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Scottish Further Education Unit
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1
SFEU is grateful to the subject specialists in Scotland’s Colleges and other agencies and industry bodies who have been involved in the writing of this and other support materials in the Skills for Work series. SFEU is grateful to the subject specialists in Scotland’s Colleges and other agencies and industry bodies who have been involved in the writing of this and other support materials in the Skills for Work series. SFEU is also grateful for the contribution of the Scottish Qualifications Authority in the compilation of these materials, specifically, for its permission to reproduce extracts from Course and Unit Specifications, and the Skills for Work Rationale, and material originally produced for the Scottish Progression Award in Construction.
© Scottish Further Education Unit 2005
Scottish Further Education Unit
the source should be acknowledged.sqa. teachers and lecturers should satisfy themselves that the information passed to candidates is accurate and in accordance with the current SQA arrangements documents. If reproduced in part. However. Centre Approval and certification can be obtained from: The Scottish Qualifications Authority Hanover House 24 Douglas Street Glasgow G2 7NQ Website: www.sfeu.org. teachers and lecturers have permission to use the pack and reproduce items from the pack provided that this is to support teaching and learning processes and that no profit is made from such use. Enquiries relating to this Support Pack or issues relating to copyright should be addressed to: Information and Publications Co-ordinator The Scottish Further Education Unit Argyll Court Castle Business Park Stirling FK9 4TY Website: www.uk Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this Support Pack. Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques. SFEU will accept no responsibility for any consequences deriving either directly or indirectly from the use of this Pack.ac.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques DM82 10 Introduction These notes are provided to support teachers and lecturers presenting the Scottish Qualifications Authority Unit DM82 10.uk Further information regarding this Unit including Unit Specification. Scottish Further Education Unit 4 . National Assessment Bank materials. Copyright for this pack is held by the Scottish Further Education Unit (SFEU).
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Contents What are Skills for Work Courses all about? The Course in Construction Crafts (Intermediate 1) Unit Specification: statement of standards Tutor notes Introduction Carpentry and joinery – an introduction Prefabricated structures Basic carpentry and joinery terms Carpentry and joinery – health and safety Carpentry and joinery tools Materials used for constructing timber structures Setting out and measuring timber structures Erecting a prefabricated structure Carpentry and joinery techniques and “tricks of the trade” Carpentry and joinery standards and tolerances Standards Tolerances Checking standards of carpentry and joinery 7 10 12 16 16 17 18 18 24 25 27 28 29 31 32 32 33 34 Scottish Further Education Unit 5 .
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Scottish Further Education Unit 6 .
Learning through practical experience Teaching/learning programmes should include some or all of the following: • learning in real or simulated workplace settings • learning through role play activities in vocational contexts • carrying out case study work • planning and carrying out practical tasks and assignments Learning through reflecting at all stages of the experience Teaching/learning programmes should include some or all of the following: • preparing and planning for the activity • taking stock throughout the activity • reviewing and adapting as necessary • reflecting after the activity has been completed • evaluating.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 What are Skills for Work Courses all about? Skills for Work Courses are designed to help candidates to develop: • skills and knowledge in a broad vocational area • Core Skills • an understanding of the workplace • positive attitudes to learning • skills and attitudes for employability A key feature of these Courses is the emphasis on experiential learning. Scottish Further Education Unit 7 . This means learning through practical experience and learning by reflecting on experience. self-assessing and identifying learning points The Skills for Work Courses are also designed to provide candidates with opportunities for developing Core Skills and enhancing skills and attitudes for employability.
providing different learning environments and experiences which simulate aspects of the workplace. visiting speakers. Scottish Further Education Unit 8 . reflect and learn from experience • specific vocational skills/knowledge Course Specifications highlight the links to National Occupational Standards in the vocational area and identify progression opportunities Opportunities for developing these skills and attitudes are highlighted in each of the Course and Unit Specifications. These experiences might include site visits. Employability The skills and attitudes for employability. through partnership arrangements. are outlined below: • generic skills/attitudes valued by employers • understanding of the workplace and the employee’s responsibilities. These opportunities include giving young people direct access to workplace experiences or. for example time-keeping. appearance. customer care • self-evaluation skills • positive attitude to learning • flexible approaches to solving problems • adaptability and positive attitude to change • confidence to set goals.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Core Skills The five Core Skills are: • Communication • Numeracy • Information Technology • Problem Solving • Working with Others Opportunities for developing these skills are highlighted in each of the Course and Unit Specifications. including self-employment. role play and other practical activities.
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 A Curriculum for Excellence (Scottish Executive 2004) identifies aspirations for every young person. Scottish Further Education Unit 9 . These are that they should become: • successful learners • confident individuals • responsible citizens • effective contributors The learning environments. the focus on experiential learning and the opportunities to develop employability and Core Skills in these Courses contribute to meeting these aspirations.
practical skills. the aims of this Course in Construction Crafts are to: • give candidates the technical knowledge. skills and understanding associated with a range of craft skills in construction at this level • develop an awareness that health and safety issues are integral to the world of work generally and construction in particular • encourage candidates to develop a positive attitude to waste minimisation and environmental issues Scottish Further Education Unit 10 . It is anticipated that. for example. if the school has suitable facilities and teaching expertise. for this group of candidates.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 The Course in Construction Crafts (Intermediate 1) Course Rationale The Intermediate 1 Construction Crafts Course has been designed to provide a basis for progression into further education or for moving directly into training in employment within the construction sector. knowledge and understanding and employability skills needed within the sector. The general aims of the Construction Crafts Course are to: • widen participation in vocationally-related learning for 14-16 year olds • allow candidates to experience vocationally-related learning • provide candidates with a broad introduction to the construction crafts vocational sector • encourage candidates to foster a good work ethic. The Course is also suitable for adult candidates who are seeking to enhance their employability and develop introductory vocational skills in the construction sector. the Construction Crafts Course is designed at a level and scope such that it can be delivered in schools. including timekeeping. a positive attitude and other relevant employability skills • provide opportunities to develop a range of Core Skills in a realistic context • encourage candidates to take charge of their own learning and development • provide a range of teaching. The purpose of the Course is to ensure that candidates start to develop the general skills. learning and assessment styles to motivate candidates to achieve their full potential • facilitate progression to further education and/or training In particular. The primary target group for this Course is school candidates in S3 and S4. the Course will rely on and build on existing partnerships between schools and colleges (or other agencies). Further Education colleges and training providers. Nevertheless. This may be particularly pertinent in the case of the Construction Crafts Course due to the specialist expertise and facilities available in.
Scottish Further Education Unit 11 . The Course provides the basis for candidates to gain an insight into craft occupations such as brickwork. significantly more onerous than those for this Course which is at an introductory level. While no formal entrance qualifications are required for this Course. The standards required of first-year apprentices in the building industry are. There is a link. Candidates studying this Course in Construction Crafts and choosing a craft option may be aiming to progress into a craft apprenticeship in industry. Candidates who are uncertain which trade to follow.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 • enable candidates to develop and apply practical. or who do not obtain a placement. to these Standards. and to use their studies to help them decide the career they wish to follow. though not directly. Candidates who choose such a route will experience appropriate training and undertake SVQs in the workplace. and should remain. Whether as part of a pre-vocational college programme or otherwise. may undertake pre-vocational courses at Further Education colleges. carpentry and joinery and plastering. study and training for employment in construction and the built environment sectors and related occupations The Intermediate 1 Course in Construction Crafts has been designed with Occupational Standards in mind. it would be expected that candidates embarking on the Course would find the following learning skills and aptitudes helpful: • basic proficiency in literacy • basic proficiency in numeracy • some aptitude for graphical forms of communication (the reading of basic drawings is required by the course) • motivation to work independently This Course supports progression into appropriate further education or for training in employment. the Construction Crafts Course should facilitate progression to the SPA in Building Crafts or an appropriate National Certificate programme. technical and communication skills as a foundation for future learning and progression • encourage candidates to apply their knowledge and understanding of construction by using skills of evaluation and problem-solving in a vocational context • encourage candidates to plan their work and review their progress • prepare candidates for further learning opportunities.
d) Health and safety requirements are complied with during all activities. maintained. c) The tools are serviced. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Performance Criteria a) The selection of tools and equipment is appropriate for the work to be done. Outcome 1 Select. Outcome 2 Erect and dismantle a prefabricated timber structure. cleaned and stored in accordance with good practice. Scottish Further Education Unit 12 . Performance Criteria a) A prefabricated structure is erected in a prescribed sequence. b) The structure is erected in accordance with drawings. c) The structure is dismantled and properly stored for future use.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Unit Specification: statement of standards Unit: Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques (Intermediate 1) Acceptable performance in this Unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in this part of the Unit Specification. use and maintain basic carpentry and joinery tools and equipment. b) The tools are used correctly and solely for the purpose for which they were intended.
Performance Criteria a) The designated panel is identified and removed from an erected structure. Scottish Further Education Unit 13 .Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Outcome 3 Replace a designated timber panel. b) The replacement panel is constructed to match the existing panel in accordance with working drawings. d) A quality check is carried out on the finished work against prescribed standards and tolerances. e) Health and safety requirements are complied with during all activities. c) Joints and fixings of the replacement panel are in accordance with working drawings and given specification.
Scottish Further Education Unit 14 . using these tools in a correct and safe manner.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Evidence requirements for the Unit Performance evidence is required to show that all Outcomes and Performance Criteria have been achieved. The evidence may be gathered at different points throughout the Unit. Centres who wish to devise their own assessments should refer to the NAB to ensure a comparable standard. using them solely for the purpose for which they were intended. Performance evidence will be supported by assessor checklists. NB Centres must refer to the full Unit specification for detailed information related to this Unit. sharpening them when necessary and storing them correctly after use • correctly erecting and dismantling a prefabricated timber framed structure • constructing a replacement timber panel using prescribed joints and fixing methods • candidates carrying out a quality check of own work against given standards and tolerances before submitting for final assessment • maintaining a clean. The NAB illustrates the national standard required for this Unit. The practical activities will cover: • choosing the correct hand tools for particular tasks. This evidence will be generated from an integrated assessment consisting of practical activities carried out in supervised workshop conditions. tidy and safe working area and adhering to health and safety requirements throughout all activities The National Assessment Bank item (NAB) for this Unit contains candidate review sheets and an assessor observation checklist.
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Teacher/lecturer support materials Scottish Further Education Unit 15 .
Student tasks and activities are identified with the symbol Scottish Further Education Unit 16 . It is recommended that the candidate to tutor ratio for delivery of this Unit is a maximum of 12 candidates to 1 tutor.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Tutor notes Introduction These notes have been prepared to help you deliver and assess the Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques Unit as part of the Construction Crafts Intermediate 1 course.
Scottish Further Education Unit 17 . The hand tools and techniques used by the modern carpenter and joiner have their roots firmly in the past and have much in common with their predecessors.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Carpentry and joinery – an introduction Making things from wood is one of the oldest occupations in the world. builder and furnisher of the home. Indeed it is safe to say that the skills taught by Joseph to Jesus and the tools he used are similar to those used by apprentices today. A visit to any medieval building will show the standard and skill these craftsmen were able to produce without the electrically powered machinery and equipment we take for granted today. He cut his material direct from the tree. It is a trade to be proud of and is well worth considering as a career. A modern apprentice carpenter and joiner serves a four year apprenticeship. The craft of the carpenter and joiner has a real and tangible tradition behind it. In the past. the carpenter and joiner was the most important person in the house building industry being the designer. fashioning it to size and shape on site.
prepared in standard sections. The material used to cover a timber partition. Header Sole Plate Studs Cladding Rafter Joist Tongue and Groove Flooring Section sizes T W L Scottish Further Education Unit 18 . Timber houses. The main supporting member in a roof. The top member in a timber partition/ wall. Some of these are quite complicated but here is a list of terms that will enable you to understand the basic principles required to build a prefabricated timber structure. The vertical members in a timber partition/ wall. 50mm thick and 2400mm long. Some of the terms are illustrated on the pages that follow: Member A piece of [normally] structural timber in a building. The length. the [horizontal] runners at top (header) and bottom (sole plate) and the [horizontal] dwangs in the middle of the partition. Basic carpentry and joinery terms There are a large number of different carpentry and joinery terms. The main support in a timber floor or ceiling. and floor sections and roofs can be constructed in this manner whilst doors hung to frames and complete with all fixtures and fittings are an excellent example of modern organised production. Strips of timber or sheet material that have a tongue on one side and a groove on the other that allow the boards to easily fit together forming a strong joint. wall or roof. The bottom member in a timber partition/ wall. 100 x 50 x 2400mm indicates a piece of timber that is 100mm wide.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Prefabricated structures Pre-fabrication is the logical extension of the principles of mass production and consists of preparing completely finished articles in the factory ready for installation on the building site. For example. breadth and thickness of a material eg. wall or partition members include the [vertical] studs.
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Scottish Further Education Unit 19 .
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Housing joint detail 10mm deep Practice joint to be made before replacing the p Scottish Further Education Unit 20 .
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Elevations of prefabricated structure with roof joists shown Scottish Further Education Unit 21 .
• Round wire nail – This is used for general work. • Annular nail – The teeth of this nail hold it in place firmly. Level Plumb Nails When a piece of timber is perfectly horizontal it is said to be level. Below is a selection of common wire nails. Therefore. When a piece of timber is vertical (90° to the horizontal) it is said to be plumb.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Stitch Nailing This is a technique where the nail is almost driven in but the head is left protruding to allow the nail to be easily removed. It is not attractive in shape and it can split wood when hammered in position. • Oval wire nail – This is a long nail and care must be taken when it is hammered into the wood. Scottish Further Education Unit 22 . It is unlikely to split the wood. There are many nails available mostly made out of steel wire. • Lost head nail – This is ideal if it is necessary to hide the head of the nail as a punch can be used to hammer the head beneath the surface level. it is used for fixing chipboard and other sheet materials. This technique is used when a piece of timber is to be temporarily fixed or is held in position until the carpenter and joiner is happy that it is correctly positioned.
windows. this screw is threaded along its whole length. used primarily for fixing handles to doors. a very decorative screw when made in brass. The picture shows a pozidrive head. • Raised head – again normally only in slot head. Scottish Further Education Unit 23 . The picture is of a slot head screw. The basic types of screw are: • Countersunk – either with a slot. They can be used to join materials together permanently although as they can be removed with relative ease they are also good as a way of fixing materials temporarily. • Twin thread – available in all head styles. Twin threads generally have a pozidrive head although they can have philips heads.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Screws Screws are used to fix timber and sheet materials together. pozi or philips head. etc. • Round head – normally only in slot head.
Health and safety is taken very seriously in the construction industry. This is very true. There is an old saying that “a tidy joiner is a safe joiner”. clean and maintain the tools you use • don’t talk to others. be distracted by or distract others while you are working • at the end of a work session always leave the workshop or site the way you would hope to find it because if you leave stuff lying about someone could trip over it and injure themselves! Scottish Further Education Unit 24 .Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Carpentry and joinery – health and safety Apprentice Carpenters and Joiners cannot finish their apprenticeship until they have successfully completed a health and safety test. Working in the building industry can be hazardous. but here are some general rules to follow in order to work safely: • always wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as instructed. this could be as simple as wearing gloves to carry off-the-saw (OS) timber • always keep your working area tidy • always report any hazard you see • never carry on or lark about on a site or in a workshop • always take care of.
Used primarily for roughing and finishing work on site. Used to drive in and remove nails from timber and to aid knocking together frames. but more recently nylon rules have become increasingly popular throughout the trade. Generally these rules are made of boxwood. These saws are generally discarded when they are blunt. Four fold rule The advantage of the folding rule over a rigid rule is that it closes or folds from 1 metre down to 250mm by means of hinges therefore is more easily transported by the joiner. Shown below is a basic list that will enable you to identify.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Carpentry and joinery tools There is a wide range of tools in a carpenter and joiner’s tool kit. Try square This tool is used to mark square lines around a section of timber. Claw hammer The tool that everyone associates with the carpenter and joiner. Retractable measuring tape Used to measure long lengths of timber. It can also be used to check if the bottom of a joint is level. It is easy to handle and is used for removing large quantities of material. as in straightening surfaces and reducing thickness. Handsaw Jack plane The jackplane is used for rough work and for planing up (dressing smooth) timber from rough stock. Scottish Further Education Unit 25 . select and use the correct tools required to construct and repair a prefabricated structure.
Scottish Further Education Unit 26 . The level comes in various sizes ranging from 25mm long (a line level) to 1200mm long (a bricklayers level).Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Bevel edged chisel Although originally designed to allow the joiner to cut into the angle of a dovetail its strength and adaptability soon made it the preferred chisel of the woodworker. and ensuring work is plumb prior to fixing. It can also be used to determine angles and bevels of inclined members. This tool is used for marking any angle that is not 90°. roof rafters. eg. Write below any other tools that you may have used and ask your tutor to check that you have used the correct names. Sliding bevel These are only a selection of the hand tools that you may require to complete the tasks. Spirit level Used for levelling out work.
A cladding material for walls and roofs. Ideal for rafters in roofs and floor joists its section sizes are similar to redwood. Normal sheet sizes are 1200 x 2400mm. Some of these timbers are Scots Pine. Canadian Lumber Standard (CLS) is a manufactured timber utilising shorter sectioned material.4 or 4. Like European redwood this is a collection of European softwoods.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Materials used for constructing timber structures To build a timber framed structure many materials can be used. Normal sheet sizes are 1200 x 2400mm and it is available in thicknesses from 9. Plywood comes in thicknesses from 3mm to about 25mm. Available in 38 x 66mm or 38 x 89mm sections. A strong and durable timber. A cladding material for walls and ceilings. it is not as durable but just as strong. Lighter in colour than the redwood. For this reason it is used as a structural component internally. Normal sheet sizes are 1200 x 2400mm. Listed below is only a small selection of those that could be used and their common sizes: European redwood This is a term that links many of the softwoods that grow across the whole of Europe each with common properties that result in them being classified together. CLS is the preferred material for manufacturing timber framed housing kits.5mm to about 30mm. OSB is available in thicknesses from 6mm to about 25mm. Baltic Pine and Red Deal. European whitewood CLS Plasterboard Plywood Oriented Strand Board Scottish Further Education Unit 27 . it is usually only in 2. It comes in a variety of sections with 100 x 50mm and 150 x 50mm being the most common and lengths from 3m rising in 0.3m stages up to about 6m. Redwood is commonly used for external components like doors.8 metre lengths. OSB is a cladding material for walls and roofs. windows etc.
What will be the area of flooring required to replace the existing floor finish? Answer – (Show all your working) Now discuss your answers with your tutor Scottish Further Education Unit 28 . For example what if an important component. As an exercise to practise your calculations. If accurate measurement is not achieved it could cause many problems. was made too small for the opening? Imagine the cost implications if the joiner measured a floor and got the quantity of material required completely wrong! How do you explain to a customer that the price for the job is wrong because of your measurements? Do you think the customer would want to pay you the extra cost you want? Measuring accurately and getting it right first time (or at least double-checking your calculations) is very important.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Setting out and measuring timber structures A carpenter and joiner must be able to measure accurately. take a look at the drawing and answer the questions below: 1m door 4m 1m 1m 6m Plan 1. say a door or a window. What will be the length of skirting required for fitting around the perimeter of the room? Answer – (Show all your working) 2.
brace and stitch to side B with wire nails. plumb. Lay floor panel in place and pack to level. Erect side C. plumb. brace and stitch to side A with wire nails. Lift one of the roof sections into place and fix to sides. stitch to sides A and C with wire nails. Congratulations! You have successfully erected a timber structure. Scottish Further Education Unit 29 . Erect side D. Lift the other roof section into place and fix to sides. This will cause problems with the planning department of the local council. Erect side B. Just as important is the sequence of erecting the building to make the job easier and safer. Here is the suggested sequence for erecting the prefabricated structure for your task: • Step 1 • Step 2 • Step 3 • Step 4 • Step 5 • Step 6 • Step 7 • Step 8 • Step 9 Read the plan of the drawing and establish the correct position where the structure is to be built. check each of the sides for plumb and complete fixings. You must get the position of the first side correct or the building could be in the wrong position. Finally.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Erecting a prefabricated structure The correct sequence of setting out a prefabricated structure is extremely important. Erect side A and brace it to plumb.
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Erection sequence Scottish Further Education Unit 30 .
Your tutor will be able to tell you why the correct way is the best way. make sure your fingers are behind the cutting edge. But be warned – it won’t always be easy! However working in wood is good fun. A carpenter and joiner serves a four year apprenticeship. practise and practise again. without tripping up over things and getting frustrated. Exactly the same applies here. Learn to work in an organised and logical manner. Organise your working area. Get simple things correct at the very beginning. other things will become much easier as you progress. Try to anticipate any problems and be observant of all aspects of your task. if you listen carefully and try hard. Try your best at all times and eventually you will master and learn the basics of the carpentry and joinery trade. so be patient and don’t expect to become a carpenter and joiner in four hours or four weeks. because practice makes perfect. practice. For example learn how to hold a hammer and a saw correctly. Place your tools and materials where you need them and keep the area tidy at all times. Learn to use your tools correctly – This will enable you to gain confidence as you practise the various techniques. Scottish Further Education Unit 31 . If you get this right. Remember!! There are no short cuts. Learn to cut timber square. Remember you are learning to cut wood and not your fingers. Remember – it is important that you understand what you want to achieve before you start. If the tools are used this way the only thing on the floor will be shavings and not your fingers and blood.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Carpentry and joinery techniques and “tricks of the trade” There are many “tricks of the trade” but here are a few basic ones that will help you develop the basic techniques of carpentry and joinery. The best tip of all? This never changes. Remember – practice. you should be able to produce a good standard of joinery by the end of this Unit. If you were learning to play golf you would have to concentrate to begin with on how to hold the golf club properly. practice. Above all learn from your mistakes. Help yourself by using a try square at all times to mark out your timber before cutting. a chisel or a saw. Think through every task before you commence any work. It is very important that you listen to everything you are told. This will help you to work well. You need to practise. Enjoy it. However. When using any cutting tool eg.
Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Carpentry and joinery standards and tolerances All buildings have to be built to standards and tolerances. the door could be reduced in size to fit. If the door is however within the allowed tolerance we can adjust the opening or the door to fit. Carpentry and joinery must therefore look good and pleasing to the eye. Ask yourself: Would you buy a house that was not level? • Being plumb The wall must be vertical otherwise known as “plumb”. The tower is basically falling down. • Finished dimensions The finished dimensions (sizes) are very important. Everyone sees it around the building. Again think about the door that is too small for the opening or indeed the opening that is too small for the door. Poor work is immediately noticed even by non-experts. Scottish Further Education Unit 32 . Many people nowadays choose a house because of its appearance from outside but also look for quality of construction in how it is finished internally. or the opening too large. These standards include: • Being level Floors and roofs should be level. If the door is too large or the opening too small. Structures built “off the level” are very noticeable. What can we do with a door that is not the correct size for the opening? If the door is too large it will not fit into the opening and if it is too small it will fall through! • Opening sizes The finished sizes of any opening are very important. then we could reduce the opening size by making the frame a bit smaller. All components must therefore be built to required standards. If the door is too small. It is in fact quite dangerous. albeit very slowly. • Joints tight It is important for the strength of any structure that the joints are tight. The most famous example of a wall being off the plumb is the Leaning Tower of Pisa. What does this mean? Standards Carpentry and joinery components are some of the most noticeable aspects of a house. This means that the materials and the way they are put together are up to the expectations of the client. Would you buy a house that was not plumb? It is therefore very important to build walls or timber partitions “plumb”. but this all costs time and money! Remember!! You will be asked to check the structures that you build to see if they meet the required standards.
Level + or – 5mm This means that your floor can be a maximum of 5mm off the level in either direction. Remember!! These tolerances are set for you. Finished Dimensions + or – 5mm This means your structure can be up to 5mm too big or 5mm too small. Any more than this would not be accepted. Plumb + or – 5mm per m This means your wall can be a maximum of 5mm off the vertical in every metre. Opening Sizes + or – 3mm This means your window and door opening can be 3mm too low. practice and more practice over a period of years. More than 5mm would not be accepted. 3mm too high or 3mm too wide. This can only be achieved by practice. Time served carpenters and joiners are required to work to much stricter tolerances. Scottish Further Education Unit 33 . We therefore allow tolerances that are acceptable within which to build. Any more than 5mm would not be acceptable.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Tolerances It is a fact that very few timber structures are built absolutely perfect. Here are some typical examples of the tolerances you may have to achieve when you are building your own component.
How do you think you could do this? The answer is by marking your own work against a checklist. To help maintain standards it is essential that each carpenter and joiner performs a quality check on his own work. Outcome 3 – Erect and Repair Timber Frame Candidate Panel constructed to size – within 5mm Housing joints correct size – within 3mm Opening sizes correct – within 3mm Sheet material cut and fixed to position – within 5mm Floor placed in correct position – within 5mm Erect pre-fabricated panels – plumb within 5mm/m Store tools and materials correctly after use Handle and transport tools and materials correctly Health and safety is complied with at all times including PPE The candidates quality check is accurate Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Assessor only marks Assessor Comments Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No More care required Wear safety boots PPE 9mm out Scottish Further Education Unit 34 . This is achieved by having complete mastery over your tools and materials plus using them with skill and honesty. You will be shown how to do this in the workshop. Here is an example of a checklist that has been marked. This is known as carrying out your quality check.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Checking standards of carpentry and joinery Craftsmanship is defined as the skill employed in making something properly. The efficiency of the modern building still depends on the teamwork of the all the trades.
Do you think checking your own work is a good idea? (Give reasons for your answer.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 1.) Answer: Scottish Further Education Unit 35 . In your own words. Has the assessor had any disagreement with the candidate’s check? Answer: 2. if there has been any difference of opinion. can you identify the details of the problem? Answer: 3.
The material used to cover a timber frame is called: a) cladding b) lagging c) flooring d) facing 2. Put a circle around the answer you think is correct. A sliding bevel is used to: a) keep in your pocket b) mark lines that are not 45° or 90° c) mark curved lines d) throw at people Scottish Further Education Unit 36 . Your working area should be kept tidy: a) all of the time b) before the tea break c) at the end of the working day d) at the start of the working day 5. 1.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Formative assessment for carpentry and joinery techniques Underpinning knowledge questions This quiz is for fun. What do the letters PPE stand for? a) Personal Stereo Equipment b) Personal Protective Example c) Personal Protective Equipment d) Peoples Protective Equipment 4. What is the name of the material used for cladding walls and ceilings? a) chipboard b) MDF c) hardboard d) plasterboard 3.
5mm x 65mm b) 65mm x 65mm c) 38mm x 66mm d) 38mm x 75mm 9.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 6. A tolerance for finished dimensions of + or – 5mm means that: a) your component can be a maximum of 5 mm too small b) your component can be a maximum of 5mm out of plumb c) your component can be a maximum of 5 mm out of level d) your component can be a maximum of 10 mm too big Mark achieved = …… from 10 correct Scottish Further Education Unit 37 . Where would you find a rafter? a) in a roof b) in the floor c) in a partition d) in a skip 10. Which of these is a standard size for CLS? a) 102. European Redwood is a: a) hardwood grown in Asia b) softwood grown in America c) hardwood grown in Europe d) softwood grown in Europe 8. A claw hammer is used for: a) cutting sheet materials b) hitting your friend’s fingers c) banging on the bench d) hammering in and withdrawing nails 7.
b 6. a 2. a 5. c 9. a cladding plasterboard Personal Protective Equipment all of the time mark lines that are not 45° or 90° hammering in and withdrawing nails softwood grown in Europe 38mm x 66mm in a roof your component can be a maximum of 5mm too small Scottish Further Education Unit 38 . d 7. d 8.Construction Crafts: Carpentry and Joinery Techniques – Intermediate 1 Formative Assessment for Prefabricated Structures Underpinning knowledge questions – Answer key 1. d 3. a 10. c 4.
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