stiffness Next 6.

If there are very large differences in the contact stiffnesses. or incompatibility.. where the contact force is equal to the product of the contact stiffness (k) and the penetration ( ). The contact stiffness. If the actual time step size used is larger than the one listed in this message. bodies will pass through one another. overwriting user input for the scale factor.2. then instabilities or unrealistic behavior may arise. If the difference between the two time steps is small. but this implies that k = . increasing the value of SFSI above 0. can be changed for all contact surfaces by entering a new value for the penalty factor. both the contact and target stiffnesses are taken into account and the least stresses of the surfaces are used. Without a contact stiffness. Symmetry Stiffness If the contact stresses of contact and target surfaces are badly mismatched due to large differences in material properties or element size. For example. this approach may not be necessary. The Val1 and Val2 fields of the EDCMORE command can be used to adjust the slave and master penalty stiffnesses in cases where the default contact stiffness determined by the ANSYS/LS -DYNA program is found to be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the contact stiffness is determined by the following relationships: for segments on solid elements for segments on shell elements Area = area of contact segment K = bulk modulus of contacted element fs = penalty factor (0. the EDCMORE command allows the specification of additional contact parameters for a single contact surface specification. Together with the related mass. a closed contact element is a spring-mass system for which the current stability criterion yields a critical time step in the explicit analysis.. Ideally. In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. In practice.1 by default) In almost all cases. individual contact (slave) and target (master) stiffness values can be adjusted using the EDCMORE command. between the two bodies is therefore dependent on the stiffness k.2004 . The amount of penetration ( ). fs. The relationship is generated through an 'elastic spring' that is put between the two bodies. however. there should be no penetration. The program reports the least one of the time steps with a message. PENO of the EDCONTACT command. Unlike the EDCONTACT command. This can be avoided by adjusting the penalty stiffness option.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 62 of 180 A stiffness relationship between two bodies must be established for contact to occur.6. with the SFSI field of the EDCONTACT command. In addition to using the SFI and PENO options of the EDCONTACT command to control penalty stiffness between contact surfaces. which will lead to numerical instabilities. then you should scale the penalty value of the offending surface with the EDCONTACT command or reduce the actual time stpe size with the EDCTS command. which is applied to all contact definitions within a model. the program scales them to closer values. The value of k that is used depends on the relative stiffness of the bodies in contact. by setting PENO to 1. 6. 20.05. the contact stiffness parameter automatically determined by the ANSYS/LSDYNA program will provide excellent results.1 will typically cause instabilities to occur.

Similar to the contact used for the 3-D elements. FD. where applicable.Targ.. For additional information on each material model.DC.7. The option.. 2-D Contact Option In order to define contact between PLANE162 elements. DC.FD.2004 .. refer to Material Model Examples or to Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. is a single surface contact option (similar to ASSC). BTIME. and DTIME. Cont. (The LS -DYNA material number corresponding to each material model is shown in parentheses below.ASS2D.DTIME For 2-D contact.05. a specialized 2-dimensional contact option exists in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. Page 63 of 180 Prev Controlling Contact Depth Prev 2-D Contact Option Contact Surfaces Next 2-D Contact Option Next 6. The models and the procedure for using them are outlined in detail in the remainder of this chapter. The only other fields used with the ASS2D option are FS.) Linear Elastic Models ? Isotropic (#1) Orthotropic (#2) Anisotropic (#2) Elastic Fluid (# 1) ? ? ? Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. .. 20. only parts can be used to define the contact and target components. The available materials are listed below. ASS2D.FS. Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA includes over 40 material models that can be used to represent a wide range of material behavior. BTIME. the ASS2D option is specified using the EDCGEN command: EDCGEN. Prev Contact Stiffness Prev Material Models ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Models Next Chapter 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide inadequate. All of the other fields of the EDCGEN command will be ignored for 2-D contact.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 64 of 180 Blatz-Ko Rubber (#7) Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (#27) Viscoelastic (#6) ? ? Nonlinear Inelastic Models ? Bilinear Isotropic (#3) Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (#4) Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic (#37) Transversely Anisotropic FLD (# 39) Bilinear Kinematic (#3) Plastic Kinematic (#3) 3 Parameter Barlat (#36) Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity (#33) Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (#64) Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (#19) Composite Damage (# 22) Concrete Damage (# 72) Piecewise Linear Plasticity (#24) Powerlaw Plasticity (#18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models ? Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (# 10) Geological Cap (# 25) ? Foam Models ? Closed Cell Foam (# 53) Viscous Foam (# 62) Low Density Foam (# 57) Crushable Foam (# 63) ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..05. 20.2004 ..

The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.. MPTEMP.05. TB. The next section.. TBTEMP.2004 . MPDATA. Defining Explicit Dynamics Material Models You define material models using the ANSYS commands MP. describes how you define the individual material properties of each material model via commands. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions. 20. Defining material models via the GUI is much more direct than doing so via commands: 1. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 65 of 180 Honeycomb (# 26) Models Requiring Equations of State ? Bamman Plasticity(# 51) Johnson-Cook Plasticity(# 15) Null (# 9) Zerilli-Armstrong (# 65) Steinberg (# 11) ? ? ? ? Discrete Element Models ? Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-Only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable (# 71) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rigid Model ? Rigid (# 20) 7. and TBDATA. and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA command EDMP.1. Choose menu path Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models.

Equation of State. 3. In the Material Models Available window on the right. Its contents are identical to the model whose contents you copied. Prev 2-D Contact Option Prev Next Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Material Models Next 7. and Foam Material Models. and click on OK.2. All applicable properties for a material model appear in that model’s dialog box when you are working interactively. The copied material model is listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window with the new number. Enter the desired values. There. For example.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 66 of 180 If you do not first define an ANSYS/LS-DYNA element type. 20. the subcategories are: Elastic. Discrete Element Properties. Inelastic. you can edit the data and click on OK again.. You can later edit the values by double-clicking on the material model listed on the left side in the Material Models Defined window until the associated data input dialog box appears. Be sure to define all properties that are listed for the material model. The options that appear in this dialog box will be all of the individual material property options that are valid for the material model you have selected. Continue to double-click on any further material subcategories until a data input dialog box appears. copy. 4. Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions This section describes each material model in detail. For further information on defining materials using the GUI. edit. you actually input a material data curve ID. or Rigid Material.05. The corresponding commands are provided here for when you are working in batch or command mode. ANSYS will automatically issue the correct commands and write them to the log file. Double-click on a material subcategory. then choosing Edit > Delete. If you define. You can copy the contents of an existing material model by choosing Edit > Copy and specifying the new model number. You can delete a material model by clicking on the model number to highlight it. see Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Material data curves are defined using the EDCURVE command as outlined in Loading. The model that you defined is listed by model type and number in the Material Models Defined window on the left. see Using Tree Structures in the ANSYS Operations Guide for information specificly on the tree structure layout of the material model interface. Wherever “load curve ID” is mentioned as required input. 2. do not define extraneous properties. double-click on LS-DYNA.2004 . Also. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Nonlinear. then on one of the material model categories: Linear. you will not have access to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models. or delete material models via the GUI. 5.. under the Nonlinear category.

EZ). one value required MP..shear moduli (also GYZ and GXZ). 7. For a multi-layer composite laminate.2. 20.PRXY .elastic modulus MP. Linear Elastic Models 7. Anisotropic Elastic Model This material description requires the full elasticity matrix.1.Minor Poisson’s ratio (also NUYZ. one value required or MP. one value required If only one value is specified for a given material property family (i. Use the MP command to input the required values: MP.1. J. see Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide.Major Poisson’s ratio (also PRYZ.NUXY ..g.NUXY .density MP.elastic moduli (also EY.2. use the EDLCS and EDMP.1.2. See Composite Damage Model for more information. only 21 constants are required.. Use the MP command to input the required values. EX).DENS . Orthotropic Elastic Model Orthotropic material model.Poisson’s ratio For an example input listing. PRXZ).3. To specify a material coordinate system.05.2004 . If no material coordinate system is specified. 7. NUXZ). and L of the element (see the figure below). the other values will be automatically defined (e. see Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel.1..density MP. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For an example input listing. EY = EZ = EX). use the TB.EX . material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I.EX .ORTHO commands. This material is only valid for SOLID164 elements and PLANE162 elements (axisymmetric and plane strain formulations).e. MP.2. Isotropic Elastic Model Isotropic material model. Because of symmetry. one value required MP.1.GXY .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 67 of 180 7.COMP command instead and specify the lamina (ply) properties as SHELL163 real constants.2.DENS .

If no material coordinate system is specified. C66 When you list out the data table information [TBLIST] for this material type.ANEL command. you can input the elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. You can input the bulk modulus in the VAL1 field of the above command.1.. This discrepancy is not a computational error. C34. 7. C45. VAL1 will be used as the bulk modulus. C26. the material data is correctly transferred to the LS-DYNA program. C13.NUXY If VAL1 (on EDMP). C22.FLUID. MP. 1.EX MP. C35. The constants are input in upper triangular form by means of the TB.DENS EDMP. C16.MAT. C15. C33 TBDATA. Elastic Fluid Model Use this option to model containers filled with fluid that undergo dynamic impact loading.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 68 of 180 Input density with MP. 7.2004 .2. C56. C46.2. C44. DENS . C12. 13. C23.VAL1 The fluid model requires that the bulk modulus be specified. Nonlinear Elastic Models file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. C25 TBDATA.4. To specify a material orientation axis.density TB. 20. For an example input listing. MP. C14. J. the constants will be listed in lower triangular form [D] instead of upper triangular form [C]. and NUXY are all specified. see Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium. and the program will calculate the bulk modulus as shown below. ANEL TBDATA. C55.ORTHO commands. C36 TBDATA. C11. use the EDLCS and EDMP. 19. As an alternative to inputting the bulk modulus directly using EDMP. Elastic fluid is then defined as a material type using the EDMP command: MP. You input density using the MP command (DENS).2.. EX. 7. and L of the element (see figure of element coordinate system above). material properties are locally orthotropic with material axes defined by nodes I. C24.05.

. C10 TBDATA.2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can set these constants to zero and supply tabulated uniaxial data via a load curve..2. is the Poisson’s ratio.2. Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Elastic Model Incompressible rubber material model. The strain energy density function is defined in terms of input parameters C10 . MOONEY. nearly identical to the 2-parameter existing ANSYS MooneyRivlin model. 2.2. V is the relative volume. see Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber. To use this input method.. For an example input listing. and I3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor. Input Poisson’s ratio ( ) and density with the MP command.2004 .05. smaller values may not work.49 is recommended.) Input the Mooney-Rivlin constants with the TB and TBDATA commands. a value greater than . This model uses the second Piola-Kirchoff stress: G is the shear modulus. C01 and : I1 . 20. Data at only one temperature is permitted and must be specified in locations 1 and 2 for the data table: TB. 7. 1. Cij is the right Cauchy- Green strain tensor.1. Blatz-Ko Rubber Elastic Model Page 69 of 180 The hyperelastic continuum rubber model defined by Blatz and Ko. (For Poisson's ratio. C01 As an alternative to inputting C10 and C01 directly. I2 . you must set the TBOPT field of the TB command to 2: TB. MOONEY. and ij is the Kronecker delta. Use the MP command to input density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY)....ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7.2.. The program will calculate the constants based on the experimental data input in locations 3-6 of the TBDATA command.2.0 TBDATA..

For an example input listing. thickness. 47. both the force and the change in gauge length must be specified as negative values. C01 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA.EVISC and locations 46.. The model assumes the deviatoric behavior: where the shear relaxation modulus is given by: In the model. 46. 2. C3 (specimen gauge length L 0) TBDATA.2. 7. Alternatively. The least square fit to the experimental data is performed during the initialization phase of the solution in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. 3. In tension. EVISC TBDATA. G0 . V: p = K ln V.3. and 61 of the TBDATA command: TB. K (Bulk modulus) and are required to define the linear viscoelastic material model. 48. see Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber. C4 (specimen gauge width) TBDATA. 20. C5 (specimen thickness) TBDATA.0 and defining the engineering strain in place of the change in gauge length and the nominal (engineering) stress in place of the force. Viscoelastic Model Linear viscoelastic material model introduced by Herrmann and Peterson.2. In compression. G0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. is then given by: where L0 is the initial length and L is the actual length. the force and change in gauge length should be input as positive values. 1. C6 (load curve ID) Page 70 of 180 The load curve definition that provides the uniaxial data should give the change in gauge length L versus the corresponding force.05. 1. 5. elastic bulk behavior is assumed when calculating the incrementally integrated pressure from the volume.. The principal stretch ratio in the uniaxial direction.2004 . C10 (set to zero to use experimental data) TBDATA. and width equal to 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA. The parameters . 6. Input these values with TB. 4. you can input the stress versus strain curve by setting the gauge length.

NUXY 2. EX 2 .) Input elastic modulus (Exx). and density (DENS) with the MP command. .1. For an example input listing.DENS MPTEMP.NUXY ntemp file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 71 of 180 TBDATA. . .1. . TBDATA. TBTEMP commands..BISO and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.NTEMP command. and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command. 7. 20.2004 . Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model that is strain rate independent and uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. and thermal expansion coefficient (ALPX) with the MPTEMP and MPDATA commands. The yield strength and tangent modulus must be defined relative to the same temperature data that are used on the MPTEMP command. . the Bilinear Isotropic (which is both strain rate and temperature independent) material model is assumed. . BISO TBDATA. (The density is temperature independent. 2. 47. You can use this model to represent a thermo-elastic material by inputting a large value for yield strength. 1/ Note For this material option.EX ntemp MPDATA.. . see Viscoelastic Example: Glass. . Bilinear Isotropic Model Classical bilinear isotropic hardening model (strain rate independent) that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY).. If the stress-strain behavior is specified at only one temperature.) Input the yield strength and tangent slope with the TB. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). (These properties are temperature dependent.3.2. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.NUXY.3.2.NUXY 1.BISO.2. you must specify density (DENS) with the MP command.1. . Nonlinear Inelastic Models 7.) Input elastic modulus (Exx).2. . . 48.TEMPntemp MPDATA. Input density (DENS) with the MP command.TEMP 1.05.TEMP 2 . (A temperature dependent model is also available. see Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy.EX1 . . MP. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at up to six different temperatures. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. Specify the stress-strain behavior at only one temperature.. 7..1.EX. K TBDATA.3. 61. see Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Model. The program calculates the bulk modulus (K) using the EX and NUXY values that you input.

.ALPX2 .ALPX. 4. to the out of plane plastic strain rate.. : The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.. 1.3. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. .4 of the TBDATA command: TB. R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. .7 and locations 1 .. (continue the pattern NTEMP times) TBTEMP. and a load curve ID for effective yield stress versus effective plastic strain with TB. anisotropic hardening parameter.. Otherwise. 3. In this model the yield function given by Hill 3 Ref 3: A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals is reduced to the following for the case of plane stress: where R is the anisotropic hardening parameter which is the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate.TEMPntemp (last temperature point) TBDATA.05.ALPXntemp TB. 2.3. Etan (tangent modulus) Note For this material model.2004 . Input the elastic modulus (Exx). PLAW.2.. Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. .. tangent modulus. you must supply data over a temperature range wide enough to cover the actual temperatures that will occur in the analysis. 7. 1. NTEMP (NTEMP can be 2 to 6) TBTEMP. 1..PLAW.TEMP1 (first temperature point) TBDATA. the analysis will terminate. 2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MPDATA.7 TBDATA. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. plastic strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. 1.TEMP2 (second temperature point) TBDATA. LCID (load curve ID for yield stress vs. 20. . 2.ALPX1. . BISO. Etan (tangent modulus) TBTEMP. Y (yield stress) TBDATA.1. density (DENS).. Input the yield stress. Etan (tangent modulus) . Y (yield Page 72 of 180 stress) TBDATA. 2. Transversely Anisotropic Hardening Model Fully iterative anisotropic plasticity model available for shell and 2–D elements only. . .

PLAW. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Hardening Model This material model is used for simulating the sheet metal forming of anisotropic materials.3.4.. In addition...PLAW.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. You can refer to that model for the theoretical basis..1.10 TBDATA. Only transversely anisotropic materials can be considered.. This plasticity model is only available for shell and 2-D elements. you must input the density (DENS).4.LCID1 (load curve for defining effective stress vs plastic strain) TBDATA. see Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel. This diagram will be used by the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to compute the maximum strain ratio that the material can experience.05..2004 . As shown below. you can define a forming limit diagram (also using EDCURVE).2. 7. the dependence of the flow stress with the effective plastic strain can be modeled using a defined load curve (using EDCURVE). elastic modulus (Exx).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 73 of 180 For an example input listing.10 and locations 1-5 of the TBDATA command.3. and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.5.2. TB. For this model. To utilize the Transversely Anisotropic FLD model. y (yield stress) TBDATA..R (anisotropic hardening parameter) TBDATA. The model directly follows the plasticity theory introduced in the Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic model described earlier in this section. the additional input parameters are specified using TB..LCID2 (load curve for defining FLD) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.

BKIN TBDATA. 7. Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by the strain rate dependent factor as shown below: where 0 is the initial yield stress. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.2.05.. 2. Bilinear Kinematic Model (strain rate independent) Classical bilinear kinematic hardening model that uses two slopes (elastic and plastic) to represent the stress-strain behavior of a material. 5.. 3. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.1 and locations 1 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 74 of 180 For an example input listing.1 TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. and the failure strain with TB. see Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel. strain rate parameters C and P.2. is the strain rate. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. and Ep is the plastic hardening modulus which is given by The stress-strain behavior can only be specified at one temperature. or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening models with strain rate dependency and failure. tangent slope..2004 .6.3..PLAW. Etan (tangent modulus) For an example input listing. 2.6 of the TBDATA command: TB. 6. 1. kinematic. Isotropic and kinematic contributions may be varied by adjusting the hardening parameter between 0 (kinematic hardening only) and 1 (isotropic hardening only).. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. density (DENS). Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA. f (failure strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 1. density (DENS).BKIN and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB. 20. PLAW.. (hardening parameter) TBDATA. see Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy. Input elastic modulus (Exx). and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. p eff is the effective plastic strain. Input the yield strength and tangent slope with TB. Plastic Kinematic Model Isotropic. hardening parameter. Input the yield stress. 7.3.5. 4. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters... Input the elastic modulus (Exx).

Input the hardening rule type. excluding p which is determined implicitly. tangent modulus (for HR = 1) or strength coefficient (for HR = 2). All of the anisotropic material constants.K2|m + c|2K2| m where Y is the yield stress. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature...ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing. see Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel. p is the plastic strain.7.2. m is Barlat exponent. the material yield strength is given by: y = k( 0 + p) n where k is the strength coefficient.2004 . a and c are anisotropic material constants. 7. density (DENS). Both exponential and linear hardening rules are available.05. HR (equal to 1 for linear or 2 for exponential). The anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as: 2( y )m = a|K 1 + K2 |m + a|K 1 . and K1 and K2 are defined by: where h and p are additional anisotropic material constants. and n is the hardening coefficient. 0 is the initial strain at yield. For the exponential hardening option. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). is the uniaxial tension in the direction. yield stress (for HR = 1) or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 3-Parameter Barlat Model Page 75 of 180 Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian 1 Ref 1: Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals used for modeling aluminum sheets under plane stress conditions.3. are determined from Barlat and Lian width to thickness strain ratio (R) values as shown: a=2–2 c=2–a h= The width to thickness strain ratio for any angle can be calculated from: Above. 20.

7.S2 |m + |S2 .2. and R90 . the width to thickness strain ratio values. R00 . and Brem 2 Ref 2: A Six-Component Yield Function for Anistropic Materials used for modeling material behavior in forming processes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 76 of 180 hardening coefficient (for HR = 2).05. 2.PLAW..2004 . Y or n (yield stress or hardening coefficient) TBDATA. and the orthotropic material axes with TB.3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... R90 TBDATA. see 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182. R45 TBDATA..S1|m where m is the flow potential exponent and S i are the principal values of the symmetric matrix Sij . If CSID = 0. CSID. HR (hardening rule type) TBDATA. the Barlat exponent. 20.8. J.. 4. Before specifying the material property. 7. R45 . For an example input listing. the local coordinate system will be defined by nodes I..8. you must define the local coordinate system using EDLCS.8 of the TBDATA command: TB. The anisotropic yield function is defined as: = |S1 .. 6.. PLAW. m (Barlat exponent) TBDATA.ORTHO. Lege.3 TBDATA. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Model Anisotropic plasticity model developed by Barlat. where VAL1 is the coordinate system ID from EDLCS.3 and locations 1 . and then issue EDMP.CSID (defines orthotropic material axes) The last input item. 3. m.. R00 TBDATA. Etan or k (tangent modulus or strength coefficient) TBDATA. and L of the element: If CSID = 2. 5.S3 |m + |S3 .VAL1. material axes are determined by a local coordinate system specified with the EDLCS command (see the command description for the details of how the axes are oriented). has two valid values: 0 (default) and 2. 1.

c( xx yy xx ) . 2. f TBDATA. 3. PLAW. 7.9. and n is the hardening coefficient.2. 5. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 9.6 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Sxx = 1 /3 [ c( xx Syy = 1 /3 [ a( yy Szz = 1/ 3 [ b( zz Syz = f Szx = g Syz = h yz zx xy yy ) . the initial strain at yield. When a=b=c=f=g=h=1. m (flow potential (Barlat) exponent) TBDATA. b TBDATA. g TBDATA. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). f. For this material option. 20. the flow potential exponent. 8. Rate Sensitive Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for superplastic forming analyses. 4. 10.3.. The material model follows a Ramburgh .. g. b. the yield strength is given by: y = k( p + 0) n where k is the strength coefficient.2004 .b( zz ) Page 77 of 180 xx )] yy )] zz )] zz . 1. p is the plastic strain. a TBDATA. isotropic material behavior is modeled and the yield surface reduces to the Tresca surface for m = 1 and the von Mises surface for m = 2 or 4.05. TB.. 7. and the Barlat anisotropic constants a-h with TB.PLAW..10 of the TBDATA command..6 and locations 1 .. density (DENS). c TBDATA. the hardening coefficient.Osgood constitutive relationship of the form: yy =k m n file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. 0 is the initial strain at yield. k (strength coefficient) TBDATA.. Input the strength coefficient. h For an example input listing. 6. see Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum. c.a( - where a. and h represent the anisotropic material constants. 0 (initial strain) TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature..

. LCID4 (the load curve ID for defining von Mises stress at failure vs. and initial strain rate with TB. density (DENS). is the strain rate. TB.5 and locations 1 .. 5. you have the option of specifying Mn Time in location 6. hardening coefficient. strain. 0 (initial strain rate) For an example input listing. k (material constant) TBDATA. to define failure of the material.PLAW.4 and locations 1 . effective strain rate) TBDATA.05. the tangent modulus. effective strain rate) TBDATA.. density (DENS). for shell elements only) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the load curve ID for defining the von Mises stress at failure vs.10. LCID1 (load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs. 2.. 1.. PLAW. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). effective strain rate) TBDATA.5 TBDATA.. effective strain rate (optional).ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 78 of 180 where is the strain.2004 . and Eh is given by: is the effective strain rate. k is the material constant... Mn Time is the minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. strain rate sensitivity coefficient. effective strain rate. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). The yield stress for this material model is defined as: 0. LCID3 (the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. Input the load curve ID for defining the initial yield stress vs.3. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent isotropic plasticity model used mainly for metal and plastic forming analyses. 2. effective strain rate) TBDATA. Etan (tangent (plastic hardening) modulus) TBDATA. 3. the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.5 of the TBDATA command. the load curve ID for defining the tangent modulus vs. 7. n (strain rate sensitivity coefficient) TBDATA.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. Mn Time (minimum time step size for automatic element deletion. effective strain rate using TB.2. a load curve is used to describe the initial yield strength. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. instead of LCID4 in location 5. as a function of effective where 0 is the initial yield strength. effective strain rate (optional). 6... 4. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. LCID2 (the load curve ID for defining the elastic modulus vs.PLAW. strain rate. 1.. Input the material constant..4 TBDATA. 3. 20. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) using the MP command. see Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum. In this model. PLAW.. m (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 4. and n is the strain rate sensitivity coefficient. ( p )eff is the effective plastic The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. For shell elements.. m is the hardening coefficient.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 79 of 180 For an example input listing. Input all values shown below with the TB. NUXZ) with the MP command. transverse compressive strength. transverse tensile strength.2004 . density (DENS).2.. The following five parameters are used in the model: S1 = longitudinal tensile strength S2 = transverse tensile strength S12 = shear strength C2 = transverse compressive strength = nonlinear shear stress parameter All parameters are determined experimentally.1.3. even if the failure capabilities are not used. S2 (transverse tensile strength) TBDATA.. Gxz). the shear strength. and Poisson’s ratios (NUXY.CONCR. 4. S1 (longitudinal tensile strength) TBDATA. 5.) Input the density (DENS) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. This model requires constants for the concrete and reinforced materials.A1 (pressure hardening coefficient) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.CONCR..2. 2. 7.2. the longitudinal tensile strength.12. S12 (shear strength) TBDATA.A0 (cohesion constant) TBDATA. 3.. shear moduli (Gxy. (nonlinear shear stress parameter) Note Please refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manualfor more details about LS-DYNA Material model #22 (Composite Damage). C2 (transverse compressive strength) TBDATA. The lamina (ply) properties are specified as SHELL163 real constants. 6. 1.. Input the bulk modulus at compressive failure. COMP TBDATA.3. 7.2 TBDATA. Ezz).2 command and locations 1 – 78 of the TBDATA command: TB... (Refer to Equation of State Models for a detailed description of the tabulated equation of state.3. Concrete Damage Model The Concrete Damage model is used to analyze buried steel reinforced concrete subject to impact loadings.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.11. see Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel. NUYZ.COMP and locations 1 . Gyz. KFAIL (bulk modulus of material in compressive failure) TBDATA. Composite Damage Model Material model developed by Chang & Chang4 Ref 4: A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentration for the failure of composite materials. Eyy. Input the elastic moduli (Exx. 20. This material model is required for multilayer composite laminates. and nonlinear shear stress parameter with TB. and also requires tabulated equation of state constants. f (maximum principal stress for failure) TBDATA.05..

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.A2 (pressure hardening coefficient) TBDATA. 1 .18.4. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.A1 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.B1 (damage scale factor) TBDATA.2004 .13. strain curve input and strain rate dependency.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.A0 Y (cohesion for yield) TBDATA.9.C1-C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) TBDATA. which scales the yield stress as shown: where is the effective strain rate.Er (elastic moduli of reinforcement) TBDATA.13 (tabulated damage functions 1-13) TBDATA.V0 (initial relative volume) Page 80 of 180 TBDATA.15.6. and is the hardening function based on effective plastic strain. 20. 1 .05.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.33-45.NUXY r (Poisson’s ratio of reinforcement) TBDATA.T1-T10 (temperature values at vi) 7.A2 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA. This is a very commonly used plasticity law.12. density (DENS)..LCR (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for reinforcement) TBDATA.46.13. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Model A multilinear elastic-plastic material option that allows stress vs.B2 (damage scale factor for uniaxial tension) TBDATA. especially for steel.14.49-58.20-32. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).10.19.17. Failure based on plastic strain can also be modeled with this material model.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA. y (initial yield stress) TBDATA. 0 is the yield stress at constant strain rate.A1 F (pressure hardening coefficient for failed material) TBDATA.11.69-78.59-68..A2 Y (pressure hardening coefficient for yield limit) TBDATA.16. C and P are strain rate parameters.47.48.3.13 (tabulated scale factors 1-13) TBDATA.5.PER (percent reinforcement) TBDATA. Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model.B3 (damage scale factor for triaxial tension) TBDATA.2. natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA.LCP (load curve ID giving rate sensitivity for principal material) TBDATA. v1 .7.8.Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA.

Etan (tangent modulus) TBDATA..PLAW. An example of this situation is shown in Data Curves. and the load curve ID for defining strain rate scaling with TB. plastic true strain) TBDATA. 3..2004 . density (DENS). 7.3.05. 2. 20. 2. 5.2.Symonds multiplier to account for strain rate: where is the strain rate.. 1. the load curve ID for defining effective total true stress vs. Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided with this model. Input the strength coefficient. hardening coefficient..7 of the TBDATA command: TB. Only true stress and true strain data are considered. the strain rate parameter P. If LCID 2 is used. 1.PLAW. and strain rate parameters C and P with TB.6... if C and P are set to zero. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. Further. Input the yield stress.. The material model has a powerlaw constitutive relationship which includes the Cowper . strain rate dependency is ignored. For an example input listing. strain rate parameters C and P entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden.8 TBDATA... Input the elastic modulus (Exx). see Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel.7. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA..4 of the TBDATA command: TB. PLAW.. the tangent modulus. e is the elastic strain to yield. effective plastic true strain. PLAW. n (hardening coefficient) TBDATA. ( p )eff is the effective plastic strain. k is the strength coefficient.14.8 and locations 1 . k (strength coefficient) TBDATA. 3. P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.2 and locations 1 . LCID 1 (load curve defining total true stress vs. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. Power Law Plasticity Model Strain rate dependent plasticity model typically used for metal and plastic forming analyses. Y (yield stress) TBDATA. C and P are the Cowper-Symonds strain rate parameters. 4. LCID 2 (load curve that scales LCID 1 with respect to strain rate) Note If load curve LCID 1 is used.. the strain rate parameter C. F (effective plastic true strain at failure) TBDATA.. yield stress and tangent modulus values entered with the TBDATA command will be overridden. the effective plastic true strain at failure..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 81 of 180 command. C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA. P (strain rate parameter) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 TBDATA. 4. and n is the hardening coefficient.

C5 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.4.1.. 1 . elastic modulus (EX). 0 (initial yield stress) TBDATA.C6 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.Eh (hardening modulus) TBDATA.Eo (initial internal energy) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide For an example input listing..9 TBDATA.PLAW.C3 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.9 and locations 1-45 of the TBDATA command: TB.. you should input values to cover the full range of strains expected in the analysis.2.43. therefore. Eh .40. the yield strength will be calculated as shown below (based on isotropic hardening): y = 0+ Eh p You can calculate the plastic hardening modulus.. the stress-strain behavior is defined by the data points along the effective true stress vs.C4 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.16 (effective stress data curve values) TBDATA.05..41..39.21-36.2004 .1..4.44. If the effective true plastic strain and effective true stress data values are not specified.PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA. true plastic strain curve.Co (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.3. Input the parameters described below with TB.37.5-20. Page 82 of 180 7.42. where the plastic behavior can either be defined from a set of data points or from the yield stress and tangent modulus. Pressure Dependent Plasticity Models 7. 1 .2. in terms of the Young’s modulus and tangent modulus: If the effective true plastic strain and stress values are specified. Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Model This model is used for modeling materials undergoing large amounts of strain.C2 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA. f (failure strain) TBDATA. 20. Up to 16 data points may be specified.. and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.16 (effective strain data curve values) TBDATA.45.2.38. Input the density (DENS). Linear extrapolation will be used if the strain values exceed the maximum input values. see Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100.4.C1 (linear polynomial equation of state constant) TBDATA.Vo (initial relative volume) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PLAW.

The cap model is formulated in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor. Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model The cap model consists of three surfaces in pressure space.2. The first invariant of the stress. Please refer to Equation of State Models later in this chapter for more details. 7. there is a cap surface f 2 in the figure. and therefore does not harden unless kinematic hardening is present.. f 2 is the cap surface.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 83 of 180 Note that constants 37 through 45 specified on the TBDATA command are the same as the linear polynomial equation of state model. This failure envelope surface is fixed in space.05. The square root of the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. as shown in Surface of the Two-invariant Cap Model. Geological Cap Model This model is an inviscid. Next. In this model.4. Surface f 1 is the failure envelope. the two invariant cap theory is extended to include nonlinear kinematic hardening. is the trace of the stress tensor.2. . is found from the deviatoric stresses (s) as and is the objective scalar measure of the distortional or shearing stress. and f 3 is the tension cutoff. with f 2 given by file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. J 1. two invariant geologic cap model which can be used for geomechanical problems or for materials such as concrete. The functional form of f 1 is where Fe is given by and . 20. A discussion of the extended cap model and its parameters is given below.2004 ..

GCAP command and locations 1–13 of the TBDATA command.X0 (hardening law exponent) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1. (failure envelope linear coefficient) (failure envelope exponential coefficient) TBDATA. The function f3 is given by where T is the input material parameter which specifies the maximum hydrostatic tension sustainable by the material..W (hardening law coefficient) TBDATA. denoted f 3 in the figure.6. the tension cutoff surface on the left.K (bulk modulus) TBDATA. TBDATA.4. Input the density (DENS) and shear modulus (GXY) with the MP command.3.8.5. (failure envelope parameter) TBDATA. (failure envelope exponent) TBDATA.05.2004 . there is the tension cutoff surface.D (hardening law exponent) TBDATA.R (cap surface axis ratio) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 84 of 180 where Fc is defined by X( ) is the intersection of the cap surface with the J 1 axis and L( ) is defined by The hardening parameter is related to the plastic volume change through the hardening law Geometrically. Input the parameters described below with the TB. 20. is seen in the figure as the J1 coordinate of the intersection of the cap surface and the failure surface.GCAP TBDATA. and the cap surface on the right. Finally. The elastic domain in space is then bounded by the failure envelope surface above.9.2.7. TB..

b. (ratio of foam to polymer density) o (initial volumetric strain) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7. The material model defines stress to be: ij = ( ij)sk + ij [p0 /(1 + - )] where ( ij )sk is the skeletal stress. low density polyurethane foam material model often used for modeling impact limiters in automobile designs. see Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete. the initial foam pressure. positive in compression) Page 85 of 180 Please refer to Material Model 25 in the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more information about this material model. For an example input listing.5. Unlike honeycomb. and is the volumetric strain which is defined by: =V -1+ 0 where V is the relative volume and o is the initial volumetric strain.. the closed cell foam model is isotropic in nature and includes the effects of confined air pressure.N (kinematic hardening parameter) TBDATA. ij is the Kronecker delta..2. 5.05. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command. and c.1 TBDATA.. and the initial volumetric strain with TB. Poisson’s ratio for this model is assumed to be zero.1 and locations 1 .5.. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. a TBDATA. 2 for rock ) TBDATA. Foam Models 7.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.Toff (tension cut-off value.1. c TBDATA. 4.12. Toff < 0. Input the yield stress constants a. 2.2004 .. 6. TBDATA.11. 1. the ratio of foam to polymer density.6 of the TBDATA command: TB.. Closed Cell Foam Model Rigid.10. and c are user defined input constants.FOAM. 20. 3. b TBDATA. FOAM. however. b. is the ratio of foam to polymer density.2. The yield condition is applied to the principal trial stresses and is defined by: y = a + b(1 + c ) where a. This material model is very similar to the honeycomb model in that the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled until volumetric compaction is achieved. closed cell...13.Ftype (formulation flag: use 1 for soil or concrete. po (initial foam pressure) TBDATA.C (kinematic hardening coefficient) TBDATA. p o is the initial foam pressure.

8 of the TBDATA command: TB.FOAM. The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper. . FAIL (failure option when cut off stress is reached: 0. SHAPE (shape unloading factor. the model assumes hysteresis unloading behavior with possible energy dissipation.2. Viscous Foam Model Page 86 of 180 Energy absorbing foam material used in crash-simulation models.FOAM...5 are recommended) TBDATA. In tension the material model behaves linearly until tearing occurs... 3.. the initial viscous coefficient.2. Input the powerlaw for the elastic stiffness.3 TBDATA. 7. Input the load curve ID for nominal stress vs. strain. 20.3.. HU (hysteretic unloading factor: between 1. the hysteresis unloading factor. V2 (initial viscous coefficient) TBDATA. 4. the decay constant..05 and 0.3 and locations 1 . The elastic stiffness. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature. are both nonlinear functions of the relative volume. and n1 and n2 are the powerlaws for the elastic stiffness and viscous coefficient.. and a shape factor for unloading) the observed unloading behavior of foams can be closely approximated.2 and locations 1 .2. and the bulk viscosity action flag with TB.tensile stress remains at cut file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. DAMP (viscous coefficient. the elastic stiffness for viscosity (required to prevent time step problems). 6. values between 0.0 .. Input the elastic modulus (Exx) and density (DENS) with the MP command.. the shape factor for unloading. and initial viscous coefficient. 2.5.no energy dissipation (default) and 0.0 . 5.2004 .. Input the initial elastic stiffness (Exx). (decay constant) TBDATA. The stress-strain behavior can be specified at only one temperature.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7. 1. the model assumes that there is no coupling in transverse directions. FOAM. 4. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscosity absorbs energy. n2 (powerlaw for the viscous coefficient) 7. and the powerlaw for viscosity with TB. By using input shape factor controls (a hysteresis unloading factor (HU)..4 of the TBDATA command: TB. n1 (powerlaw for the elastic stiffness) TBDATA.full energy dissipation) TBDATA.05. 2. .5. default = 1) TBDATA. Low Density Foam Model Highly compressible (urethane) foam material model often used for padded materials such as seat cushions. the failure option when the cut off stress is reached. the tension cut off (tearing) stress. E1 (elastic stiffness for viscosity) TBDATA. FOAM. V: where E1 is the initial elastic stiffness.2 TBDATA. In compression.0 .. the viscous coefficient. TC (tension cutoff stress. LCID (load curve ID for stress-strain behavior) TBDATA.. default=1E20) TBDATA. 3. For uniaxial loading. V2 is the initial viscous coefficient. 1. a decay constant ( ). respectively. and density (DENS) with the MP command.

the tension cutoff value. values between 0. Input the elastic modulus (Exx).0 bulk viscosity active) 7. 1.. and the viscous damping coefficient with TB. The elastic moduli are considered to vary linearly with relative volume as shown below: Eaa = Eaau + Ebb = Ebbu + Ecc = Eccu + Gab = Gabu + Gbc = Gbcu + Gca = Gcau + where (E .2. TC (tension cutoff value) TBDATA. The foam model is strain rate dependent and crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero.Ebbu) (E . and t is time..05. BVFLAG (bulk viscosity action flag: 0.Eaau ) (E . The model includes a tensile stress cutoff value which defines failure under tensile loads.... the model predicts similar response between tensile and compressive loading.5.0 .4 and locations 1 . Honeycomb Foam Model Orthotropic material model used for honeycomb materials. Crushable Foam Model Material model used for crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic behavior is unimportant. 3. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. volumetric strain.Gbcu) (G .2004 .2. It is important to have a nonzero value for the cutoff stress to prevent deterioration of the material under small tensile loads. 20.05 and 0.Eccu ) (G .. 2. In the formulation..FOAM.tensile stress reset to zero) TBDATA. E is the elastic modulus.no bulk viscosity (recommended) and 1. DAMP (viscous damping coefficient. FOAM. the elastic modulus is considered constant and the stress is updated assuming elastic behavior: ( ij )n+1 = ( ij )n + E( ij) n+1/2 tn+1/2 where ij is the strain rate. 1.Gabu) (G . volumetric strain) TBDATA. For stresses below the tensile cut off value.4.5 are recommended) 7.0 .5. 8..3 of the TBDATA command: TB.5. density (DENS). Input the load curve ID for defining stress vs. LCID (load curve ID for defining yield stress vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 87 of 180 off value.4 TBDATA.Gcau ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The behavior of the model before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled.

LCAB (Load curve ID for ab direction stress vs. Curves can be defined either as a function of relative volume (V) or volumetric strain (1 . This input is optional. Y (yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. LCC (Load curve ID for cc direction stress vs. 20.05) TBDATA. Gabu (Shear modulus in ab direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 9. The curves defined above are scaled using this curve) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Eccu (Elastic modulus in cc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA.2004 . density (DENS). HONEY TBDATA. Eaau (Elastic modulus in aa direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. 7. 14. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 88 of 180 = Elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material and where V = the relative volume (defined as ratio of current to original volume) and Vf = relative volume of the fully compacted honeycomb Load curves can be used to input the magnitude of the average stress as the relative volume changes. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Ebbu (Elastic modulus in bb direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. LCS (Load curve ID for shear yield vs. 2.17 of the TBDATA command: TB. 15. Vf (relative volume of fully compacted honeycomb) TBDATA. LCA (Load curve ID for aa direction stress vs.. LCCA (Load curve ID for ca direction stress vs.. 1. 17. Input the elastic modulus (Exx). 11. 4. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 6. Gbcu (Shear modulus in bc direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. Input all values shown below with TB. 12. 8.HONEY and locations 1 . 10. 16. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.05. LCB (Load curve ID for bb direction stress vs. 5. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. Gcau (Shear modulus in ca direction for uncompressed configuration) TBDATA. (material viscosity coefficient. Each curve must have the same abscissa values. LCBC (Load curve ID for bc direction stress vs. 3. default = 0. relative volume or volumetric strain) TBDATA. 13. LCRS (Load curve ID for strain rate effects.V).

LOC+1.6..LOC+2.C5 TBDATA. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+8.2.C2 TBDATA.LOC+7.C4 TBDATA..LOC+4.2. The pressure is given by: P = C 0 + C1 where: + C2 2 + C3 3 + (C 4 + C5 + C6 2 ) E terms C2 2 and C6 2 are set to zero if initial density. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.C6 TBDATA.6.2004 . You identify the equation of state to be used by inputting the appropriate number in the EOSOPT field of the TB command.2.LOC.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.2. Linear Polynomial Equation of State (EOSOPT = 1) This equation of state is linear in internal energy. 20.LOC+6. such as the Johnson-Cook Plasticity and Zerilli-Armstrong models.C0 TBDATA.C3 TBDATA.6.05.LOC+5.V0 (initial relative volume) 7. Gruneisen Equation of State (EOSOPT = 2) This equation of state defines the pressure volume relationship in one of two ways. Equation of State Models There are 3 different equation of state models available in ANSYS/LS -DYNA: Linear polynomial Gruneisen Tabulated These equation of state models are used in conjunction with certain material models.) TBDATA. depending on whether the material is compressed or expanded.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 89 of 180 7. and is the ratio of current density to Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. 7.C1 TBDATA.LOC+3. The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for compressed materials as: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1.

LOC+3 to LOC+12.S1 TBDATA. Tabulated Equation of State (EOSOPT = 3) The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy..) TBDATA.C TBDATA.S3 TBDATA.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA. and S3 are the coefficients of the slope of the vsvp curve.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 90 of 180 and for expanded materials as: p= 2 0C +( 0+a )E where C is the intercept of the vs-vp curve. 0 is the Gruneisen gamma. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.LOC+4.S2 TBDATA. Pressure is defined by: P = C i ( vi) + Ti ( vi ) E Input the required constants using the TBDATA command. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+2.LOC+6.LOC+3.LOC.05. S1.V0 (initial relative volume) TBDATA.A TBDATA.LOC+13 to LOC+22. a is the first order volume correction to 0.E0 (initial internal energy) TBDATA.2. 0 TBDATA.LOC+1.LOC+2.. 20.3. v1 . natural log of the relative volume) TBDATA. and Input the required constants using the TBDATA command.LOC. The starting location (LOC) for the constants depends on which material model you are using.LOC+7.GAMA (temperature constant) TBDATA. (See the description for the specific material model to find out what starting location value should be used.C1 -C10 (volumetric pressure values at vi ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.V0 (initial relative volume) 7.LOC+5.) TBDATA.2004 .LOC+1. S2.v10 (volumetric strain data values 1-10.6.

p is effective plastic strain is effective plastic strain rate for 0 = ls -1 T* = homologous temperature = The strain at fracture is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LOC+23 to LOC+32.6. 7. Input the density (DENS).1. also called the viscoplastic model. For solid elements.2.3-20.5.2004 . Input the parameters described below with TB. n. and temperature changes due to plastic dissipation cause material softening. you need an equation of state (discussed later in this section). The model may be used for shell and solid elements.TI (initial temperature) TBDATA.21-26.4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.A1-A6 (internal equation of state variables) For a complete discussion of the kinematics associated with this model. 20. Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model This model. as well as a more detailed description of the required input constants.2.T1 -T10 (temperature values at 7.. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson's ratio (NUXY) with the MP command. is a strain-rate and adiabatic (heat conduction is neglected) temperature-dependent plasticity model.HC (heat generation coefficient) TBDATA.4 TBDATA... B.. The Bamman model does not require an additional equation of state model (EOSOPT is not used) because internal equation of state variables are specified in fields 21 through 26 of the TBDATA command (as shown below). Bamman Plasticity Model vi ) Page 91 of 180 This is a fairly complex material model used in metal forming processes with strain rate and temperature dependent plasticity..EOS. Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as y n = (A + B p ) (1 + c ln *) (1 – T*m ) where: A. C.C1-C18 (constants for flow stress) TBDATA. and m are material constants.05. refer to the description of Material Model 51 in Chapter 16 of the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual.6.EOS and locations 1-26 of the TBDATA command: TB.2. This model is suitable for problems where strain rates vary over a large range.

1.05..C TBDATA.14..5..12. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models.D3 TBDATA. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS.D5 When using the Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model.10.pressure cut-off TBDATA.Tmelt TBDATA.7.D4 TBDATA.8.11.n TBDATA. density (DENS).EOS.CP (specific heat) TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).15 of the TBDATA command: TB.1.2.6.15.9.B TBDATA. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.D1 TBDATA.4.EOS and locations 1 . Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). 20.m TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel.3. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS.13.2004 .. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. * (effective plastic strain rate) TBDATA.EOSOPT TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 92 of 180 Where * is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress: Fracture occurs when the damage parameter reaches the value of 1. Input the Young’s modulus (EX).A TBDATA.D2 TBDATA. see Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper.Troom TBDATA.

Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). see Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum.0) TBDATA.2. you can define a viscosity.. 3. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffness.6. Null Material Model Page 93 of 180 This material allows equations of state to be considered without computing deviatoric stresses. 20.. For FCC Metals: and for BCC Metals: where: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Pressure Cutoff ( 0. Relative volume for erosion in compression (V/V o ) When using the Null Model.2. and temperature. strain rate. Input the Young’s modulus (EX). Zerilli-Armstrong Model This model is used in metal forming processes and high speed impact applications where the stress depends on strain.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 7.2004 ..6. 2.2. For an example input listing using the Linear Polynomial EOS. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). 4. density (DENS). Viscosity Coefficient (optional) TBDATA.05.4 of the TBDATA command: TB. The Zerilli-Armstrong model expresses the yield stress as follows. EOS. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1). 1. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .6. EOSOPT TBDATA. 7..7. Relative volume for erosion in tension (V/Vo ) TBDATA. Input the parameters listed below with TB.. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 16 of the TBDATA command. see Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass. Optionally. and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.EOS and locations 1 . For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS. so you should use reasonable values. Erosion in tension and compression is possible.

0 to use maximum principal stress. Set SPALL = 1.12.6.8.2. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models .C5 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA. Input the parameters described below with TB.B1 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.G4 (heat capacity coefficient) When using the Zerilli-Armstrong Model. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). 20.0 to use minimum pressure cut-off.17. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2). Page 94 of 180 Input the density (DENS).Troom (room temperature) TBDATA..C1 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C3 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.C2 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.1.16.EOSOPT TBDATA. SPALL = 2.8.14.B2 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA..PC (pressure cutoff value) TBDATA. you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).15.B3 (temperature coefficient) TBDATA.G3 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.0 to use minimum pressure limit.4. elastic modulus (EX) and Poisson’s ratio (NUXY) with the MP command.6.05.19.C6 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.) TBDATA. FAIL (failure strain) TBDATA.10. 7.N (strain exponent for BCC metals) TBDATA..3.EOS..3. The Steinberg material model was originally developed for treating plasticity at very high strain rates file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. o (initial strain) TBDATA.7.SPALL (Spall type.5. SPALL = 3.9. The yield strength is a function of both temperature and pressure.2.11. The model must be defined with an equation of state. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 20 of the TBDATA command.18.2004 .13.G1 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.C4 (flow stress coefficient) TBDATA.G2 (heat capacity coefficient) TBDATA.. Steinberg Model This material model is used for modeling high strain rate effects in solid elements with failure.EOS and locations 1-19 of the TBDATA command: TB.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and the relationship between heat capacity and temperature is given by: Cp = G1 + G2 T + G3 T2 + G4 T3 An equation of state must also be defined with the Zerilli-Armstrong model.

b. and Ec is the cold compression energy: and Em is the melting energy: which is in terms of the melting temperature T m(x): and the melting temperature at In the above equations. LS -DYNA computes it if E m exceeds Ei. = o.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 95 of 180 (105 s-1) where the influence of strain rate variation on the material's yield stress begins to saturate out. Here. h. is defined by where R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight. In this model. and f are experimentally determined material constants. 20..05. the shear modulus before the material melts is defined by: where Go.. Tmo . In this model. If with R in the cm-gram-microsecond system of units.2004 . Both G and y approach zero as the melting temperature of the material is reached. V is the relative volume. is given by: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The yield strength is given by: is not defined. the shear modulus (G) and the yield strength ( y ) both increase with pressure but decrease with temperature. p is the pressure.

limits the hydrostatic tension to the specified value. remains unchanged throughout the analysis. Once spall is detected with this model. SPALL = 2. the pressure is reset to 0 for that element. Thus. material melts.2004 . p cut. detects spall if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit. Input the parameters described in the above equations with TB. EOSOPT file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Input the shear modulus (GXY) and density (DENS) with the MP command. depending on the input where EC i is the ith coefficient.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 96 of 180 where i is the initial plastic strain. 20. After the If the coefficients EC0 -EC 9 are not defined in the input. If tensile pressures are calculated. LS-DYNA will fit the cold compression energy to a ten term polynomial expansion either as a function of variable FLAG: or . the pressure is reset to pcut .. detects spall if the maximum principal stress. the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero.5. Once spall is detected the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero. since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile cutoff. The maximum principal stress spall model. Whenever exceeds m. and failure under tensile loads. max.EOS and locations 1–28 of the TBDATA command. and: A linear least squares method is used to perform the fit. This option is not strictly a spall model. p cut. Note that the negative sign is required because p cut is measured positive in compression. The pressure limit model. they are reset to 0 in the spalled material. exceeds the limiting value -pcut .. while max is positive in tension. y and G are set to one half their initial values. TB. If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated.. pcut. cracking.EOS. and no hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is permitted. The hydrostatic tension spall model. and nonzero values of pressure are required to be compressive (positive). and the pressure cutoff value. A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting. is set equal to m.. the spalled material behaves as a rubble or incohesive material. If hydrostatic tension (p < 0) is subsequently calculated. SPALL = 3. SPALL = 1.

11.DISCRETE.6.DISCRETE. See the descriptions of the three equation of state models in Equation of State Models . you can define one of three types of equations of state: Linear Polynomial (EOSOPT = 1).Tmo (absolute melting temperature) TBDATA.b (shear modulus parameter) TBDATA. set SPALL = 3 to use the hydrostatic tension spall model.. For an example input listing using the Gruneisen EOS..14. Input the spring elastic stiffness with the TB.7.1.MMN (minimum bulk modulus) TBDATA. Input the model parameters with the TB.PC (pressure cut-off.15.. Set SPALL = 1 to use the pressure limit spall model.2. see Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel. m (maximum yield stress) TBDATA.2.2.3. and Tabulated (EOSOPT = 3). o (initial yield stress) TBDATA.1.. Linear Elastic Spring Model This model provides a translational or rotational elastic spring located between two nodes. Hardening and softening can be defined. General Nonlinear Spring Model This model provides general nonlinear translational or rotational spring with arbitrary loading and unloading definitions located between two nodes. Discrete Element Models 7.13..9.5 and locations 1 to 5 of the TBDATA command: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. o (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA. (hardening coefficient) TBDATA.5. i (initial plastic strain) TBDATA.a (melting temperature parameter) TBDATA.4.KE (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) 7.. Gruneisen (EOSOPT = 2).SPALL (Spall type. Each has its own set of required constants that are input starting with position (LOC) 29 of the TBDATA command.2.f (Steinberg exponential coefficient) TBDATA.b' (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.7.FLAG (cold compression energy flag) TBDATA.7.MMX (maximum bulk modulus) TBDATA.12.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.16.7.05.0 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB...8.. 7.h (Steinberg yield strength parameter) TBDATA.n (hardening parameter) TBDATA.EC 0 -EC 9 (cold compression energy constants) When using the Steinberg Model.19-28.) TBDATA.17.10.1..A (atomic weight) TBDATA.2. pcut ) Page 97 of 180 TBDATA. 20.DISCRETE. set SPALL = 2 to use the maximum principal stress spall model.0 TBDATA.18..

1.) 7.1. Elastoplastic Spring Model This model provides elastoplastic translational or rotational spring with isotropic hardening located between two nodes.DISCRETE.2004 .7..0 is tension only.2 TBDATA. Optionally.. Inelastic Tension.7.2.FY (Yield (force) or (moment)) 7.DISCRETE.DISCRETE. respectively..BETA (Hardening parameter) TBDATA.7 TBDATA.5..3 TBDATA.LCFD (Load curve ID describing arbitrary force/torque vs. tangent stiffness and yield force with the TB.LCID (Load curve ID (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.)) TBDATA.KU (Unloading stiffness..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 98 of 180 TB. Must be defined in the positive force-displacement quadrant.2. 1.) TBDATA..0 is compression only (default).3.) 7...) TBDATA. rotation relationship for loading) TBDATA. the user can define unloading stiffness instead of the maximum loading stiffness. 0: Kinematic hardening without strain softening.KT (Tangent Stiffness (force/displacement or moment/rotation)) TBDATA.. rotation relationship for unloading) TBDATA.5 TBDATA.6. Input the model parameters with the TB.1.DISCRETE.. regardless of whether the spring acts in tension or compression.or Compression-Only Spring Model This model provides an inelastic tension or compression only.3.2 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB...3 and locations 1 and 2 of the TBDATA command: TB.2. Input the spring elastic stiffness..KP (Elastic stiffness (force/displacement) or (moment/rotation)) TBDATA.5.LCDL (Load curve ID describing force vs. 20.05.1... Maxwell Viscosity Spring Model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The maximum of KU and the maximum loading stiffness in the force/displacement or the moment/twist curve is used for unloading.7.3.4.LCR (Optional load curve ID describing scale factor on force or moment as a function of relative velocity or rotational velocity. 0..DISCRETE.. translational or rotational spring located between two nodes. Input the model parameters with the TB.TYI (Initial yield force in tension (= 0: Tensile and compressive yield with strain softening..CYI (Initial yield force in compression (< 0)) 7.2.3.7 and locations 1 to 3 of the TBDATA command: TB.2.CTF (Compression or tension indicator: – 1..LCDU (Load curve ID describing force vs.4. Nonlinear Elastic Spring Model This model provides nonlinear elastic translational or rotational spring with arbitrary force/displacement or moment/rotation dependency.2.. displacement or moment vs.2.DISCRETE.. displacement or moment vs.7. displacement/twist relationship.0 is compression only..DISCRETE. = 1: Isotropic hardening without strain softening.2.

7.. Linear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides linear translational or rotational damper located between two nodes. The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0.3..9. Optionally.1. For a slack cable...DISCRETE.DISCRETE. 0).KI (Long time stiffness) TBDATA.. after which a constant force/moment is transmitted) TBDATA.6. Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Model This model provides a nonlinear damping spring with arbitrary force/velocity or moment/rotational velocity dependency located between two nodes.0.Ko (Short time stiffness) TBDATA.4 TBDATA.2004 .. generated by the cable is nonzero if and only if the cable is in tension...DISCRETE.4 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. Input the model parameters with the TB.5.6 TBDATA. Cable Model Use this model to realistically model elastic cables. The force is given by: F = K x max( L.offset) and the stiffness is defined as: The area and offset are defined by means of the real constants for LINK167. rate-of-rotation relationship. the offset should be a negative length.TC (Cutoff time.COPT (Time implementation option) 7.DC (Damping constant (force/displacement rate) or (moment/rotation rate)) 7.2.LCID (Load curve ID describing force vs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 99 of 180 This model provides a three parameter Maxwell viscoelastic translational or rotational spring located between two nodes.. the offset should be positive. 0). The load curve must define the response in the negative and positive quadrants and pass through point (0. ) 7..8.(initial length . The force.DISCRETE.4.1.2..7. a cuttoff time with a remaining force/moment can be defined.2.1.7...2.1 and location 1 of the TBDATA command: TB. F.. 20.05.BETA (Decay parameter) TBDATA. If a load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.) where L is the change in length L = current length . For an initial tensile force. Input load curve ID with the TB.DISCRETE..DISCRETE.7...FC (Force/moment after cutoff time) TBDATA.. Input the damping constant with the TB..1 TBDATA.6 and locations 1 to 6 of the TBDATA command: TB.. rate-of-displacement relationship or moment vs. No force will develop in compression.

8.e. if more than one node is constrained. Rigid Model 7.2. This PART ID can then be used to define loads and constraints to the rigid body (as described in Loading).. Two independent rigid bodies. Use the MP and EDMP commands to input the required values: MP. however. to represent more than one independent rigid body in a model. All elements defined with the specified material number are then considered to be part of that rigid body.EX EDMP. Y. to define a rigid body for material 2.2. For this reason.RIGID. This material number.. The points on the load curve are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain. issue: EDMP. the translational ( VAL1) and rotational ( VAL2) constraint parameter fields of the EDMP command are used as shown below: VAL1 . The constraints and initial velocities of one node of a rigid body will be transferred to the center of mass of the body.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 100 of 180 curve is specified.05. you must use the MP command to specify Young's modulus (Ex). it is hard to determine which constraints will be used.Load Curve ID For an example input listing.. multiple rigid material types must be specified. Young’s modulus is ignored and the load curve is used instead. 7. cannot share a common node.8. and density (DENS) for the rigid body’s material type. For example.2. Therefore. Along with the EDMP command. and Z displacements VAL2 . along with the element type and real constant type numbers of the elements.Translational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X displacement 2 Constrained Y displacement 3 Constrained Z displacement 4 Constrained X and Y displacements 5 Constrained Y and Z displacements 6 Constrained Z and X displacements 7 Constrained X.CABLE. Elements within a rigid body do not have to be linked by mesh connectivity. Realistic material property values are required so that the stiffness of the contact surfaces can be calculated by the program. will define the PART ID of the rigid body. Because the motion of the mass center of a rigid body is transferred to its nodes. never use unrealistically high values of Young’s modulus or density for a rigid body in an explicit dynamic analysis.2004 .DENS MP. constraints should not be applied to rigid bodies using the D command. see Cable Material Example: Steel.1. Rigid Model Rigid bodies are defined for a material type using the command EDMP.Rotational constraint parameter (relative to global Cartesian coordinates) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. the change in length over the initial length. However. To properly apply constraints to a rigid body. Poisson’s ratio (NUXY). A rigid body cannot be stiffened because it is perfectly rigid.MAT. i.

Unlike the definition of rigid bodies which are based on material numbers. In ANSYS/LS-DYNA. the command EDMP. Hence.7 would constrain the rigid body elements of material 2 in all degrees of freedom. In addition. Rigid Bodies Using rigid bodies to define stiff parts in a finite element model can greatly reduce the computation time required to perform an explicit analysis. Therefore. When using the EDCRB command. a rigid body has only six degrees of freedom regardless of the number of nodes that define it. as only the last NEQN referenced will be used. 20. NEQN. you can assign inertia properties.PARTS should be issued. see Rigid Material Example: Steel. so any subsequent references to the second body are meaningless. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PARTM.2.. PARTM is the master rigid body PART ID number and PARTS is the slave rigid body PART ID number. the program will calculate them based on the finite element model.RIGID.ADD. where NEQN is the constraint equation reference number. If you do not specifically define the inertia properties for a rigid body. For an example input listing. The forces and moments acting on the body are summed from the nodal forces and moments at each timestep. to place a rigid body constraint between two bodies.05. Prev Material Models Prev Rigid Bodies ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Rigid Bodies Next Chapter 8. The motion of the body is then calculated. and displacements are transferred to the nodes.. When rigid bodies are defined.7.2004 . and Z rotations Page 101 of 180 For example. Care should be taken not to issue more than one EDCRB command with the same NEQN value. By default.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 0 No constraints (default) 1 Constrained X rotation 2 Constrained Y rotation 3 Constrained Z rotation 4 Constrained X and Y rotations 5 Constrained Y and Z rotations 6 Constrained Z and X rotations 7 Constrained X. center of mass. the second rigid body noted becomes absorbed into the first. the command EDCRB. the mass. see Material Models. rigid body constraints are based on PART ID and a constraint equation number. all of the degrees of freedom of the nodes in the body are coupled to the body's center of mass. After defining a rigid body. a rigid body that remains rigid for the duration of the analysis is designated as a material model. Y. mass. and an initial velocity vector to that body using the EDIPART command. For information on defining rigid bodies as a material model. two rigid bodies can be merged together so that they act as a single rigid body using the EDCRB command. and inertia properties of each rigid body are calculated from the body’s volume and density of elements. Use the EDMP command to specify this type of rigid body.

Cvect is a vector containing coordinates of the center of the mass of the part. DELETE. edmp. 0.create ! Create part list ! !Dimension required arrays *dim.IRCS.5000E+00 velo2(1) = 0. The command format is EDIPART. ! Define parameter input tm = 0. Ivect is a vector containing the components of the inertia tensor. 0. ! Define rigid body (by MAT number) edpart. 0. initial velocity (in a local or global system of coordinates) and a specific inertia tensor to a rigid body instead of relying on the values calculated from the finite element model during the solution.2851E-03.. mass.coord2. 10. or LIST). 0.coord2.. .6 ! ! Fill arrays coord2(1) = 0.. Option is the option to be performed (ADD.2851E-03 ! EDIPART. .TM.2450E+01. PART If you are working in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA GUI.05. including the required array parameters.inert2.velo2. you may find it useful to assign a specific center of gravity..ADD. the program calculates the inertia properties of each rigid body.velo2.PART. you can input all of the above parameters.cid ! Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.6 *dim.tm. You can use the command EDIPART to assign any of these characteristics to the rigid body. . For batch input.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 102 of 180 8. 0. Vvect is a vector containing the initial velocity of the rigid body. 20.Ivect.6300E-03 ! Translation mass ircs = 0 ! Coordinate system flag cid = 0 ! Coordinate system ID ! /prep7 ! ! Create a model that includes multiple parts ! with part number 2 being a rigid body . CID is a local coordinate system ID.3 *dim. IRCS is a flag for the inertia tensor reference coordinate system. by picking Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS -DYNA Options>Inertia Options>Define Inertia.inert2.5000E+00. However.Vvect.CID where: is the part ID forwhich the inertia is defined.2004 .. .ircs. Specifying Inertia Properties By default. 0.Cvect.0E-7. 0. The example input below demonstrates how to define inertia properties for part number 2.Option. TM is the translational mass.2.3150E-03. which is a rigid body. you must dimension (*DIM) and fill the array parameters prior to issuing the EDIPART command.1. .rigid. 0 inert2(1) = 0.

issue file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then restart the analysis again. (Note that for other load types. The PART number is input in the Cname field of the EDLOAD command. To improve efficiency for this class of applications. large rigid body motions arise that are prohibitively expensive to simulate if the majority of elements in the model are deformable. displacements and velocities are applied to rigid bodies using the EDLOAD command.RBUX. a PART number must be input instead of a component name. You need to stop the analysis. It is important to note that all rigid body displacements and velocities are applied to a PART ID rather than to a component of nodes... Issuing the EDRD or EDRI command in the original analysis will set this flag. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers the capability to switch a subset of materials from a deformable state to a rigid state. .ADD. Note Parts that are defined as rigid using the command EDMP. However. Although you would not typically use part switching in the original analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Explicit Dynamics Material Model Descriptions Prev Loading Rigid Bodies Page 103 of 180 Loading Next 8. a typical EDLOAD command may look like this: EDLOAD. for the rigid body load labels. Prev Rigid Bodies Prev Next Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Rigid Bodies Next 8. One such example would be an automotive rollover where the time duration of the rollover would dominate the CPU cost relative to the impact that occurs much later.3.05. define the part switch. you must set a flag in the new analysis input to let LS-DYNA know that all materials in the model have the potential to become rigid bodies sometime during the calculation. and then back to deformable. a component name is input in this field. PAR1. you can achieve significant savings in computation time.RIGID are permanently rigid and cannot be changed to deformable. Loading As described in Loading. For example. By switching the deformable parts to rigid during the rigid body motion stage. Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid In some dynamic applications.2004 . long duration. Deformable/rigid switching is inherently related to performing a restart.2.PAR2 This command defines a UX displacement load on the rigid body identified as PART number 2.2.) The PART number must correspond to a rigid body that has been defined with the EDMP command. To switch a deformable part to a rigid part. 20.

See Constraints and the EDCNSTR command for more information on using nodal rigid bodies.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRD.D2R with no additional arguments.MRB Page 104 of 180 where PART is the part number. and 11 for SHELL163 and KEYOPT (1) = 0 and 1 for BEAM161.05. A nodal rigid body is defined by the command EDCNSTR. After a deformable-to-rigid switch. If you do not define the inertia properties. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch. you can switch it back to deformable in a subsequent restart by issuing EDRD.R2D. A special consideration for SOLID164 elements is that. other options that use rigid bodies discussed earlier in this chapter (such as loads applied with the EDLOAD command ) cannot be used with a nodal rigid body. 6. The element formulations that cannot be used include KEYOPT(1) = 1. Prev Loading Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Rigid Bodies Next Nodal Rigid Bodies Next 8. some constraints defined for the deformable part will become invalid. simply leave MRB blank. For rigid body switching to work properly. and MRB indicates a master rigid part to which the switched part should be merged. upon switching from a rigid state to deformable. Hughes-Liu shell and beam elements cannot be used with part switching because of the strain and stress update algorithms used in these elements.NRB. if no deformable materials are going to be switched to rigid but switching may occur in a subsequent restart analysis. then issue EDRD .D2R.. where COMP1 is a node component. Because nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. they will be calculated by the program. Please refer to the EDRC command description for more details. Once a deformable part is switched to rigid using the above command. Nodal Rigid Bodies Unlike typical rigid bodies that are defined with the EDMP command. you should use the EDRC command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Controls) to change the state of these constraint definitions. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .ADD. nodal rigid bodies are not associated with a part number. 7. PART.) If you do not wish to merge the part to another rigid body.) When you switch a deformable part to rigid. the choice of element formulation is critical. 20. Nodal rigid bodies are typically used for modeling rigid (welded) joints in which different flexible components (having different MAT IDs) act together as a rigid body. go to Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Switch and select “Initialize” as the action. To avoid instabilities in the calculations. (In the GUI. In the current LS-DYNA implementation. PART In a new analysis. (In the GUI. COMP1. the element stresses are zeroed out to eliminate spurious behavior.4. you can define the inertia properties for the rigid part by issuing the EDRI command (Main Menu> Solution> Rigid-Deformable>Inertia Properties).

It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of the model by adjusting the linear ( LVCO) and quadratic ( QVCO) coefficients of the EDBVIS command. It is generally not recommended. The idea behind these methods is (1) to add stiffness which resists hourglass modes but not rigid body motions and linear deformation fields. Hourglassing Despite being robust for large deformations and saving extensive amounts of computer time. however. refining the overall mesh will almost always significantly reduce the effects of hourglassing. they result in mathematical states that are not physically possible). Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structure’s bulk viscosity. 20... commonly referred to as hourglassing modes. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag appearance to a mesh (see Hourglass Deformations) known as hourglass deformations. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate the results and should always be minimized..2004 . or (2) to damp velocities in the direction of hourglass modes. but not triangular shell. the onepoint (reduced) integration solid and shell elements used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are prone to zeroenergy modes. Another more generally applicable solution to hourglassing problems is to use the fully integrated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.e.05. The general principles are to use a uniform mesh and to avoid concentrated loads on a single point. Hourglass Deformations Undeformed mesh and deformed mesh with hourglassing effect Hourglassing can affect brick and quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. Since one excited element transfers the hourglassing mode to its neighbors. triangular 2-D. ANSYS/LS-DYNA offers a number of internal hourglass controls. These modes. to dramatically change the default values of the EDBVIS command because of adverse effects they will have on the global modes of the structure. which is automatically calculated by the program. are oscillatory in nature and tend to have periods that are much shorter than those of the overall structural response (i. One method for controlling hourglassing modes is to adjust the model's bulk viscosity.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Switching Parts from Deformable to Rigid Prev Hourglassing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 105 of 180 Hourglassing Next Chapter 9. In general. Good modeling practices normally prevent hourglassing from becoming significant. or beam elements. all point loads should be spread over an area of several neighboring nodes.

the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness). l min. for a given mesh. 20. Hourglassing deformations can also be resisted by adding elastic stiffness to a model.) Using this method. is controlled by the smallest element dimension in the model (I2 in this case). (The defaults for hourglass coefficient and bulk viscosities should be sufficient. However. c. metal plasticity. and bending.. (The example depicted represents a 2-D continuum. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the minimum time step size for explicit time integration depends on the minimum element length. elastic modulus. The hourglass control methods discussed so far have been for the entire model. and Poisson's ratio). You can use the EDTP command to check the minimum time step size in your model. which is a function of material properties (density. it is often beneficial to add elastic stiffness to the model instead of using bulk viscosity methods. and they may lead to unrealistically stiff results (locking) for problems involving incompressible behavior.) Note that for a given set of material properties. it is always important to determine whether hourglassing effects have significantly degraded the results. the minimum time step size is dependent upon sonic speed.05. As a general guideline. The final method of hourglass control is to locally increase a portion of the model's stiffness by using the command EDMP. In these cases. Prev Nodal Rigid Bodies Prev Mass Scaling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Mass Scaling Next Chapter 10. The locking is remedied in SHELL163 by using an assumed strain field. Hourglassing can be a problem with small displacement situations. Also. To make sure that hourglass energy results are reported in these files. Fully integrated elements will never experience hourglassing modes.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 106 of 180 formulations of SHELL163 and SOLID164. For this command. The hourglass energy can be compared to the internal energy by reviewing the ASCII files GLSTAT and MATSUM and can be plotted in POST26 (see Postprocessing). the material number. the hourglass coefficient. When performing an explicit dynamics analysis with reduced integration elements. these options are more costly (in CPU time) than other element formulations.15. the minimum time step size t min. and the sonic speed. use care when increasing these coefficients because they may overstiffen the model's response in large deformation problems and cause instabilities when HGCO exceeds 0. the hourglassing energy should not exceed 10% of the internal energy.2004 . particularly when dynamic relaxation is used. and bulk viscosity coefficients must be specified. This allows resisting hourglass deformations in high risk areas of the model without dramatically changing the stiffness characteristics of the entire model.. This can be done by increasing the hourglassing coefficient ( HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. hourglass control is specified for a given material and not for the entire model.HGLS. However. Mass Scaling As discussed in Appendix A and shown in the figure below. the HGEN field of the EDENERGY command must be set to 1.

depending on the value of the specified time step size DTMS: ? If DTMS is positive. When mass scaling is requested. Use this command to apply mass scaling to the program in one of two ways. For example. the CPU reduction it achieves far outweighs the minor errors introduced. it is common to achieve a 50% decrease in CPU time while adding only . mass scaling is applied only to elements whose calculated time step size is smaller that DTMS. The time step size calculated for the elements is multiplied by a scale factor (usually 0.05. and mass scaling is applied to all elements. you can control the minimum time step size by including mass scaling in the analysis. It may be necessary to use mass scaling if the program calculated time step is too small. the second is typically more efficient and therefore recommended.9). element density is adjusted to achieve a user specified time step size: The EDCTS command is used to specify mass scaling in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. ? Of the two methods listed above.. The user’s file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .001% mass to the model.. Care must be taken not to add too much mass to a model in which inertial effects are significant. the same time step size is used for all elements. when using mass scaling. Although proper use of mass scaling will add a small amount of mass to the model and slightly change a structure's center of mass.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 107 of 180 = Poisson’s ratio = specific mass density E = Young’s Modulus In the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program. If DTMS is negative. 20.

By element number in ascending order. Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling tmin determines time step size for all elements tfmin n* tmin Elements are sorted three times by the program: 1. Each group is assigned a step size that is some even multiple of the smallest element step size (see Time Step Sizes Before and After Subcycling). the minimum time step size is increased for the smallest element and the groups with larger elements are processed every 2nd. Prev Hourglassing Prev Subcycling ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Subcycling Next Chapter 11. etc. can be used to speed up an analysis when element sizes within a model vary significantly.. use the TSSFAC parameter of the EDCTS command. Thus.. 3rd. also known as mixed time integration.2004 . 2. elements are sorted based on their time step size into groups. By part number for large vector blocks. 20.05. By connectivity to ensure disjointness for right hand side vectorization. Allows local mesh refinement without penalty. Relatively small elements will result in using a small time step size for all of the elements within a model. Subcycling is turned on in the program using the EDCSC command. even the larger ones.. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. step depending on their size. Subcycling Subcycling.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 108 of 180 input for the mass scaling affects the time step size before scaling. There are two advantages to using subcycling: ? Greatly speeds-up problems with differences in element size. If subcycling is turned on. 3. 4th . To control the time step size after mass scaling.

1. rigid bodies. 20. you will typically want to view animated results (POST1) and time-history results (POST26). POST1 and POST26.HIS) Files Results available for postprocessing depend on the information written to the Jobname. Output Controls 12. Prev Mass Scaling Prev Postprocessing ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Postprocessing Next Chapter 12. History (Jobname. 12. contains solutions for the entire model.1.HIS files: The Jobname.RST) vs. or in contact with rigid walls are always assigned the smallest time step sizes. Note the distinction between the Jobname. Note Experienced LS-DYNA users may also use the LSTC postprocessor LS-POST. Results ( Jobname.RST and the Jobname. thus. or to view animated results.. Postprocessing You can review ANSYS/LS -DYNA results using the two ANSYS postprocessors. Use POST26 to view the results of a specific component of the model at a larger number of time points over a period of time. Nodes that are included in constraint equations. used primarily in POST1 processing..2004 . Use POST1 to view results for the entire model at specific time points.RST file. this processor is not supported by ANSYS. consequently.HIS files via the EDRST and EDHTIME commands (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls>File Output Freq).05.1. but captured at a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Inc. the time step size determination for elements on either side of the interface is assumed to be decoupled. With an explicit dynamic analysis.RST and Jobname. scaling penalty values to larger values when subcycling is active can be a dangerous exercise. However. The interface stiffnesses used in the contact algorithms are based on the minimum value of the slave node or master segment stiffness and.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Subcycling supports the following element classes and contact options: ? Page 109 of 180 Solid elements Beam elements Shell elements Penalty based contact algorithms ? ? ? Discrete elements are intentionally excluded since these elements generally contribute insignificantly to the calculational costs.

RST file is usually less than 100.RST and Jobname. specify the number of time steps. !Write ASCII file MATSUM (Energy information ! for each PART). (Capturing a large number of solutions for the entire model would quickly fill up disk space. !Specify the name of the nodal component.HIS file. in the Jobname.2004 .1 !Select elements of material 1. While in either the PREP7 or SOLUTION phases of your analysis.HIS.node !Create nodal component nod1. 12. and the ASCII files to be written.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 110 of 180 relatively small number of time points.SPCFORC EDOUT. the element and nodal components to be analyzed... Create a component consisting only of those elements. contains solutions captured at a relatively large number of time points.GLSTAT EDOUT. 12. Creating Components for POST26 Before reviewing results in POST26.nod1 EDOUT. To prevent the results files from exceeding the system limit. You can also create a component consisting of a specified set of nodes. !Write ASCII file GLSTAT (Global time step ! and energy statistics). Therefore. the data to be stored in the results files. used in POST26.05. the number of time steps in the Jobname.nod1. For example.elm1. For large models.RST and Jobname.HIS and other output files. !Specify the name of the element component. NSLE !Select nodes from elements. CM.NSTEPS EDHIST. The remaining data will not be written. Writing the Output Files for POST26 Before using POST26 to review results.1. the Jobname. choose a set of elements for which you want to review results.MATSUM EDOUT.. In this case. the total data stored in any file is limited to the maximum file size allowed on your system.HIS file.2. !Write ASCII file RCFORC (Resultant interface ! force data).1.3. !Write ASCII file SPCFORC (Single point ! constraint (Reaction) forces). but for only a portion of the model. Note ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support file splitting. Jobname. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You can specify this information via the GUI (Main Menu>Solution>Output Controls) or by issuing the following commands: EDHTIME. if you attempt to access the data for the last stored load step with the SET command. CM. Element and nodal components should be limited to conserve disk space. it is usually 1000 or more. The Jobname.elm1 EDHIST. Generally. a system error may occur. you must direct ANSYS/LS-DYNA to write the appropriate information to the Jobname.MAT.elem !Create element component elm1. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. Furthermore. For details on creating components.RCFORC !Specify the number of time steps ! for time-history results. you may create element and/or nodal components within your model. ANSYS/LS -DYNA will write data to each results file until the size limit is met. These components can be created via the GUI or by issuing the following commands: ESEL. 20.S. you should reduce the amount of output written to Jobname.) As a comparison. during either the PREP7 or the SOLUTION phases of your analysis. and the data for the last stored load step may be incomplete. may exceed the system limit.HIS (see the EDRST and EDHTIME commands).RST file contains just enough solutions to animate the results.

for example. If you are using command input. the printing or plotting command will be ignored.1. !Write ASCII file NODOUT (Nodal data). the elements are still in the selected set. For details on these and other POST1 postprocessing functions. In some cases. and the model will behave as expected physically. failure strain). use the appropriate plotting command (for example.ALL to write all possible ASCII files.2. you can rotate stress results into a defined coordinate system using the RSYS command. failed elements are removed from the solution after they fail.RST file. To use RSYS in models that contain these element types. 20. failed elements will automatically be removed from the display. the mesh connectivity may appear to be lost due to the number of failed elements in the model at a given time step. Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST1 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.. stop. Prev Subcycling Prev Next Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST1 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 12. If you request strain results when RSYS is not set to the global Cartesian coordinate system. and obtain tabular listings just as you would in ANSYS. (During the LS-DYNA solution. show contour and vector displays.05. PLESOL) followed by the ANDATA command (as shown below). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. COMBI165.. and composite SHELL163 (KEYOPT(3) = 1). Animating Results You can also display animated shapes using POST1 capabilities. Failed elements are elements that exceed the specified failure criteria (for example.) 12. You can display the deformed shape. !Write ASCII file RBDOUT (Rigid body data). or element table operations. Then use the “push-button” animation controls in the dialog box to start. you could animate the element centroidal stresses superimposed on the deformed shape. When using POST1. Page 111 of 180 Note to LS-DYNA Users--If you are familiar with other ASCII files created by the LS-DYNA program. When you display results in POST1.SLEOUT EDOUT. Stress data will be rotated during printout.RBDOUT !Write ASCII file SLEOUT (Sliding interface ! energy). resume. Note Strain data results cannot be rotated for any explicit elements. you must unselect the unsupported elements before issuing the RSYS command. you may want to issue EDOUT.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDOUT. display.2004 .2. After you have read in a set of results from the Jobname.NODOUT EDOUT. RSYS supports stress output for all explicit element types except BEAM161. and otherwise control the animation. pick Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>Animate>Over Results. However.

the beams will not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements. For more than 5 layers.. regardless of whether you use full or reduced integration. With SHELL163 elements use the LAYER.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLESOL. PLESOL ). but data for the top and bottom layers appears on printed results. results are saved for 4 integration points by default ( BEAMIP = 4 on the EDINT command). 20. By default. MASS166. SHELL163. Further. no matter how many layers exist. However. If NIP = 2. especially in bending. With BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. output data for the top layer is displayed when plotting data (PLNSOL.. When using BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. the number of integration points (NIP) is set to 2 for shell elements. specify a large number of integration points through the thickness of the shell. Below are some important notes about the explicit dynamics elements: ? With SOLID164. Layers are numbered starting from the bottom layer and moving up for stress data. there is no stress output. the results at the bottom correspond to integration point 1. BEAM161. For faster plotting.) Also by default. for that matter).2. Strain information is saved only at these two layers. you must specify both the number of integration points for which you want ANSYS/LS-DYNA to calculate the results (using real constants) and the number of these points for which you want results stored (using the EDINT command).LOC command. not at the top or bottom surface of a layer (or the element. By default. use the INRES command to select specific types of solution data before issuing the above commands: INRES. However. In this case. To get results close to the element surface.2004 .Item. Element Output Data Remember that the results available for POST1 processing differ from element to element. LINK167). layer 1 is the bottom layer and layer 2 is the top layer. For beam elements.Item 12. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element center (for each layer for shell elements). and the results at the middle are an average of the top and bottom results. the number of layers you specify using EDINT. regardless of the BEAMIP setting. For the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2).NUM command to specify the layer for which you want results.05. saving data for all of these layers can become expensive. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. you can specify up to 5 points (layers) for the Gauss integration rule.SHELLIP is set to 3 for shell elements. (Note--The trapezoidal rule is not recommended for less than twenty integration points. “TOTAL ” strains are the only documented strains (irrespective of material properties. the results at the top correspond to integration point 2. you need to use either the trapezoidal integraton rule or the user-defined integration rule. for strain data. ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If you set BEAMIP = 0. stress and strain solutions are saved only at the element centroid. For a complete description of output data for each explicit dynamics element (LINK160. SOLID164. SHELL163 is not affected by the SHELL.Comp ANDATA Page 112 of 180 This command method reads in all results data and animates the plot. COMBI165. data is only available at the middle of the layer. regardless of whether you use 1-point or 8-point integration (KEYOPT(1)).2. no stress output is written for any of the beam elements.

RS03 . ! Specify the results file for the first mesh refinement List out the time steps that were written for the first mesh refinement Set the results to a particular time step value Print or display the results Caution The element attributes are not saved on the RSnn file. The sample input below demonstrates s typical postprocessing session. and SOLID164 elements.RS01 ! ! SET.Second mesh refinement Jobname. Also.EPPL] for these element types. You should not resume the original model database (. automatic animation of an entire solution process is not directly possible when adaptive meshing is used. the number of elements in the model may increase during the solution as the mesh is improved to conform to a user specified element aspect ratio. Therefore. SHELL163. /POST1 FILE. . the extension of the results file is updated to represent a new finite element mesh for the model. However..RS02 . The name of the results file extension is incremented as follows: . Be aware that strains other than plastic strains can be displayed when looking at the plastic strain [PLESOL.DB file). Prev Postprocessing Prev Next Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS -DYNA Postprocessing Next 20.1. .Jobname.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 113 of 180 including elastic material) for the PLANE162.2 ! ! PRNSOL. you must specify the appropriate filename and extension (FILE command) to examine a particular time step. . nor should you attempt to save a new database from these files.Third mesh refinement etc. When adaptive meshing is included in an analysis. 12. using the FILE and /SEG commands. Note Because of the multiple results files. care must be taken when using select logic during postprocessing with these files..2. Jobname.. Postprocessing after Adaptive Meshing Adaptive meshing can be used in ANSYS/LS-DYNA to refine the mesh of shell elements during a large deformation analysis (see Adaptive Meshing for details on how to use adaptive meshing).3. as the mesh in that database will not match what is in the results files.05. you should not attempt to perform a solution using only the information contained in these files. you could write a macro to create the desired animation. As the number of elements in the model changes.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.LIST ! ! SET.RS01 In order to postprocess results when adaptive meshing is used.First mesh refinement Jobname.

use the LAYERP26 (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables) and the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) for each layer.05. with variable number 1 reserved for time. the results will be read from the Jobname.1. For storing and displaying solutions at different integration points for the BEAM161 and SHELL163 elements. Care must be taken when reading from the .num1 ESOL NSOL STORE. stored in ASCII files ( GLSTAT.HIS and Jobname. work.3. You can obtain two types of results using POST26: ? Nodal and element solutions Miscellaneous output data. (This is because the EDHTIME setting is usually much larger than the EDRST setting. To generate results.3. RCFORC.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 114 of 180 12. however.MERGE LAYERP26. known as variables. The Jobname. .num2 ESOL NSOL STORE. SLEOUT. and RBDOUT) ? Remember when reviewing results in POST26 that you must use the Jobname.Jobname. Nodal and Element Solutions POST26 works with tables of result items versus time. 20.2004 . !Specify the first layer number !Store element data for first layer !Store nodal data for first layer !Store results for first layer !Specify the next layer number !Store element data for next layer !Store nodal data for next layer !Store results for next layer (in addition to ! results for first layer) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. which may provide inadequate data for time-history postprocessing. time Element and nodal solution results can be obtained from both the Jobname.HIS file.HIS If you do not load the Jobname. Using POST26 with ANSYS/LS-DYNA The typical POST26 operations available in ANSYS are also available in ANSYS/LS-DYNA.HIS file to have adequate results for a useful time-history record. define and then graph or list the variables via the GUI (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro) or by using the following commands: NSOL Specifies nodal data be stored from the results file ESOL Specifies element data be stored from the results file PLVAR Displays results in graph format PRVAR Lists variables vs. Each variable is assigned a reference number.) 12. and reaction forces. SPCFORC. as shown below for SHELL163: LAYERP26.MERGE . MATSUM.NCOMP are specified. NODOUT.HIS file must be loaded into POST26 using the FILE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>File): FILE. such that only nodes and elements included in the component specified by the EDHIST.HIS file into POST26.RST file..RST.. such as different energies.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. respectively.. Once these arrays have been created. respectively.3. ANSYS automatically creates the third and fourth vector. Finding Additional Information For more information on postprocessing. and RBDOUT files.) !Plot results for all layers Page 115 of 180 You must specify STORE. 12. Prev Using POST1 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Finding Additional Information Postprocessing Next Finding Additional Information Next 12.2004 . or both sets of data. smoothed. For more information on any of the commands discussed in this chapter.numn !Specify the nth layer number ESOL !Store element data for nth layer NSOL !Store nodal data for nth layer STORE.2. including POST1 and POST26. first issue FILE . and you can choose how high the fitting order for the smoothed curve is to be using the FITPT field. You must always create the first two vectors (*DIM) and fill these vectors with the noisy data before smoothing the data. then issue the EDREAD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Read LSDYNA Data). Reading ASCII Files for Miscellaneous Output Data To review information written to the GLSTAT. or your final plot will contain data from the last layer only. 12. you may want to “smooth” that data to a smaller set of data that provides an accurate approximation of the data points. 20. To plot the results.. Once stored. RCFORC. the second two will contain the smoothed data (after smoothing takes place) from the independent and dependent variables. If you are working in interactive mode. see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. SPCFORC.3. NODOUT. the data can be analyzed using standard POST26 procedures. you must also create these vectors (*DIM) before smoothing the data (ANSYS will fill these with the smoothed data). see the appropriate discussion in the ANSYS Commands Reference. MERGE for each layer. LAYERP26. You can choose to smooth all or some of the data points using the DATAP field.05. and FITPT defaults to one-half of the data points. you can choose to plot unsmoothed.4. Four arrays are required for smoothing data.MERGE !Store results for nth layer (in addition to ! results for previous layers) PRVAR (or PLVAR. you must issue the STORE command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Store Data) to store the data in time history variables.3. DATAP defaults to all points. you can smooth the data using the EDNDTSD command (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Smooth Data). After EDREAD. but if you are working in batch mode. Data Smoothing If you’re working with noisy data (such as an earthquake excitation). MATSUM. etc.HIS (Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro> Settings>File) to obtain the time information. The first two contain the noisy data from the independent and the dependent variables. SLEOUT.Jobname.

20.. ? ? ? The ability to perform an analysis in stages provides great flexibility for explicit dynamic applications. you may decide to delete excessively distorted elements.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 116 of 180 Prev Using POST26 with ANSYS/LSDYNA Prev Restarting ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Restarting Next Chapter 13. you can increase efficiency and reduce the chance of wasting computer time on an incorrect analysis. LS -DYNA writes a restart "dump" file ( d3dump) at the end of each analysis. Restarting can also be used to diagnose an analysis that encountered problems. You can restart at a point before the problem (numerical difficulties or error message) occurred.2004 . a restart "dump" file is written. After the completion of each stage. materials that are no longer important. This file contains all information required to continue the analysis. To diagnose an analysis that went wrong. Prev Finding Additional Information The EDSTART Command Next The EDSTART Command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. To change the model and continue calculations. To perform an analysis in stages and monitor results at the end of each stage. Restarting Restarting means performing an analysis that continues from a previous analysis. Reasons for doing a restart include: ? To complete an analysis that was terminated or that requires more than the user-defined CPU limit.. This will give you more options for choosing a point from which to initiate a restart. Results can be checked at each stage by postprocessing the output in the normal way. The restart can begin from the end of the previous analysis or from partway through it. and request more frequent outputs to the results files. The restart files are written sequentially as d3dump01. you may be able to identify where the first symptoms appeared and what caused them. You may then modify the model and continue the analysis. 13. By viewing the development of the error. For example. or contact surfaces that are no longer needed. etc. You can also change output frequencies of the various results files.1. The Restart Dump File By default. You may also choose to change loading or consider other materials that were not present in the previous analysis. Care should be taken not to request too many dump files because they can be quite large. You can use the EDDUMP command to request that additional restart dump files be written at a specified interval during the analysis. The dump file is a binary file that contains a complete LS-DYNA database for use in a restart. d3dump02. By continuously monitoring and fine-tuning the analysis.

The analysis will then be continued and all results will be appended to the results files Jobname.. then issue the SOLVE command.2004 . 13.2.DB) has not been changed. A Small Restart Use a small restart when minor changes to the database are necessary. you can increase the value if more memory is required by the LS-DYNA solver) or to change the scale factor for binary file sizes... A Simple Restart A simple restart is one for which the database ( Jobname. 20. pick Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Restart Option).2.2.RST and Jobname. For this type of restart.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Restarting Page 117 of 180 Next 13. 13..d3dumpnn followed by any commands appropriate for changing the database. a small restart.05.d3dumpnn followed by the SOLVE command. ? Reset the termination time (TIME) Reset the output file interval (EDRST. or a full restart.2.2.1.2..HIS. A New Analysis For a new analysis. There are four analysis types available: a new analysis (the default). The EDSTART Command The EDSTART command specifies the status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamic analysis (in the GUI.1. 13. a simple restart. For a problem which was prematurely interrupted. you must issue the command EDSTART.3. EDPVEL) Change loading curves (EDCURVE) Change LS-DYNA numerical controls such as: global mass damping (EDDAMP) dynamic relaxation control (EDDRELAX) contact small penetration control (EDSP) time step control (EDCTS) Change the termination criteria (EDTERM) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. You would typically run a simple restart when the ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution was prematurely interrupted by a user defined CPU limit or by issuing a sense switch control SW1 (after CTRL-C). you can use the EDSTART command to change the memory to be used (for example. The types of changes you can make to the database during a small restart are listed below. EDHTIME) Specify additional ASCII files for output (EDOUT) Set more displacement constraints (D) Change initial velocities (EDVEL. enter the solution processor and issue EDSTART .

then specify it as the input file on the LS-DYNA execution command. it is important that you issue EDSTART . Because some of these commands are applicable to a restart as well as a new analysis. mass scaling must be active in the original analysis. After the first small restart analysis. etc. in order to use mass scaling ( EDCTS command) in the restart. If the previous analysis terminated due to one of these criteria. ANSYS/LS -DYNA creates a text file named Jobname. you should generally extend the time of the calculation (TIME command). you may choose to perform an additional restart. but no postprocessing data is written for the unselected parts. ACLEAR. In other results files. You may also need to modify termination criteria that were set in the previous analysis using the EDTERM command.2004 . even if no switch is being made. In a small restart.2 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. there will be a mismatch in the database since the associated element definitions still exist. the usage of a command in the restart depends on initial settings in the original analysis. the restart analysis will stop immediately with only one step. in order to perform a rigid-deformable switch in the restart analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 118 of 180 Delete. The results for the small restart analysis will be appended to all the results files. that specific criterion must be modified so that it will not cause the restart to terminate immediately. In some cases. 20.R which is used as input to LS-DYNA. or even a series of restart analyses. you must issue the EDRD command in the original analysis. results are appended according to the time value. VCLEAR) Change selected set of parts (PARTSEL) Switch parts from rigid-to-deformable or deformable-to-rigid (EDRD. Furthermore..) Note When postprocessing the restart results. This file contains only the changes that were made to the model for the restart. inertia properties for parts that are switched in the restart must be specified in the original analysis (EDRI command). For example. If you do select such parts.05. If you want to run LS-DYNA directly. When you issue the SOLVE command to initiate the restart analysis. or reactivate contact entities (EDDC) Delete elements (EDELE) Clear meshes (LCLEAR. deactivate. in Jobname. Restart dump files ( d3dumpnn) are consecutively numbered beginning from the last number. Limitations related to restarts are discussed in each restart related command description. If the previous analysis (new or restart) finished at the specified end-time and no new time is input for the subsequent restart. Be sure to issue EDSTART .. you can use the EDWRITE command to output this file.2 first so that subsequent commands are processed correctly for the restart. The restart solutions are numbered as load step 2. EDRC) Change the restart dump file frequency (EDDUMP) ? ? ? ? ? Only the commands mentioned above can be used in a small restart analysis (refer to the ANSYS Commands Reference for details on their usage). Another example is mass scaling. (All modifications to the database during the restart will be reflected in subsequent restart dump files.RST. 3. take care not to select parts that were unselected in the restart analysis.

parts having the same part ID). If you issue EDIS with no arguments. An important step in performing a full restart is specifying stress initialization via the EDIS command. you must issue the command EDSTART .05. 4.d3dump01. For example. PIDN.ADD.. you must issue the command EDIS. Issue EDSTART. You would issue the command EDSTART . stress initialization is performed for all parts that were defined in the previous analysis (that is.2004 . or to apply different loading conditions.PIDO for each part that will be initialized. 20. Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 5. 2.) When the EDSTART. (A few of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA commands are not supported in a new restart. the jobname is automatically changed to Jobname_01 to avoid overwriting the previous results and database. The general procedure for multiple restarts is outlined below. you need to specify the new part ID in the PIDN field.. Jobname_01.3 to indicate that subsequent commands apply to the full restart.2 with an appropriate d3dump file. To initiate a full restart. these are discussed below. the complete database is written as an LS -DYNA input file. and the old part ID from the previous analysis in the PIDO field. you may need to consider more materials.K. you would specify stress initialization for some or all of the parts that will be kept in the full restart. then make any necessary changes to the model using commands available in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. and it produced a restart dump file named d3dump01.2. The deformed positions and velocities of the nodes on the elements of each part. this option is only appropriate if part IDs have not changed and you want all parts to be initialized. Post-process the results. The advantage of the full restart is that the changed database and result files match each other. To do this.3. If part IDs have changed in the full restart due to changes in the model.3 command is issued. and the stresses and strains in the elements (and the rigid body properties. Repeat step 3-6. For example. if the material of the part is rigid) are assigned at this time. 1. Create the initial model and run a new analysis. Typically. Page 119 of 180 13. Issue the commands needed to change the model.. 3. When LS -DYNA starts execution. 7. it uses the information contained in files Jobname_01. Issue the SOLVE command 6. A Full Restart A full restart is appropriate when many changes to the database are needed.K and d3dump01 to initialize any portions of the model which were specified by EDIS commands. LS-DYNA creates entirely new results files instead of appending to the existing results (as is done in other types of restart analyses)..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide each restart. You must carry forward some results (deformed nodal positions and stresses/strains) from the previous analysis.4. In a full restart.K. When you issue SOLVE to initiate the full restart solution (or when you issue EDWRITE). assume that the previous analysis was run using the input file Jobname. Post-process the restart analysis results. to remove portions of the model. as needed.

Although you can change almost any aspect of the analysis in a full restart. if initialized and non-initialized parts share common nodes. ? If you do not follow the above guidelines. this will cause a unique part number to be assigned to the new elements. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the full restart analysis. For discrete elements (COMBI165). as stated above. material number. This will cause a sudden strain in the noninitialized part. If you need to add more elements to the model during the full restart. all discrete elements will be initialized. material number.. Mass scaling: As in a small restart. follow these recommendations when creating or changing the model: ? If you anticipate the need to delete certain elements from the model in a future full restart analysis.LIST. This will cause a unique part number to be assigned to those elements so that they may be deleted later without altering the makeup of any other parts in the model. If this is not the case. However. However.. In addition. You cannot define initial velocities for new nodes or parts added in the full restart.DB). or real constant number for those elements. For any portions of the model that are carried over from the previous analysis. you can list contact specifications (EDCLIST) that were defined in the previous analysis. the velocities at the beginning of the full restart will be the same as the velocities at the end of the previous analysis. or real constant number for those elements in the original analysis. the initialization is “all or nothing.05. ? ? ? You can perform multiple full restart analyses and you can mix full restart analyses with other restart file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Initial velocities: You cannot change initial velocities (EDVEL and EDPVEL) in the full restart. as described below. Again. (Note that the parts may have different identifying numbers. use a different element type number. those nodes will be considered by the initialized part. in the same order.2004 . the initial velocity of new model entities are assumed to be zero. use a different element type number. the same number of elements.” If you initialize any discrete elements in the full restart.) To avoid a mismatch in parts. it is assumed that each part being initialized has the same characteristics (that is. a few features are not supported or are supported in a limited way. the part cannot be initialized. Adaptive meshing: Adaptive meshing (EDADAPT and EDCADAPT) is not supported in a full restart. even if they share the same attributes with other elements in the model. with the same topology) in the full restart analysis ( Jobname_01. you may inadvertently create parts in the restart analysis that do not match parts from the previous analysis. 20. In this case. ? Contact specifications: You cannot add or delete any contact specifications (EDCGEN and EDDC) in the full restart.DB) as it did in the previous analysis ( Jobname. During the initialization. You can list the initial velocities defined in the previous analysis by using the commands EDVEL. stress initialization may fail for those parts. mass scaling (EDCTS) is only supported in a full restart if it was active in the previous analysis. a full restart is not possible if adaptive meshing was used in the previous analysis.LIST and EDPVEL.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 120 of 180 Portions of the model that are not initialized will have no initial strains and stresses. and previously existing parts will not be altered.

For a small restart. the jobname will be changed from the current jobname to Jobname_nn (nn = 01.. an explicit solution followed by an implicit solution or vice-versa. The results in Jobname_nn. results are appended to the output files of the previous analysis. For a simple restart.2004 . you need to use both solution methods. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution The simulation of some engineering processes requires the capabilities of both implicit (ANSYS) and explicit ANSYS/LS -DYNA analyses.1. 20.3 with a different d3dump file at the beginning of each full restart.RST are saved as substeps of loadstep 1. For both the simple restart and small restart. In this chapter. glstat. ANSYS/LS-DYNA is an explicit dynamics program intended to solve short duration dynamic problems. matsum.…) automatically..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 121 of 180 analysis types (simple or small).) are appended with consecutive time markings. If you need to keep any ASCII output files from the previous analysis. If an engineering process contains phases that are essentially static or quasi-static (such as a preload before a dynamic phase or a springback after a metalforming phase). To solve these problems. then these phases are best analyzed using the ANSYS implicit code.HIS ). Procedures combining the ANSYS implicit solver with the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit solver provide an extremely powerful tool that can be used to simulate many complex physical phenomena.HIS. Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.RST. Time is continuous and is not reset to zero in any of the output files ( Jobname_nn. however.RST and Jobname_nn. e. Jobname_nn. 02. ASCII output files. Effect on Output Files For both the simple restart and small restart. Each time EDSTART . Prev Restarting Prev Effect on Output Files Restarting Next Effect on Output Files Next 13.)..05.RST file (similar to a new analysis).3 is issued. all outputs are shown as substeps of loadstep 1 in the Jobname.g. while implicit-to-explicit processes are outlined in Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution. In a full restart. the history file (Jobname. 14. you must save them to another name prior to issuing SOLVE in the full restart.RST. different stages of restarts are shown as different loadsteps in Jobname. we will describe explicit-to-implicit procedures. Just issue EDSTART. etc. Prev The EDSTART Command Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 14. new results files are created using the numbered jobname of the restart (Jobname_nn. etc. are not renamed and will be overwritten. matsum.HIS) and ASCII files ( glstat.3.

9. generally causes the blank to deform towards its original geometry. implicit simulation of the elastic springback within the workpiece can be performed.. Since the amount of elastic energy stored in a part is a function of many process parameters such as material properties and interfacial loads. You must use SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 to model the working piece in order to analyze the springback effect in a subsequent ANSYS implicit analysis. Note Only elastic properties are considered in the implicit phase. predicting springback during forming is extremely complicated. Springback deformation is best defined as the dimensional change of the formed part from that of the die which occurs from elastic deformations during unloading. and thicknesses of these elements only are transferred into the corresponding implicit ANSYS elements (SHELL181 and SOLID185).2004 . and then modeling the springback deformations implicitly. which is the driving force for springback. is subsequently released after the forming pressure is removed. stresses. 10. stringent design tolerances can be attained for sheet metal forming operations.. check whether there is any undesirable dynamic effect left in the structure at the end of the explicit run (using POST26). which becomes stored in the blank while it is in dynamic contact with the die components. 1. You should always check your explicit analysis solution from ANSYS/LS-DYNA carefully before proceeding with the ANSYS implicit analysis. you must use one of the following element formulations for the SHELL163 elements: KEYOPT(1) = 1. This implies that the analysis is purely elastic unloading from the formed state (configuration). The displacements are interpreted as the changes in these quantities from the formed configuration. 7. Then the deformed shape. the highly nonlinear deformation processes tend to generate a large amount of elastic strain energy in the blank material. the final part shape in a sheet metal forming process not only depends upon the contours of the dies. Hence. 8. 6. A detailed description of the explicit-to-implicit solution procedure follows. 20. In addition. Solve and finish the analysis. 2. Herein lies the great advantage of performing an explicit-toimplicit sequential solution. but also on the amount of elastic energy stored in the part while it is being plastically deformed. Save the explicit analysis database to file Jobname1.DB. you must first run the ANSYS/LS-DYNA program to simulate the metal forming process. This release of energy. the sheet metal blank being deformed must consist of SHELL163 and/or SOLID164 elements. springback deformation is an essential parameter that significantly complicates the design of forming tools. By simulating the dynamic forming process explicitly. using Jobname1. This elastic energy. 11. Once valid boundary conditions are specified on the blank material.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 122 of 180 In sheet metal forming operations. 2. Specifically. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In most dynamic metal forming operations. or 12 (10 and 12 are recommended). Run the explicit analysis as described earlier. In the explicit metal forming analysis. This poses significant problems to designers and analysts who must accurately assess the amount of springback that will occur during a forming process so that a final desired part shape can be obtained. In an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution.

Command(s): ETCHG. and loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 3. see step 12). and composite shell element SHELL163 with KEYOPT (3) = 1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 123 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1.. 20. Only the database file for the subsequent implicit run will be saved. boundary conditions. then the database for this explicit run will not be saved. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the explicit results files from being overwritten.) The companion explicit-implicit element type pairs are: Explicit Element Type Implicit Element Type LINK160 LINK8 BEAM161 BEAM4 SHELL163 SHELL181 SOLID164 SOLID185 COMBI165 COMBIN14 MASS166 MASS21 LINK167 LINK10 Although all explicit element types are converted. Convert explicit element types to corresponding companion implicit element types. PLANE162.2004 . material properties. only SHELL163 and SOLID164 data (stresses and thicknesses for SHELL163. cannot be used in a sequential solution. Command(s): /FILNAME. Redefine the key options.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 4. and stresses for SOLID164) are transferred to SHELL181 and SOLID185 (via the RIMPORT command.DB file at this point. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 5. Re-enter the preprocessor.ETI GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Elem Type>Switch Elem Type 6. real constants..05. (Note that the 2-D explicit element.

For SOLID164 elements that were converted to SOLID185 elements. Unselect or delete any unnecessary elements (mainly those making up any rigid bodies from the explicit analysis). you do NOT need to redefine the real constants. 20. Redefine the implicit elements to the deformed configuration. but you do need to redefine the other values.. Turn off shape checking because elements may have undergone considerable deformation during the explicit analysis. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/Loads Note Only linear elastic material properties (as specified with the MP command) can remain active in the ANSYS implicit phase. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. converted to null elements. or convert them to null elements. REAL. Command(s): SHPP.) The TYPE. (For SHELL163 elements that were converted to SHELL181. these elements must be unselected. or converted to implicit will remain active in ANSYS.OFF GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Checking Ctrls> Shape Checking 8. Also.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 124 of 180 values on any implicit elements that are converted from explicit element types.05. Command(s): UPGEOM GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling. 7. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc.2004 . if the rigid bodies in the explicit analysis were made up of SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements. and MAT numbers from the explicit elements are retained. or converted to NULL elements before importing file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. deleted.Update Geometry 9. Any explicit elements that are not either unselected. which will produce an error and terminate the analysis. deleted.. Delete any inelastic material properties (as specified with the TB command) from the ANSYS/LS-DYNA run. you need to specify the uniform reduced integration option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1.

or SOLID164 to SOLID185) by the RIMPORT command (See Step 12). Command(s): RIMPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Other> Import Stress 13. Import stresses and changed thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. etc. For SOLID164.ON GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Sol’n Controls file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 125 of 180 stresses and thicknesses (from SHELL163 to SHELL181. 20. and from SOLID164 to SOLID185). in a metalforming analysis. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): NLGEOM. 12. These thicknesses override those defined using real constants. The deformed integration point thicknesses are averaged before being transferred to the implicit analysis. the implicit analysis will be terminated. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu>Solution 11.05. otherwise. you need to constrain the blank)... Set any necessary constraints on the model by modifying or adding to the boundary conditions defined during the explicit analysis (for example. only the stresses are transferred. Turn large deformation effects on. Command(s): D. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>On Nodes etc. Command(s): ESEL EDELE GUI: Utility Menu>Select>Entities or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Delete>Elements 10. For SHELL163. the stresses and thicknesses are transferred.2004 .

Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..uy d.uz d.ename...n3.off finish /solution nlgeom...on ! Turn on nonlinear geometry rimport.s.01..n2.ux.2004 .db /filename. you can use any of the standard ANSYS post-processing functions to review your results..all upgeom.. /batch..dyna.0 esel..uy.ux.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 14..05.0..eti r...stamp1.0.stamp2 /prep7 etchg.0.stamp1.s..list resume.0.ux.stamp1..2. The following is a sample input stream for performing an explicit-to-implicit sequential solution...1 shpp.rst ! Import stresses and thicknesses from ! explicit analysis save solve finish Prev Effect on Output Files Prev Next Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution Next 14.n1..181 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! resume explicit database (explicit problem run previously) change jobname so explicit results are not overwritten convert explicit to implicit elements change real constants (deformed thicknesses used by RIMPORT) delete constraint loads from explicit analysis delete material models (retain linear material properties) redefine the implicit elements at the deformed geometry Set necessary constraints on the model (at least 3 non-colinear nodes) Select only corresponding SHELL181 elements (No “former” rigid bodies) Select only SHELL181 nodes Turn off shape checking nsle.0.01. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS Main Menu>Finish Page 126 of 180 Once you have solved the analysis.all tbdelete.01 ddel.all.rst d. 20. Solve and finish the analysis.01.1..

One node should be restricted from motion in all directions.) The substep is considered to be converged only when the equilibrium convergence tolerances are met (as in a normal nonlinear analysis) and the artificial stiffness has reached an insignificantly small value. Use a lower punch speed in the explicit run. The artificial stiffness is scaled down exponentially with the progress of iterations. You must select these three nodes carefully so that the expected springback behavior is not prevented. Use a linear springback analysis (if such an approximation is acceptable) with the command NLGEOM. tends to wrinkle along edges or sharp curvatures. This may slow down the conversion of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the part should be free to move except for restraints against rigid body movement. In each substep. ? The model is improperly constrained. the ratio of part size to its thickness is large. Invoke springback stabilization (which is described below). It is important to simulate this carefully in the finite element model. another node should be restricted from motion in two directions. The magnitude and direction of the displacements in the springback analysis should be viewed as relative quantities to the plane formed by these three nodes. ? Dynamic effects due to a high punch speed used in the explicit (LS-DYNA) run.. Some typical causes of convergence difficulties and actions you can take to resolve them are listed below. being very thin. A commonly recommended approach is to use displacement constraints at a minimum of three non-colinear nodes. Springback Stabilization If convergence difficulties persist. Use a refined mesh to accurately model curvatures of the formed part.1. A more refined mesh may reduce this slenderness effect. ANSYS will assign the artificial springs large default stiffnesses to simulate a total restraint of the motion of the model at the beginning of each load step.2. You can do this by redefining the tool speed in the explicit analysis (EDLOAD command). ? ? 14. try the following methods (in the order listed): ? Attempt incremental springback by using a higher number of substeps.2004 .. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 127 of 180 Springback analyses are sometimes numerically difficult to solve. The stiffnesses of these springs are directly proportional to the stiffnesses of the elements. This requires some engineering judgment on how and where to apply the boundary conditions in the springback phase. ? Slenderness of the structure. The stabilization method is analogous to attaching artificial springs to all unconstrained degrees of freedom.05. Verify the boundary conditions in the springback analysis. When the tools are removed. and the last node should be restricted from motion in only one direction. you should activate springback stabilization using the SPSCALE and MSCALE arguments of the RIMPORT command. (The picture below illustrates rapid decline of artificial spring stiffness over an iterative cycle. If you have checked all of the above conditions and the analysis is still not converging.OFF. ? The model contains local instabilities: the part.

. (You must input SPSCALE to activate springback stabilization. which involves performing an ANSYS implicit structural analysis followed by an ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis. The SPSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command is a scale factor that you input to scale (up or down) the default initial stiffness of the springs. Prev Next Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Chapter 15. however.ON). is used primarily for applying a preload prior to the transient phase of the analysis. This chapter discusses another form of sequential solution.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 128 of 180 the solution in some cases. the benefit is more robust behavior of the model. (If this preload contains thermally induced strains. Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution In Explicit-to-Implicit Sequential Solution. This type of analysis is useful for modeling temperature-dependent phenomena such as forging. There are two types of implicit-to-explicit sequential solutions.) You can also specify an acceptable small stiffness value using the MSCALE parameter on the RIMPORT command. The springback stabilization method is valid only when the geometric nonlinear option is active (NLGEOM. 20.05. implicit-to-explicit. the implicit structural analysis needs to contain temperatures from an implicit heat transfer analysis. The first type.) The second type is a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution in which the implicit phase is an ANSYS thermal analysis. we explained how to perform explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions for analyzing springback in metal forming processes.2004 .

A detailed description of the implicit-to-explicit solution procedure follows. etc. ? Droptest simulation of prestressed consumer goods Bird-strike of a rotating engine blade (and blade containment) Mounting and bearing loads on a turbine Pressure vessels with initial internal pressure Golf club striking a preloaded (wound) golf ball Dynamic response of bolted joints Dynamic response of a turbine engine under thermal straining ? ? ? ? ? ? In an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. The following is a short list of applications in which this type of implicit-to-explicit solution may be useful. Keep in mind that this analysis must be small strain with linear material behavior.1. 1. The transient portion of the analysis then begins at time zero with a stable preloaded structure. but are not used by LS -DYNA. After defining additional loads. Note Temperatures from the ANSYS implicit structural solution are also written to the drelax file. the explicit dynamic analysis can be conducted.g. adding plasticity). using Jobname1. Structural Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for Preload Unlike explicit-to-implicit solutions..2004 . 20. Run the implicit analysis as described earlier.05.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 129 of 180 15.. In this implicit analysis. This preload is applied in pseudo time over 101 time steps to damp out any kinetic energy. which are used only in forming applications. structural implicitto-explicit sequential solutions can be used for a broad range of engineering problems where a structure's initial stress state affects its dynamic response.. completely constrain all of the nodes of any elements that will only be used in the explicit analysis (e. different material models (e. The first part of this analysis uses the displacement results stored in the drelax file to do a stress initialization to a prescribed geometry. the bird in a bird-strike problem).g. initial velocities.. The only element types that can be used for an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: LINK8 BEAM4 SHELL181 SOLID185 COMBIN14 MASS21 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you must first run an ANSYS implicit structural analysis to apply a preload to the structure being analyzed. The nodal displacements and rotations from the ANSYS implicit solution are written to the ANSYS/LS-DYNA dynamic relaxation file drelax.. See Special Considerations for Thermal Loading for more information on how temperature loads are handled.

0).. Command(s): /FILNAME.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 130 of 180 LINK10 2.Jobname2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved.ALL.2004 .DB. then the database for this implicit run will not be saved. 20. Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4. Solve and finish the analysis.. Define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution (for example. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Note If you do not save your Jobname1.DB file at this point. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3. These additional nodes must be constrained (using D.ALL.05. Save the implicit analysis database to file Jobname1. 5. the bird in a birdstrike simulation. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the implicit analysis. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the implicit results files from being overwritten. but they need to be defined here nonetheless. or a rigid surface that a phone would impact in a droptest).

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6.05. Command(s): EMODIF GUI: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Note that the 2-D explicit element.these nodes must be written to the LS-DYNA input file. Convert implicit element types to corresponding companion explicit element types. but must also be converted manually using EMODIF with the corner nodes only. as long as they are defined by the same number of nodes. The drelax file contains solutions for these nodes. These elements must be converted manually using EMODIF. Higher-order implicit elements can also be used... cannot be used in this type of sequential solution. (PLANE162 is allowed in a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. but they will not automatically be converted to explicit elements when ETCHG is issued. PLANE162. Do NOT delete or unselect the midside nodes . see Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution for details.) The corresponding companion implicit-explicit element type pairs are: Implicit Element Type Explicit Element Type LINK8 LINK160 BEAM4 BEAM161 SHELL181 SHELL163 SOLID185 SOLID164 COMBIN14 COMBI165 MASS21 MASS166 LINK10 LINK167 Command(s): ETCHG.ITE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type Implicit elements not listed above can also be used. Re-enter the preprocessor. 20. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor Page 131 of 180 7.2004 . but the ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit elements do not use these nodes in their definition.

ITE.ITE. Command(s): /SOLU file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. REAL. but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. However. real constants. then you must manually define it on BEAM161 using N and EMODIF. Remove constraints from the additional nodes or elements defined in Step 2. if you are converting BEAM4 to BEAM161. Also.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Preprocessor>Move / Modify>Modify Nodes Page 132 of 180 Note Element types LINK8 and LINK10 lack a third node. 8. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. Command(s): DDELE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Constraints>Delete 10.2004 .. The TYPE. Re-enter the solution processor. you may need to manually define the third node of BEAM161 elements as well. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties/LS-DYNA Options 9. and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained. 20. If you have defined this third node on BEAM4. you must first convert the element type using ETCHG. however.05. If you are using element types LINK8 or LINK10. and loading values on the explicit elements. Redefine the key options. LINK160 and LINK167. boundary conditions. If you did not define the third node on BEAM4.. then the conversion to BEAM161 will be completed automatically when you issue ETCHG. their corresponding companion explicit element types. BEAM4 allows you to define a third. above. and then manually define the third node of LINK160 or LINK167 elements using N and EMODIF. require a third (orientation) node. optional node.

Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. Solve and finish the explicit dynamics analysis.05. which it then uses as a starting point for the explicit analysis. Command(s): EDDRELAX GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options>Dynamic Relax 13. /batch.. In this step.. if necessary. Initialize the structure to the prescribed geometry according to the displacements and rotations contained in the drelax file. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options 14. rotations. 20.db ! Resume implicit database (implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.list resume.drop1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution Page 133 of 180 11. You can then return to the implicit solution. drelax. Read nodal displacements. LS-DYNA applies the load information (displacements and rotations) from the drelax file to the original geometry and calculates the deformed geometry. and write this information to an ASCII LS -DYNA file. and temperatures from the implicit results file. The following is a sample input stream for performing an implicit-to-explicit sequential solution. Command(s): REXPORT GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Constraints>Read Disp 12. Apply any necessary loading for the explicit run.2004 .

2..2..ux. 20.loc.0 d.. BFV.dyna. you can use the BFLIST command to list the temperature loads mentioned above. BFL.uy. you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model for portions of the model that are subjected to temperature loading. In order for temperature loads to take effect in the explicit analysis.0216 ddel.rbvx. TUNIF. If you do not want to include the temperature loads in the explicit analysis.all tb.1.add. Note The temperature loads in the implicit analysis are also written to the drelax file when REXPORT is issued (Step 12 above).x. automatically when the SOLVE or EDWRITE command is issued.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ! problem run previously) ! Change jobname so implicit results are ! not overwritten ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Convert implicit to explicit elements Change material properties Delete constraint loads from implicit analysis Define explicit dynamics nonlinear material models Change an existing material to a rigid body Specify contact algorithms (if any) Select geometry for new constraints to be specified Page 134 of 180 /filename.create ! Create parts for loading edpart.y.05.8 edmp.time.load...ansys ! Specify stress initialization by prescribed ! geometry edpart.1. In the explicit analysis phase. or you can delete them in the explicit analysis..7. BFK. Jobname.assc nsel. LDREAD. BFA..7 edcgen.0 nsel.rigid.plaw. Note that only the SHELL163 and SOLID164 elements can accept temperature loading in a structural implicit-to-explicit sequential solution..0 ! Apply phase = 0 loads save solve finish 15. However. d. and TREF commands.0 finish /solution rexport.s. If you do not want to include a uniform temperature carried over by TUNIF (or BFUNIF. etc.list ! List parts edvel.2004 .drop1. You can then use the BFDELE command to delete any temperatures originally defined with the LDREAD command or one of the "BF" type commands listed above. Any temperature loads that are not deleted will be written to the LS-DYNA input file.. these include temperature loads applied with the BF.dens.TEMP) you should set TUNIF to the reference temperature (which is the temperature specified on the TREF command).1.loc.all. the temperatures contained in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. you can delete them in the ANSYS structural analysis phase (before you convert the model to explicit elements via ETCHG).drop2 /prep7 etchg.ite mp. Special Considerations for Thermal Loading Most types of temperature loads that are applied in the implicit structural analysis will be carried over to the subsequent explicit analysis.. BFUNIF.… ! Apply initial velocities edload.a.rst ! Create DRELAX file from implicit ! results eddrelax.0 ! Set necessary constraints on the rigid ! body.K.1.all.

Prev Troubleshooting a Springback Analysis Prev Next Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next 15.TEMP. set the coefficient of thermal expansion equal to zero (ALPX = 0) so that the analysis will be stable from the beginning of the transient. you should use only 2-D or only 3-D elements in the thermal analysis phase. Therefore. Solve and finish the analysis..NODE. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide drelax Page 135 of 180 file are not used in the LS-DYNA calculation. 1. The only element types that can be used for a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution are: PLANE55 SOLID70 SHELL57 Keep in mind that you cannot combine 2-D and 3-D elements in the subsequent explicit analysis. ANSYS/LS-DYNA does not support applying a thermal transient in a model that includes a thermal preload.05.2. These additional nodes must be constrained to a constant temperature (using D. This is a convenient way to vary the modulus of elasticity in a model with only one material definition. If only temperature-dependent material behavior is desired without the effects of thermally induced strain. You may define any additional nodes and elements that are necessary to complete the explicit solution. Since the temperature loads are step-applied at the beginning of the transient. 20. Run the implicit thermal analysis using Jobname1. Currently. the analysis should be run for a sufficient amount of time to reduce the effects of the thermal shock loading. VALUE). 2. Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution The following is a detailed description of how to perform a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.2004 . Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 3.. These additional nodes and elements may not be part of the thermal analysis. but they can be defined here if desired.

Re-enter the preprocessor. Convert thermal element types to corresponding companion explicit element types.2004 . Only the database file for the subsequent explicit run will be saved. The corresponding companion thermal-explicit element type pairs are: Thermal (Implicit) Element Type Explicit Element Type file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. then the database for this thermal run will not be saved..05. 5. Command(s): /PREP7 GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor 7. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu>File>Save as Page 136 of 180 Note If you do not save your Jobname1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Command(s): SOLVE FINISH GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Solve Main Menu>Finish 4.DB. Save the thermal analysis database to file Jobname1..DB file at this point. 20.Jobname2 GUI: Utility Menu>File>Change Jobname 6. Command(s): /FILNAME. Change to Jobname2 to prevent the thermal results files from being overwritten.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide PLANE55 SHELL57 SOLID70 Command(s): ETCHG,TTE GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type>Switch Elem Type PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164

Page 137 of 180

8. Redefine the key options, real constants, and material property values on the explicit elements. The TYPE, REAL, and MAT numbers from the implicit elements are retained, but the actual key option and real constant values are reset to zero or the default settings. Keep in mind that for temperature loading to take effect, you must use the Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic material model in the explicit analysis. Command(s): KEYOPT R MP etc. GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type/Real Constants/Material Properties 9. Define additional nodes and elements, if needed. You may have already completed this task in the thermal analysis portion of the sequential solution (see Step 2). However, if desired, you could wait until the explicit analysis to complete this step. Command(s): N E GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Create>Nodes/Elements 10. Re-enter the solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide GUI: Main Menu>Solution

Page 138 of 180

11. Read temperature results from the thermal analysis results file ( Jobname1.RTH) and apply them as loads in the explicit analysis. You can only transfer the temperatures from one time point in the thermal analysis; specify this point by inputting the time value or the corresponding load step and substep numbers on the LDREAD command. If you issue LDREAD more than once, the temperature results specified by the last command will be used. Command(s): LDREAD,TEMP GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Temp From ANSYS The temperatures read in are applied as body loads to the nodes in the explicit model. You can use the BFLIST command to list these temperature loads and the BFDELE command to delete them. Command(s): BFLIST BFDELE GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>List Temps/Delete Temps 12. Apply a uniform temerature load, if needed. You can use the TUNIF command (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to apply a uniform temperature load to all nodes in the model. The temperatures read in by LDREAD will overwrite the TUNIF temperature for all nodes that were present in the thermal analysis. Therefore, TUNIF would typically be used only when additional nodes and elements have been defined in the explicit portion of the sequential solution.

Note
If you used TUNIF (or BFUNIF,TEMP) to define a uniform temperature in the thermal analysis, the same uniform temperature will be applied automatically to any new nodes added in the explicit analysis phase. If you do not want to apply a uniform temperature in the explicit analysis, you should set TUNIF to zero (or to the TREF temperature, if it is non-zero). Command(s): TUNIF GUI:

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Uniform Temp

Page 139 of 180

13. Define a reference temperature. The thermal loading is defined as the difference between the applied temperature and the reference temperature. If the reference temperature is not specifically defined, it defaults to zero. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp 14. Apply any additional loading needed for the explicit run. Commands: EDVEL EDLOAD EDCURVE etc. GUI: Main Menu>Solution>Initial Velocity Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Specify Loads Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Curve Options

Note
When you use LDREAD in a thermal -to-explicit analysis, you cannot use the EDLOAD,,TEMP command to apply temperature loading. All other load labels on EDLOAD are valid. 15. Solve and finish the explicit dynamic analysis. The following is a sample input stream for performing a thermal implicit-to-explicit sequential solution.
/clear /title, Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution /view,,1,2,3 /plopts,info,1 /filenam,thermal /prep7 et,1,SOLID70 ! define unique name for thermal analysis

! thermal brick element

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...

20.05.2004

11 cm.ntip. 6. degrees Celsius mptemp.hgen.all nsel.density cannot be temp.11 esize. N/m^2 (Pascal) mpdata.all finish /solu antype.5e-5.all.7e11 ! Poisson's ratio.static time.0.8030. 1.93e11.explicit /prep7 bfdele.kxx.1. constraints ! convert thermal element types to explicit ! kg/m^3 . 900.all save solve fini /post1 set.34. W/m-C ! specific heat.3 mp.s.35 ! Coefficient of thermal expansion. dependent ! add hourglass control ! Define temperature-dependent BISO model ! Specify material temperatures.dens.33.0 edmp.0 nsel. 0. 1.c. 5e-5.tte mp.node esln cm. 2. unitless mpdata. 0.78e-5. 1200 ! Modulus of elasticity.all.1.16. 1.5e11.loc..1.05.etip. 0.all.6. J/kg-C ! create and mesh model ! steady-state heat transfer analysis ! 300 Celsius constraint at far end of beam ! 20.9e11.1.0 nsel.502.5e-5 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.all etchg.temp /wait.0 d.all.3 fini Page 140 of 180 ! thermal conductivity.s.1.0. 20. 1. 0.0 nsel.1 mp.s.0.1.loc.0e3 esel.alpx..5 vmesh.1.hgls.000 W/m^3 heat generation at near end . 5. 6.300. 0.3.32. 0. 0.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide r.0e11.ex.0. 500. 0. 0. ! exterior beam nodes ! hf=6.0 block. 700.all ddele.nuxy.z.5e-5.20. 0.all.0. 1100.1.1.8e11.1.0 W/m^2-C and Tbulk=0 degrees C /filnam.all.conv.last plnsol.temp.ext sf.1.1. m/m-C mpdata.elem bf.2004 .1.0.31.all sfdele.0e-5.5 ! define unique name for explicit analysis ! delete thermal analysis heat generation loads ! delete thermal analysis convection loads ! delete thermal analysis temp..1..z.

e..etip edout..20000. modulus of elasticity) are desired.rth bflist nsel. 20. ! ! Alternately.1200 tbdata.1. Animation plots of both ! stress and strain are helpful in verifying this condition..loc.0.8e6 tbtemp.500 tbdata.7e6 edpart. a thermal shock condition is created.. You ! should run the analysis for a sufficient amount of time ! before adding any structural loads in order for the structure ! to stabilize (i.glstat save solve fini /post1 set.0. you can avoid the ! thermal shock condition by setting the coefficient of thermal ! expansion equal to zero (ALPX=0).s..9e6 tbtemp..15 Page 141 of 180 ! apply temperature body loads ! structural displacement constraints ! use sufficient time (see below) ! Note: Since the temperatures are step-applied at the beginning of ! the transient.0 d.100 edhtime. Large plastic strains can ! develop due to a thermal shock scenario.2 ! 10 times displacement magnification ! X and Y strains are the same .2004 .1...900 tbdata.uz esel.1e6 tbtemp.10 plnsol.1.temp.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide tb.10000.all time.9000.1100 tbdata.g.ux.0.. so care must be ! used when running a thermal-to-explicit sequential solution.all nsel.epto.uy.thermal..all.z. edrst.700 tbdata.0.create eddamp.0 tbdata.0..6 tbtemp.ntip edhist.all. Prev Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solution Next Drop Test Module file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..1.last /dscale..1.x.30000.0.biso..0.05.3e6 tbtemp.2e6 tbtemp.01 fini /solu ldread.last.1. stop vibrating).7000.500 edhist.1. if only temperature-dependent material properties ! (e.8000.

Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module To start ANSYS to include both ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the DTM option. the analysis can be started at a time just prior to impact. drag forces acting on the object as it moves through the air are neglected. The analysis predicts deformations and stresses in the object over a user-specified time interval to characterize the implications of the impact of the object with the target. the module automatically creates the target.2004 . The DTM also offers options to specify initial translational and angular object velocities. to start the ANSYS/LS-DYNA product with the DTM in interactive. For example. In a typical drop test. It allows you to quickly orient your model relative to the target. you will find many advantages to using the Drop Test Module. When this option is used. The Drop Test Module is intended for use in the ANSYS Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. The Drop Test Module is specially designed so that a user having little experience with explicit dynamics can easily perform a drop test analysis. Thus. contact surface friction coefficients. Drop Test Module 16. graphics mode. include -dtm in the line as well as a productname that represents an ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. GUI features pertaining to the Drop Test Module have been implemented using the ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL). For example.. A drop test involves orienting an object with respect to an assumed gravitational field and allowing it to drop from some specified height under the influence of gravity onto a flat..2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. specify solution controls. Introduction The Drop Test Module (DTM) is an optional add-on feature to ANSYS/LS-DYNA product. 20. the object is dropped from rest and the target lies in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity (g). do one of the following: ? If you are starting ANSYS from a command line (UNIX) or DOS prompt (Windows). For all drop test cases. and perform the explicit dynamic analysis of the test. For most drop tests. along with the Tool Command Language and Toolkit (Tcl/Tk). rigid surface (the target).05. Prev Next Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Thermal Implicit-to-Explicit Solution Module Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Prev Drop Test Module Next 16. and a target orientation that is not perpendicular to the direction of g. the DTM automatically calculates the object's translational velocity and applies it at the start of the analysis.1. This reduces computation time. The DTM greatly simplifies the procedure for simulating a drop test. The DTM provides a streamlined GUI that guides you through the steps involved in a drop test analysis.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Drop Test Module ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 142 of 180 Prev Next Chapter 16.

Basic Drop Test Analysis Procedure 16.3. Typical Drop Test Procedure The step-by-step procedure described in this section can be used as a guide for most types of drop test analyses.. In the DTM. The basic procedure outlined here assumes that the object has a zero initial velocity. properties. 16. Make sure that there are not materials defined with either density or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. specification of a non-zero initial velocity (translational and/or angular). Refer to Conducting an ANSYS Session in the ANSYS Operations Guide for more information on starting ANSYS. rigid surface (target). Before you begin. it is important for you to understand how the screen coordinates are used within the Drop Test Module. and the object is being dropped onto a target that lies in a plane which is normal to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. such as inclusion of surface friction effects.2004 . neglecting surface friction. choose one of the ANSYS/LS-DYNA options under Product selection.. and orientation. STEP 1: Create or import the model Before entering the Drop Test Module. and choose the Use ANSYS Drop Test Module option. Thus.1. including damping. you must build or import the model of the object to be dropped. the screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis (vertical) is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g).3. Only elements that are compatible with LS-DYNA (that is.1.1. All elements should be defined and all material properties. See Screen Coordinates Definition in this user's guide for more details. should be specified. 20. You can also have ANSYS automatically include the DTM option by setting the following environment variable: ANSYS60_DTM=ON See the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for UNIX or the ANSYS Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for details. and modification of the target size.3. explicit dynamic elements) should be included in the model.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide type the following in a command line: ansys60 -p dyna -dtm -g ? Page 143 of 180 If you are starting ANSYS using the ANSYS Launcher (UNIX) or the ANSYS Interactive dialog box (Windows). are discussed in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. Prev Drop Test Module Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Drop Test Module Next Typical Drop Test Procedure Next 16.05. screen coordinates are used as a convenient method for keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. A typical test would involve dropping an object from some height in a gravitational field onto a flat. More advanced features.

no other ANSYS menus are available until you choose OK or Cancel. You can apply both alpha (mass weighted) and beta (stiffness weighted) damping using the EDDAMP command. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. Advanced options that are not commonly used are covered in Advanced DTM Features in this user's guide. rotate the target. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.Specify magnitude of acceleration due to gravity (g).3. Target tab -. and the number of times data is written to the results file and to the time history output file. it is good practice to save the existing database under a unique name (pick Utility Menu > File > Save As).Modify initial translational and/or angular velocity of the object. you will not be able to set up the DTM. To avoid time increment degeneration problems.. Status tab -.Display the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. analysis start time. and prism elements Avoid small elements Avoid acute-angled elements Use as uniform a mesh as possible ? ? ? We recommend that a certain degree of damping be applied to the model to reduce the oscillatory response. 16. and the estimated time at the end of solution. follow these guidelines when building the model: ? Avoid triangular.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 144 of 180 modulus of elasticity equal to zero. The most common drop test analysis parameters are on the Basic tab. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Setup Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. object orientation. initial translational and angular velocity.05. object drop height. 20. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . The remainder of this section (STEP 3 through STEP 9) discusses the options you would use during a typical drop test analysis. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box appears that includes several tabbed pages. A description of each tab is presented below along with the tasks you can perform within the tab: Basic tab -. Otherwise..Modify dimensions and material properties of the target. See Elements in this user's guide for more information. run time after impact.2. Note After completing the model and before entering the DTM. STEP 2: Set up the DTM You set up your analysis in the DTM by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. While the Drop Test Set-up dialog box is displayed. Velocity tab -. tetrahedron. and define contact and friction properties for the target. while parameters you may occasionally need to modify are included on most of the remaining tabs.1.

6. STEP 3: Define the magnitude of (g) Page 145 of 180 You must specify the magnitude of (g) by choosing the Basic tab. 16. For more information on the tasks involved in STEP 3 through STEP 6. that is. STEP 5: Orient the object In the DTM. or the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. or you can type your own value.2004 .3. as well as the run duration time after impact. Perform any of the following verification steps: 1. or a statement displayed in red indicating that the set-up data is unacceptable. 32. STEP 7: Solve Before solving. Under the Number of Results Output heading. 16. and specify a reference point. check them in the ANSYS Output window.. ANSYS attempts to automatically create the target (unless you have already created it by choosing the Target tab) and displays a statement in black print at the end of the Status tab page indicating that all the set-up data is acceptable and you can proceed to solve the analysis.1.. etc.RST) and to the time-history file ( file.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide 16. There you have the option of orienting the object by using the DTM Rotate tool. you pick a (g) value corresponding to the test specific system of units (386.3. STEP 6: Specify solution controls You can access solution control options on the Basic tab. you can specify the number of times results are written to the results file ( file. you type the drop height.3.4. you can specify when the analysis starts (near impact time or at drop time). see Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide. Under the Solution time heading. The drop height that you input must be in length units that are consistent with the rest of the analysis (gravity for example). The drop height is measured along the screen Y axis from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point within the model. Review the information under all of the tabs.3. See Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5. 2.1.1. 16. 16.05. View the object and the target in the ANSYS Graphics window.2. Click on the Status tab since this displays your most updated input data. You can orient the object with respect to the gravitational field under the Set Orientation heading on the Basic tab. Reference point options include the lowest object point. If you choose the Status tab.1.1.4. you should make sure that you are satisfied with the information in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. 20. 3.3. or a statement in yellow print indicating that you should proceed with caution because the data produced error messages. If you receive either the second or third statement regarding error messages. the screen coordinates are automatically defined with the Y axis directed opposite to the direction of (g).). Under the Drop Height heading. STEP 4: Specify the drop height You must specify the drop height on the Basic tab. Under the Gravity heading.7. the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. or by picking nodes on the object that define a vector parallel to the screen Y direction.3.HIS).

20.8.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 146 of 180 more information on using the Status tab. By redefining the object Y direction.9. You can define a vector to be parallel to the screen Y coordinate system by picking two nodes on the object. you can choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results to animate dynamic results (such as Von Mises stresses) for the dropped object over the analysis time duration. 16. There are two important points you should understand about screen coordinates: ? In the DTM. STEP 9: Obtain Time-History Results In addition to animating the results. and are represented graphically in the lower left corner of the ANSYS Graphics window.1. and see Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general information on producing animations in ANSYS. ? The screen coordinates are always defined so that the Y axis is in the screen “up” direction.3. 16.2004 . Note A database that you save from the current version of ANSYS/LS-DYNA DTM is not compatible with a previous version of ANSYS/LS -DYNA DTM. all of the standard ANSYS menus become usable again. (g). Screen Coordinates Definition When you first enter the DTM.3. 16. you are specifying the relationship between the object and the gravitational field. The screen coordinates also determine the default drop test viewing orientation.3.05. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For animating results. (g). which are fixed. because the screen Y direction is always assumed to be “up” or opposite to the direction of the acceleration due to gravity. Make changes if necessary.1.You then initiate the LS-DYNA solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Solve. At this time. which is defined as follows: ? The screen X direction is "right" (to the viewer's right). You can reorient the object coordinate system using the DTM Rotate tool. Screen coordinates are used as a convenient way of keeping track of the relationship between the object to be dropped and the gravitational field. screen Cartesian coordinates. See Postprocessing and Postprocessing . Object coordinates can be rotated with respect to the screen coordinates.Graph and List Time-History Variables in this user's guide for more information. The screen Y direction is "up" on the screen. See Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. are defined automatically. See Postprocessing . it is recommended that you choose to start the analysis at drop time. The object coordinate system is the coordinate system in which the finite element model was defined.2. then choose OK. STEP 8: Animate results Once the solution is completed.. you can also review the analysis results at specific points in the model as a function of time by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History.Animation in this user's guide for information on the Animate Over Results dialog box.. screen coordinates are always defined so that the screen Y axis is in the direction opposite to the acceleration due to gravity.

The Drop Test Module does not alter the model of the object in any way. All parameters in the Drop Test Module are subject to redefinition after being initially defined. You should avoid using this word as a keyword or a parameter name. Some parameter names used internally by the Drop Test Module begin with the underscore character (_). To use the option to start the analysis near impact time.3. the default assumption is the current screen Y axis view. by default. it will require more computation time. you will notice that. The DTM does create a model of a target after you specify a new orientation for the object. 20. However. You may want to adjust the Solution time option to begin the analysis “at drop time”. while this option provides full animation of the drop scenario. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Prev Starting ANSYS With the Drop Test Module Advanced DTM Features Next Advanced DTM Features file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Additional Notes on the Use of the DTM This section contains some notes of interest and practices to follow that will help you to use the DTM more effectively. a keyword is created that is related to the filtering of menu picks in the DTM.. coupling of components within an object is allowed.05.3. The keyword is DTFILT. the initial angular velocity must be zero. You can modify any input set up parameter any number of times before entering the solution phase. which is directed opposite to the acceleration due to gravity (g). After doing so. However. This component name is used in issuing commands associated with LS-DYNA. You should avoid using this name. a component containing all the nodes in the object is automatically created and given the name _dtdrpob. so you should avoid using parameter names that begin with an underscore. 16. (This is true for any ANSYS analysis. the target is recreated automatically to reflect the change when you click on the Target tab or the Status tab. Some of these points were mentioned briefly in previous sections. The DTM assumes that there are no constraints imposed on the object being dropped.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 147 of 180 The screen Z axis is along the normal from the screen to the viewer. You should avoid using these names. you will observe that the redefined target is at a position consistent with the specified drop height. This is due to the default option to begin the analysis near impact time. the target is located nearly in contact with the object. Within the DTM. After you specify a drop height. The target is created with just a small separation between the object and target. You will see that whenever an input parameter that affects the initial target/object orientation is changed..) If you do not choose to orient the object. Parameters _dtcgnum and _dtlownum are used for time-history postprocessing plots and lists. or "out". as it could interfere with the filtering of menu options. ? During initialization.

and Two Views of the Target(b) is an alternate view of the target that more clearly shows its geometry. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinates..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Prev Drop Test Module Page 148 of 180 Next 16. The program will calculate the initial translational velocity at the start of the analysis based on the initial velocity input and the acceleration due to gravity. the translational and angular velocities of the object being dropped are assumed to be zero at the time of the drop. You should always input initial velocities corresponding to the time of the "drop". 16. you can choose to input the velocity in terms of screen coordinates or object coordinates. Y. You can specify initial translational or angular velocity by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Velocity tab. You can impose an initial translational and/or angular velocity on the object being dropped. The large face that has an outward normal vector directed along the screen Y axis (by default) is the “top” face of the target. under Solution Time in this user's guide. Advanced DTM Features This section discusses advanced features of the Drop Test Module that are provided as a convenience.. Two Views of the Target file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. After choosing the desired option. Modifying the Target The target is one rigid SOLID164 brick element. The “near impact time” starting option is further discussed in Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . in certain cases when you specify initial angular velocities.4.1.2004 . The initial velocities that you specify are applied via the EDVEL command. the components are resolved into the object coordinates internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. and Z components of the velocity. modify the target's position and properties. The two large faces lie in planes that are parallel to each other. Under either the Translational Velocity or Angular Velocity headings. as discussed below. but may not be required in a typical drop test analysis. This command is discussed further under Initial Velocity in this user's guide. Two Views of the Target(a) shows the target in the default drop test viewing orientation.2.4.05. which is created automatically in the Drop Test Module and is always assumed to be stationary. the “near impact time” starting option is not valid and the GUI prevents you from making this choice. These features include options to specify initial translational and angular velocities. and specify contact surface friction coefficients. See Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. 16.4. however. Two Views of the Target(b) shows that the target has two faces that are much larger than the other four. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. simply input the X. Details on these features are included in the following sections. Object Initial Velocity By default. 20.

4.05. You can align the target's center of gravity either underneath the object's center of gravity.2. Target Position You can change the target position by redefining the reference for the target center. there are two options from which you can choose for centering the target in the screen X-Z plane.1TL. Under the Dimensions heading. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The program calculates TL based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 149 of 180 It is expected that the default target position.. By default.2004 .2. and contact parameters will be acceptable for most analyses. and the thickness of the target in the direction normal to these two faces is 0. 20. or underneath the object's lowest Y coordinate point. material properties. Target Size The default target size is based on the characteristic target length TL. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choose the Target tab. orientation.2.1.. 16. size. the sides of the two large square faces of the target are of length 2T L.4. To change the target position. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. 16. But if necessary. you can change the characteristics of the target by following the procedures outlined in the following sections.

Using this option to change the target size does not alter the location of the target center point. modulus of elasticity. you type an angle in degrees that is used to rotate the target about the screen Z axis (which is normal to the screen and toward the viewer) using a right-hand rule. the target is oriented so that its two large faces are normal to the screen Y axis. and stores the corresponding material number.4. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. The contact is specified via the EDCGEN command. choose Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up..RIGID. a material density. The Drop Test Module searches through all materials belonging to the object.7 The material number ( MAT) used is one greater than the highest material number used by the model of the object being dropped. 16. and the dynamic friction coefficient ( FD). density.4. Details on the contact stiffness and time step can be found under Contact Surfaces in this user's guide. automatic single surface contact (ASSC or AG) is defined for the entire model. then the target is recreated with sides that are twice the default length and a thickness that is half its default value. the target is defined to be rigid using the EDMP command: EDMP. Target Material Properties Although the target is always defined to be rigid. and Poisson’s ratio corresponding to this material number are also specified as the modulus. finds the one with the lowest elastic modulus. density. This is ideal for creating an inclined plane target. If you change the target's size. Thus. and therefore normal to (g). 16.2. Specifying Friction Coefficients In the Drop Test Module. it is initially returned to its default orientation so that it is always modified beginning from the default. enter the Young's modulus.2.4. Target Orientation By default. the target is re-drawn automatically.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 150 of 180 You can change the size of the target by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up then choosing the Target tab. choose the Target tab. As an example. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation.MAT. density. 16. the target is re-drawn automatically. 20. If you know the actual target material properties.5. it is preferred that you input them directly. These file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If you input Ls=2.0 and Ts=0.4.2. If the target is not in its default orientation when this option is chosen. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. under the Material Properties heading. To modify the target orientation. and Poisson's ratio.5. The default property values used for the target depend on the material properties used for the object. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. one for scaling the target length (L s ) and one for scaling the target thickness (T s).2004 . Under the Dimensions heading. The modulus.05. Under the Orientation angle heading. But you may need to change the target orientation for your particular model. the sides of the two large square faces are of length 2LsTL. and Poisson's ratio are still required for the LS-DYNA solution. By default. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set -up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information. you can enter two target scaling factors.. To specify the properties. and Poisson’s ratio of the target material.1T sTL. If you change the target's orientation. and the target height is 0. you may want to simulate the object being dropped onto an inclined plane. You can change the static friction coefficient ( FS). For example.7.3. then. choose the Target tab.

05. 20.. the most basic and frequently addressed parameters appear on the first tab.0. Each information group is logically arranged on a tab.2004 . with each of the next two tabs providing more advanced parameters. Most DTM analyses involve using the default settings for parameters on these two tabs.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 151 of 180 coefficients apply to all contact surfaces.. You access it by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab.Basic Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . including the target surface. your changes are applied to the ANSYS database only when you click OK to close the dialog box. If you do not change parameters FS. are Basic. Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box You use the Drop Test Set-up dialog box for inputting parameters for an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis that uses the Drop Test Module (DTM). before committing the parameters to the ANSYS database (by clicking OK in the dialog box). or FD. The tabs. in order from left to right.5. and the estimated time at the end of solution. Note When you make changes to any tabbed page. Prev Typical Drop Test Procedure Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Module Next Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Next 16. The Status tab displays the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. then choosing the Target tab. Velocity. See Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide for more information.2. This tab is located furthest to the right because you are encouraged to examine its contents as a final set up task. and Status. You do however have the option of modifying these parameters as needed. then they have default values of 0. 16. The Drop Test Set-up dialog box consists of four tabbed “pages. You can input values for these coefficients by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Set Up. The target is then created and loads are applied.1. initial translational and angular velocity. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box 16.5.” each of which contains a group of related DTM set-up information.5. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to change some of the advanced parameters. Target.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 152 of 180 Use the Basic tab to specify the options described below. The values for gravity you can choose from the drop down list are: ? zero (default) 386. The direction is assumed to be in the negative Y direction. ? Height field: (default = 0) You type the value of the drop height in units consistent with the units of length used in creating the object being dropped. Gravity -. 20.4 32.Specify the magnitude of gravity. The object's coordinate components of the gravity loading are imposed on the object internally by the DTM. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . referenced to the screen coordinates.05.Specify values for the drop height and the height reference point.. using three separate EDLOAD commands just before the problem is solved.81 9810 ? ? ? ? Any value that you choose must have units that are consistent with the units used in the model of the object being dropped.2 9. Drop Height -.. You only need to input the magnitude of gravity. Magnitude of g drop down list and text field: You have the option to select one of the standard values for gravity or type in a customized value. The height is always measured along the Y axis (referenced to the screen coordinates) from the center of the top face of the target to some height reference point in the object.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 153 of 180 Reference drop down list: You choose the reference point from the following options: ? Lowest Object Point (default): Reference point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value. If the orientation of the target is modified from the default orientation (see Target Orientation in this User's Guide).Specify the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field. the location of the center of the top face of the target at the time of the drop is not altered. and the calculation is not repeated. Therefore. which allows you to define a vector either by picking two nodes. Start analysis at drop time radio button: You click this option to include the entire time it takes for the object to drop from the specified height in the analysis. is not equal to the specified drop height. ? Start analysis near impact time radio button (default): You click this option to save computation time that would be expended as the object drops through the air. this option accounts for rigid body rotation and is useful if you want to produce animations that include frames of the entire drop test. 20. the definition of the drop height outlined above is not changed. it is taken into account in calculating the velocity at the start of the analysis. then you will notice that the separation between the center of the target and the reference point. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity be the second node. then the node on the object with the minimum Y coordinate value is the reference point. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick. measured along the screen Y axis. If this option is used. By default. Set Orientation -.05. If there is more than one node at this Y coordinate.Specify when the drop test analysis will start and how long it will run. then the information is stored. The velocity at the start of the analysis is calculated automatically assuming the object is a rigid body and there is no resistance due to the air. ? Rotate button: You click this button to access the DTM Rotate dialog box. To use this option. then one of them is chosen arbitrarily to be the reference point. Object CG: Reference point is the object's center of gravity as calculated by ANSYS. the separation between the target and the reference point equals the drop height. This is because the target is created so that there is only a small separation. ? If the analysis is set to begin near impact time (default).2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if the analysis is set to begin at drop time. the target is oriented such that its top face is normal to the screen Y axis. which allows you to dynamically rotate the object on the screen. . Although extra computation time is expended that is not directly involved with the drop test impact.. If an initial translational velocity is applied. This dialog box contains a Help button that you can click for more information. ? Solution Time -. Note You should always define the drop height so that all nodes on the object are above the plane of the top face of the target prior to the drop. starting from when the object drops. If the center of gravity has been previously calculated for some other purpose. the angular velocity must be zero. Pick Nodes button: You click this button to access a picking dialog box. which is the case just before impact. However..

5.2004 . Help: Displays this help topic. Number of Results Output -. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button..HIS. On time history file field: (default = 1000) You type the number of times that the output is written to time-history file Jobname.For further information about the options on the Basic tab.Velocity Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. ? On Results file field: (default = 100) You type the number of times that the output is written to results file Jobname. ? ? Related Information -. Velocity Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box . ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. See the EDHTIME command for details. See the EDRST command for details.RST. 20. You may define additional nodes. Note here that a component containing the lowest point and the node closest to the object's center of gravity is automatically created for time-history postprocessing. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Typical Drop Test Procedure Modifying the Target Picking Nodes Object Initial Velocity Postprocessing Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? ? ? 16.3.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 154 of 180 Run time after impact field: You type the time in seconds that you want the analysis to run after the object hits the target.05.Specify the number of times that the output is written to the results file and to the time-history file. Refer to the EDHIST command for details.

Specify the initial translational velocity of the object being dropped at the beginning of the drop time.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 155 of 180 Use the Velocity tab to specify the object velocities. If these conditions are not met. the initial angular velocity must be zero. Y Component field: (default = 0) The Y component of the translational velocity.2004 .Specify the initial angular velocity of the object being dropped. Z Component field: (default = 0) The Z component of the translational velocity. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system or screen coordinate system (default). Translational Velocity -.. ANSYS automatically sets this option when you choose Solve. even if the analysis is set to begin near impact. ANSYS will automatically start the analysis at drop time. X Component field: (default = 0) The X component of the translational velocity. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system.05. 20.. and it will automatically recreate the target. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM. the components are resolved into the object coordinate system internally by the DTM before being input on the EDVEL command. and it automatically recreates the target to reflect this change. and choose to start the analysis near impact time. If you enter the velocity relative to the screen coordinate system. as described below. X Component field (default = 0): The X component of the angular velocity. ? ? ? Angular Velocity -. The angular velocity is about the object centroid in units of radians/(unit time). If you apply a translational velocity other than zero. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Applying an angular velocity other than zero is only valid when starting the analysis at drop time. ? Velocity relative to drop down list: You choose either object coordinate system (default) or screen coordinate system.

Target Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box .Specify the target's position and size.For further information about the options on the Velocity tab.5. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. Help: Displays this help topic. ? ? Related Information -. use the Target tab to specify the options described below.Target Tab When you choose the Target tab.. Also.4. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.05. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Dimensions -.. 20. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Object Initial Velocity Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? 16. Z Component field (default = 0): The Z component of the angular velocity. the target is automatically created.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 156 of 180 Y Component field (default = 0): The Y component of the angular velocity.2004 .

0) You type a scale factor that changes the thickness of the target from the default thickness. The default thickness is equal to 0. if you modify the orientation so that the angle is greater than 89o or less than -89o with the screen Y axis.2004 . If only a single node exists on the object at this point. then the input is considered to be invalid.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 157 of 180 Center target using drop down list. ? Orientation angle -..AG) or Single Surface (EDCGEN . Therefore. The default length is determined by ANSYS. Thickness scale factor field: (default = 1. divided by 2. A warning is printed to the screen. The point's Y coordinate is fixed when the drop height is specified. divided by 2. ? Automatic contact type drop down list: Choose either the General (EDCGEN . Then.Specify the rotation of the target about the screen Z axis (normal to the screen and pointing toward you).05. Material Properties -. The drop height loses its meaning when the normal to the target’s large faces is perpendicular to the screen Y axis. Rotation about screen Z field: (default = 0) You type the rotation angle in degrees about the screen Z axis. then the screen X coordinate value of this node is used as the point's X coordinate.Specify the automatic single surface contact options described below. Similarly. ? Young's Modulus field: (default = object's lowest Young's modulus) You type the target's Young's modulus in units consistent with the analysis. and the target is returned to its previous orientation. based on the overall dimensions of the object being dropped.. Material properties are used for a contact stiffness calculation and a time-step calculation. ? ? Contact -. You can change the position of the target by changing the location of the point on the center of the top face of the target in the screen X-Z plane. Object CG: The screen X value at the object center of gravity is used as the point's X value.ASSC) options: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Poisson's Ratio field: (default = object's Poisson's ratio) You type the target's Poisson's ratio.1 times the default length. Density field: (default = object's highest density) You type the target's density in units consistent with the analysis.Specify the material properties of the target. then the X coordinate of the point is found by first selecting only those nodes located at the minimum Y point. and the screen Z value is used as the point's Z value. If there is more than one node at the minimum Y point. 20. and the screen Z value of the cg is used as the point's Z value. the point's Z value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen Z values in the selected set of nodes. You can designate this point with one of the following options in the drop down list: ? Lowest Object Point: (default) The lowest object point is the point on the object with the minimum screen Y coordinate value.0) You type a scale factor that changes the length of the target from the default length. ? ? Length scale factor field: (default = 1. the point's X value is equal to the sum of the maximum and minimum screen X values in the selected set of nodes.

and does not apply to shell edge (SE) contact nor to beam contact. see the following sections in this user's guide. It is efficient for large deformation problems where general areas of contact are not known beforehand. except as noted: ? Modifying the Target Definition of Contact Types Define Contact Components in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ? ? ? 16. ? ? Related Information--For further information about the options on the Target tab. 20. Status Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box ... Help: Displays this help topic.05. The option also includes shell edge (SE) contact and improved beam contact.0) You type the dynamic friction coefficient.0) You type the static friction coefficient. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button. ? Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.5. Dynamic friction coeff field: (default = 0. but not as robust.2004 .5.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 158 of 180 General: (default and preferred option) Contact that is established when a surface of one body contacts itself or the surface of another body. Single Surface: Same definition and application as General option.Status Tab file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? ? Static friction coeff field: (default = 0.

[black print] This statement indicates that all the current setup data is acceptable and you can click OK to commit the settings. or is otherwise “nonstandard” (for example. and the total time at the end of solution. Then.05. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.. Then change settings as appropriate and recheck the Status tab until the first message in black appears.2004 . if necessary. Unsuccessful set-up. change settings as appropriate and re-check the Status tab until the first message in black appears for problem situations. ? ? It is recommended that you check this information in the Status tab along with a view of the object and the target in the in the ANSYS Graphics window before you click OK in the Drop Test Set-up dialog box as this commits all the set up data to the ANSYS database. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine what is causing them to occur. Proceed with caution. One of the following statements is also displayed: ? Successful set-up. initial translational and rotational velocity. See error messages. See error messages.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 159 of 180 Use the Status tab to check the values currently set for acceleration due to gravity. Click OK to commit the settings. Click OK to commit the settings. [red print] This statement indicates that the current set-up data has produced errors that are serious enough to prevent a solution. The target will not be created in this situation.. Ready to drop. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Drop Test Set-up dialog box since the ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You should examine the error messages in the ANSYS Output window to determine the causes of these problems. 20. [yellow print] This statement indicates that some of the current set-up data could be problematic in enabling a solution. a zero entry detected for the value of gravity).

Choose OK again in the Pick Nodes dialog box because the second node is the object's center of gravity by default. The “up” direction is defined as the direction going from the first node that you pick to the second node that you pick.05. You use the Pick Nodes dialog box in specifying the orientation of the model with respect to the gravitational field by picking two nodes to define a vector in the screen y direction.. ? Pick Two Nodes option: To specify the model's orientation by picking two nodes: 1. Pick the first node. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the node that you picked and the object's center of gravity. The object is aligned such that the vector you created will be parallel to the Y direction of the screen coordinate system. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.2004 . 3. ? Page 160 of 180 Help: Displays this help topic. or by picking one node and having the object's center of gravity (cg) be the second node.. Pick the first node. 3. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..6. 2. see the following section in this user's guide: ? Using the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Advanced DTM Features Prev Picking Nodes Drop Test Module Next Picking Nodes Next 16. 2. button on the Basic tab of the Drop Test Set-up dialog box. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box.. Picking Nodes The Pick Nodes dialog box appears after you have clicked on the Pick Nodes. 20. Choose OK in the Pick Nodes dialog box. Related Information -. ? Pick One Node and Use CG option: To specify the model's orientation by picking one node and using the object's center of gravity (calculated by ANSYS): 1. Pick the second node. 4.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide last time that you clicked the OK button. The object's orientation changes according to the vector defined by the two nodes that you picked.For further information about the options on the Status tab.

Maximum text fields -.. see the following sections: ? Basic Tab of the Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box in this user's guide Graphical Picking in the ANSYS Operations Guide ? Prev Drop Test Set-up Dialog Box Prev Postprocessing .7.Animation You access the Animate Over Results dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Animate Results. Animation time delay (sec) text field -.5 seconds). Increment result set text field -. Include last SBST (substep) for each LDST (load step) check box -. If the Minimum field is left blank or equals 0. Stress-total.For further information related to the Pick Nodes dialog box. The default is unchecked. and the specific subset of the chosen parameter in the right column (for example.Specify whether or not to force the last result data set in a load step to be animated.Animation Next 16. Stress. 20. Result Set Range.Animation Drop Test Module Next Postprocessing . Load Step Range.2004 .Specify the increment between result data set (default = 1).Specify the time delay between frames during the animation (default = 0. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Animate Over Results dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box.Specify what parameter is to be animated in the left column (for example. the default is the first data set. Postprocessing . Model result data radio buttons -. If the Maximum field is left blank or equals 0.Specify the type of results data to be used for the animation sequence. Stress-plastic). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.. von Mises Stress). ? ? Range Minimum. meaning that the last data set is not included in the animation.Specify the first and last data sets over which the animation should span. the default is the last data set. Display Type two -column selection list -. 1st Principal Stress.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 161 of 180 Related Information -. The Animate Over Results dialog box is based on the ANSYS ANDATA command and allows you to specify animation options as described below. Options are: ? Current Load Step (default).

2004 .05. Postprocessing . as well as changing its direction.8.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Postprocessing . Related Information -. ? After you choose OK. An Animation Controller dialog box will also be displayed that includes controls for starting and stopping the animation.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ? Page 162 of 180 Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Animate Over Results dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.For further information related to the Animate Over Results dialog box.Graph and List Time-History Variables You access the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box or the List Time-History Variables dialog box after solution by choosing Main Menu > Drop Test > Time History. 20. ? Prev Picking Nodes Prev Next Postprocessing . the animation will be created and will be displayed. see the following sections: ? STEP 8: Animate results in this user's guide.. Graph and Time-History Variables Dialog Box Note file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Graph and List Time-History Variables Drop Test Module Next 16. This dialog box includes its own Help button where more detailed information is available. Help: Displays information on the ANDATA command from the ANSYS Commands Reference. Animation in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide..

. Action Buttons ? OK: Applies the settings on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box to the ANSYS database and closes the dialog box. ? ? Item and Comp to be graphed/listed two -column selection list: You first select Displacement (default). Help: Displays this help topic. Initial Low Pt. or Acceleration as the item to be graphed or listed. Only the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box is shown above. or z component of the chosen item referenced to the object or screen coordinate system.Animation Methods Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Appendix A. Use the applicable dialog box to display the time-history results of a drop test analysis as described below: Nodes to graph/list drop down list: You select one of the following choices as the node(s) to graph or list: ? CG and Lowest Pt. Center of grav. 20. y. as initially specified will be graphed or listed.: (default) Both the center of gravity and the lowest point of the object.: Only the lowest point of the object. Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods A. Time Integration file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .For further information related to the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box. Cancel: Cancels any changes that you have made on the Graph/List Time-History Variables dialog box since the last time that you clicked the OK button.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 163 of 180 The contents of the Graph Time-History Variables dialog box and the List TimeHistory Variables dialog box are the same so this help topic describes both of them. as initially specified will be graphed or listed. see the following sections in this user's guide: ? Postprocessing Screen Coordinates Definition ? Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Postprocessing . then select the x. The default item and component is displacement in the Y direction referenced to the object coordinate system. ? ? Related Information -.05. Velocity.1.: Only the center of gravity of the object will be graphed or listed..

Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence.. and F cont is the contact force. but convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems.2004 . Convergence tools are provided. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated: where file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. the solution is unconditionally stable when the stiffness matrix [K] is linear. a central difference time integration method is used.05.1.2. Implicit Time Integration Inertia effects of mass and damping ([C] and [M]) are typically not included for implicit time integration. The solution requires inversion of the nonlinear stiffness matrix [K]. and large time steps can be taken.1. For nonlinear problems: ? The solution is obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson method). Accelerations evaluated at time t are given by: where {F text } is the applied external and body force vector {F tint} is the internal force vector which is given by: Fhg is the hourglass resistance force. ? ? ? A. 20. Explicit Time Integration For the explicit method.1. Average acceleration – displacements evaluated at time t+ t are given by: For linear problems.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 164 of 180 A.

No inversion of the stiffness matrix is required. the time step can be arbitrarily large. Very small time steps are required to maintain the stability limit.. the explicit method is useful only for very short transients.1. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector. No convergence checks are needed since the equations are uncoupled. Implicit Method For linear problems. the implicit solution is always stable. Due to this very small time step size.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide and Page 165 of 180 The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {X 0 }: For nonlinear problems: ? A lumped mass matrix is required for simple inversion.. A. Stability Limit A. The equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly).2. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. that is. The major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces. 20. Explicit Method The explicit solution is only stable if the time step size is smaller than the critical time step size: where max = largest natural circular frequency. For nonlinear problems.05.Graph and List TimeHistory Variables Prev Stability Limit Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next Stability Limit Next A. ? ? ? ? ? Prev Postprocessing .2004 .2.2. the time step size may become small due to convergence difficulties.2.

9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a scale factor of 0. For stability reasons.. Prev Stability Limit Prev Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. As an example. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size ANSYS/LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 166 of 180 Prev Next Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Methods Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Methods Next A. Substituting max into the equation for critical time step yields: t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the rod of length l.3.2004 .05. we will compute the critical time step size of a rod. Critical Time Step Size of a Rod The critical time step is based on the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion. Note that the critical time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed).. The natural frequency is given by: where (c is the wave propagation velocity).4.

Material Model Examples This appendix provides example input for most of the material models available in ANSYS/LSDYNA. and For shell elements: For triangular shell elements: For all shell elements: Prev Critical Time Step Size of a Rod Prev Material Model Examples ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Next Material Model Examples Next Appendix B.05.1. l. ANSYS/LS-DYNA Material Models The following table lists ANSYS/LS-DYNA material models and their corresponding LS-DYNA commands. c.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 167 of 180 The characteristic length. Inc. The validity of these example materials is not guaranteed by ANSYS. B. The LS -DYNA material model number is also listed. The “Example” column indicates whether example material input is provided for each model.2004 . are dependent on element type. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that material data used in an ANSYS/LS-DYNA analysis are accurate and appropriate for the structure being modeled. and the wave propagation velocity... Note The input values given in this appendix are provided as examples only. The example input listings are shown in file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For beam elements: l = length of the element. 20.

..05. .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide the section that follows this table.2004 *MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC _PLASTICITY 33 *MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW _PLASTICITY *MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT _PLASTICITY *MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE *MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY *MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO *MAT_GEOLOGICAL_CAP_MODEL *MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM *MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM *MAT_HONEYCOMB 64 19 22 72 24 18 10 25 53 62 57 63 26 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS Material Model Isotropic Elastic Orthotropic Elastic Anisotropic Elastic Elastic Fluid Blatz-Ko Rubber Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Viscoelastic Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Transversely Anisotropic FLD Bilinear Kinematic Plastic Kinematic 3 Parameter Barlat Plasticity Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Composite Damage Concrete Damage Piecewise Linear Plasticity Powerlaw Plasticity Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic Geological Cap Closed Cell Foam Viscous Foam Low Density Foam Crushable Foam Honeycomb Foam LS-DYNA Command Page 168 of 180 *MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC *MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID *MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER *MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER *MAT_VISCOELASTIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL LSExample DYNA MAT # 1 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 1 No 7 Yes 27 Yes 6 Yes 3 4 Yes No *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC _ELASTIC_PLASTIC 37 Yes *MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY _ANISOTROPIC 39 *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC *MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT 3 3 36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No 20.

Isotropic Elastic Example: High Carbon Steel MP.2.ex.05.2004 .210e9 ! Pa file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Tabulated EOS Bamman Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS *EOS_TABULATED *MAT_BAMMAN *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL *MAT_JOHNSON_COOK *EOS_GRUNEISEN Page 169 of 180 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes 51 15 15 9 9 65 11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 71 20 Null Linear Polynomial *MAT_NULL EOS *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL Null Gruneisen EOS Zerilli-Armstrong Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Linear Elastic Spring General Nonlinear Spring Nonlinear Elastic Spring Elastoplastic Spring Inelastic Tension or Compression-only Spring Maxwell Viscosity Spring Linear Viscosity Damper Nonlinear Viscosity Damper Cable Rigid *MAT_NULL *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG *MAT_STEINBERG *EOS_GRUNEISEN *MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR *MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC *MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC *MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL *MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS *MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS *MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM *MAT_RIGID Prev ANSYS/LS-DYNA Time Step Size Prev Material Model Examples Material Model Examples Next Material Model Examples Next B. Material Model Examples B..1.1.2.

2004 . 20.10.nuxy. Mooney-Rivlin Example: Rubber MP.nuxy.ex.1e9 ! Pa MP..nuxy.3e9 ! C33 (Pa) TBDATA. Blatz-Ko Example: Rubber MP.18.9e9 ! Pa MP.1.104e7 ! Pa B.1.24..1 TBDATA.gxy.51.121.358. Orthotropic Elastic Example: Aluminum Oxide MP.1.1.9e9 ! Pa MP.2..20 ! C01 (psi) B.2.1.2e9 ! C13 (Pa) TBDATA.358.3750 ! kg/m 3 B.307e9 ! Pa MP.29 ! No units MP.1.126.nuyz.20 ! No units MP.dens.6.ez.ey.nuxz..1e9 ! Pa MP.2.gxy.2..2e9 ! C23 (Pa) TBDATA.4.MOONEY.1.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.18.15.48.44..20 ! No units MP.1.ANEL. Anisotropic Elastic Example: Cadmium MP.1.dens.dens.5 ! C55 (Pa) TBDATA.2.126.dens.6.0018 ! lb/in 3 MP.5.dens.21.7850 ! kg/m 3 Page 170 of 180 B.20 ! No units MP.4.80 ! C10 (psi) TBDATA.2..5. Viscoelastic Example: Glass file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3.05.gyz.1150 ! kg/m 3 MP.9e9 ! Pa MP.2 ! C66 (Pa) B.121.1.0e9 ! C22 (Pa) TBDATA.499 ! No units TB.1.1.2.5 ! C44 (Pa) TBDATA.1e9 ! C12 (Pa) TBDATA.2.3400 ! kg/m 3 TB.3.1..1.1 TBDATA.44.gxz.1.0e9 ! C11 (Pa) TBDATA.126.

ex.1.900e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.BISO..ex.YLDSTRES....1.2.218e6.. plastic strain curve (see EDCURVE below) *DIM.EVISC. Transversely Anisotropic FLD Example: Stainless Steel MP..5000 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.STRAIN.2. Transversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Example: 1010 Steel MP.2.7 TBDATA.2 YldStres(1)=207e6.5e9 ! Bulk modulus (Pa) TBDATA.5 Strain(1) = 0.2390 TB.46.05.1 ! Yield stress vs.PLAW.202e5 ! Initial strain at failure TBDATA..53 ! 1/ B.2.0.8.. Bilinear Isotropic Plasticity Example: Nickel Alloy MP.1.3.1.220e6 ! yield stress EDCURVE.8490 ! kg/m 3 TB.00285 ! kg/m 3 TB.31 ! No units MP.5 *DIM.7.1.30e6 ! Pa MP..nuxy.2.1 TBDATA. 20.YldStres(1) B.dens..1.20e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.ADD.27.1.5e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA..2.15.PLAW..210e6.dens..4e9 ! Go (Pa) TBDATA.7845 ! kg/m 3 TB.ex.180e9 ! Pa MP.0 ! (Pa) TBDATA.dens..Strain (1).10 TBDATA..ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.60.1.05.1.61.1.1.214e6.3.1.2004 .1..nuxy.47..1 ! kg/m 3 Page 171 of 180 TBDATA..nuxy.128.29 ! No units MP.9.445e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.29 ! No units MP.4.1.41 ! r-value TBDATA.dens.207e9 ! Pa MP.1.2 ! Hardening parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.48.1.1..

.ex.8..45..100e9 ! Pa MP.0.dens..75 ! Failure strain B. .6 *DIM.40.1.-10.0 ! P TBDATA.36 ! No units MP.2720 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.7865 ! kg/m 3 TB. Plastic Kinematic Example: 1018 Steel MP.70e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.40.29.27 ! No units MP.PLAW.1 ! Hardening rule of 1 (yield stress) TBDATA.2..BKIN.34 ! No units MP.ADD. ..44 EDCURVE.68 TBDATA.mjstrn.25e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.1.6 ! Maximum yield stress curve (see EDCURVE below) Page 172 of 180 mnstrn(1) = -30.145e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1.PLAW.2.5.12.1 TBDATA.2.nuxy.6.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.763e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) TBDATA.40.1.05.dens.1.20.73 ! R00 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA..170 ! Barlat exponent.2.0..4650 ! kg/m 3 TB.1.mjstrn(1) B.76e9 ! Pa MP.ex..mnstrn.5.50 mjstrn(1) = 80.dens.65 TBDATA.3. Bilinear Kinematic Plasticity Example: Titanium Alloy MP.112e6 ! Tangent modulus (Pa) B.10.5. m TBDATA.5.11.nuxy.1.1..2.0 ! R45 ! R90 ! CSID 20.4.7.6.3 TBDATA.0 ! C (s -1 ) TBDATA.200e9 ! Pa MP.. 3 Parameter Barlat Example: Aluminum 5182 MP.1.2..ex...1 TBDATA.nuxy.1.1 *DIM..39..1.4.mnstrn (1).1.310e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.

.ex.04 TBDATA.3.1..7.15.2750 TB.2.8.9..2... 20.13.5 TBDATA..4.9861 TBDATA.2.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 173 of 180 B.PLAW.16.6 TBDATA.1.05..1..6.nuxy.ex..76e9 MP.2004 .nuxy.34 MP.1...1 TBDATA.3. Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity Example: 4140 Steel MP.2 *DIM.1.7 TBDATA.ElasMod.33 MP.7850 TB..1. Barlat Anisotropic Plasticity Example: 2008-T4 Aluminum MP..1.9.1.8875 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) ! Initial strain at failure !n ! Barlat exponent.1. strain rate (see first EDCURVE command below) ! Tangent modulus (Pa) ! LCID Elastic modulus vs.29 MP.023 TBDATA..PLAW.dens..nuxy.dens..0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! k (MPa) !m !n ! Initial strain rate (s -1 ) B.75e9 MP.5 *DIM.002 TBDATA..275e6. m !a !b !c !f !g !h B.14.1...2..9761 TBDATA.5 *DIM.YldStres.1.1.22e5 TBDATA.ex...2.4.65 TBDATA.250e6.017 TBDATA.5.4.. Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity Example: A356 Aluminum MP.08..2720 TB...209e9 MP.1.1.2. strain rate (see second EDCURVE command below) StrnRate(1) = 0.5.3.dens.254 TBDATA. 1.1.32 TBDATA.5 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 ! LCID yield stress vs..StrnRate.1.11 TBDATA.4 TBDATA.300e6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.PLAW.9861 TBDATA.0 YldStres(1) = 207e6..290e6.

0 ! C (strain rate parameter) TBDATA.1.1..ADD.3.2.1700 ! ksi MP.1.5 TruStran(1)=0.40.TruStran.1.207e6 ! Yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.5 *DIM.3..16.2.2004 .6.1.212e9.290e6.05.2...30 ! No units MP..StrnRate(1).598 TBDATA.215e9.1.dens.TruStran (1).dens.69e9 MP.TruStres(1) B. Powerlaw Plasticity Example: Aluminum 1100 MP.5.4..ADD..0.0 TBDATA..2.2.216 TBDATA.275e6..nuxy.1 TBDATA.250e6.4.dens..1.4.3.1.1 TBDATA.16.PLAW.gxy.207e9 ! Pa MP..0.226e-7 ! kip-sec2 /in 4 TB.75 TruStres(1)=207e6.33 MP.17.ex.4.1.GCAP.2.18..08.2 TBDATA.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ElasMod(1) = 209e9.1.1.75 ! Failure strain TBDATA. Piecewise Linear Plasticity Example: High Carbon Steel MP.218e9 EDCURVE.7830 ! kg/m 3 TB.0 ! P (strain rate parameter) TBDATA..2100 ! K (ksi) TBDATA.1 ! LCID for true stress vs.3000e6 EDCURVE.0 ! Pa ! No units ! kg/m 3 !k !n ! C (s-1 ) !P B.ElasMod(1) Page 174 of 180 B.ex.5.TruStres.7 ! (ksi) TBDATA. 20.1..2 ! ! (ksi) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..nuxy.PLAW..StrnRate(1).8 TBDATA..ADD.2.6500.YldStres(1) EDCURVE. Geological Cap Example: SRI Dynamic Concrete MP.2710 TB... true strain (see EDCURVE below) *DIM..1.211e9.4.

7850 ! kg/m 3 TB.275e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.3.30 ! Room temperature ( o C) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ex..4.1.025 !c TBDATA.8.1.0002 TBDATA.2.12.17.1.1.2.0 !m TBDATA.9.240e6 TBDATA.2..7.20e5 ! Room temperature ( o C) ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 ! EOS linear polynomial term B.30 ! No units MP.36 !n TBDATA..3... Johnson-Cook Linear Polynomial EOS Example: 1006 Steel MP.63e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.022 !c TBDATA.5.5 TBDATA..05.dens.61 TBDATA.dens.291.2004 .4.19..1400 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.8 TBDATA..1.6.350.62 !N B.9..1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.4500 TBDATA.1.15.35 ! No units MP.1.20.nuxy.30 TBDATA.1 TBDATA.6.884 !W ! X0 (ksi) TBDATA.nuxy..1 TBDATA. Johnson-Cook Gruneisen EOS Example: OFHC Copper MP.10 TBDATA.14.-.31 !n TBDATA.ex.64e6 ! B (Pa) TBDATA.25e6 ! A (Pa) TBDATA.138e9 ! Pa MP.2 TBDATA..18 TBDATA.EOS.207e9 ! Pa MP.8330 ! kg/m 3 TB.8.11.1..1.1200 ! Melt temperature ( o C) TBDATA.10.7.1.473 ! (ksi -1) !R Page 175 of 180 TBDATA.EOS.1.7.8 TBDATA.5.00154 ! D (ksi -1 ) TBDATA.1.1.5.2.-.89. 20.13..10..1.6..1.2.11.09 !m TBDATA..

240e6 TBDATA..17.05..7500 ! kg/m 3 TB.54 TBDATA.7 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.17.20.1.100e9 ! Pa MP.2. 20.3 ! No units MP.1 TBDATA...10.1.15.97 ! TBDATA.nuxy.2.2 TBDATA.-3.014 TBDATA.dens.2.dens.13.1.19.3..489 TBDATA.8.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide TBDATA.200e9 ! Pa MP.1..1.12 TBDATA.12.394 TBDATA.1.1.2004 .4.02 TBDATA.19.4400 TBDATA.339 ! S1 TBDATA.5386 ! C TBDATA.2.5 ! Relative volume in compression TBDATA.0 TBDATA..-.1..0 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.18.0.22.4.2500 ! kg/m 3 TB.2.10 TBDATA..0.0.5 ! Relative volume in tension TBDATA.0 ! S3 TBDATA.ex.1.9.0. Steinberg Gruneisen EOS Example: Stainless Steel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.16.1.3.nuxy.16e5 ! EOS linear polynomial B.4.1.1.ex.21..0 TBDATA..0 ! Pressure cut-off TBDATA.0.. Null Material Gruneisen EOS Example: Aluminum MP.1.89 TBDATA.21.1.16.48 !A 0 B.20.17..23.21.-10000 ! Pressure cut-off (Pa) TBDATA.2.11.14.2. Null Material Linear Polynomial EOS Example: Brass MP..EOS.47 ! Initial strain rate ! Specific heat ! Failure stress ! Failure value D1 ! Failure value D2 ! Failure value D3 ! Failure value D4 ! Failure value D5 !C ! S1 ! S2 ! S3 ! !A 0 Page 176 of 180 B..03 TBDATA.1.EOS.0 ! S2 TBDATA.34 ! No units MP.18.

.ex.1.5.457 ! C TBDATA.1 ! See EDCURVE below *DIM. temp.3 ! No units EDMP.1 ! Cold compression energy flag TBDATA.32 ! Atomic weight TBDATA. 20.0 ! S3 TBDATA.35 !n TBDATA..2380 ! Absolute melting temp.1.220e6 EDCURVE.7 Prev Material Model Examples Next ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.EngStran.200 ! Max..1.ex.285 ! (kg/m3) TB..11.210e6.207e9 ! Pa MP.cable.49.4 EngStran(1) = .29.30.3e3 ! Initial yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.18.49 ! S1 TBDATA.. parameter TBDATA.32.1.04.215e6.1.43 ! Hardening coefficient TBDATA..3 ! No units MP..nuxy.08 EngStres(1) = 207e6.1..3.1.05..5.1.EngStran (1).93 ! TBDATA.11. parameter TBDATA. TBDATA.4 !A 0 Page 177 of 180 B.1.17.ADD..1.gxy.dens.16.nuxy.1..34.EngStres(1) B..02.2004 .7580 ! kg/m 3 EDMP.24.2 TBDATA.1.25.2 ! Spall type TBDATA. Rigid Material Example: Steel MP.10.2.7..207e9 ! Pa MP.36e6 ! Maximum yield stress (Pa) TBDATA.1.31.1.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide MP.1..2.EOS.0.0.2.33.-50 ! Min.dens.rigid.4 *DIM.06.15. temp.EngStres..16e6 ! (Pa) MP. Cable Material Example: Steel MP.0 ! S2 TBDATA.

The left column lists ANSYS commands that are unique to ANSYS/LS -DYNA.2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide Page 178 of 180 Prev Next Appendix C. ANSYS commands that perform an action (such as EDCLIST) have no corresponding LS -DYNA command and are not included in this table. This file contains all of the model information that you have entered into ANSYS. the information in this file is in terms of LS-DYNA keyword commands. The table below contains information that will help you interpret the Jobname. ANSYS Command EDADAPT EDASMP EDBOUND EDBVIS EDBX EDCADAPT EDCGEN EDCMORE Corresponding LS-DYNA Command *PART *SET_PART_LIST *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY *DEFINE_BOX *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE *CONTACT *CONTACT *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_SET *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONTROL_CONTACT *CONTROL_CPU *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE *CONTROL_TIMESTEP *DEFINE_CURVE *DAMPING_PART_MASS *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS *DELETE_CONTACT *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP *CONTROL_ENERGY EDCNSTR EDCONTACT EDCPU EDCRB EDCSC EDCTS EDCURVE EDDAMP EDDC EDDRELAX EDDUMP EDENERGY file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.k file.. 20. and the right column lists the corresponding LS-DYNA commands. not ANSYS commands. an LS-DYNA input file called Jobname.k is created.05. However. ANSYS and LS -DYNA commands that are used to define material properties are listed in Material Model Examples. ANSYS/LS-DYNA to LS-DYNA Command Mapping When you initiate an ANSYS/LS-DYNA solution via the SOLVE command (and also when you issue the EDWRITE command)..

OMGZ) EDLOAD. AZ) EDLOAD. . . .. ACLY. VX. MY. . MZ) EDLOAD. UZ. VY. VZ. (RBFX. RBMX. OMGX. (UX. RBMY. RBRZ.05. OMGY. RBMZ) EDMP. AY. (ACLX. PRESS EDLOAD. +RBRX.ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDHGLS EDHIST EDHTIME EDINT EDIPART EDIS EDLCS EDLOAD. FY. (FX. RBVX. RBOY. ROTY. RBFY. ACLZ. RBRY. (RBUX. FZ. . RBUZ. RBUY. AX. ROTZ. RBFZ.HGLS EDNB EDNROT EDOPT EDOUT EDPART Page 179 of 180 *CONTROL_HOURGLASS *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE *DATABASE_HISTORY *DATABASE *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT *INTEGRATION_BEAM *INTEGRATION_SHELL *PART_INERTIA *STRESS_INITIALIZATION *STRESS_INITIALIZATION_DISCRETE *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR *LOAD_NODE _SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE *LOAD_SEGMENT *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET *LOAD_SHELL_SET *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID *LOAD_RIGID_BODY *HOURGLASS *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING *BOUNDARY_SPC_SET *DATABASE_FORMAT *DATABASE_OPTION *PART *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_CONTROL *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_D2R *RIGID_DEFORMABLE_R2D *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID _INERTIA 20.RBOX. RBVZ. RBVY. . . ROTX. RBOZ) EDLOAD.TEMP EDLOAD.2004 EDPVEL EDRC EDRD EDRI file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. .. MX. UY.

.05. 20..2004 .ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide EDRST EDSHELL EDSP EDSTART EDTERM *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT *CONTROL_SHELL *CHANGE_SMALL_PENETRATION r = d3dumpnn lsdyna command line option *TERMINATION_NODE *TERMINATION_BODY *SET_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION *CHANGE_VELOCITY *CHANGE_VELOCITY_ZERO Page 180 of 180 EDVEL EDWELD BFUNIF or TUNIF LDREAD REXPORT *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD_SPOT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE m = drelax lsdyna command line option Prev Material Model Examples Next Bibliography file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful