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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

AUTOMOBILE TECHNOLOGY OPTION

MODULE CODE: AUT 203

MODULE NAME: AUTOMOTIVE CHASSIS TECHNOLOGY

CREDIT: 10

YEAR: II

SEMESTER: II

ACADEMIC YEAR: 2016-2017

ASSISTANT LECTURER: Pacifique TURABIMANA

Gishari, February 2017

Module code: AUT203 Assistant lecturer: Pacifique TURABIMANA 2016-2017 Page


Cognitive/Intellectual skills/Application of Knowledge

Having successfully completed the module, students should be able to:

1. Explain the difference between unitized vehicles and body-over-frame vehicles.


2. Describe the manufacturing process used in a modern automated automobile assembly
plant.
3. List the basic systems that make up an automobile and name their major components and
functions.
4. Explain the vehicle body repair technology
5. Explain basic operating principle of steering system
6. Explain the operating principle of different steering system
7. Compare the different steering system and explaining advantages and disadvantages.
8. Explain the basic principle of suspension
9. Compare the different types of suspension
10. Describe the basic principle of braking system
11. Differentiate all braking systems

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Table of Contents
List of figures ............................................................................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER: 1. CHASSIS FRAME AND BODY ......................................................................................... 1
Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Introduction of chassis Frame ................................................................................................................ 1
1.2. Functions of the chassis frame ............................................................................................................... 2
1.3. Types of chassis frames ......................................................................................................................... 2
Various loads acting on the frame................................................................................................................. 2
1.4. Vehicle body construction ..................................................................................................................... 3
1.5. Vehicle Body repair ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.5.1. Introduction to panel beating .............................................................................................................. 5
1.5.2. Safe automobile cleaning .................................................................................................................... 6
1.5.3. Auto body maintenance ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.5.4. Bumper removal and installation ........................................................................................................ 8
1.5.5. How to repair automotive dent............................................................................................................ 8
Self- Assessment exercises No 1 ................................................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER TWO: STEERING SYSTEM .................................................................................................. 12
Objectives ................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2. Requirements of steering system ......................................................................................................... 13
2.3. Functions of steering system ................................................................................................................ 13
2.4. Steering Components ........................................................................................................................... 14
2.4.1. Steering wheels ................................................................................................................................. 14
2.4.2. Steering columns ............................................................................................................................... 14
Safety steering column ................................................................................................................................ 15
2.4.3. Steering Damper ............................................................................................................................... 16
2.4.4. Steering linkage ................................................................................................................................ 16
2.4.5. Track rod on vehicles with rigid (beam) front axle........................................................................... 17
2.4.6. Track rod for independent suspension .............................................................................................. 19
2.4.7. Steering box ...................................................................................................................................... 20
Function of steering gearbox ...................................................................................................................... 21
Types of steering gearbox ........................................................................................................................... 21
2.5. Steering Mechanism............................................................................................................................. 24
2.6. Power-steering systems ........................................................................................................................ 25
2.6.1. Integral Piston System ...................................................................................................................... 25
2.6.2. Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion System ......................................................................................... 26
Components ................................................................................................................................................ 26
Power-Steering Pump ................................................................................................................................. 26
Power-Steering Pump Drive Belts .............................................................................................................. 27
Electric Power Steering............................................................................................................................... 27
Flow Control and Pressure Relief Valves ................................................................................................... 27
Power-Steering Gearbox ............................................................................................................................. 27
Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion Steering .................................................................................................. 28
Power-Steering Hoses ................................................................................................................................. 28

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2.6.3. Electronically Controlled Power steering Systems ........................................................................... 29
Active Steering............................................................................................................................................ 30
Steer-by-Wire System ................................................................................................................................. 31
2.6.4. Four-Wheel Steering Systems ........................................................................................................... 31
2.7. Work on the steering gear .................................................................................................................... 32
Adjusting the steering box .......................................................................................................................... 32
Measuring wheel alignment ........................................................................................................................ 33
Types of Wheel Alignment ......................................................................................................................... 33
Factors effects the wheel alignment ............................................................................................................ 34
Caster angle................................................................................................................................................. 34
Camber angle .............................................................................................................................................. 35
Toe .............................................................................................................................................................. 35
King- pin inclination ................................................................................................................................... 36
Steering system diagnosis ........................................................................................................................... 36
Self –assessment exercises No 2 ................................................................................................................. 37
CHAPTER 3: SUSPENSION SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 39
Objectives ................................................................................................................................................... 39
3.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 39
3.2. Functions of suspension system ........................................................................................................... 40
3.3. Requirements of suspension system .................................................................................................... 40
3.4. Suspension system components ........................................................................................................... 40
Springs ........................................................................................................................................................ 40
Coil Springs ................................................................................................................................................ 41
Leaf springs................................................................................................................................................. 42
Shock Absorbers ......................................................................................................................................... 45
Macpherson strut suspension components .................................................................................................. 47
3.5. Electronically controlled suspensions .................................................................................................. 49
3.6. Servicing electronic suspension components ....................................................................................... 50
Diagnosis .................................................................................................................................................... 50
3.7. Active suspensions/ Active Body Control ........................................................................................... 50
Control Procedures...................................................................................................................................... 52
Basic front-suspension diagnosis (Conventional suspension system) ........................................................ 53
Self –assessment exercises No 3 ................................................................................................................. 55
CHAPTER: 4. TYRE AND WHEEL ......................................................................................................... 56
Objectives ................................................................................................................................................... 56
4.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 56
4.2. Acting force ......................................................................................................................................... 56
4.3. Wheels.................................................................................................................................................. 57
4.4.Tires ...................................................................................................................................................... 59
4.4.1. Tube and Tubeless Tires ................................................................................................................... 59
4.4.2. Types of Tire Construction ............................................................................................................... 61
4.4.3. Basic Components /Tyre Construction ............................................................................................. 62
4.4.4. Tire ratings and designations ............................................................................................................ 65
Tire Size ...................................................................................................................................................... 65

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Run flat tyre system .................................................................................................................................... 67
4.5. Tire Pressure Monitor (TPM) .............................................................................................................. 68
Testing a TPM System ................................................................................................................................ 71
4.6. Tire/Wheel Runout............................................................................................................................... 71
Tire replacement ......................................................................................................................................... 72
Replacing One Tire ..................................................................................................................................... 73
Replacing Two Tires ................................................................................................................................... 73
Changing Tire and/or Wheel Size ............................................................................................................... 73
4.7. Tire repair............................................................................................................................................. 74
Self –assessment exercises No 4 ................................................................................................................. 74
CHAPTER: 5: BRAKING SYSTEM ......................................................................................................... 75
Objectives ................................................................................................................................................... 75
5.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 75
5.1.1. Principle of braking system............................................................................................................... 75
5.1.2. Requirements of brake ...................................................................................................................... 76
5.1.3. Stopping distance and braking efficiency ......................................................................................... 76
5.1.4. Classification of brakes ..................................................................................................................... 77
5.2.1. Drum Brakes ..................................................................................................................................... 78
Drum Brake Systems and Operation........................................................................................................... 78
Drum brake components ............................................................................................................................. 78
Parking Brake System ................................................................................................................................. 82
Components ................................................................................................................................................ 82
Operation .................................................................................................................................................... 83
Servo brake designs .................................................................................................................................... 84
Self-adjustment mechanisms ...................................................................................................................... 85
Self –assessment exercises No 5 ................................................................................................................. 86
5.2.2. Disk brakes........................................................................................................................................ 86
5.2.2.1. Disc Brake Assembly ..................................................................................................................... 87
Floating caliper ........................................................................................................................................... 88
Fixed caliper................................................................................................................................................ 88
5.3. Principles of hydraulic brake systems .................................................................................................. 89
Hydraulic brake system components .......................................................................................................... 89
5.4. Hydraulic system safety switches and valves ...................................................................................... 91
Stoplight Switch .......................................................................................................................................... 91
Brake Warning Light Switch ...................................................................................................................... 92
Metering Valve ........................................................................................................................................... 92
Proportioning Valve .................................................................................................................................... 92
Combination Valve ..................................................................................................................................... 92
5.5. Air brake system .................................................................................................................................. 93
Construction and working of Air Brake system.......................................................................................... 93
Basic components of air brake system ........................................................................................................ 93
Working ...................................................................................................................................................... 95
Advantages:................................................................................................................................................. 95
Disadvantages ............................................................................................................................................. 96

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5.6. Basics of the electronic chassis control systems .................................................................................. 96
5.6.1. Anti-lock Braking System ABS ........................................................................................................ 98
ABS systems have the following features: ................................................................................................. 98
Operating principle ..................................................................................................................................... 98
ABS with return in a closed circuit ............................................................................................................. 99
Operating principle with 3/3 solenoid valves ........................................................................................... 100
Operating principle with 2/2 solenoid valves ........................................................................................... 100
ABS with return in an open circuit and 2/2 solenoid valves ..................................................................... 100
Structure .................................................................................................................................................... 101
Electrical circuit of an ABS ...................................................................................................................... 102
5.6.2. Brake assistant (BAS) ..................................................................................................................... 103
Structure .................................................................................................................................................... 103
Operating principle ................................................................................................................................... 103
5.6.3. Automatic Traction control ............................................................................................................. 104
Engine Controls ........................................................................................................................................ 105
5.6.4. Automatic stability control.............................................................................................................. 105
5.6.5. Sensotronic Brake Control SBC ..................................................................................................... 107
Advantages of SBC system ....................................................................................................................... 108
Addtional functions of SBC ...................................................................................................................... 108
5.6.6. DSC (Dynamic Stability Control system) .................................................................................... 109
Indicative Resources ................................................................................................................................. 110

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List of figures

Figure 1: Layout of Chassis and its main Components................................................................................. 1


Figure 2: Ladder type frame ......................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 3: Partially self-supporting construction............................................................................................ 3
Figure 4: Passenger car Floor assembly ........................................................................................................ 4
Figure 5: Main steering components ........................................................................................................... 14
Figure 6: Steering column ........................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 7: Safety steering column ................................................................................................................ 16
Figure 8: Steering linkage/ centrally divided track rod ............................................................................ 18
Figure 9: Parallelogram steering system mounts (A) behind the front suspension, and (B) ahead of the
front suspension .......................................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 10: Track rod divided at one side .................................................................................................... 20
Figure 11: Three-piece Track rod ............................................................................................................... 20
Figure 12: Worm and sector steering box ................................................................................................... 21
Figure 13: Recirculating-ball steering box.................................................................................................. 22
Figure 14: Worm and roller steering box .................................................................................................... 23
Figure 15: Rack and pinion steering gear ................................................................................................... 23
Figure 16: Ackermann steering, toe-difference angle ................................................................................. 24
Figure 17: A typical hydro-boost system that uses the power-steering pump to power assist brake
applications ................................................................................................................................................. 25
Figure 18: Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion System .................................................................................. 26
Figure 19: A variable-assist power-steering system. .................................................................................. 29
Figure 20: The main components and circuits of an active steering system ............................................... 30
Figure 21: The basic layout for a steer-by-wire system .............................................................................. 31
Figure 22: Three types of caster: (A) zero, (B) positive, and (C) negative ................................................. 35
Figure 23: (A) Positive and (B) negative camber. ...................................................................................... 35
Figure 24: Various type of Automotive spring ........................................................................................... 41
Figure 25: The different designs of coil springs ......................................................................................... 41
Figure 26: A rear suspension setup with air springs. .................................................................................. 43
Figure 27: The typical location of a stabilizer bar ...................................................................................... 44
Figure 28: A torsion bar setup. ................................................................................................................... 44
Figure 29: Gas-pressure damped shocks operate like conventional oil-filled shocks. Gas is used to keep
oil pressurized, which reduces oil foaming and increases efficiency under seven conditions. ................... 47
Figure 30: A complete MacPherson strut front suspension ........................................................................ 48
Figure 31: A modified MacPherson suspension has the spring mounted separately from the strut ........... 48
Figure 32: The various inputs and outputs for an electronic suspension system. ....................................... 49
Figure 33: Active Body Control (Layout)................................................................................................... 51
Figure 34: ABC hydraulic circuit diagram ................................................................................................. 52
Figure 35: Force acting on the wheel/tyre combination.............................................................................. 57
Figure 36: Wheel dimensions are important when replacing tires .............................................................. 58
Figure 37: A typical tubeless tire. ............................................................................................................... 60
Figure 38: The construction of the three basic types of tires. ..................................................................... 62
Figure 39: Tyre Thread components ........................................................................................................... 63

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Figure 40: The tire pressure monitor (TPM) components .......................................................................... 70
Figure 41: A TPM tester. ............................................................................................................................ 71
Figure 42: Checking wheel runout. ............................................................................................................. 72
Figure 43: Drum brake components and bolts to ........................................................................................ 79
Figure 44: Brake shoes................................................................................................................................ 80
Figure 45: An illustration of typical shoe return springs. Figure 46: Examples of different
types of holddown ....................................................................................................................................... 81
Figure 47: An inside view of a typical wheel cylinder. .............................................................................. 81
Figure 48: Self-adjusters are typically located at the bottom Figure 49: The anchor in a servo brake is
located at the ............................................................................................................................................... 82
Figure 50: An illustration of a hand-operated parking brake assembly. ..................................................... 83
Figure 51: The components of a manually released foot operated parking brake pedal. ............................ 84
Figure 52: Non-servo brakes have leading and trailing .............................................................................. 84
Figure 53: An example of a servo brake assembly. .................................................................................... 84
Figure 54: An illustration of a typical servo brake self-adjuster and an example of a ratcheting self-
adjuster on a non-servo brake assembly. .................................................................................................... 86
Figure 55: Disc brake assembly .................................................................................................................. 87
Figure 56: Operation of a fixed caliper. ...................................................................................................... 88
Figure 57: A schematic of a basic automotive hydraulic brake system. ..................................................... 89
Figure 58: Moisture affects the boiling point of brake fluid. ...................................................................... 90
Figure 59: The basic construction of a dual master cylinder ...................................................................... 90
Figure 60: Basic components of a brake system, individual units represented by product photos ............. 94
Figure 61: Basic components of a brake system, individual units represented by graphic symbols .......... 95
Figure 62: Slip on the braked wheel ........................................................................................................... 97
Figure 63: ABS Closed-loop control circuit ............................................................................................... 99
Figure 64: ABS with closed circuit and 2/2 solenoid valves (hydraulic circuit) ...................................... 100
Figure 65: ABS with open circuit (hydraulic circuit) ............................................................................... 102
Figure 66: ABS Electrical circuit .............................................................................................................. 103
Figure 67: Brake assistant system ............................................................................................................. 103
Figure 68: A typical system diagram for an ESC system. ........................................................................ 107

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CHAPTER: 1. CHASSIS FRAME AND BODY

Objectives

At the end of this chapter students should be able to:

 Explain the difference between unitized vehicles and body-over-frame vehicles.


 Describe the manufacturing process used in a modern automated automobile assembly
plant.
 List the basic systems that make up an automobile and name their major components and
functions.
 Explain the vehicle body repair technology

1.1. Introduction of chassis Frame

Chassis is a French term and was initially used to denote the frame parts or Basic structure of the
vehicle. It is the backbone of the vehicle. A vehicle without body is called Chassis. The
components of the vehicle like power plant, Transmission system, Axles, Wheels and Tyres,
Suspension, Controlling System like Braking, Steering etc,.. and also electrical system parts are
mounted on the Cassis frame. It is the main mounting for all the components including the body.
So it is also called as Carrying Unit.

Figure 1: Layout of Chassis and its main Components

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1.2. Functions of the chassis frame

- To carry load of the passengers or goods carried in body


- To support the load of the body, engine, gearbox etc.
- To withstand the forces caused due to the sudden braking or acceleration
- To withstand the stresses caused due to the bad road condition
- To withstand centrifugal force while cornering

1.3. Types of chassis frames

1. Conventional frame: It has two long side members and 5 to 6 cross members joined
together with the help of rivets and bolts. The frame sections are used generally.
a) Channel section – Good resistance to bending
b) Tabular Section – Good resistance to Torsion
c) Box Section -- Good resistance to both bending and torsion
2. Integral Frame: This frame is used now days in most of the cars. There is no frame and
all the assembly units are attached to body. All the functions of the frame carried out by
the body itself. Due to elimination of long frame it is cheaper and due to less weight most
economical also. Only disadvantage is repairing is difficult.
3. Semi-Integral Frame: In same vehicles half frame is fixed in the front end on which
engine gear box and front suspension is mounted. It has the advantage when the vehicle is
met with accident the front frame can be taken easily to place the damaged chassis frame.
This type of frame is used in FIAT cars and some of the European and American cars.

Various loads acting on the frame

1. Short duration Load- while crossing a broken patch


2. momentary duration Load – While taking a curve
3. Impact loads – due to the collision of the vehicle
4. Inertia load – while applying brakes
5. Static Loads – Loads due to chassis parts
6. Over loads – Beyond Design capacity

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1.4. Vehicle body construction

Vehicles have different construction methods according to how it can attach to the vehicle frame.
The different most construction methods used are: separate construction, partially self-supporting
construction and self-supporting construction.

a) Separate construction: This construction, the vehicle body, axles, steering etc are
mounted on the frame. Because of its flexibility, this construction is used almost
exclusively in the manufacture of commercial vehicles, off-road vehicles and trailers. The
main body shape used here is the ladder-type frame, where two side members are
riveted, bolted or welded to several cross-members.

Figure 2: Ladder type frame

b) Partially self-supporting construction: It is generally uses a front and rear frame bolted
into the self-supporting body in the centre section. When compared with the self-
supporting construction, it is possible to implement different body framing variants more
easily.

Figure 3: Partially self-supporting construction

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c) Self-supporting construction: This is used in passenger cars and buses/coaches.
In passenger cars the frame is replaced by a floor assembly, which, in addition to the
supporting components such as engine bearings, side members and cross-members, also
contains the luggage-compartment floor and wheel houses.

Figure 4: Passenger car Floor assembly

Apart of body construction, the bodies used in automobiles are divided in two groups, Passenger
body and Commercial body.

According to chassis design, the body can divided into:

- Conventional type
- Integral type
- Semi-Integral type

According to other usage:

- Light vehicle bodies – Cars, Jeeps


- Heavy vehicle bodies – Busses, Larries
- Medium vehicle bodies – Vans, Metadoors

The body of the most vehicles should fulfill the following requirements:

1. The vehicle body should be light


2. It should provide sufficient space for passengers and luggage
3. It should have minimum number of components
4. It should withstand vibrations while in motion

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5. It should offer minimum resistance to air
6. It should be cheap and easy in manufacturing
7. It should be attractive in shape and colour
8. It should have uniformly distributed load
9. It should have long fatigue life
10. It should provide good vision and ventilation

1.5. Vehicle Body repair

1.5.1. Introduction to panel beating

Panel beating is the art of shaping the metal back to where it is smooth and level again. Learning
how to be a panel beater is essential. It is the area in auto body work that requires the most skill
and technique. The ability to direct the blows on the damaged area, along with how much force
to exert, separates “the men from the boys,” the amateur from the professional. Practice is the
key to becoming knowledgeable and proficient so do not attempt a large job right away; better to
begin panel beating by practicing on a piece of scrap metal.

It is important to know a little about the dynamics of how the impact on the metal produces
damage in the first place. When force from an accident impacts sheet metal, it produces an area
of direct damage at the point of contact. The impact’s indirect contact affects a wider area,
leaving an array of buckles or “V” channels on the surface of the metal. These ridges appear hard
or rigid. Also observe the direction of the force that caused the damage. This will be important
because you are going to be repairing the damage exactly opposite of how it occurred. In other
words, you will beat out the indirect damage first, then the direct damage.

Body work consists of working with and repairing automobile – car, van and SUV body panels
and other exterior body parts. These include bumpers, hoods, tops, and grilles. Body work is a
very lucrative segment of the automotive repair industry. Hundreds of thousands are employed
world wide in this ever-changing field. The skilled work uses many unique tools, and all kinds of
equipment and techniques to do the job. In addition to welding, there are other basics included in
body work. These basics include panel beating, getting rid of rust, painting, and bodywork
repairs and improvements.
Panel beating is the most basic of all body repair techniques, but it is also one of those that
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require the most skill. As a body person you will learn how to expertly get rid of bumps, dents,
and breaks using various panel-beating techniques and tools.

With rust proofing, you will need to know how and why rust occurs so you can effectively
prevent it and get rid of it when it forms on any body part. You also need to learn about the many
products and techniques that are involved with rust removal and rust inhibiting.

Painting is another major skill in body work. As a painter, you will need to know about
preparation not only on the vehicle but in the garage; and about the many kinds of paints,
including undercoats, etch primers, clear-over base coats, enamels, lacquers, metallic paints,
sealers, and low-bake paints. Then you will find out about applicators – the spray guns – that
have various kinds of feeds, and how to use them and clean them.

1.5.2. Safe automobile cleaning

Caring for your vehicle can be a rewarding experience. To make the job of cleaning and
maintaining easier, there are a wide variety of cleaners, for a wide variety of jobs, from which to
choose.

Carburetor/choke cleaner is great for helping to remove varnish, gum and carbon from motor,
exhaust, and ignition parts. Most of these cleaners leave a dry-lubricant film which does not gum
up or harden. But because of this, these cleaners are not recommended for electrical components.

Brake system cleaners should be used to remove grease, brake dust, and brake fluid from the
brake system, where “clean” is absolutely necessary. These cleaners will not leave a residue and
can help eliminate brake squeal often caused by contaminants.

Electrical cleaner will remove corrosion, oxidation, and carbon deposits from electrical
contacts, thus restoring current flow. Use these cleaners to also clean carburetor jets, spark plugs,
voltage regulators, and other component whose surfaces need to be oil-free.

De-moisturants remove moisture and water from electrical components, including voltage
regulators, alternators, fuse blocks and electrical connectors. These cleaners are non-corrosive
and non-conductive.

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Degreasers are actually heavy-duty solvents. Use them to eliminate grease from chassis
components and engine parts. Spray or brush them on. Rinse off with either a solvent or water.

Car wash product should be used to wash the exterior of your vehicle. There are many on the
market from which to choose. Just be sure not to choose an abrasive cleaner for the painted and
chromed surfaces of your vehicle because an abrasive cleaner will leave scratches and gouges in
these surfaces. Car wash products are mild detergents that will gently but thoroughly eliminate
grime, dust and dirt from all of your vehicle’s exterior surfaces.

Waxes and polishes help protect painted and plated surfaces from harsh weather conditions
when used appropriately. Different types of paint require different waxes and polishes. Check
with your vehicle’s owner’s manual; usually the manual will recommend a certain type of polish
or wax. Polishes sometimes utilize certain chemicals to remove the top layer of oxidized (dull)
paint from the surfaces of older vehicles. Other polishes contain polymers and silicones for
additional protection. These polishes are often easier to apply and last longer than conventional
products. A good car wax will give your vehicle an extra layer of protection against salt, rust and
heavy-duty dirt. Applying a solid coat of wax before winter weather sets in can help protect your
vehicle.

1.5.3. Auto body maintenance

As technician follow these simple body maintenance suggestions to keep the vehicle looking
good, helping to retain its resale value.

Once every 12,000 miles, or once every six months have the underside of the vehicle steam-
cleaned. This will remove all dirt and oil residue. You can then, if desired, more easily inspect
the area for damaged cables, rust, damaged brake lines, frayed electrical wires, and other
problems. Also once every six months or every 12,000 miles, steam clean and/or degrease the
vehicle’s engine compartment.

The wheel wells deserve your close attention. The undercoating can peel away or the tires can
throw up stones and dirt, causing the paint to flake and chip, and rust to perhaps set in. If you
find any rust, sand the area down to bare metal, then paint with a rust-inhibiting paint.

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Wash the entire vehicle body with soap once a week, regular use of detergent is not good for the
vehicle’s paint job. Hose down the exterior with water to loosen the dirt, then use a good car
wash product and a wash mitt to clean the body surfaces, starting with the roof, burnet, and trunk
(boot) areas and working your way down. It is important that you don’t start from the down parts
and then move upwards to avoid dragging sand on your paint and vinyl finishes.

1.5.4. Bumper removal and installation

Almost all cars, trucks, vans and SUVs today are equipped with a supplemental restraint system
(SRS), commonly known as airbags. Warning: Always disarm the airbag system before working
near any airbag component to avoid the possibility of the airbag accidentally deploying. Do not
use a memory-saving device to preserve the system’s memory. Set the parking brake, put the
vehicle in gear or in Park, raise the vehicle and put it on Jackstands. Caution: always use extreme
caution when working underneath or near a raised vehicle.

Remove the pin retainers from the inner fender splash shields, if so equipped. (To release a
retainer, use a panel tool or screwdriver to lift up on the center section, then grab the outer part of
the retainer and pry it up.) From below the bumper, remove the pin retainers from the upper and
lower parts of the bumper’s cover, which may be fastened on a number of areas on the vehicle.
Disconnect any lights, such as fog lights or sidelights. Remove the bumper cover from the
fender. Disconnect the energy absorber from the bumper. To install a replacement bumper,
perform the procedure in reverse.

1.5.5. How to repair automotive dent

Body fillers can have a bad rap, but used correctly it can result in a well done repair. There’s not
a body shop out there that doesn’t use a little body filler. In the old days, body filler was made of
lead, but the resulting loss of brain cells and reproductive acuity sent the use of this material
packing. Aside from a very few holdovers, body filler is a plastic resin that is sandable, adheres
well to metal, and lasts a long time.

What will be needed?

 Sandpaper – 150 grit, 220 grit, 400 grit wet/dry


 Body filler (with hardener, usually included)
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 Glazing and spot putty
 Rigid plastic spreader
 Flexible plastic spreader
 Automotive primer
 Patience, patience, patience!
a) Preparing the surface

Be sure you block out a few hours (at least) to do a proper repair. It’s hard to stop in the middle
without risking a screw-up. Before you can fill your dent, you’ll need to remove the paint. Body
filler doesn’t stick well to paint, so you need to sand it down to bare metal. For this job, you can
use a heavier grit sandpaper like a 150-grit. You want to get the paint off fast, and you’ll be
smoothing things out later anyway. Even though your dent may be only a couple of inches long,
you’ll need to remove more paint than that. At least 3 inches beyond the dent is needed (you’ll
see why later). So you’ll be taking at least 6 inches of paint off the car. If you look at the
example pictured, you’ll see some small circles on the surface. Sometimes it’s a good idea,
especially if you are dealing with multiple dents, to mark the location of the damage so you
know where to focus your repair easily. You should also note that the pictured body panel has
evidence of an old repair on it (the beige colored areas are old body filler).

b) Mixing the body-filler

Body filler is a two-part epoxy that you have to mix yourself. You add a creme hardener to the
base filler, which starts a reaction to harden the filler. The filler will harden pretty quickly,
allowing for less than 5 minutes of working time. In the case of Bondo brand filler, the base is
gray and the hardener is red, so you aim for a nice pink tone in the mixture. You can mix the
hardener on pretty much anything clean. Just remember that it’ll be more or less ruined
afterward. This batch was mixed on a cardboard sandpaper package. A nifty reusable filler
batcher is a plastic Frisbee. The filler won’t stick to plastic, so when you’re done you can pop the
old filler right out cleanly. Follow the directions on the filler can to mix the proper amount of
hardener with filler. Mix the two using a rigid plastic spreader. Don’t forget you have a limited
working time once you mix it.

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c) Applying the body-filler

Remember, once you’ve mixed the filler, you have less than 5 minutes to get it on the damaged
area. Using flexible plastic spreader, spread filler in an area at least 3 inches outside of the actual
damage. You’ll need the extra space to properly smooth and feather the hardened filler. Don’t
worry about being too neat with it. You’ll be sanding away any ugliness once the filler hardens

d) Sanding the filler

Once the filler has completely hardened the time will vary by temperature, humidity and brand of
filler used, check the box you’re ready to start sanding. With your sandpaper wrapped around a
sanding block (rubber sanding blocks are best and can be purchased in automotive or home
repair stores), start sanding the filler using 150-grit sandpaper. Sand lightly and evenly over the
entire surface of the repair with broad circular strokes. Sand past the edge of the filler to create a
smooth transition. When the filler is pretty close to smooth, switch to the 220-grit paper and
continue until it’s even. It’s not unusual to miss a spot or realize there are some gaps or pits in
your filler. If this is the case, mix a new batch of filler and repeat the process until it’s smooth.
You’ll sand away most of the filler, leaving the dent filled and a smooth transition between metal
and filler.

e) Glazing the repair

Spot putty is another version of filler, but much finer and easier to sand. It doesn’t need to be
mixed and can be applied directly from the tube to the repair. The spot putty fills in any tiny
impressions in the filler. Smooth (or glaze) spot putty across the repair surface with a flexible
plastic spreader. It dries faster than the body filler, but be sure you give it enough time before
you begin to sand it.

f) More sanding

Using 400-grit sandpaper, lightly and evenly sand the spot putty away. Sand it all away flat, and
you’ll be left with only tiny amounts of putty remaining in small scratches and gaps. These may
seem minute, but even the smallest flaw will show up in the paint.

g) Prime the surface

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To further prepare and protect your repair, you’ll spray the surface with a primer/sealer. Mask
off an area around the repair to avoid getting paint on any trim or other non-painted areas (don’t
forget, you don’t want paint on your tires, either). Apply the spray primer in light, even coats.
Three light coats are better than one heavy coat.

h) Sanding, one more time

Allow the primer coat to dry, then remove your masking tape and paper. To smooth the repaired
area for painting, you’ll use your 400 grit wet/dry sandpaper, but this time you’re going to wet
sand the repair. Fill a spray bottle with clean water and spray the repair area and the sandpaper. If
you don’t have a spray bottle you can use whatever method you can to keep the paper and repair
area wet. Smoothly sand the primer using a straight back and forth motion. When you begin to
see the old paint show through the primer, you’ve gone far enough. If you sand away too much
primer and you can see metal again, you’ll have to re-prime and re-sand.

Self- Assessment exercises No 1

1. Draw the layout of conventional Chassis with a neat diagram and explain about various
parts on it?
2. What are the functions of chassis frame?
3. What is the frame sections used in automobiles?
4. What are the requirements of bodies for various types of vehicles?
5. What are the different classification of bodies used in automobiles and explain?
6. List 43 steps to paint a car

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CHAPTER TWO: STEERING SYSTEM

Objectives

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

- Describe the similarities and differences between parallelogram, worm and roller, and
rack and pinion steering linkage systems.
- Identify the typical manual-steering system components and their functions.
- Name the five basic types of steering linkage systems.
- Identify the components in a parallelogram steering linkage arrangement and describe the
function of each.
- Identify the components in a manual rack and pinion steering arrangement and describe
the function of each.
- Describe the function and operation of a manual-steering gearbox and the steering
column.
- Explain the various manual-steering service procedures.
- Describe the service to the various power-steering designs.
- Perform general power-steering system checks.
- Describe the common four-wheel steering systems.

2.1. Introduction

The front wheels of a vehicle are steered so that it moves in the desired direction. The condition
and efficiency of the steering therefore have a major effect on road safely. If any component of
the steering should break or become detached, or if the steering should become blocked, the
vehicle cannot be steered and an accident is then almost inevitable. The steering must therefore
be checked and maintained most carefully and the necessary repair work carried out whenever a
fault is detected.

In 1817, Rudolph Ackermann patented the first stub axle steering system in which each front
wheel was fixed to the front axle by a joint. This made it possible to cover a larger curve radius
with the wheel on the outside of the curve than with the front wheel on the inside of the curve.
Rack and pinion steering was developed at an early age in the history of the car. However, this

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became popular when front-wheel drive was used more, since it requires little space and
production costs are lower. The first hydraulic power steering was produced in 1928. However,
since there was no real demand for this until the 1950s, the development of power steering
systems stagnated.

Increasing standards of comfort stimulated the demand for power steering systems. Speed-
sensitive or variable-assistant power steering (VAPS) systems were developed using electronic
controls. The demand for safety and comfort will lead to further improvements in steering
systems.

2.2. Requirements of steering system

Steering system provides the directional change in the movement of an automobile and maintain
in a position as per the driver’s decision without much strain on him and it fulfill the following
requirements:

- It must keep the wheel at all times in to rolling motion without rubbing on the road.
- This system should associate to control the speed.
- It must light and stable.
- It should also absorb the road shocks.
- It must easily be operated with less maintenance.
- It should have self-centering action to some extent.

2.3. Functions of steering system

- It helps in swinging the wheels to the left or right


- It helps in turning the vehicle at the will of the driver
- It provides directional stability
- It is used to minimize the tyre wear and tear
- It helps in achieving self-centering efforts
- It absorbs major part of the road shocks

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2.4. Steering Components

The following are the main components of steering system:

1. Steering wheel
2. Steering column or shaft
3. Steering gear
4. Drop arm or pitman arm
5. Drag link
6. Steering arm
7. Track-arm
8. Track rod or tie-rod
9. Adjusting screws.

Figure 5: Main steering components


2.4.1. Steering wheels

The steering wheel, which consists of a rigid rim and a number of spokes connecting the rim to a
center hub, attaches to the top of the steering shaft at its center. Most steering wheel hubs have
internal splines that fit over external splines on the steering shaft. A bolt or nut at the center of
the hub secures the wheel to the shaft. The steering shaft links the steering wheel to the steering
gear while the column jacket, which surrounds part of the shaft, holds support brackets and
switches. This steering shaft has a small intermediate section between the main section and the
steering gear. The steering wheel may also contain controls for the cruise control and audio
controls, as well as the driver’s airbag. An airbag is a device made of nylon cloth that is covered
with neoprene. The airbag is folded and stored in the front center of the steering wheel. In a
front-end collision, the airbag inflates in a fraction of a second to provide a cushion between the
driver and the steering wheel and dashboard.

2.4.2. Steering columns

Typical steering column showing all of the components from the steering wheel to the steering
gear. A flexible coupling is used to isolate road noise and vibration from the steering shaft.

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Figure 6: Steering column

Safety steering column

In the event of a head-on collision or similar impact, the driver is often exposed to the risk of
injury from the steering wheel and steering column, if the column is forced back into the car's
interior. This undesirable effect can be minimized by installing a safety steering column. The
column has two universal joints set at opposed angles, or else a telescopic sliding joint. The
safety steering column illustrated has an upper and a lower steering spindle, connected by a tube.
The lower spindle is secured in the tube by a plastic rivet. The outer tube is not solid, but consists
of an expanded metal mesh. In the event of a collision the mesh outer tube deforms, the plastic
rivet is sheared off and the lower spindle is pushed up into the tube. Deformation of the outer
tube absorbs the peak impact force before it can reach the steering wheel, and the spindle sliding
in the tube avoids the risk of injury, The steering column mounting is designed to prevent
impacts from the direction of the floor pan or steering gear from being transmitted to the upper
part of the column.

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Figure 7: Safety steering column

2.4.3. Steering Damper

The purpose of a steering damper is simply to reduce the amount of road shock that is
transmitted up through the steering column. Steering dampers are found mostly on 4WD,
especially those fitted with large tires. The damper serves the same function as a shock absorber
but is mounted horizontally to the steering linkage—one end to the center link and the other to
the frame.

2.4.4. Steering linkage

Steering linkage is a connection of various links between the steering gearbox and the front
wheels. The motion of the pitman arm and steering gearbox is transferred so the steering
knuckles of the front wheels through the steering linkages. The swinging movement of the
pitman arm from one side to the side gives angular movement to the front wheel through the
steering linkages.

Types of steering linkage:

1. Conventional steering linkage

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2. Direct cross type steering linkage
3. Three piece steering linkage
4. Center arm steering linkage
5. Relay type steering linkage

in steering they are many terms used, Slip angle : “The angle between direction of the motion of
the vehicle and the center plane of the tyre , it ranges from 80to 100 ”, Under steer: “when the
front slip angle is greater than that of rear, the vehicle tends to steer in the direction of side
force”. This provides a greater driving stability, especially when there is a side wind”, Over
steer: “When the rear slip angle is greater than that of front slip angle, the vehicle tends to move
away from the direction of center path”. This is advantageous when the vehicle moving on the
road having many bends curves. Steering gear ratio or reduction ratio: “It has been defined as
the number of turns on the steering wheel required to produce on turn of steering gear cross shaft
to which the pitman arm is attached. General it varies between 14’.1 and 24’.1”. Turning
radius: “it is the radius of the circle on which the outside front wheels moves when the front
wheels are turned to their extreme outer position. This radius is 5 to 7.5m for buses and trucks”.

2.4.5. Track rod on vehicles with rigid (beam) front axle

If they are joined by a rigid axle beam, the wheels cannot perform independent movements as the
suspension compresses. The steering trapeze moves with the front axle beam and is therefore not
obliged to change its shape. A single-piece track rod can accordingly be used between the two
track rod arms.

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Figure 8: Steering linkage/ centrally divided track rod

Steering movement is transferred from the pitman arm that is splined to the sector shaft (pitman
shat), through the center link and tie rods, to the steering knuckle at each front wheel. The idler
arm supports the passenger side of the center link and keeps the steering linkage level with the
road. This type of linkage is called a parallelogram-type design.
A disadvantage of this layout is that road bumps can be transmitted directly from the wheels to
the steering wheel, by way of the track rod arms, track rod and steering rod. To avoid this, most
motor vehicles with a beam front axle are fitted with a steering damper resembling a suspension
damper or shock absorber in design.

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Figure 9: Parallelogram steering system mounts (A) behind the front suspension, and (B) ahead of the
front suspension

2.4.6. Track rod for independent suspension

If the vehicle has independent front suspension, the steered wheels can move up and down
independently, either to a different extent in the same direction or even in opposed directions. As
a result, the two track rod arms cannot simply be linked by a one-piece track rod. This would
distort and overload the steering linkage as the wheel moves up and down, cause constant
changes to toe-in and lead to severe tyre wear as a result of wheel movement in relation to the
road surface. The safety of the steering gear would be placed at severe risk. For these reasons,
independently-sprung vehicles must be equipped with a split track rod.

Two-piece track rods can be split in the middle or at one side. Steering movements are
transmitted to the linkage either by a steering rod and central arm, or directly from the steering
drop arm on the steering box. Each half of the track rod can be adjusted, to obtain the correct
wheel toe-in angle.

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Figure 10: Track rod divided at one side

Three-piece track rods have either an adjustable centre section or adjustable outer sections.

The sections of two- or three-piece track rods are linked together by ball joints. The ball ends can
move in all directions in their sockets as the suspension operates. This enables divided track rods
to accommodate independent wheel movements. Steering dampers are often installed on
steering systems with divided track rods as well.

Figure 11: Three-piece Track rod

2.4.7. Steering box

When the steering wheel is turned, the tubular steering column transmits this movement to the
steering spindle and the steering box. The reduction ratio provided in the steering box slows
down the turning movement and converts it into a pivoting movement of the steering drop arm,
which is connected to the front wheels by the steering linkage (track rods, track rod arms). The

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reduction ratio also ensures minimum driver effort at the steering wheel. Passenger cars usually
have a steering reduction ratio of between 10 and 20 to 1; on trucks, the figure is in excess of 20
to 1. Heavy cars and trucks are frequently equipped with power-assisted steering.

Function of steering gearbox

- It converts the Rotary movement of the steering wheel in to the angular turning of the
front wheel
- It also multiplies drives efforts and gives Mechanical advantage.

Types of steering gearbox

- Worm and wheels steering gear


- Worm and roller steering gear
- Re-circulating ball steering gear
- Rack and pinion type steering gear
- Cam and roller gear type steering gear
- Cam and peg steering gear
- Cam and double lever steering gear
- Worm and sector type steering gear.

Worm and Wheel type: this type of steering gear has a square cut screw threads at the end of
the steering column; which forms a warm, at the end of it a worm wheel is fitted and works rigid
with it. Generally covered shaft is used for the worm wheel. The worm wheel can be turned to a
new position the drop arm can be readjusted to the correct working position.

Figure 12: Worm and sector steering box

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Re-circulating ball steering gear: in this type of gear box the endless chain of balls are
provided between the worm and nut members. The nut forms a ring of rack having an axial
movement. So that the sector on the rocker shaft racks, the balls roll continuously between the
worm and nut. Being provided with return chambers at the ends of the worm. This method
reduces friction between worm and nut members. This type of steering gear is used for heavy
vehicles.

Figure 13: Recirculating-ball steering box

Worm and roller steering gear: The worm and roller steering box has a steering roller in
place of the sector. The steering worm itself is not cylindrical, but narrows in diameter towards
the centre, so that the steering roller, as it is turned by the worm, also describes an arc round its
pivot point. This turns the steering shaft and moves the steering drop arm as previously
described.

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Figure 14: Worm and roller steering box

Rack and pinion steering gear: Rack and pinion is lighter in weight and has fewer components
than parallelogram steering. Tie rods are used in the same fashion on both systems, but the
resemblance stops there. Steering input is received from a pinion gear attached to the steering
column. This gear moves a toothed rack that is attached to the tie-rods.

In the rack and pinion steering


arrangement, there is no pitman arm,
idler arm assembly, or center link.
The rack performs the task of the
center link. Its movement pushes and
pulls the tie-rods to change the
wheel’s direction. The tie-rods are the
only steering linkage parts used in a
rack and pinion system.

Figure 15: Rack and pinion steering gear

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Cam and lever type: The cam and lever steering uses one or two lever studs fitted in taper roller
bearing. When the worm in the form of helical groove rotates the stub axle and it also rotates
along with it. This imports a turning motion to the drop arm shaft.

Worm and sector type: In this type the worm on the end of the steering shaft meshes with a
sector mounted on a sector shaft. When the worm is rotated by rotation of the steering wheel, the
sector also turn rotating the sector shaft, its motion is transmitted to the wheel through the
linkage. The sector shaft is attached to the drop arm or pitmen arm.

2.5. Steering Mechanism

There are two types of steering gear mechanisms (1) Davis Steering gear and (2) Ackermann
steering gear.
Davis steering gear: The Davis steering gear has sliding pair, it has more friction than the
turning pair, therefore the Davis steering gear wear out earlier and become inaccurate after
certain time. This type is mathematically accurate.
Ackermann steering system: It has only turning pair. It is not mathematically accurate except
in three positions. The track arms are made inclined so that if the axles are extended they will
meet on the longitudinal axis of the car near rear axle. This system is called Ackermann steering.
Ackermann principle
The wheels must be turned such that the projected centre lines of the steering knuckle of the
wheels on the inside and the outside of the turn meet the projected line of the rear axle. The
circular trajectories covered by the front and rear wheels then have a common centre point.

Figure 16: Ackermann steering, toe-difference angle

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2.6. Power-steering systems

The power-steering unit is designed to reduce the amount of effort required to turn the steering
wheel. It also reduces driver fatigue on long drives and makes it easier to steer the vehicle at
slow road speeds, particularly during parking. Power steering can be broken down into two
design arrangements: conventional and nonconventional or electronically controlled. In the
conventional arrangement, hydraulic power is used to assist the driver. In the nonconventional
arrangement, an electric motor and electronic controls provide power assistance in steering.

There are several power-steering systems in use on passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The
most common ones are the integral-piston, and power assisted rack and pinion system.

2.6.1. Integral Piston System

The integral piston system is the most common conventional power-steering systems in use
today. It consists of a power-steering pump and reservoir, power-steering pressure and return
hose, and steering gear. The power cylinder and the control valve are in the same housing as the
steering gear. On some recent model cars and light trucks, instead of the conventional vacuum-
assist brake booster, the hydraulic fluid from the power-steering pump is also used to actuate the
brake booster. This brake system is called the hydro-boost system.

Figure 17: A typical hydro-boost system that uses the power-steering pump to power assist brake
applications

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2.6.2. Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion System

The power-assisted rack and pinion system is similar to the integral system because the power
cylinder and the control valve are in the same housing. The rack housing acts as the cylinder and
the power piston is part of the rack. Control valve location is in the pinion housing. Turning the
steering wheel moves the valve, directing pressure to either end of the back piston. The system
utilizes a pressure hose from the pump to the control valve housing and a return line to the pump
reservoir. This type of steering system is common in front-wheel-drive vehicles.

Figure 18: Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion System

Components

Several of the manual-steering parts described earlier in this chapter, such as the steering linkage,
are used in conventional power-steering systems. The components that have been added for
power steering provide the hydraulic power that drives the system. They are the power-steering
pump, flow control and pressure relief valves, reservoir, spool valves and power pistons,
hydraulic hose lines, and gearbox or assist assembly on the linkage.

Power-Steering Pump

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The steering pump is used to develop hydraulic flow, which provides the force needed to operate
the steering gear. The pump is belt driven from the engine crankshaft, providing flow any time
the engine is running. It is usually mounted near the front of the engine. The pump assembly
includes a reservoir and an internal flow control valve. The drive pulley is normally pressed onto
the pump’s shaft. There are four general types of power-steering pumps: roller, vane, slipper, and
gear. Functionally, all pumps operate in the same basic manner. Hydraulic fluid for the power-
steering pump is stored in a reservoir. Fluid is routed to and from the pump by hoses and lines.
Excessive pressure is controlled by a relief valve.

Power-Steering Pump Drive Belts

Many power steering pumps are driven by a belt that connects the crankshaft pulley to the
power-steering pump pulley. Nearly all late-model vehicles use a serpentine belt. This belt may
be used to drive all the belt-driven components. Most serpentine belts have a spring-loaded
automatic belt tensioner that eliminates periodic belt tension adjustments.

Electric Power Steering

Many vehicles use a 12- or 42-volt electric motor mounted to or in the steering gear. The motor
replaces the conventional pump and its belts and hoses.

Flow Control and Pressure Relief Valves

A pressure relief valve controls the pressure output from the pump. This valve is necessary
because of the variations in engine rpm and the need for consistent steering ability in all ranges
from idle to highway speeds. It is positioned in a chamber that is exposed to pump outlet
pressure at one end and supply hose pressure at the other. A spring is used at the supply pressure
end to help maintain a balance. As the fluid leaves the pump rotor, it passes the end of the flow
control valve and is forced through an orifice that causes a slight drop in pressure. This reduced
pressure, aided by the springs, holds the flow control valve in the closed position. All pump flow
is sent to the steering gear.

Power-Steering Gearbox

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A power-steering gearbox is basically the same as a manual recirculating ball gearbox with the
addition of a hydraulic assist. A power-steering gearbox is filled with hydraulic fluid and uses a
control valve. In a power rack and pinion gear, the movement of the rack is assisted by hydraulic
pressure. When the wheel is turned, the rotary valve changes hydraulic flow to create a pressure
differential on either side of the rack. The unequal pressure causes the rack to move toward the
lower pressure, reducing the effort required to turn the wheels. The integral power steering has
the spool valve and a power piston integrated with the gearbox. The spool valve directs the oil
pressure to the left or right power chamber to steer the vehicle. The spool valve is actuated by a
lever or a small torsion bar.

Power-Assisted Rack and Pinion Steering

Power assisted rack and pinion components are basically the same as for manual rack and pinion
steering, except for the hydraulic control housing. As mentioned earlier, the power rack and
pinion steering unit may be classified as integral. The rack functions as the power piston and the
spool valve is connected to the pinion gear. In a power rack and pinion gear, the piston is
mounted on the rack, inside the rack housing. The rack housing is sealed on either side of the
rack piston to form two separate hydraulic chambers for the left and right turn circuits. When the
wheel is turned to the right, the rotary valve creates a pressure differential on either side of the
rack piston. This causes the rack to move toward the lower pressure and reduces the total effort
required to turn the wheels.

Power-Steering Hoses

The primary purpose of power-steering hoses is to transmit power (fluid under pressure) from the
pump to the steering gearbox, and to return the fluid ultimately to the pump reservoir. Hoses
also, through material and construction, function as additional reservoirs and act as sound and
vibration dampers. Hoses are generally a reinforced synthetic rubber (neoprene) material coupled
to metal tubing at the connecting points. The pressure side must be able to handle pressures up to
1,500 psi (10,342 kPa). For that reason, wherever there is metal tubing to a rubber connection,
the connection is crimped. Pressure hoses are also subject to surges in pressure and pulsations
from the pump. The reinforced construction permits the hose to expand slightly and absorb
changes in pressure.

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2.6.3. Electronically Controlled Power steering Systems

The object of power steering is to make steering easier at low speeds, especially while parking.
However, higher steering efforts are desirable at higher speeds in order to provide improved
down-the road feel. The electronically controlled power steering (EPS) systems provide both of
these benefits. The hydraulic boost of these systems is tapered off by electronic control as road
speed increases. Thus, these systems require well under 1 pound (4.4 N) of steering effort at low
road speeds and 3 pounds plus (13.2 N) of steering effort at higher road speeds to enable the
driver to maintain control of the steering wheel for improved high-speed handling.

Figure 19: A variable-assist power-steering system.

A rotary valve electronic power-steering system consists of the power-steering gearbox, power
steering oil pump, pressure hose, and the return hose. The amount of hydraulic fluid flow
(pressure) used to boost steering is controlled by a solenoid valve that is identified as its PCV
(pressure control valve). The electronic power-steering system’s PCV is exposed to spring
tension on the top and plunger force on the bottom. The plunger slips inside an electromagnet.

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By varying the electrical current to the electromagnet, the upward force exerted by the plunger
can be varied as it works against the opposing spring. Current flow to the electromagnet is
variable with vehicle road speed and, therefore, provides steering to match the vehicle’s road
speed. General Motors’ variable effort steering (VES) system relies on an input signal from the
vehicle speed sensor to the VES controller to control the amount of power assist. The controller,
in turn, supplies a pulse width modulated voltage to the actuator solenoid in the power-steering
pump. The controller also provides a ground connection for the solenoid. When the vehicle is
operating at low speeds, the controller supplies a signal to cycle the solenoid faster so it allows
high pump pressure. This provides for maximum power assist during cornering and parking. As
the vehicle’s speed increases, the solenoid cycles less and the pump provides a lower amount of
assist. This gives the driver better road feel during high speeds.

Active Steering

Active steering improves vehicle stability by turning the wheels more or less sharply than
commanded by the turn of the steering wheel during some situations. Through inputs and
computer programming, this system can adjust the steering to respond quickly to the threat of
skidding.

Figure 20: The main components and circuits of an active steering system

The system also allows for a variable steering ratio dependent on vehicle speed. Current active
steering systems are not true steer by-wire systems. There is still a mechanical connection
between the steering wheel and vehicle’s wheels.
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Steer-by-Wire System

Steer-by-wire systems are not found on any production vehicles today. They are being tested and
have appeared on many concept cars. These systems do not use a steering column or shaft to
connect the steering wheel to the steering gear. The system is totally electronic. The turning of
the steering wheel is monitored by a sensor. The sensor sends an input signal to a controller. The
controller, in turn, sends commands to an electric motor in the steering gear. The commands
from the controller are also based on inputs from a variety of other inputs, such as vehicle speed.
These systems also have a small motor attached to the mount for the steering wheel. This motor
is controlled by a steering controller. This motor provides the correct steering feel for the current
conditions. The driver needs this feel to maintain control of the vehicle. Steer-by-wire systems
allow total customization of steering performance and can provide a constantly variable steering
ratio. The absence of a steering column opens up space in the vehicle’s interior and engine
compartment. The systems are also lighter than conventional steering systems.

Figure 21: The basic layout for a steer-by-wire system

2.6.4. Four-Wheel Steering Systems

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A few manufacturers have offered four-wheel steering systems in which the rear wheels also
help to turn the car by electrical, hydraulic, or mechanical means. Although they certainly are not
very common, you should be aware of how they work. Production-built cars tend to under steer
or, in a few instances, over steer. If a car could automatically compensate for an under steer/ over
steer problem, the driver would enjoy nearly neutral steering under varying operating conditions.
Four-wheel steering (4WS) is a serious effort on the part of automotive design engineers to
provide near-neutral steering with the following advantages:

 The vehicle’s cornering behavior becomes more stable and controllable at high speeds as
well as on wet or slippery road surfaces.
 The vehicle’s response to steering input becomes quicker and more precise throughout
the vehicle’s entire speed range.
 The vehicle’s straight-line stability at high speeds is improved. Negative effects of road
irregularities and crosswinds on the vehicle’s stability are minimized.
 Stability in lane changing at high speeds is improved. High-speed slalom-type operations
become easier. The vehicle is less likely to go into a spin even in situations in which the
driver must make a sudden and relatively large change of direction.
 By steering the rear wheels in the direction opposite the front wheels at low speeds, the
vehicle’s turning circle is greatly reduced. Therefore, vehicle maneuvering on narrow
roads and during parking becomes easier.

Because each 4WS system is unique in its construction and repair needs, the vehicle’s service
manual must be followed for proper diagnosis, repair, and alignment of a four-wheel system.

2.7. Work on the steering gear

Adjusting the steering box

The steering box normally has provision for steering shaft and steering spindle axial play and the
backlash between steering spindle and sector or roller to be adjusted. Various methods of
adjustment are provided, depending on the design of the steering box concerned. For this reason,
the manufacturer’s repair instructions should always be compiled with. After adjustment, the
adjusting screws must be secured by tightening the locknuts. The steering wheel should turn
freely.
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On the recirculating-ball steering box, the steering spindle bearings are adjusted first, followed
by the position of the steering sector in relation to the steering nut.

On the worm and roller steering box, steering shaft axial play is adjusted first, then steering
spindle axial play and finally backlash between the worm and the roller. The steering worm runs
in an eccentric bushing. This is turned by moving the backlash adjusting lever to move the worm
closer to or farther away from the steering roller. Backlash must also be adjusted with the
steering in its central (straight-ahead) position.

On the rack and pinion steering gear, pinion axial play can be adjusted at the castellated nut.
There is no need for pinion-rack backlash to be adjusted, as the rack teeth are kept pressed
against the pinion all the time by a pressure pad and an anti-shake device. This consists of cup
springs held by a guide pin which also limits their travel.

Measuring wheel alignment

It returns to the positioning of the front wheels and steering mechanism that gives the vehicle
directional stability; reduce the tyre wear to a minimum.

However, there are some measuring rigs which require only a flat surface, which can slope
slightly if local conditions render this necessary. Before taking any measurements, it is essential
to check play in the steering linkage; the tyres must be inflated to the specified pressures. The
front wheels must not have excessive runout, the wheel bearing play must be within the specified
limits and the tyre treads should have worn down by equal amounts at all wheels. Since springs
and dampers can also influence the results, they must be equally effective at all wheels too. After
rectifying any of these shortcomings, front wheel alignment can be checked. According to
German Industrial Standard (DIN 70020), this must take place with the vehicle laden to its gross
weight limit. However, comply with the instructions issued by individual equipment suppliers,
since on many vehicles the alignment measurements are taken with the vehicle unladen (service
weight).

Types of Wheel Alignment

There are two basic types of wheel alignment performed today: two wheels and four wheels. In
a two wheel alignment, only the angles of the front wheels are measured and adjusted. This does
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not take into account the relationship between the front and rear axles. Two-wheel alignment was
common before suspension and steering systems became more complex.

Four-wheel alignment measures the angles at the four wheels. On some vehicles, adjustments are
made only to the front wheels. This is primarily due to the fact that there is no way to make
adjustments to the rear wheels. However, by adjusting the front wheels so they are rotating in the
same direction as the rear wheels, the vehicle will tend to move straight. Many vehicles have
provisions for adjusting the rear wheels. When this is the case, the rear wheels are adjusted first
and then the fronts are aligned to the vehicle’s centerline

Factors effects the wheel alignment

1. Factors pertaining to wheel:


a) Balance of wheels (Static and Dynamic)
b) Inflation of tyre
c) Brake adjustments
2. Steering linkages
3. Suspension system
4. Steering Geometry, it refers to the angular relationship between the front wheels and parts
attached to it and car frame. The steering geometry includes: Caster angle, Camber angle,
King pin inclination, Toe-in and Toe-out etc).

Caster angle

Caster is the angle of the steering axis of a wheel from the vertical, as viewed from the side of
the vehicle. The forward or rearward tilt from the vertical line is caster. Caster is most often the
first angle adjusted during an alignment. Tilting the wheel forward is negative caster. Tilting
backward is positive caster. Caster is designed to provide steering stability. The caster angle for
each wheel on an axle should be equal. Unequal caster angles cause the vehicle to steer toward
the side with fewer casters. Too much negative caster can cause the vehicle to have sensitive
steering at high speeds. The vehicle might wander as a result of negative caster. Caster is not
considered to be a tire wearing angle. This about 20 to 40

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Figure 22: Three types of caster: (A) zero, (B) positive, and (C) negative

Camber angle

Camber is the angle represented by the tilt of either the front or rear wheels inward or outward
from the vertical as viewed from the front of the car. Camber is designed into the vehicle to
compensate for road crown, passenger weight, and vehicle weight. Camber is usually set equally
for each wheel. Equal camber means each wheel is tilted outward or inward the same amount.
Unequal camber causes tire wear and causes the vehicle to pull toward the side that is more
positive. This about ½ 0 to 20

Camber is adjustable at the control arms on


most vehicles. Some vehicles with a strut
suspension include a camber adjustment at
the spindle assembly. Camber adjustments
are also provided on some strut suspension
systems at the top mounting of the strut. Very
little adjustment of camber (or caster) is
required on strut suspensions if the tower and lower control arm locations are correct.

Figure 23: (A) Positive and (B) negative camber.

Toe

Toe is the distance comparison between the leading edge and trailing edge of the front tires. If
the leading edge distance is less, then there is toe-in. If it is greater, there is toe-out. Actually,
toe is critical as a tire-wearing angle. Wheels that do not track straight ahead have to drag as they
travel forward. Toe adjustments are made at the tie-rod. They must be set equally on both sides
of the car. If the toe settings are not equal, the car may tend to pull due to the steering wheel
being off-center. Toe will change with vehicle speed. As the vehicle moves, friction forces the
tires to move straight ahead or have zero toe. However, aerodynamic forces on the vehicle cause

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a change in its riding height. This will also change the toe as well as camber. Therefore, most toe
specifications anticipate these changes and are set to provide zero toe at highway speeds.

King- pin inclination

It is the angle between vertical line to the kingpin axis. The inclination tends to keep wheels
straight ahead and make the wheels to get return to the straight position offer completion of a
turn. The inclination is normally kept 70 to 80.

Steering system diagnosis

It is important to realize that many steering complaints are caused by problems in areas other
than the steering system. A good diagnosis is one that finds the exact cause of the customer’s
complaint. Although customers may describe the problem in different ways, the most common
complaints, their typical causes, repair and visual inspection of the steering system by inspecting
the tires. Check for correct pressure, construction, size, wear, and damage, and for defects that
include ply separations, sidewall knots, concentricity problems, and force problems are discussed
in Automotive Chassis practice (AUT204).

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Self –assessment exercises No 2

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1. Describe how a rack and pinion steering, a parallelogram steering, and a worm and roller
system operate.
2. A power-steering hose transmits fluid under pressure from the ………………to
the……………..
3. What is an integral power-steering system?
4. Define the term gearbox ratio.
5. What are the basic features of all four-wheel steering systems?
6. List the four main components in a parallelogram steering linkage and explain the
purpose of each component.
7. What is meant by steering geometry and explain with neat sketches?
8. Explain reversible steering and irreversible steering

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CHAPTER 3: SUSPENSION SYSTEM

Objectives

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

 Name the different types of springs and how they operate.


 Name the advantages of ball joint suspensions.
 Explain the important differences between sprung and unsprung weight with regard to
suspension control devices.
 Identify the functions of shock absorbers and struts and describe their basic construction.
 Identify the components of a MacPherson strut system and describe their functions.
 Identify the functions of bushings and stabilizers.
 Perform a general front suspension inspection.
 Check chassis height measurements to specifications.
 Identify the three basic types of rear suspensions and know their effects on traction and
tire wear.
 Identify the various types of springs, their functions, and their locations in the rear axle
housing.
 Describe the advantages and operation of the three basic electronically controlled
suspension systems: level control, adaptive, and active.
 Explain the function of electronic suspension components including air compressors,
sensors, control modules, air shocks, electronic shock absorbers, and electronic struts.
 Explain the basic towing, lifting, jacking, and service precautions that must be followed
when servicing air springs and other electronic suspension components.

3.1. Introduction

The automobile frame and body are mounted on the front and rear axle not directly but through
the springs and shock absorbers. The assembly of parts, which perform the isolation of parts
from the road shocks, may be in the forms of bounce, pitch and roll is called suspension system.
If the arrangement connects road wheels to the frame in which raise or fail of the wheel has no
direct effect on the other wheel, it is called independent suspension system.

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3.2. Functions of suspension system

1. It prevents the vehicle body and frame from road shocks.


2. It gives stability of the vehicle
3. It safeguards the passengers and goods from road shocks.
4. It gives the good road holding while driving, cornering and braking
5. It gives cushioning effect
6. It provides comfort.

3.3. Requirements of suspension system

- There should be minimum deflection


- It should be of minimum weight
- It should b of low initial cost
- It should have low maintenance and low operating cost
- It should have minimum tyre wear

3.4. Suspension system components

Nearly all automotive suspensions have the same basic components and they operate similarly.
The basic differences between the suspensions found on various vehicles are the construction
and placement of the parts. It consists of springs, shock absorbers, spring shackles, stabilizer, …

Springs

A spring is the core of all suspension systems. Springs carry the weight of the vehicle and absorb
shock forces while maintaining correct riding height. They are compressible links between the
vehicle’s frame and body and the tires. Doing this, they dampen road shock and provide a
comfortable ride. If a spring is worn or damaged, other suspension parts will shift out of their
proper positions and will experience increased wear. Various types of springs are used in
suspension systems are coil, torsion bar, leaf (both mono- and multi-leaf types), and air springs.

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Figure 24: Various type of Automotive spring

The springs take care of two fundamental vertical actions: Jounce and Rebound. Jounce, or
compression, occurs when a wheel hits a bump and moves up. When this happens, the
suspension system acts to pull in the top of the wheel, maintaining an equal distance between the
two wheels and preventing a sideways scrubbing action as the wheel moves up and down.
Rebound, or extension, occurs when the wheel hits a dip or hole and moves downward.

Coil Springs

Two basic designs of coil springs are used: linear rate and variable rate. Linear rate springs
characteristically have one basic shape and a consistent wire diameter. All linear springs are
wound from a steel rod into a cylindrical shape with even spacing
between the coils. As the load is increased, the spring is
compressed and the coils twist (deflect). As the load is removed,
the coils flex (unwind) back to the normal position.

Variable rate spring designs are characterized by a combination of


wire sizes and shapes. The most commonly used variable
Figure 25: The different designs of coil springs
rate springs have a consistent wire diameter, are wound in a
cylindrical shape, and have unequally spaced coils. This type of spring is called a progressive
rate coil spring. The design of the coil spacing gives the spring three functional ranges of coils:
inactive, transitional, and active. Inactive coils are usually the end coils and introduce force into

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the spring. Transitional coils become inactive as they are compressed to their point of maximum
load-bearing capacity. Active coils work throughout the entire range of spring loading.

Leaf springs

They are formed by bending and made of long strips of steel. Each strip is named as leaf. The
long leaf is called Master leaf, and it consists of eyes at its both ends. One end is fixed to the
chassis frame, the other end is fixed to the shackle spring. The spring will get elongated during
expansion and shortened during compression. This change in length of spring is compensated by
the shackle. The U-bolt and clamps are located at the intermediate position of the spring. The
bronze or rubber is provided on both eyes on master leaf. They are five types of leaf springs such
as full-elliptic type, semi- elliptic type, three quarter-elliptic type, transverse spring type and
helper spring type.

Full elliptic type: the advantage of this type is the elimination of shackle and spring. The
lubrication and wear frequently which are on of the main drawback of this type of springs.

Semi-elliptic: this type is more popular for rear suspensions are used in 75% of cars.

Three-quarter elliptic type: This type is rarely used in now a days. It gives resistance but
occupies more space than other types.

Transverse type: this type of spring is arranged transversely across the car instead of
longitudinal direction.

Helper springs: the helper springs are used in heavy vehicles for rear suspension. When vehicle
fully loaded the main spring as well as helper spring to come in action and absorb the road
shocks. When the load of the vehicle is less the helper spring will not act and the main spring
only absorbs the road shock.

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Air Springs: it is another type of spring, an air spring, is used in an air-operated microprocessor-
controlled system that replaces the conventional coil springs with air springs to provide a
comfortable ride and automatic front and rear load leveling.
This system, fully described later in this chapter, uses four air springs to carry the vehicle’s
weight. The air springs are located in the same positions where coil springs are usually found.
Each spring consists of a reinforced rubber bag pressurized with air. The bottom of each air bag
is attached to an inverted piston like mount that reduces the interior volume of the air bag during
jounce. This has the effect of increasing air pressure inside the spring as it is compressed, making
it progressively stiffer. A vehicle equipped with an electronic air suspension system is able to
provide a comfortable street ride, about a third softer than conventional coil springs. At the same
time, its variable spring rate helps absorb bumps and protect against bottoming.

Figure 26: A rear suspension setup with air springs.

Stabilizer bar: it is necessarily used in all independent front suspension and reduces tendency of
the vehicle to roll on either side when taking a turn. It is simply a bar of alloy steel with arms at
each end connected to the lower wishbone of the independent suspension system. It is supported
in bush bearings fixed the frame and is parallel to cross member. When both the wheels deflect
up or down by the same amount, the stabilizer bar simple turns in the bearings. When only one
wheel deflects, then only one end of the stabilizer moves, thus it acts as spring between two sides
of the independent front suspension.

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Figure 27: The typical location of a stabilizer bar

Torsion bar Suspension System: Torsion bars serve the same function as coil springs.
In fact, they are often described as straightened-out coil springs. Instead of compressing like coil
springs, a torsion bar twists and straightens out on the recoil. That is, as the bar twists, it resists
up-and-down movement. One end of the bar made of heat-treated alloy spring steel is attached to
the vehicle frame; the other end is attached to the lower control arm. When the wheel moves up
and down, the lower control arm is raised and lowered. This twists the torsion bar, which causes
it to absorb road shocks. The bar’s natural resistance to twisting quickly restores it to its original
position, returning the wheel to the road. When torsion bars are manufactured, they are pre-
stressed to give them fatigue strength. Because of directional prestressing, torsion bars are
directional. The torsion bar is marked either right or left to identify on which side it is to be used.

Figure 28: A torsion bar setup.

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Shock Absorbers

Shock absorbers damp or control motion in a vehicle. If the suspension springs are rigid enough,
they will not absorb road shocks efficiently, and if they are flexible enough, they will continue to
vibrate for longer time even after the bump has passed. Therefore, the springing device must be
compromise flexibility and stiffness a shock absorber needed in automobile suspension system.

They are two mainly two types of shock absorbers:

1. Mechanical
2. Hydraulic
- Van type
- Piston (single acting and double acting)
- Telescopic type
3. Air charged shock absorber

The commonly used is hydraulic shock absorber of telescopic type. The telescopic shock
absorber consists of a cylinder to which a head is welded to screw to the outer tube. The space
between outer and inner tube is called reserves. A pressed steel cap and axle eye by means of
which cylinder is screwed to the axle are welded to the outer tube. A piston slides inside the
cylinder and screwed to the piston rod at which its upper end of chassis eye, it is attached to the
frame of the vehicle. The part of the piston rod that is outside of cylinder is protected by a cover
which is welded to the chassis eye. A piston rod gland packing prevent the leakage, when the
piston passes through the head and any fluid is trapped by it is supplied to the reservoir through
drain hole.

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Working: if the axle eye moves upwards then the fluid must be displaced from the bottom, top
side of the bottom side fluid through the outer ring of the piston by lifting the non return valve.
But since the increase in the volume of upper end of the cylinder is less than the volume of the
lower end, fluid will also displaced through the inner ring of holes of non return valve of foot
valve and the level at the fluid will raise in the reservoir. The pressure setup will depend on the
size of hole in the piston and foot valve and squire of the speed of which the cylinder is moved.
For downward motion of the cylinder the fluid will be displaced from the upper end of the
piston, in the leaver end through the inner of hole of non return valve of the foot valve.

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Gas-Charged Shock Absorbers: On rough roads, the passage of fluid from chamber to chamber
becomes so rapid that foaming can occur.
Foaming is simply the mixing of the fluid
with any available air. Since aeration can
cause a skip in the shock’s action, engineers
have sought methods of eliminating it. One is
the spiral groove reservoir, the shape of which
breaks up bubbles. Another is a gas-filled cell
or bag (usually nitrogen) that seals air out of
the reservoir so the shock fluid can only
contact the gas. A gas-charged shock absorber
operates on the same hydraulic fluid principle
as conventional shocks. It uses a piston and
oil chamber similar to other shock absorbers.
Instead of a double tube with a reserve
chamber, it has a dividing piston that
separates the oil chamber from the gas
chamber. The oil chamber contains special
hydraulic oil, and the gas chamber contains
nitrogen gas under pressure equal to
approximately 25 times atmospheric pressure.

Figure 29: Gas-pressure damped shocks operate like conventional oil-filled shocks. Gas is used to keep oil pressurized, which
reduces oil foaming and increases efficiency under seven conditions.

Macpherson strut suspension components

The MacPherson strut suspension is dramatically different in appearance from the traditional
independent front suspension, but similar components operate in the same way to meet
suspension demands. The MacPherson strut suspension’s most distinctive feature is the
combination of the main elements into a single assembly. It typically includes the spring, upper
suspension locator, and shock absorber. It is mounted vertically between the top arm of the

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steering knuckle and the inner fender panel. Struts have taken two forms: a concentric coil spring
around the strut itself and a spring located between the lower control arm and the frame.

Figure 30: A complete MacPherson strut front suspension

The location of the spring on the lower control arm, not on the strut as in a conventional
MacPherson strut system, allows minor road vibrations to be absorbed through the chassis rather
than be fed back to the driver through the steering system. This system is called modified
MacPherson suspension.

Figure 31: A modified MacPherson suspension has the spring mounted separately from the strut

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3.5. Electronically controlled suspensions

All of the suspension systems covered up to this point are known as passive systems. Vehicle
height and damping depend on fixed nonadjustable coil springs, shock absorbers, or MacPherson
struts. When weight is added, the vehicle lowers as the springs are compressed. Air-adjustable
shock absorbers may provide some amount of flexibility in ride height and ride firmness, but
there is no way to vary this setting during operation. More advanced adaptive suspensions are
capable of altering shock damping and ride height continuously. Electronic sensors provide input
data to a computer. The computer adjusts air spring and shock damping settings to match road
and driving conditions. The most advanced computer-controlled suspension systems are true
active suspensions.

Figure 32: The various inputs and outputs for an electronic suspension system.

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3.6. Servicing electronic suspension components

Most electronic suspension servicing requires the removal and replacement of a component. The
correct procedures for doing this are given in the manufacturer’s service information.
Serviceable items include the air compressor, charger, mounting brackets, height sensors, air
springs, air lines and connections, gas struts, strut mounts, control arm components, shock
absorbers, and stabilizer bars. Attention to fasteners is extremely important when serving all
suspension systems, especially electronic systems.

Diagnosis

A scan tool and/or a special electronic tester is used to diagnose most electronic suspension
system. These can only retrieve DTCs; they may also be able to activate various actuators in the
system. The exact procedures and available data from the vehicle’s computer will vary with
manufacturer and the system found on the vehicle. Always refer to the correct service
information when diagnosing electronic systems.

Diagnosis should begin with gathering as much information as possible from the customer. Make
sure you know exactly what the concern is and the conditions at the time the malfunction
occurred. Verify the customer’s concern by attempting to duplicate these conditions during a
road test.

Check the voltage at the battery. If the voltage is below 11 volts, recharge or replace the battery
before continuing with diagnostics. Check the fuses, connectors, and wiring harnesses for the
suspension system and repair them as necessary. Start the engine and allow it to warm up. Then
connect the scan tool or tester. Retrieve all DTCs from the system. If the scan tool or tester is
unable to communicate with the vehicle’s computer, diagnose the cause of this before
proceeding.

3.7. Active suspensions/ Active Body Control

Some of the advanced adaptive suspension systems may be called active suspensions. Active
Body Control (ABC) is an electro-hydraulic active chassis system which, in addition to its
suspension and damping functions, enables automatic level control while the vehicle is in

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motion. This maintains the vehicle body at practically the same level at the front and rear axles
when braking, accelerating, driving over uneven road surfaces and cornering.

Figure 33: Active Body Control (Layout)

In this above figure, active suspensions refer to those controlled by double acting hydraulic
cylinders or solenoids (usually called actuators) that are mounted at each wheel. Each actuator
maintains a sort of hydraulic equilibrium with the others to carry the vehicle’s weight, while
maintaining the desired body attitude. At the same time, each actuator serves as its own shock
absorber, eliminating the need for yet another traditional suspension component.

In other words, each hydraulic actuator acts as both a spring (with variable-rate damping
characteristics) and a variable-rate shock absorber. This is accomplished in an active suspension
system by varying the hydraulic pressure within each cylinder and the rate at which it increases
or decreases. By bleeding or adding hydraulic pressure from the individual actuators, each wheel
can react independently to changing road conditions. When the wheel of an active suspension
hits a bump, the sensors detect the sudden upward deflection of the wheel. The computer
recognizes the change as a bump, and instantly opens a control valve to bleed pressure from the
hydraulic actuator. The rate at which pressure is bled from the actuator determines the

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cushioning of the bump and the relative harshness or softness of the ride. The rate can be varied
at any point during jounce or rebound to produce a variable spring rate effect.

Figure 34: ABC hydraulic circuit diagram

Control Procedures

Starting the engine: When the vehicle door is opened, the ABC control unit is activated by the
signal acquisition and actuation module pin 23 (plug2 located on left side of ECU). The level
sensors B22/7 to22/10 are used to compare the actual level with the target level. If the actual
level is higher than the target level, the control valves Y1, Y3 are actuated and the vehicle is
lowered to the target level. The control unit is powered by battery + (positive) via pin 48 and by
battery – (Negative) via pin21 in order to carry out this control procedure. Once the ignition has
been switched on, there is an additional power supply via pin 46 plug 2.

Cornering: When the vehicle is cornering, the lateral-acceleration sensor B24/12 registers
centrifugal forces. The relevant signal is transferred to the control unit via pin 27 plug 1. The
control uses the speed of the front right and front left wheels from the CANC to determine
whether it is a left-hand or right-hand turn. If it is a left turn the control unit N51/2 actuates
control valves Y3 via pin 3, pin 27(plug2) and pin 28, pin 13(plug1), so that the plunger moves
out and the side of the vehicle on the outside of the turn raised. At the same time, the control
valves Y1 are switched via pin 1, pin 25 (plug2) and pin 30, pin15(plug) so that the load on the
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plunger on the side of the vehicle on the inside of the turn is relieved. The side of the vehicle on
the inside of the turn is lowered. The level sensors B22/7 to 22/10 are used to compare the actual
level with the target level.

Acceleration: when the vehicle accelerates, the longitudinal acceleration sensor B24/14 registers
acceleration forces on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The signal is transferred to the control
unit at pin25 plug 1 which actuates the control valves so that the vehicle body sinks at the front
axle and is raised at the rear axle.

Braking: when the vehicle brakes, the control unit receives information that a braking procedure
has been commenced from the closed brake light switch via the CAN C. The longitudinal
acceleration sensor supplies the control unit with information about the deceleration rate via pin
25 plug 1. The control unit actuates the control valves so that the vehicle body is raised at the
front axle and lowered at the rear axle.

Driving straight ahead: When the vehicle is driving straight ahead, the control unit receives
information about the vehicle speed via the CAN C. the control unit actuates the control valves
to automatically lower the vehicle according to preselected program map. If the driver wishes,
the vehicle can be raised by25 or 50mm (by pressing the level switch (CAN C)).

Vertical vibrations: If the vehicle vibrates in the direction of the vertical axis due to uneven
road surface, these movements are transferred to the control unit from the body acceleration
sensors B24/3,B24/4,B24/6via pin6,pin8(plug2)and pin(plug1) the level sensors B24/3, B24/4,
B24/6 via pin 6, pin 8 (plug 2) and pin 29 (plug 1). The level sensors B22/7, B22/8, B22/9 pin42,
B22/10 report the amplitude via pin20 plug2 and pin2, pin5 (plug1). The control unit actuates the
control valves according to the preselected program map (sport/ comfort) so that the body
vibration are damped and evened out.

Basic front-suspension diagnosis (Conventional suspension system)

Diagnosis of suspension problems should follow a logical sequence. The following procedure
can be used on most vehicles; however, it is also best to follow the sequence given by the
manufacturer or a specific vehicle.

To diagnose a suspension system:

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STEP 1 Take the vehicle on a road test and verify the customer’s concern.

STEP 2 Inspect the tires. Check their condition and air pressure. Also make sure that the tires
and wheels are the correct size.

STEP 3 Inspect the chassis and underbody. Remove any excessive accumulation of mud, dirt, or
road deposits. Then:

■ Inspect all parts to identify any aftermarket modifications that may have been made.

■ Check vehicle attitude for evidence of overloading or sagging. Be sure the chassis height is
correct.

■ Raise the vehicle off the floor. Grasp the upper and lower surfaces of the tire and shake each
front wheel to check for worn wheel bearings.

■ Look for loose or damaged front and rear suspension parts.

■ Check loose, damaged, or missing suspension bolts.

■ Check the ball joints for looseness and wear.

■ Check the condition of the struts’ upper mounts.

■ Check the shock absorbers and struts for signs of fluid leakage and damage.

■ Check all of the mountings for the shocks and struts.

■ Check all suspension bushings for looseness, splits, cracks, misplacement, and noises.

■ Check the steering mounts, linkages, and all connections for looseness, binding, or damage.

■ Check for damaged or sagging springs.

■ Check the drive axles for damage and looseness.

STEP 4 If the cause of the customer’s concern was found, make the repair as necessary and
verify that the repair fixed the problem.

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STEP 5 If the cause of the concern was not found, refer to the symptom chart given in the
service information and conduct all applicable checks. Then make the repair as necessary and
verify that the repair fixed the problem.

Self –assessment exercises No 3

1. How does a stabilizer bar work?

2. Explain the difference between sprung and unsprung weight.

3. Explain the action of the conventional shock absorber on both compression (jounce) and
rebound strokes.

4. Describe the action of the independent front wheel suspension system.

5. What are the types of independent suspension system and explain about wishbone type of
front independent suspension?

6. What are the basis suspension movements?

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CHAPTER: 4. TYRE AND WHEEL

Objectives

■ Describe basic wheel and hub design.

■ Recognize the basic parts of a tubeless tire.

■Explain the differences between the three types of tire construction in use today.

■ Explain the tire ratings and designations in use today.

■ Describe why certain factors affect tire performance, including inflation pressure, tire rotation,
and tread wear.

■Describe the operation, diagnosis, and service for a tire pressure monitor.

■ Remove and install a wheel and tire assembly.

■ Dismount and remount a tire.

■ Repair a damaged tire.

■ Describe the differences between static balance and dynamic balance.

■Balance wheels both on and off a vehicle.

■ Describe the three popular types of wheel hub bearings.

4.1. Introduction

The wheel/tyre combination establishes the adherent connection between the chassis and the
road. It absorbs the forces resulting from the vehicle’s weight and should have the lowest mass
possible. The chassis and wheel/tyre combination should technically be viewed as a single unit in
order to achieve the highest degree of driving safety and possible ride comfort.

4.2. Acting force

The load capacity and dimensions of the wheels and tyres must be coordinated in relation to the
vehicle weight, mounting dimensions and technical requirements, such as brake size, desired
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track width, etc. The wheel/tyre combination should be as light as possible; this minimizes the
unsprung mass, improving the tyre’s contact with the road. Thus, for instance, higher cornering
forces and greater braking forces can be transmitted, increasing driving safety.

The forces illustrated in the figure below are transmitted from the vehicle to the road and from
the road to the chassis via the tyre contact patch.

Figure 35: Force acting on the wheel/tyre combination

4.3. Wheels

Wheels a made of either stamped or pressed steel discs riveted or welded together. They are also
available in the form of aluminum or magnesium rims that are die-cast or forged. Magnesium
wheels are commonly referred to as mag wheels, although they are usually made of an aluminum
alloy. Aluminum wheels are lighter in weight when compared with the stamped steel type. This
weight savings is important because the wheels and tires on a vehicle are unsprung weight.

Near the center of the wheel are mounting holes that are tapered to fit tapered mounting nuts (lug
nuts) that center the wheel over the hub. The rim has a hole for the tire’s valve stem and a drop
center area designed to allow for easy tire removal and installation. The vertical distance between

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the centerline of the rim and the mounting face of the wheel is Wheel offset. The offset is
considered positive if the centerline of the rim is inboard of the mounting face and negative if
outboard of the mounting face.

The wheel is bolted to a hub, either by lug bolts that pass through the wheel and thread into the
hub, or by studs that protrude from the hub. In the case of studs, special lug nuts are required. A
few vehicles have left-hand threads (which turn counterclockwise to tighten) on the driver’s side
and right-hand threads (which turn clockwise to tighten) on the passenger’s side. All other
vehicles use right-hand threads on both sides.

Wheel size is designated by rim width and rim diameter (Figure below). Rim width is determined
by measuring across the rim between the flanges.

Figure 36: Wheel dimensions are important when replacing tires

Rim diameter is measured across the bead seating areas from the top to the bottom of the wheel.
Some rims have safety ridges near their lips. In the event of a tire blowout, these ridges tend to
keep the tire from moving into the dropped center and from coming off the wheel.

Replacement wheels must be equal to the original equipment wheels in load capacity, diameter,
width, offset, and mounting configuration. An incorrect wheel can affect wheel and bearing life,
ground and tire clearance, or speedometer and odometer calibrations. A wrong size wheel can
also affect the antilock brake system. Using the wrong size tire or wheel or improperly inflated
tires will affect the rotational speed of the tire, and the ABS will be unable to operate correctly.

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Some performance-oriented cars are equipped with different-sized wheels at the front and rear. It
is important that the specific size wheel be at the specific axle. The wider or larger wheels are
designed to use different-sized tires. For example, a Porsche 911 Turbo has 8.5×19 front wheels
that are fitted with 235/35 ZR 19 tires. The rear is equipped with 11×19 wheels that carry 305/30
ZR 19 tires.

4.4.Tires

The primary purpose of tires is to provide traction. Tires also help the suspension absorb road
shocks, but this is a side benefit. They must perform under a variety of conditions. In addition to
providing good traction, tires are also designed to carry the weight of the vehicle, to withstand
side thrust over varying speeds and conditions, and to transfer braking and driving torque to the
road.

4.4.1. Tube and Tubeless Tires

Early vehicle tires were solid rubber. These were replaced with pneumatic tires, which are filled
with air. There are two basic types of pneumatic tires: those that use inner tubes and those that do
not. The latter are called tubeless tires and are about the only type used on passenger cars today.
A tubeless tire has a soft inner lining that keeps air from leaking between the tire and rim.

A tubeless tire air valve has a central core that is spring-loaded to allow air to pass inward only,
unless the pin is depressed. If the core becomes defective, it can be unscrewed and replaced. The
airtight cap on the end of the valve provides extra protection against valve leakage. A tubeless
tire is mounted on a special rim that retains air between the rim and the tire casing when the tire
is inflated.

TUBELESS TUBE TYPE

The inner tube is integral within the tyre, Components: Tyre, Tube with Valve and Rim.
known as inner liner. The valve is permanently
fixed to the rim. THE ASSEMBLY IS
AIRTIGHT.

In case of a puncture, loss of air is very slow, Instant air leakage after getting punctured. The

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since air can escape only through the narrow air under pressure finds a way between the
gap made by the penetration of a nail. tube, tyre and through the rim hole.

High-speed performance while achieving a High speed performance cannot be achieved.


better cornering ability.

The absence of a tube makes the tyre lighter in Heavier tyre, less fuel efficient
weight. Better fuel efficiency

Sidewall is more supple as there is no internal More heat generation during traveling.
body to create a friction. This eliminates heat
generation

Tubeless tyres can flex over an object, giving it Cannot flex easily over an object. Hence lesser
a better impact resistance than a tube type one. impact resistant.

Figure 37: A typical tubeless tire.

The tread, or crown, is the portion of the tire that comes in contact with the road surface. It is a
pattern of grooves and ribs that provides traction. The grooves are designed to drain off water,

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while the ribs grip the road surface. Tread thickness varies with tire quality. The sidewalls are the
sides of the tire’s body. They are constructed of thinner material than the tread to offer greater
flexibility.

The tire body and belt material can be made of rayon, nylon, polyester, fiberglass, steel, amarid,
or kevlar. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

For instance, rayon and cord tires are low in cost and give a good ride, but do not have the
inherent strength needed to cope with long high-speed runs or extended periods of abusive use
on rough roads. Nylon-cord tires generally give a slightly harder ride than rayon especially for
the first few miles after the car has been parked but offer greater toughness and resistance to road
damage. Polyester and fiberglass tires offer many of the best qualities of rayon and nylon, but
without the disadvantages. They run as smoothly as rayon tires but are much tougher. They are
almost as tough as nylon, but give a much smoother ride. Steel is tougher than fiberglass or
polyester, but it gives a slightly rougher ride because the steel cord does not give under impact,
as do fabric plies. Amarid and kevlar cords are lighter than steel cords and, pound for pound,
stronger than steel.

4.4.2. Types of Tire Construction

There are three basic types of tire construction: Bias Ply, Belted Bias, and Radial Ply.

R indicates the tyre is a radial type tyre. B indicates the tyre is a bias ply type tyre. PR (Ply
Rating) The word "Ply" refers to the number of cords which form the carcass of a tyre.

Bias ply and belted bias tires are only used on heavy equipment, trailers, and older cars. Today,
nearly all vehicles are fitted with radial tires.

Bias plytires have fabric plies that run alternatively and form a crisscross design. The angle
varies from 30 to 38 degrees with the centerline of the tire. Belted bias ply tires are similar to
bias ply tires, except that two or more belts run the circumference of the tire under the tread. This
construction gives strength to the sidewall and greater stability to the tread. Radial ply tires have
body cords that extend from bead to bead at an angle of about 90 degrees or “radial’’ to the
circumferential centerline of the tire plus two or more layers of relatively inflexible belts under
the tread. The construction of various combinations of rayon, nylon, fiberglass, and steel gives

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greater strength to the tread area and flexibility to the sidewall. The belts restrict tread motion
during contact with the road, thus improving tread life and traction. Radial ply tires also offer
greater fuel economy, increased skid resistance, and more positive braking.

Figure 38: The construction of the three basic types of tires.

4.4.3. Basic Components /Tyre Construction

The construction of off-the-road depends, to a large extent, on the intended use of tyres.
However, common components to all off-the-road tyres are the tread, carcass, beads, breakers,
and sidewalls. Tubeless type tyres also have an inner liner.

a) Tread

The tread is the outermost covering of the tyre, and is the only part that normally comes in
contact with the road surface. It, therefore, must be designed to protect the body of the tyre from
cuts and wear. A proper tread design improves traction, improves handling and increases
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Durability. It also has a direct effect on ride comfort, noise level and fuel efficiency. Each part of
tyre tread has a different name, and a different function and effect on the overall tyre.

Figure 39: Tyre Thread components

Sipes are the small, slit-like grooves in the tread blocks that allow the blocks to flex. This added
flexibility increases traction by creating an additional biting edge. Sipes are especially helpful on
ice, light snow and loose dirt.

Grooves create voids for better water channeling on wet road surfaces. Grooves are the most
efficient way of channeling water from in front of the tyres to behind it. By designing grooves
circumferentially, water has less distance to be channeled.

Blocks are the segments that make up the majority of a tyre's tread. Their primary function is to
provide traction.

Ribs are the straight-lined row of blocks that create a circumferential contact "band."

Dimples are the indentations in the tread, normally towards the outer edge of the tyre. They
improve cooling.

Shoulders provide continuous contact with the road while maneuvering. The shoulders wrap
slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of a tyre.

The Void Ratio is the amount of open space in the tread. A low void ratio means a tyre has more
rubber is in contact with the road. A high void ratio increases the ability to drain water. Sports,
dry-weather and high performance tyres have a low void ratio for grip and traction. Wet-weather
and snow tyres have high void ratios.

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Tread patterns There are hundreds if not thousands of tyre tread patterns available. The actual
pattern itself is a mix of functionality and aesthetics.

b) Plies

A tyre is composed of a number of layers or plies. These plies are high tensile nylon cords which
are loosely woven together and coated on both sides with a rubber compound. These layers of
plies help contain the inflation pressure of the tyre in supporting the load. The high-tensile nylon
cords have a greater resistance to shock, cutting and heat. This improves the durability of the
tyre.

c) Carcass or Cord Body

The compressed air in a tyre supports the load placed on the tyre. The carcass forms a semi-rigid
frame for the compressed air, but it is flexible enough to absorb some shocks and jolts. The
carcass of the Bias tyre consists of a number of rubber coated layers of fabric called “piles”. The
carcass determines the strength of the tyre and the ability to flex.

d) Bead

The beads fix the tyre to the rim to support the load.

e) Belts

In radial tyres stabilizer bias ply belts under the base rubber give added protection to the radial
plies underneath and determine the shape of the footprint.

f) Liner

In tubeless tyres, this is composed of two or more layers of rubber, designed to retain air or
liquid under pressure. The inner walls of tubeless tyres are lined. The liner is made of an air-
impermeable rubber compound and is comparable to tubes used in tube type tyres. Tubeless tyre
generally weigh less than comparable tube type tyres and are simpler to maintain tube and flap
are eliminated.

g) Breakers

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The breakers of Bias tyres are rubber-coated layers of cord between the tread and carcass,
binding the two together. The breakers prevent cuts in the tread from reaching the carcass and
absorb shocks.

h) Steel Breakers

The steel breaker tyre has steel cord breaker that give it very high cut resistance. It is especially
useful where sharp rock is a problem, and is applicable t loader, dozer, dump truck, and
occasionally earthmover type tyres. The adhesiveness between the steel cord and rubber is,
however, more susceptible to heat damage than that of nylon cord and rubber. Accordingly, steel
breaker tyres should not be subjected to conditions where heat generation is great.

i) Sidewall

The side walls are composed of flexible, crack resistant rubber, and protect the carcass from
damage. For jobs where chuck holes, large rocks, etc. are a problem, tyres with high cut resistant
sidewalls can be used. The sidewalls are designed to cushion the body plies from shock and
cutting, while being able to flex and bend without cracking. The sidewall must also be able to
withstand the ravages of the weather without deterioration.

4.4.4. Tire ratings and designations

The construction of a tire depends on its application. Needless to say, there are many different
tires. These differences are based on not only size, but their construction to meet intended
driving conditions. There are also standards that tire manufacturers must meet to ensure that the
tire will be safe, not wear rapidly, and offer good road isolation for the passengers in the vehicle.

Tire Size

The best way to describe and explain the information given on the sidewall of a tire is to look at
an example.

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Aspect ratio: This is the ratio of the section height of the tyre's cross section to its section
width. An example of this might be 65, which means that the height is equal to 65% of the tyre's
width. To calculate the aspect ratio, multiply the section width (e.g. 215) by 0.65 to get the
section height as 215x.65=139.75 in mm. This is the height of the rubber from rim to tread on
one side of the tyre.
Overall diameter: The measurement of the distance of an unladen tyre, from tread surface to
tread surface on opposite sides of the tyre
Overall width: Measurement of the cross-section of an unladen tyre, including ribs and
protrusions; usually the same as section width on radial tyres.
Section width: Measurement of the cross section of an unladen tyre across the casing only not
including ribs or protrusions.
Tread width: Distance across the tread face of an unladen tyre.

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Tread depth: Distance from tread surface to major groove base at designated measuring point.
Section height: Distance from the bead seat to the tread surface of an unladen tyre.
Rim width: Distance between the rim flanges.
Nominal rim diameter: Diameter of the rim from bead seat to bead seat in inches.
Static loaded radius: Distance from the center of the axle to the ground of a loaded tyre under
maximum dual load and inflation as stamped on the sidewall of the tyre.
Loaded width: The maximum section width of a loaded tyre under maximum dual load and
inflation as stamped on the sidewall of the tyre.
Minimum dual spacing: The minimum allowable distance between the wheel center lines in a
dual arrangement.
Revolutions per mile (rpm): The number of tyre revolutions in one mile measured at a speed of
55 mph at maximum dual load and inflation as stamped on the sidewall of the tyre.
Load Rating: Tyres are specified by the manufacturer with a maximum load rating. Loads
exceeding the rating can result in unsafe conditions that can lead to steering instability and even
rupture. This is a number corresponds to the maximum load in pounds that a tyre can support
when properly inflated.
Inflation pressure: Tyres are specified by the manufacturer with a recommended inflation
pressure that permits safe operation within the specified load rating.
Speed rating: The speed rating denotes the maximum speed at which a tyre is designed to be
driven for extended periods of time. The ratings range from 99 mph (160 km/h) to 186 mph (300
km/h).

Run flat tyre system

Run-flat tyres are becoming a common accessory on new vehicles. Vehicles equipped with these
have no spare tire or jack in the luggage compartment. Run-flats can be divided into three
categories: self-sealing, self-supporting, and auxiliary supported systems. Each of these uses
different ways to allow a vehicle to be driven after a tire is punctured.
Self-Sealing: Self-sealing tires are designed to quickly and permanently seal most tread-area
punctures. The tires are constructed like other tires but there is an additional lining inside the tire
under the tread area. The lining is coated with a sealant that can permanently seal most punctures

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up to 3⁄16 inch (4.76 mm) in diameter. The lining seals the area around the puncture and can fill
in the hole once the object is removed from the tire.
Self-Supporting: When a self-supporting tire loses all of its air pressure, it is able to
temporarily carry the weight of the vehicle and allow the vehicle to be driven. This is a result of
the tire’s construction. These tires have reinforced sidewalls and special beads. The first “run-
flat” tire available on a regular production vehicle was a self-supporting tire that was offered as
an option on the 1994 Chevrolet Corvette. Today, many tire manufacturers offer self-supporting
tires. Typically, a self-supporting tire can be driven for 50 miles (80 km) at speeds up to 55 mph
(89 km/h) after it has lost air pressure.
Auxiliary Supported Run-Flat Systems: Auxiliary supported systems are much different from
other run-flat tires. They are systems that have special tires and wheels. The basis of these
systems is a solid supporting ring that allows a flat tire’s tread to rest on a support ring attached
to the wheel when the tire loses pressure. This support ring allows the tire to behave as it would
when it was inflated. The wheel and tire are designed to prevent the tire from coming loose from
the wheel when air pressure is lost. The most common system is Michelin’s PAX system, which
was introduced in 1996. This system allows the driver to drive the vehicle up to 125 miles at
55 mph before it needs service.

4.5. Tire Pressure Monitor (TPM)

The tire pressure monitoring and automatic air filling system (TPMAFS) can not only make the
driver more safety, but also save fuel and protect the tire. Tire safety is attracting the driver's
attention, the United States had developed laws to enforce the TPMS installation in the car. In
this paper, the basic structure and the implement method, automatic filling of air are introduced.

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This is an electronic system designed to monitor air pressure inside the tires on various types of
vehicles. This system report real time tire pressure information to the driver via a display. Proper
tire inflation pressure improves fuel efficiency, reduces breaking distance, improves handling,
and increases tire life, while under inflation creates overheating and can lead to accidents.
As a result of this standard, two basic TPM designs are being used. The most commonly used
system is referred to as a direct system. In this system an air pressure sensor is strapped around
the drop center of each wheel, or the sensor is attached to a special tire valve. The pressure
sensor measures the tire’s inflation pressure and relays this information to the vehicle via radio
waves. These signals are picked up by separate body-mounted antennas for each wheel.
A central electronic control unit processes the signals from the four wheels and reports any
variations to the system.
The tire pressure monitor (TPM) checks the inflation pressures in all four tires at frequent
periodic intervals. The TPM sensors keep track of the tire pressures both when the vehicle is
moving and when it is stationary. When the TPM detects changes in any tire’s inflation pressure,
it responds by triggering a warning lamp on the instrument panel.
A typical direct TPM system has the
following components:
■ Tire pressure warning transmitter and air
valve: This is a single unit with a built-in
battery that measures tire pressure and
temperature and transmits a signal and ID
number for that particular tire.
■ Tire pressure warning antenna and
receiver: This unit receives and transmits
the signals from the transmitters to the tire
pressure warning control unit.
■ Tire pressure warning control unit: This
unit receives the signal from the receiver. If
the measured air pressure is equal to or
lower than a specified value, this unit transmits a signal, causing the air pressure warning light to
illuminate.

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■ Tire pressure warning light: Located in the instrument cluster, this unit informs the driver of
low tire pressure or a problem in the system.
■ Tire pressure warning reset switch: This unit is used after sensor, tire, or wheel replacement. It
is used to allow the control unit to relearn the system.

Figure 40: The tire pressure monitor (TPM) components

In an attempt to meet the TPM standard without the cost of a direct system, some manufacturers
use an indirect system. These systems do not use pressure sensors; rather they rely on the inputs
from wheel speed sensors. These signals have been used for ABS or other systems, With indirect
TPM, the PCM is reprogrammed to use those signals to identify when a tire has lost air pressure.
Indirect systems are also used on some older vehicles with run-flat tires. This was necessary
because run-flat tires without air appear normal. The driver needs to be alerted to the loss of air.
The input signals from the wheel speed sensors are used to compare the rotational speeds of the
four tires. When a tire loses or gains air pressure, it will roll at a slightly different number of
revolutions per mile than the other three tires. When the computer senses this difference, a
warning lamp will light. Indirect systems are not as effective as direct systems, however. These
systems cannot tell the driver which tire has low pressure.

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Testing a TPM System

The TPM system in most vehicles is tied directly to the PCM; therefore, faults cause DTCs to
set. These can be retrieved with a scan tool. Special tools are required to accurately test and
locate the problem tire(s). A TPM sensor tool is a wireless tool that may be used with a scan tool
for diagnosing sensors and allowing the system to relearn when a part has been replaced.

The TPM sensor tester is used to reset the system, which is typically needed after tires are
rotated, tires or wheels are replaced, and repairs are made to the system, and when the vehicle’s
battery was low or replaced. The tester activates the sensors and the transmitted data from them
can be observed.

Figure 41: A TPM tester.

4.6. Tire/Wheel Runout

A tire that is off center is said to run out. This is known as radial runoutor eccentricity. One that
wobbles side to side is said to have lateral runout. If a tire with some built-in runout is
mismatched with a wheel’s runout, the resulting total runout can exceed the ability of the balance
weights to correct the problem. For this reason, part of a tire/wheel inspection should be for
excessive runout. Sometimes tires or wheels can be remounted to lessen or correct runout
problems. To avoid false readings caused by temporary flat spots in the tires, check runout only
after the vehicle has been driven.

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Visually inspect the tire for abnormal bulges or distortions. The extent of runout should be
measured with a dial indicator. All measurements should be made on the vehicle with the tires
inflated to recommended load inflation pressures and with the wheel bearing adjusted to
specification. Measure tire radial runout at the center and outside ribs of the tread face, measure
tire lateral runout just above the buffing rib on the sidewall, Mark the high points of lateral and
radial runout for future references. On bias or belted bias tires, radial runout must not exceed
0.06 inch (1.5 mm) and lateral runout must not exceed 0.045 inch (1.1 mm). On radial ply tires,
radial runout must not exceed 0.081 inch (2.06 mm) and lateral runout must not exceed 0.099
inch (2.51 mm). If the total radial or lateral runout of the tire exceeds the specified limits, it is
necessary to check wheel runout to determine whether the wheel or tire is at fault.

Figure 42: Checking wheel runout.

Tire replacement

Tires should be replaced when they are worn or heavily damaged. Replacement tires should
match the tires that were on the vehicle originally.

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Replacing One Tire

In some cases, only one tire needs to be replaced. The usual causes of this are that the tire was
damaged due to an accident, a road hazard, or vandalism. Replacing one tire is recommended
only if the other tires have a satisfactory amount of tread left. Make sure the replacement tire is
the same brand, type, size, and speed rating as the other tires.

Replacing Two Tires

If there is a need to replace two tires and the other two have good treads, the replacement pair
should be mounted on the front axle. The replacement tires should match the remaining pair of
tires as closely as possible.

Changing Tire and/or Wheel Size

There are several other factors that may dictate a change in tire size, and the customer may come
to you for advice. Perhaps one of the most important considerations is that the tire must be able
to carry the weight of the vehicle. Changing tires from one aspect ratio to another also changes
the sectional width, which relates to the load-carrying capacity of the tire. Most tire width
changes affect the overall diameter of the tire. A change in the tire’s outside diameter will cause
a change in the overall gear ratio and will affect the accuracy of the speedometer and odometer.
A change in tire diameter or aspect ratio may also affect overall driveability.

Plus Sizing: A way to change the contact area of a tire without seriously affecting its overall
diameter is using the plus sizing system. This system is based on the overall diameters of a
combination of different-sized tires and wheels. The system requires much research but it is the
best way to achieve the desired results.

Calculating Tire Dimensions: When replacing tires with other than the original tire size, you
may need to calculate the dimensions of a desired replacement tire. Like everything else, there
are formulas to make these calculations.

To determine the section height of a tire, multiply its aspect ratio by the sectional width.

Width  Aspect Ratio = Section Height

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To determine the overall diameter of a tire, multiply the sectional height by 2 (this is called the
combined sectional height because there are two), then add the diameter of the wheel.

Combined Section Height (Sectional Height  2) + Wheel Diameter = Tire Diameter

4.7. Tire repair


The most common tire problem besides wear is a puncture. When properly repaired, the tire can
be put back in service without the fear of an air leak recurring. Punctures in the tread area are the
only ones that should be repaired or even attempted to be repaired. Never attempt to service
punctures in the tire’s shoulders or sidewalls.

In addition, do not service any tire that has sustained the following damage:

■ Bulges or blisters
■ Ply separation
■ Broken or cracked beads
■ Fabric cracks or cuts
■ Wear to the fabric or visible wear indicators
■ punctures larger than 1⁄4-inch (6 mm) diameter.
Some car owners attempt to seal punctures with tire sealants. These sealants are injected into the
tire through the valve stem. Sometimes the chemicals in the sealant do a great job sealing the
hole, other times they fail. The sealants should never be used and will not work on sidewall
punctures. Some of the sealants are very flammable and carry a warning that the tire should be
marked so that the next technician knows the sealant has been used.

Self –assessment exercises No 4

1. List five things that could cause premature bearing failure.


2. Explain the purpose of the wheel rim drop center and safety ridges.
3. Why is tire rotation recommended by most manufacturers?
4. Define dynamic and static wheel balance.
5. Describe the procedure for using a plug to seal a puncture in a tire.

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CHAPTER: 5: BRAKING SYSTEM

Objectives

 Explain the basic principles of braking, including kinetic and static friction, friction
materials, application pressure, and heat dissipation.
 Describe the components of a hydraulic brake system and their operation, including brake
lines and hoses, master cylinders, system control valves, and safety switches.
 Perform both manual and pressure bleeding of the hydraulic system.
 Briefly describe the operation of drum and disc brakes.
 Inspect and service hydraulic system components.
 Describe the operation and components of both vacuum-assist and hydraulic-assist
braking units.

5.1. Introduction

Braking is the mechanism in the motor vehicle which is used to slowing down and stopping the
vehicle to rest in the shortest possible distance.

5.1.1. Principle of braking system

A common misconception about brakes is that brakes squeeze against a drum or disc, and the
pressure of the squeezing action slows the vehicle down. This is in fact a part of the reason for
slowing down a vehicle. While operating the braking system, the Kinetic energy of moving the
vehicle is converted into heat energy.

Braking action creates kinetic friction in the brakes and static friction between the tire and road
to slow the vehicle. When brakes are applied, the vehicle’s weight is transferred to the front
wheels and is unloaded on the rear wheels.

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5.1.2. Requirements of brake

1. It should work efficiently irrespective of road condition and quality


2. The retardation must be uniform throughout its application
3. The pedal effort must be within the convenient capacity of driver
4. It must be reliable and should not be effected by heat water and dust
5. It should be in minimum weight
6. It should have long life
7. It should be easy to maintain and adjust
8. Noise and vibrations are to be minimum
9. There should be provision for secondary brake or parking brake.

5.1.3. Stopping distance and braking efficiency

For practical measure for braking efficiency that of the minimum distance in which it can be
brought in to rest after the brake is applied.
The stopping distance depends upon:
- Grip between the tyre and road surface
- Tyre tread condition
- Tyre inflation
- Nature of road surface
The stopping distance is calculated by, D  kv 2
Where: D = stopping distance in kilometers
K= constant depending upon the read and tyre inflation
V=velocity of the vehicle per hour
The value of k is 1/25 for 4 wheel braking system

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1/12 for 2 wheel braking system

The braking efficiency is calculated by the equation:

v2

3D

Where v= velocity of the vehicle

D= stopping distance

Condition of brake Braking efficiency

Perfect 90%

Excellent 77%

Good 70%

Fair 60%

Poor 50%

Bad 37%

Very bad 30%

Below fair is very danger

5.1.4. Classification of brakes

Brakes are classified by:

1. By method of power 2. By method of application:


a) Mechanical brakes a) Service or foot brakes
b) Hydraulic brakes b) Parking or hand brakes
c) Vacuum brakes 3. By method of operation:
d) Air brakes a) Manual
e) Electrical brakes b) Servo
f) Magnetic brakes c) power operation
g) Air assisted hydraulic brakes

4. By method of braking contact

a) Internal expanding brakes


b) External contracting brakes

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5. By method of applying force

a) Single acting brakes


b) Double acting brakes
5.2. Types of mechanical brakes

In motor vehicle, there are two types of mechanical brakes:

- Drum Brakes (Internal Expanding or external contracting)


- Disk Brakes (single or two caliper)

5.2.1. Drum Brakes

Drum brakes have been in use since the earliest days of the automobile; some very early vehicles
used a constricting external band around a rotating drum to slow and hold the vehicle in place.
As self-propelled vehicles achieved faster speeds, increased braking was needed.
This forced manufacturers to move from the external band brake to the internal expansion brake,
called a drum brake.

Drum Brake Systems and Operation


Drum brake operation is fairly simple. The most important feature contributing to the
effectiveness of the braking force supplied by the drum brake is the brake shoe pressure or force
directed against the drum.

Drum brake components

Most modern drum brake systems use the following components.

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Figure 43: Drum brake components and bolts to

Backing plate: The plate, attached to the axle assembly, holds the components of the drum brake
assembly. A backing plate, as shown in Figure above, is stamped steel and has various holes for
springs, parking brake cables, and wheel cylinder attachment, and support pads for the shoes.
The labyrinth seal is formed around the outside of the backing plate to keep water from entering
the brake assembly.
Brake shoes: The shoes are the metal backing on which the lining material is attached, shown
in Figure below. The brake lining is either riveted or glued to the shoe. Depending on the brake
design, all four shoes may be the same, allowing them to be installed on either side in either the
leading or the trailing position. Some applications require a specific shoe be used in one location
only. The brake shoe lining material varies but often contains abrasives, such as aluminum, iron
and silica, friction modifiers including, graphite and ceramic compounds, fillers, and binders.
Linings for many years contained asbestos to improve the wear and ability to provide friction at
very high temperatures. Research showed that asbestos dust could lodge in the lungs and lead to
lung cancer. Because of the health concerns, asbestos was phased out of use in brake linings.

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Figure 44: Brake shoes

Brake drum: The drum has an internal friction surface for the shoes to rub against. Compared to
a brake rotor, a drum has significantly less contact area. However, the contact area between the
shoes and drum is large, much larger than the contact area between brake pads and the rotor.
Drums are usually cast iron, but some vehicles use a composite aluminum outer shell and an iron
friction surface to save weight. Many larger drums have cooling fins cast into the outer
circumference to aid in heat dissipation.

Return springs: The return springs pull the shoes back when the brakes are released. Some
designs use one return spring per shoe, while others use one spring bridging both of the shoes.
An example is shown in Figure below.

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Figure 45: An illustration of typical shoe return springs. Figure 46: Examples of different types of holddown

Hold down springs and pins: These springs and pins hold the shoes to the backing plate and
keep the shoes in position on the raised pads. An example is shown in the right figure above. One
hold down spring per shoe is the most common. A few designs use two springs per shoe.

Wheel cylinder: When the brakes are applied, hydraulic pressure pushes the two pistons in the
wheel cylinder outward against the shoes;
Figure below shows the parts of the wheel
cylinder. The spring prevents the cups and
pistons from retracting too far into the
cylinder when the brakes are released. The
cups seal the fluid in the cylinder. External
dust boots prevent brake dust and
debris from entering the cylinder.

Figure 47: An inside view of a typical wheel cylinder.

Self-adjuster assembly: Drum brakes require adjustment to maintain the shoe-to-drum distance.
A self-adjuster is used to expand the shoes slightly when the vehicle is driven in reverse and the
brakes are applied. Several methods of self-adjusting linkages are used, and they vary by
manufacturer though the most common type is the threaded self-adjuster, an example of which is

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shown below.

Figure 48: Self-adjusters are typically located at the bottom Figure 49: The anchor in a servo brake is located at the
of the servo brake assembly. Rods, cables, and levers are top and prevents the shoes from spinning on the
used to actuate the self-adjuster backing plate.

Anchor: Used to prevent shoe movement or twisting as the brakes are applied. The torque of the
brake drum will try to twist the brake shoes during application. The anchor is used to either limit
or eliminate this movement. On servo brake designs, the anchor is located at the top, as shown in
figure 48.

Parking Brake System

The parking brake, also called the emergency or e-brake, is a mechanical brake used primarily to
lock the brakes when the vehicle is parked. In the event of hydraulic brake failure, the parking
brake can be used to slow and stop the vehicle, albeit over a much longer distance. To help
maintain its operation, the parking brake should be used on all vehicles, though it is often only
used on vehicles with manual transmissions.

Components
In the majority of vehicles, either a hand-operated lever or a foot-operated pedal sets the parking
brake; a parking brake lever and strut are used to force the shoes apart and against the drum with
the parking brake applied. Many non-servo brake designs use the self-adjuster mechanism as part
of the parking brake.

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Operation

When a hand-operated parking


brake is pulled, a latch moves along
a gear. Once the
brake is set, the driver releases the
handle and the latch locks into
place on a notch in the gear. To
release the brake, the lever must be
raised slightly and the release
button pressed. This allows the
latch to release from the gear and
remain retracted so that it does not
lock into another gear position. Figure 50: An illustration of a hand-operated parking
brake assembly.

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Foot-operated parking brakes are set the same way
as hand-operated systems, but instead of using a
release button, a handle is used to release the latch.
On some vehicles, to release the parking brake you
press the parking brake pedal down and it
disengages. Many foot-operated systems now use
automatic brake releases. These systems release
when the vehicle is shifted out of Park.
Vehicles with electric parking brakes simply have a
Parking Brake button on the dash. The driver presses

the button, and the brake applies. To release the parking Figure 51: The components of a manually
released foot operated parking brake pedal.
brake, the driver presses the parking brake button. Some
vehicles will automatically release the parking brake
once the vehicle starts driving.

Servo brake designs


Drum brake designs that use leverage to increase brake
application force are called servo brakes. Also called duo-servo;
dual-servo, or self-energizing brakes, this design places the shoe
anchor at the top of the brake assembly.

When the brakes are applied, both shoes move outward at the top
and contact the drum. The forward or primary shoe twists with
the drum rotation, pushing against the rear or secondary shoe.
Figure 53: An example of a servo
brake assembly. This place more
force on the secondary shoe than was originally
applied by the wheel cylinder alone. Because of this
servo action, the secondary shoe has a longer brake
lining than the primary shoe. Servo brakes are often

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Figure 52: Non-servo brakes have leading and trailing


used on larger vehicles, such as trucks, vans, SUVs, and larger passenger cars but can also be
found on some FWD cars.
Non-servo brake designs
Non-servo drum brakes, also called leading-trailing brakes, place the anchor at the bottom of
the backing plate, between the lower edges of the brake shoes. When the brakes are applied, the
wheel cylinder forces both shoes out against the drum. This causes the forward or leading shoe to
try to twist with the drum, but since the anchor is at the bottom between the shoes, no force from
the leading shoe can be applied to the trailing shoe. Consequently, the brakes only apply with the
force provided by the wheel cylinder.

Self-adjustment mechanisms
Unlike disc brakes, drum brakes do not automatically adjust for wear. To maintain the correct
shoe-to-drum clearance, various types of self-adjusting mechanisms are used. The most common
self-adjusters, shown in figure below, are threaded on one end and can rotate freely on the other.
Often called star wheel adjusters, these are usually mounted between the lower sections
of the shoes. A spring holds the pieces tightly together. A lever, usually held in place against a
shoe by a hold-down spring and a link or cable attached to the anchor are used to turn the
adjuster. When the vehicle moves in reverse and the brakes are applied, the shoes twist.
This pulls the shoe away from the link, which in effect pulls the adjuster lever. Since the lever is
in contact with the star wheel, it moves the wheel a small fraction of a turn. Over time, these very
small movements thread the adjuster outward, expanding the brake shoes, maintaining the shoe-
to-drum clearance. Ratcheting self-adjusters, like that shown in right below figure, are used on
some non-servo brake vehicles. This type of adjuster is activated by using the parking brake.

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Figure 54: An illustration of a typical servo brake self-adjuster and an example of a ratcheting self-adjuster on a non-
servo brake assembly.

Self –assessment exercises No 5

1. Which component seals the fluid in the wheel cylinder?


2. Technician Daisuke says the parking brake is part of the hydraulic brake system.
Technician Olivis says the parking brake is a mechanical brake that is not operated
hydraulically. Who is correct? And explain.
3. When the brakes are applied and released, which components are responsible for pulling
the brake shoes back from the drum surface?
4. Technician Daisuke says all FWD cars and small vans use leading-trailing rear drum
brakes. Technician Olivis says modern vehicles may have leading-trailing or servo drum
brakes. Who is correct? And explain.

5.2.2. Disk brakes

Disk brakes resemble the brakes on a bicycle. The friction elements are in the form of pads,
which are squeezed or clamped about the edge of a rotating wheel. With automotive disc brakes,
this wheel is a separate unit mounted to the wheel, called the rotor. The rotor is typically made of
cast iron. Because the pads clamp against both sides of a rotor, both sides are machined smooth.

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When the brake pedal is depressed, hydraulic fluid forces the pistons and friction linings (pads)
against the machined surfaces of the rotor. The pinching action of the pads quickly creates
friction and heat to slow down or stop the vehicle. Disc brakes do not have servo or self-
energizing action. Therefore, the applying force on the brake pedal must be very great in order to
obtain a brake force comparable to that obtained with the conventional drum brake.
Consequently, disc brakes are provided with a power or booster unit and a conventional master
cylinder. In many installations, disc brakes are used only on the front wheels and drum brakes
are continued on the rear. However, most modern vehicles now have disc brakes on all four
wheels.
5.2.2.1. Disc Brake Assembly

Disc brakes are basically like the brakes on a ten-speed bicycle. The friction elements are shaped
like pads and are squeezed inwards to clamp a rotating disc or wheel. A disc brake assembly
consists of a caliper, brake pads, rotor, and related hardware (bolts, clips, and springs).

Figure 55: Disc brake assembly

Brake Caliper: The caliper is the nonrotating unit in the system and it may be mounted to the
spindle or splash shield to provide support. The brake caliper assembly includes the caliper
housing, the piston(s), the piston seal(s), the dust boot(s), the brake pads or shoes, and the
bleeder screw. The caliper is fitted with one or more pistons that are hydraulically actuated by
the fluid pressure developed in the system. When the brake pedal is applied, brake fluid flows
into the caliper cylinder. The piston is then forced outward by fluid pressure to apply the brake
pads to the rotor. Disc brakes can be classified as floating or fixed caliper types.

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Floating caliper

A typical floating caliper disc brake is a one-piece casting that has one hydraulic cylinder and a
single piston. The caliper is attached to the
spindle anchor plate with two threaded
locating pins. A Teflon sleeve separates the
caliper housing from each pin and the caliper
slides back and forth on the pins as the brakes
are actuated. When the brakes are applied,
hydraulic pressure builds in the cylinder
behind the piston and seal. Because hydraulic
pressure exerts equal force in all directions,
the piston moves evenly out of its bore.

Fixed caliper

Fixed caliper disc brakes have a caliper


assembly that is bolted in a fixed position and
does not move when the brakes are applied. The
pistons in both sides of the caliper come inward
to force the pads against the rotor.

Figure 56: Operation of a fixed caliper.

Disk Brake Pads: Disc brake pads consist of steel shoes to which the lining is riveted or bonded.
Brake pad linings are made of either asbestos (asbestos fiber filled) or semi metallic (metal
particle filled) friction material. Many new vehicles, especially those with front-wheel drive, use
semi-metallic linings. Semi-metallic linings withstand higher operating temperatures without
losing their frictional properties. Antirattle clips are frequently used to keep the brake pads from
vibrating and rattling. The clip snaps onto the brake pad to produce a force fit in the caliper. In
some cases, an antirattle spring is used instead of a clip.

Splash Shield A splash shield installed over the inner surface of the rotor will prevent as much
water and debris as possible from entering the space between the brake pad and the rotor.

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Brake Disk Also called brake rotor, the brake disc uses friction from the brake pads to slow or
stop the vehicle. Made of cast iron, the rotor may be an integral part of the wheel hub. However,
on many front-wheel drive vehicles, the disc and hub are separate units. The brake disc may be a
ventilated rib or solid type. The ventilated rib disc is hollow, which allows cooling air to
circulate inside the disc.

5.3. Principles of hydraulic brake systems


Hydraulic system uses a brake fluid to transfer pressure from the brake pedal to the pads or
shoes. This transfer of pressure is reliable and consistent because liquids are not compressible.
That is, pressure applied to a liquid in a closed system is transmitted by that liquid equally to
every other part of that system. Apply a force of 5 pounds (35 kPa) per square inch (psi) through
the master cylinder and you can measure 5 psi (35 kPa) anywhere in the lines and at each wheel
where the brakes operate. In actual practice,
however, fluid movement in an automotive
hydraulic brake system is very slight. In an
emergency, when the pedal goes all the way
to the floor, the volume of fluid displaced
amounts to only about 20 cubic centimeters.
About 15 cubic
centimeters goes to the front discs and 5
Figure 57: A schematic of a basic automotive hydraulic brake system.
cubic centimeters goes to the rear drums.
Even under these conditions, the wheel cylinder and caliper pistons move only slightly.

Hydraulic brake system components


The following sections describe the major components of a hydraulic brake system.

Brake Fluid: Brake fluid is the lifeblood of any


hydraulic brake system. It is what makes the
system operate properly. Brake fluid is specially
blended to perform a variety of functions. Brake
fluid must be able to flow freely at extremely high

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temperatures (500°F [260°C]) and at very low temperatures (104°F [75°C]).

The performance of brake fluid is affected by moisture. As the amount of water in the fluid increases, the
boiling point of the fluid decreases. Every can of brake fluid carries the identification letters of SAE and
DOT. These letters (and corresponding numbers) indicate the nature, blend, and performance
characteristics of that particular brand of brake fluid.
Figure 58: Moisture affects the boiling point of brake fluid.

Brake Pedal: The brake pedal is where the


brake’s hydraulic system gets its start. When the brake pedal is depressed, force is applied to the
master cylinder. On a basic hydraulic brake system (where there is no power assist), the force
applied is transmitted mechanically. As the pedal pivots, the force applied to it is multiplied
mechanically. The force that the pushrod applies
to the master cylinder piston is, therefore, much greater than the force applied to the brake pedal.

Master cylinders: The master cylinder transmits the pressure on the brake pedal to each of the
four wheel brakes to stop the vehicle. It changes the driver’s mechanical pressure on the pedal to
hydraulic force, which is changed back to mechanical force at the wheel brake units. The master
cylinder uses the fact that fluids are not compressible to transmit the pedal movement to the
wheel brake units.

Figure 59: The basic construction of a dual master cylinder

Residual Pressure Check Valve: The pressure chamber in a master cylinder for some drum
brake systems may have an additional part called a residual pressure check valve. This valve

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can be installed in the pressure chamber or the outlet line of the master cylinder. A residual
pressure check valve is the oldest type of pressure control valve used in a brake system.

Brake Line Tubing: Most brake line tubing consists of copper-fused double-wall steel tubing in
diameters ranging from 1/8 to 3/8 inch (3 mm to 9 mm). Some OEM brake tubing is
manufactured with soft steel strips, sheathed with copper. The strips are rolled into a double-wall
assembly and then bonded in a furnace at extremely high temperatures. Corrosion protection is
often added by tin-plating the tubing.

Fittings: Assorted fittings are used to connect steel tubing to junction blocks or other tubing
sections. The most common fitting is the double or inverted flare style. Double flaring is
important to maintain the strength and safety of the system. Single flare or sleeve compression
fittings may not hold up in the rigorous operating environment of a standard vehicle brake
system.

5.4. Hydraulic system safety switches and valves


Switches and valves are installed in the brake system hydraulic lines to act as warning devices to
pressure control devices.
Pressure Differential (Warning Light) Switches: A pressure differential valve is used to
operate a warning light switch. Its main purpose is to tell the driver if pressure is lost in either of
the two hydraulic systems. Since each brake hydraulic system functions independently, it is
possible the driver might not notice immediately that pressure and braking are lost. When
a pressure loss occurs, brake pedal travel increases and a more-than-usual effort is needed for
braking. Should the driver not notice the extra effort needed, the warning light is actuated by the
hydraulic system safety switch.

Stoplight Switch
The stoplight switch is a spring-loaded electrical switch that operates the rear brake lights of the
vehicle. Most modern vehicles use a mechanical switch on the brake pedal mechanism. The
switch is normally open, and when the brake pedal is depressed, the switch closes and turns on
the brake lights.
On some older vehicles you may find hydraulically operated stoplight switches. In this system,
brake pressure acts on a switch diaphragm, which closes the switch to turn on the brake lights.

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Brake Warning Light Switch
The brake warning light switch, also called the pressure differential valve, warns the operator of
a pressure loss on one side of a dual brake system. If a leak develops in either the primary or
secondary brake system, unequal pressure acts on each side of the warning light piston, moving
the piston to one side thereby grounding the switch and illuminating the warning light on the
operator’s console.

Metering Valve
The metering valve is designed to equalize braking action at each wheel during light brake
applications. A metering valve is used on vehicles with front disc brakes and rear drum brakes,
and is located in the line to the disc brakes. The metering valve functions by preventing the disc
brakes from applying until a set pressure has built up in the system; then the metering valve
opens and applies full pressure to the disk brakes.
When the brakes are released, fluid will bypass the main metering valve and return to
the master cylinder.

Proportioning Valve
The proportioning valve also equalizes braking action with front disc brakes and rear drum
brakes. It is located in the brake line to the rear brakes. The function of the proportioning valve is
to limit pressure to the rear brakes when high pressure is required to apply the front disc. This
prevents rear wheel lockup and skidding during heavy brake applications.

Combination Valve
The combination valve combines several valve functions into a single assembly. It functions as a
metering valve, holding off front disc braking until the rear drum brakes make contact with the
drums; as a proportioning valve, improving front-to-rear brake balance at high deceleration by
reducing rear brake pressure to delay rear wheel skid; and as a brake light warning switch
(pressure differential valve), lighting a dash-warning lamp if either front or rear brake systems
fail.

Height-Sensing Proportional Valve: The height-sensing proportional valve provides two


different brake balance modes to the rear brakes based on vehicle load. This is accomplished by
turning the valve on or off. When the vehicle is not loaded, hydraulic pressure is reduced to the

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rear brakes. When the vehicle is carrying a full load, the actuator lever moves up to change the
valve’s setting. The valve now allows full hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes. The valve
contains a plunger, cam, torsional clutch spring, and an actuator shaft.

5.5. Air brake system

Construction and working of Air Brake system

The air brake system consists of two stages, Air-compressor driven by the crankshaft or gearbox
shaft. It takes air from atmosphere, compresses it and delivers to the air reservoir through un-
loader valve. Where the pressure of the reservoir reaches the maximum degree, the un-loader
valve opens to the atmosphere. Then the compressed air is directed in to the atmosphere directly.
Each of the four wheels fitted with brake chambers consists of a diaphragm, and which the air
pressure is applied and pushes it. This force operates the cams actuating level and applies the
brake. Each of the brake chambers is connected to the brake pedal, and air filter is also fitted
between the brake valve and reservoir.

Basic components of air brake system

Every brake system can be broken down into four basic components:

 Energy supply;
 Control;
 Transmission;
 Brake.
The control controls the flow of energy supply through the transmission to the brake which acts
on the wheel.

Energy supply: The source of energy supplies the energy required for braking. Devices for
regulating, conditioning and, where necessary, storing the energy supply; insofar as they do
not belong to the transmission. The most important types of braking energy are pneumatic,
hydraulic and mechanical energy as well as the muscle power of the driver. The braking
equipment of commercial vehicle may be based exclusively on compressed air or may also
be operated by several types of energy, for example in a truck with a compressed air

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service brake and secondary braking system and a muscle power operated parking brake
system.

Control: The control comprises those parts of a brake system which control the operation of the
system. The control ends where the transmission of the braking begins. In compressed air brake
systems the control is triggered either by the driver by means of a brake pedal or hand brake
level, or automatically, e.g. if the trailer breaks away.

Transmission: The transmission includes all those parts of a brake system through which the
energy is transmitted to the brakes. It begins at the wheel brake. The energy storage of the
individual brake circuits is considered as part of the transmission.

Friction brake: A vehicle is normally equipped with friction brakes in the form of drum brakes
or disc brakes. The braking energy transmitted from the energy storage device presses the brake
linings or brake pads against the brake drums or brake discs respectively.

There is wear during braking because the non-rotating brake linings or brake pads are rigidly
connected to the wheels. The kinetic energy is there by converted into heat.

Figure 60: Basic components of a brake system, individual units represented by product photos

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Figure 61: Basic components of a brake system, individual units represented by graphic symbols

Working: When the brake pedal is pushed the brake valve opens and compressed air is allowed
in to the brake chamber. The brake valve consists of three passages.

a) Air intake, b) Exhaust and c) Brake chamber

When the brake pedal is pressed the exhaust passage will be closed and Air intake passage open
and compressed air goes back to chamber. During return stroke the exhaust passage opens while
intake closes and used air goes to the atmosphere. This system fitted with an emergency
mechanical brake, which can be used when air supply fails the air brake system, which is called
air assisted hydraulic braking system.

Advantages:

- This system used in heavy vehicles because they are more powerful than hydraulic or
mechanical brakes
- It simplifies the chassis design
- The compressed air is used for purposes like tyre inflation; for horn, windscreen wiper
etc.

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Disadvantages: If there is any leakage in passage the entire system will be fail. Therefore
sealing of air is very difficult.

5.6. Basics of the electronic chassis control systems

Electronic control systems should guarantee safe control of a motor vehicle during braking, j
accelerating and steering.

The following control systems are used:


• ABS (Antilock-Braking System) prevents wheel locking during braking.

• BAS (Brake Assistant), detects emergency situations and brings about shorter braking
distances.

• SBC (Sensotronic Brake control), reduces braking distances and increases the directional sta-
bility when braking in bends.

• TCS or ASC (Acceleration Skid Control), ELSD (Electronic Limited-Slip Differential),


prevents wheel spinning when pulling away and accelerating.

• VDC (Vehicle Dynamics Controller such as ESP or DSC), prevents the vehicle from
skidding.

Every vehicle movement or change in movement can only be achieved by forces on the wheels.
These are:

 Peripheral force as motive or braking force. This acts on the longitudinal direction of the
tyre.
 Lateral force, e.g. caused by steering or external interferences such as crosswind.
 Normal force caused by vehicle weight. This acts at right angles to the road surface.
The strength of these forces depends on the road surface, tyre condition/type and weather influ-
ences.

The possible load transmission between the tyres and road surface is determined by the friction
force. Optimum transmission of the loads can only occur as a result of static friction between the
tyres and road surface. The electronic control systems utilize the static friction optimally.

The peripheral force is transferred via static friction as a motive (FM) or braking force (FB) to the

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road surface.
Its size is equal to the normal force FN multiplied by the coefficient of friction fiF (μice = 0.1 to
μDry = 0.9).

Kamm's friction circle (Fig. above). The


largest force transferable onto the road (Fmax
= FN  μf) is shown as a circle. For a stable
driving condition, the resulting FRes of
peripheral force Fp and lateral force FL must
lie within the circle and therefore be smaller
than Fmax.

If the peripheral force Fp reaches its


maximum as a result of spinning or locked wheels, no lateral force FL can be transferred. The
vehicle can then no longer be steered.
If when cornering at maximum cornering speed the lateral force FL is at its maximum, the
vehicle cannot be braked or accelerated, as it would otherwise break away at the rear.

Slip (Fig. 62). While a tyre rolls, elastic deformations and sliding occur. If, for example, a
braked wheel with a rolling circumference of 2 m covers a distance of only 1.8 m during a turn,
the travel difference between the tyre circumference and braking distance is 0.2 m. This
corresponds to a slip of 10%.
If a wheel locks or spins when it is being driven, there is a slip of 100%.

A slip-free transmission of force between the tyres and the road surface is not possible, because
the tyre is not interlocked with the road surface and always slides a little when driving or
braking.

Figure 62: Slip on the braked wheel

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5.6.1. Anti-lock Braking System ABS

Anti-lock-braking systems (ABS), also known as anti-skip system, are used in hydraulic brake
systems and air-brake systems for brake-pressure control.
During braking, ABS systems control the braking pressure of a wheel according to its grip on
the road surface in order to prevent wheel locking; only moving wheels can be steered and can
transfer lateral forces.
ABS systems have the following features:

I. Lateral forces and directional stability remain the same, whereas the risk of skidding is
reduced.
ii. Vehicle is still steerable and obstacles can thus be avoided.
iii. An optimum braking distance can be achieved on normal road conditions (no gravel, snow).
iv."Flat spots" on tyres are prevented as the wheels do not lock.

Operating principle

The brakes are mainly applied when there is low slip. The ABS does not therefore take effect.
The ABS closed-loop control circuit is only activated and wheel locking prevented during
sharp braking and when there is significant slip. The ABS control range lies between
8%...35% slip. Below approximately 6 km/h, ABS is generally deactivated so that the vehicle
comes to a stop. There is a toothed pulse ring around each wheel which creates alternating
voltage by induction in a speed sensor. The frequency of the alternating voltage is a
measurement for the wheel speed. The ECU can therefore determine the acceleration or
deceleration for each wheel.
Pressure build-up: The pressure created in the master cylinder is transferred to the wheel-brake
cylinder.

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Pressure holding: If a wheel tends to lock
during braking and exceeds a predefined
slip, this is detected by the ECU. It switches
the solenoid valve of the wheel to pressure
holding. The connection master cylinder-
wheel-brake cylinder is interrupted. The
braking pressure remains the same.

Pressure reduction: If the slip and


therefore the incipient lock continue, to
increase, the switch to pressure reduction is
made. A connection from the wheel- brake
cylinder via the return pump to the master
cylinder is therefore made. The slip is
reduced. If the slip falls below a particular
threshold, then the ECU switches the
Figure 63: ABS Closed-loop control circuit
solenoid valve back to the pressure build-
up. The control cycle is repeated (4... 10 times per second) as long as the brake is applied.

ABS with return in a closed circuit

During pressure reduction, brake fluid is taken in by a pressure accumulator. At the same time,
the return pump pumps it back to the respective master-cylinder brake circuit.

This ABS has the following components in addition to the usual brake system: Wheel sensors,
ECU, Hydraulic modulator and Warning lamp
ECU: This processes the incoming signals from the sensors, determines the necessary settings
for the solenoid valves and adjusts these accordingly. The function of the ABS system is
constantly monitored by self-diagnosis.

Warning lamp: Upon starting, this signals the operational readiness of the ABS. It lights up
should the ABS control system fail. The vehicle can still be braked fully.

Hydraulic modulator with return pump: This contains solenoid valves for control, an
accumulator for brake fluid for each brake circuit and an electrically-driven return pump. The

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pump is activated via a relay and always runs during the ABS control system.

Operating principle with 3/3 solenoid valves

Braking-pressure modulation in the ABS control system, the ECU triggers a 3/3 solenoid valve
in hydraulic modulator for each channel. In accordance with the three control phases, the master
cylinder is connected as follows:
- To the wheel brake cylinder for pressure build-up
- The connection for pressure holding
- To the return pump for pressure reduction
Operating principle with 2/2 solenoid valves

In this system, the hydraulic modulator is equipped with


smaller, lighter and faster switching D solenoid valves.
Each control channel now requires an inlet valve and an
outlet valve.
The ECU switches the solenoid valves in the control
phases as follows:
Pressure build-up: Inlet valve (IV) open, outlet valve
(OV) closed.
Pressure holding: Both valves closed.
Pressure reduction: Inlet valve closed and outlet valve
open. The running return pump pumps the access brake
fluid from the accumulator back in- the relevant brake
Figure 64: ABS with closed circuit and 2/2
circuit. solenoid valves (hydraulic circuit)

ABS with return in an open circuit and 2/2 solenoid valves

During a control action, the excess brake fluid flows back into the expansion tank at zero pres-
sure. The hydraulic pump is selected by the ECU using the position of the pedal-travel sensor. It
pumps the missing volume of brake fluid out of the expansion tank at high pressure back into
the respective brake circuit and therefore brings the brake pedal to its basic position. The pump

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is then deactivated.

Structure

The system is composed of:


i. ECU
ii. Wheel sensors
iii. Actuating unit © Hydraulic unit
iv. Warning lamp
ECU: This processes the sensor signals and passes them on as control signals to the solenoid
valves. The signals from the travel sensor control the hydraulic pump in the ABS control system.
Faults and malfunctions are detected by the ECU, ABS is switched off and the ABS warning
lamp is switched on

Wheel sensors: These are on every wheel and transmit the wheel speed.
Actuating unit: This consists of a vacuum brake booster, which has an integrated pedal-travel
sensor, and the ABS tandem master cylinder with expansion tank. The pedal-travel sensor
reports the position of the brake pedal to the ECU.
Hydraulic unit: As the engine-pump unit, it includes a dual circuit electrically-driven
hydraulic pump and the valve block. This has two 2/2 solenoid valves for each closed-loop
control circuit. An inlet valve (IV) and an outlet valve (OV) with a parallel selected non- return
valve.
If the ECU detects an incipient lock, e.g. on the front left wheel, then the inlet valve closes and
the outlet valve opens. The brake fluid now flows at zero pressure back into the expansion tank.
When switching to pressure build-up, the outlet valve closes and the inlet valve opens. The
brake fluid missing from the brake cylinder will be added by the master cylinder plunger. The
master cylinder plunger and the brake pedal move slightly as a result. The travel sensor informs
the ECU. This switches the hydraulic pump on. It pumps fluid back until the original pedal
position has been reached again.

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Figure 65: ABS with open circuit (hydraulic circuit)

Electrical circuit of an ABS

The schematic diagram shows a 4-channel ABS with return in a closed circuit with eight 212
solenoid valves and 4 sensors.
When the ignition switch is switched on, the control winding in the electronic protection relay is
supplied with the voltage from terminal 15, the ECU switches and connects to terminal 30 (posi-
tive) via pin 1 (plug-in connection on the ECU). At the same time, the warning lamp lights up
because it is connected to terminal 15 to the positive and via terminal L1 to the valve relay and
via the diode to earth. The ECU now checks the ABS for faults. If everything is OK, it connects
across pin 27 and returns the control winding in the valve relay to earth. The valve relay
switches. Pin 32 on the ECU receives positive from terminal 30, as does the cathode of the
diode. The warning lamp goes out. The solenoid valves are now at the positive. Should the ECU
detect a risk of locking, pin 28 is returned to earth. The motor relay switches on the return pump.

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FR can now be switched to the control phases by connecting to earth at pin 35 or 37 in the
control phases.

Figure 66: ABS Electrical circuit

5.6.2. Brake assistant (BAS)

The brake assistant immediately makes sure in the case of panic braking that there is maximum
brake boosting effect, which means that
the braking distance is considerably
reduced.

Many drivers brake quickly in critical


situations but do not depress the brake
pedal enough. The braking distance is
therefore longer which can lead to
collisions.

Structure
Figure 67: Brake assistant system

The brake assistant consists of the following components:

2) BAS ECU • Solenoid


3) Travel/pedal sensor • Release switch
Operating principle

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The movement of the pedal causes a change in resistance in the pedal sensor. This is reported to
the BAS ECU. If the ECU detects that the pedal is suddenly applied, for example during panic
braking, men the solenoid is activated. This vents the working chamber of the brake booster to
create the full force of the booster. The result is emergency braking. The ABS prevents the
wheels from locking. The solenoid is only switched off via the release switch once the brake is
released and the brake pedal has returned to its initial position.
For data exchange, the BAS ECU is connected via CAN bus to the ECUs for other electronic
chassis control systems, e.g. ABS, TCS, ESP.
If the ECU detects faults, the brake assistant is switched off. The failure is displayed with a
yellow warning lamp. Increase of driving safety at high motive forces, Automatic adjustment
of engine torque to the grip ratios. Driver information about reaching dynamic limits
5.6.3. Automatic Traction control

ATC systems apply the brakes when a drive wheel attempts to spin and lose traction.
Manufacturers have used various basic designs for these systems and they are referred to as
ATC, traction control systems (TCS), and acceleration slip reduction (ASR) systems.
Controlling wheel slip is the goal of both ABS and ATC. ABS controls negative wheel slip by
modulating the hydraulic pressure to the wheel/wheels that is skidding. An ATC system controls
positive wheel spin by modulating hydraulic pressure at the wheel that is spinning to slow down
the wheel. Many systems use other methods before applying brake pressure.
ATC is most helpful on four-wheel or all-wheel drive vehicles where loss of traction at one
wheel could hamper driver control. It is also desirable on high-powered front-wheel-drive
vehicles for the same reason. Often if traction control is fitted to a FWD vehicle, the ABS
modified system is a three-channel system because ATC is not needed at the rear wheels. On
RWD and 4WD vehicles, the system is based on a four-channel ABS.

During operation, the ATC system monitors the wheel-speed sensors. If a wheel enters a loss-of
traction situation, the module applies braking force to the wheel in trouble. Loss of traction is
identified by comparing the vehicle’s speed to the speed of the wheel. If there is a loss of
traction, the speed of the wheel will be greater than expected for the particular vehicle speed.
Wheel spin is normally limited to a 10% slippage. Some TCSs use separated hydraulic valve
units and control modules for the ABS and ATC, whereas others integrate both systems into one

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hydraulic control unit and a single control module. The pulse rings and wheel-speed sensors
remain unchanged from the ABS to the ATC.

Engine Controls
More advanced systems work at higher speeds and integrate some engine control functions into
the control loop. When drive wheel slip is detected while the brake is not applied, the electronic
brake control module (EBCM) will enter into the traction control mode. At that time, the PCM
will initiate an engine torque reduction routine to slow down the drive wheels. The following
shows how the PCM reduces torque to the drive wheels:
■ By retarding spark timing
■ By decreasing the opening of the throttle plate
■ By reducing or cutting off fuel injection pulses to one or more cylinders
■ By increasing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow
■ By momentarily upshifting the transmission to a higher gear
If the engine torque reduction does not eliminate drive wheel slip, the EBCM will gradually
apply the brakes at the driving wheels

The master cylinder’s isolation valve closes to isolate the cylinder from the rest of the hydraulic
system. Then prime valve opens to allow the pump to accumulate brake fluid and build hydraulic
pressure. The drive wheel inlet and outlet solenoid valves then open and close and pass through
stages of pressure hold, pressure increase, and pressure decrease.
Driver Controls and Indicators
Most TCSs have two warning lights. However, some vehicles display the status of the system
with messages on the instrument cluster. Normally, an amber lamp will illuminate or a service
message will appear as any of the ABS-disabling DTCs is set. When this occurs, the TCS is
automatically disabled by the control unit. When the system is actively controlling wheel spin, a
green lamp lights or a message is displayed saying the system is active. There may also be a
manual cut-off switch so the driver can turn off the TCS. This will cause the amber lamp to light
or a message displayed, stating the system is off.

5.6.4. Automatic stability control


Various stability control systems are found on today’s vehicles. Like TCSs, stability controls are
based on and linked to the ABS On some vehicles, the stability control system is also linked to

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the electronic suspension system. Most often, the stability control system is called an electronic
stability control (ESC) system, although many other names are used. ESC helps prevent skids,
swerves, and rollover accidents. Basically the system applies the brakes at one or more wheels to
help correct the steering. In some cases, power to the drive wheels is also reduced. ESC systems
can control the vehicle during acceleration, braking, and coasting. If the brakes are applied but
oversteer or understeer is occurring, the fluid pressure to the appropriate brake is increased.

The ESC control unit compares the driver’s intended direction (by monitoring steering angle) to
the vehicle’s actual direction (by measuring lateral acceleration, yaw, and individual wheel
speeds). If there is a difference between the two, the control unit intervenes by modulating
individual front or rear wheels and/or reducing engine power output. ESC continuously monitors
key inputs such as yaw rate and wheel speed. Yaw is defined as the natural tendency of a vehicle
to rotate on its vertical center axis or twist during a turn. A vehicle may also rotate naturally on
its horizontal axis; this movement is called roll and pitch.

This action generates an AC voltage signal that represents the vehicle’s speed and yaw rate. In a
right turn, the signal voltage increases and decreases when the vehicle is turning right. The
output signals range from 0.25 to 4.75 volts. When the vehicle has 0 yaw, the output signal will
be 2.5 volts. The control unit looks at the actual yaw rate and compares it to the calculated
desired rate. It responds to the difference between the two. This difference represents the amount
of understeer or oversteer that is occurring. To correct the yaw, the system applies the brake at
the appropriate wheel.

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Figure 68: A typical system diagram for an ESC system.

5.6.5. Sensotronic Brake Control SBC

Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC). The brake pedal is connected electrically to the main brake
cylinder and a powerful microprocessor feeds information to the hydraulically- activated brakes
using electrical pulses. A special simulator uses spring pressure and hydraulics to give pedal
resistance maintaining the driver's feel for the brakes. SBC is quicker than a conventional system
resulting in shorter stopping distances around three percent at 70 mph. The system is a little

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unnerving to begin with especially when the driver comes to a road junction in traffic, but the
driver soon gets used to it and if the driver takes his foot off the accelerator. The driver will
gradually come to halt with the system braking. It also applies the brake lights. It will effectively
hold the car on the brakes without having to touch the brake pedal. ABS (anti-lock braking
system) with BAS (brake assist) are part of the SBC system as standard.

Advantages of SBC system

1. Improving metering of required brake pressure, and each wheel can be precisely control.
2. Reduction in stopping distance in particular during an emergency stop (improved BAS
function).
3. Increase in active vehicle dynamics safety as the vehicle dynamics control system ABS and
BAS as well as ASR and ESP can be used in an optimized manner.
4. Leads to more timely and more comfortable stabilization of the vehicle during ASR or ESP
control.
5. Take care of even wear on the brake linings and better response characteristics of the brake
due to optimum brake force distribution between the front and rear axle.
6. Use of the brake force reserve at the rear axle due to increasing the brake force share in the
partial braking range and when braking from a low speed.
7. Results in more stable braking performance with optimal deceleration values when cornering
as a result of the braking forces being shifted to the outer wheels.
8. No reaction (vibration) on the brake pedal during ABS control intervention functions.
Addtional functions of SBC

1. Precharging (overcoming play): This function assists the braking readiness by immediately
and briefly applying the brake pads (precharging) if the driver releases the accelerator pedal
quickly. This reduces the brake pressure buildup and shortens the stopping distance during
normal operation.
2. SBC-Hold: This function prevents the vehicle rolling backwards on a slope or during long idle
times at traffic lights and therefore provides start off assistance.
3. Softstop (SBC gentle brakng to a stop): Below 6 km/h by briefly reducing the brake pressure
softstop reduces the jolt which occurs when braking immediately upon reaching a standstill.

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4. SBC Stop (SBC hold-on): The driver is relieved of a task since he is only required to press the
accelerator pedal when driving in a traffic jam and is not required to keep the vehicle stationary
by pressing the brake pedal.
5. Dry braking: Wet conditions are recognized via the activation of the windshield wipers. This
safety functions helps to ensure that the vehicle is ready to brake if the brake disks are wet by
briefly dry braking them.
5.6.6. DSC (Dynamic Stability Control system)

The Dynamic Stability Control system (DSC) automatically takes control of the vehicle when
skidding is detected. The system guards against skidding by optimally controlling engine output
and the braking force applied to each wheel through the combined control of the 4-wheel
antilock braking system and the Traction Control System (TCS). This helps the vehicle maintain
stability even in situations such as when cornering on slippery roads or when steering suddenly
to avoid hazards.

For example, if the car under-steers and tends towards the outside of a corner, the systems
suppresses skidding of the front wheels by dropping engine output and applying brakes to the
inside wheels. Conversely, if the vehicle over-steers and tends toward the inside of a curve, the
system applies braking to the outside wheels, thus suppressing skidding of the rear wheels.

DSC/TCS is designed to reduce the risk of accidents by helping the driver maintain control under
adverse conditions. However the system has its limitations, and no safety system or combination
of such systems can prevent all accidents. Factors including speed, road conditions and driver
steering input can all affect whether DSC will be effective in preventing loss of control. These
systems are not a replacement for safe and attentive driving. Please drive carefully at all times
and do not rely on technology to prevent an accident. Not all of these systems are available on all
models or in all markets

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Indicative Resources

1. Automotive Technology A Systems Approach 5 t h E d i t i o n Jack Erjavec


DELMAR cengage learning
2. James E. Duffy 2009,Morden Automotive Technology, 7th Edition, ISBN 978-1-
59070-956-6 USA.
3. Toboldt Johnson Gauthier, Automotive Encyclopedia 2006Edition, ISBN-10: 1-
59070-422-3 USA.
4. Jack Erjavec, Automotive Technology 5th Edition, ISBN-10:1435485491 USA
5. V.A.W Hillier , Peter Coombes & David R. Rogers Fundamentals of Motor
vehicle Technology 5th Edition , ISBN 978-0-7487-8099-0 United Kingdom

Journals

Key websites and on-line resources

www.how staff works.com;

www.wikipedia.com;

Www.AA1car. com

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