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The Armfield Hydraulics Bench and its comprehensive range of optional accessories have been developed to instruct students in the many different aspects of hydraulic theory. Order Specification | Description | Technical Details | Recommened Instruments Complementary Equipment | Requirements | Shipping Specification and Dimensions
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Mobile, floor standing service unit for fluid mechanics apparatus
Base constructed from robust, corrosion resistant plastic moulding Top constructed from glass reinforced plastic Sump tank capacity 250 litres Volumetric flow measurement via remote sight gauge. Two ranges for flows from 1 to 6 litres per minute and 5 to 40 litres per minute Open channel in bench top with quick release outlet fitting Self priming centrifugal circulating pump provides water at 21m head at no flow, and a maximum flow of 60 litres per minute
This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet. The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test. Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to drop). The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates.
73m .37kW 250 litres 40 litres 6 litres 1 metre above floor level Service pump characteristics curve (indicative) OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 1.13m Depth: 0. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use. flow 1.35 litres/sec 0. An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for hand tools. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding. Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench. Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow.00m Width: 1. head 21m H2O max.A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling. TOP TECHNICAL DETAILS Technical Details item Pump: Motor rating: Sump tank capacity: High flow volumetric tank: Low flow volumetric tank: Height of working surface: value centrifugal type max.
is an upward acting force. and for a floating object on a liquid. wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. More tersely: Buoyancy = weight of displaced water Archimedes' principle does not consider the surface tension (capillarity) acting on the body. the weight of the displaced liquid is the weight of the object. The net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object´ Explanation: with the caveat that for a sunken object the volume of displaced fluid is the volume of the object. This can occur only in an accelerated frame of reference (such as gravity or a centrifugal forces) defining a "downward" direction along the acceleration. that keeps Archimedes' principle: ³Any object. . buoyancy things afloat.THEORY BUOYANCY: DEFINITION: In physics. This force enables the object to float. caused by fluid pressure.
yields the formula below. then inserted into the quotient of weights. Centre of buoyancy: ³ The center of buoyancy is the center of volume of displaced water of the hull (of a vessel)´. Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. the balloon moves in the opposite direction. the air inside the car experiences an acceleration. it displaces water of weight 3 newtons. Gravity pulls down on a floating object. It is generally easier to lift an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.) Example: If you drop wood into water buoyancy will keep it afloat. The center of gravity is not required to be lower than the center of bouyancy and in general most ship's center of gravity is above the center of bouyancy. Both gravity and bouyancy (the two forces at work) will have an effective center.The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if the surrounding fluid is of uniform density). Assuming Archimedes' principle to be reformulated as follows. The density of the immersed object relative to the density of the fluid can easily be calculated without measuring any volumes: (This formula is used for example in describing the measuring principle of a dasymeter and of hydrostatic weighing. which has been expanded by the mutual volume . Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum. among completely submerged objects with equal masses. The fluid it is floating on pushes it up and it floats (assuming it is bouyant). The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10 newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyant force: 10 í 3 = 7 newtons. Suppose that when the rock has been lowered by the string into water. the principle states that the buoyant force on an object is going to be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. In simple terms. The ship will heel until . Thus. In increasing speed or driving a curve. Example: A helium balloon in a moving car. objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy.
It might be advantageous to look at the center of gravity with respect to the center of bouyancy in ship hull stability and thereby get a better grasp of the particulars. Given a small angular displacement. the vessel may return to its original position (stable). For example.the Metacenter (which is a function of the actual Waterplane area) is at or above the center of gravity. Rotational stability depends on the relative lines of action of forces on an object. which. or remain where it is (neutral). floating objects will generally have vertical stability. unbalanced against the weight force will push the object back up. Rotational stability is of great importance to floating vessels. An object will be stable if an angular displacement moves the line of action of these forces to set up a 'righting moment' METACENTRIC HEIGHT . The upward buoyant force on an object acts through the centre of buoyancy. Use the link below to our friends at Wikipedia and look at some diagrams concerning the stability of ships in terms of where the centers of bouyancy and gravity are in relation to each other Stability A floating object is stable if it tends to restore itself to an equilibrium position after a small displacement. move away from its original position (unstable). as if the object is pushed down slightly. being the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid. The weight force on the object acts through its center of gravity. this will create a greater buoyant force.
The metacenter can be calculated using the formulae: KM = KB + BM Where B is the center of buoyancy. The GM is used to calculate the stability of a ship and this must be done before it proceeds to sea. while B and M move as the ship heels. The point at which a vertical line through the heeled center of buoyancy crosses the line through the original. . however. Note that for small angles. This is to ensure that the ship has adequate stability.Ship Stability diagram showing center of gravity (G). In the diagram to the right the two Bs show the centers of buoyancy of a ship in the upright and heeled condition and M is the metacenter. the center of buoyancy of the ship moves laterally. vertical center of buoyancy is the metacenter´. G is fixed. I is the moment of inertia of the waterplane in meters4 and V is the volume of displacement in meters3. at larger angles of heel the metacenter can no longer be considered fixed and other means must be found to calculate the ship's stability. Metacenter ³When a ship is heeled. The GM must equal or exceed the minimum required GM for that ship for the duration of the forthcoming voyage. center of buoyancy (B). and metacenter (M) with ship upright and heeled over to one side. ³The metacentric height (GM) is the distance between the center of gravity of a ship and its metacenter´. The metacenter is considered to be fixed for small angles of heel.
increasing BM . so M moves to the opposite side. moves up and sideways in the opposite direction in which the ship has rolled and is no longer directly over the center of gravity. The center of gravity of the ship itself is known as G in naval architecture. The righting force on the ship is then caused by gravity pulling down on the hull. The distance between the center of gravity and the metacenter is called the metacentric height. When the deck is flooded. and the buoyancy pushing the hull upwards. the stability arm rapidly decreases. effectively acting on its center of gravity. When the ship is vertical it lies above the center of gravity and so moves in the opposite direction of heel as the ship rolls. the center of gravity generally remains fixed with respect to the ship because it just depends upon position of the ship's weight and cargo.Different centers Initially the second moment of area increases as the surface area increases. increasing BM. The metacenter. the center of buoyancy is vertically in-line with the center of gravity of the ship. This point is referred to as B in naval architecture. This creates a torque which rotates the hull upright again and is proportional to the horizontal distance . The metacenter is the point where the lines intersect (at angle ) of the upward force of buoyancy of ± d . As the ship heels over. The metacenter is known as M in naval architecture. effectively acting along the vertical line passing through the center of buoyancy and the metacenter above it. This distance is also abbreviated as GM. but the surface area increases. The center of buoyancy. M . is the center of the volume of water which the hull displaces. When a ship is stable. and is usually between one and two meters. thus increasing the stability arm.
Metacenter Righting arm Distance GZ is the righting arm: a notional lever through which the force of buoyancy acts.Center of Buoyancy KG . thus. although as little as 90º (masts flat to the surface) is acceptable. ³Sailing vessels are designed to operate with a higher degree of heel than motorized vessels and the righting torque at extreme angles is of high importance. When setting a common reference for the centers. This is expressed as the righting arm (known also as GZ ² see diagram): the horizontal distance between the center of buoyancy and the center of gravit´. As the displacement of the hull at any particular degree of list is not proportional. calculations can be difficult and the concept was not introduced formally into naval architecture until about 1970.Center of Gravity KM . the reference heights are: KB . The metacentric height is important because the righting force is proportional to the metacentric height times the sine of the angle of heel.between the center of gravity and the metacenter. . GZ = GM sin Monohulled sailing vessels are designed to have a positive righting arm (the limit of positive stability) at anything up to 120º of heel. the molded (within the plate or planking) line of the keel (K) is generally chosen.
This is known as the free surface effect (see below). on the other hand can cause a vessel to be too "stiff". The range of positive stability will be reduced to the angle of down flooding resulting in a reduced righting lever. A ship with low GM is less safe if damaged and partially flooded because the lower metacentric height leaves less safety margin.an excessively low or negative GM increases the risk of a ship capsizing in rough weather (see HMS Captain or the Vasa). In contrast a "tender" ship lags behind the motion of the waves and tends to roll at lesser amplitudes. the Center of Buoyancy. An overly stiff vessel rolls with a short period and high amplitude which results in high angular acceleration. A larger metacentric height. For this reason. and the loss of waterplane area .have a long roll period . This increases the risk of damage to the ship as well as the risk cargo may break loose or shift. maritime regulatory agencies such as the IMO specify minimum safety margins for sea-going vessels.thus a loss of the waterplane moment of inertia . This additional mass will also reduce freeboard (distance from water to the deck) and the ship's angle of down flooding (minimum angle of heel at which water will be able to flow into the hull). The period of roll can be estimated from the following equation Where g is the gravitational constant.which decreases the metacentric height. excessive stability is uncomfortable for passengers and crew. perhaps 12 seconds while a tanker or freighter might have a rolling period of 6 to 8 seconds. the loss of stability is due to the increase in B. A ship with a small GM will be "tender" . . Damaged Stability If a ship floods. shifting its center of gravity toward the list. the fluid in the flooded volume will move to the lower side. k is the radius of gyration about the longitudinal axis through the center of gravity and is the stability index. When the vessel is inclined. A passenger ship will typically have a long rolling period for comfort. It also puts the vessel at risk of potential for large angles of heel if the cargo or ballast shifts (see Cougar Ace). further extending the heeling force.Stability GM and rolling period GM has a direct relationship with a ship's rolling period. This is because the stiff vessel quickly responds to the sea as it attempts to assume the slope of the wave.
most notably the MS Herald of Free Enterprise. but they are normally only calculated and stated as specific values for the limiting pure pitch and roll motion.Free surface effect In tanks or spaces that are partially filled with a fluid or semi-fluid (fish. and in flooded or partially flooded compartments of damaged ships. GM(t) and GM(l). ice or grain for example) as the tank is inclined the surface of the liquid. Technically. the metacentric height (KM) can be calculated. It can be calculated by theoretical formulas based on the shape of the structure. This results in a displacement of the centre of gravity of the tank or space relative to the overall center of gravity. The effect is similar to that of carrying a large flat tray of water. above). or semi-fluid. Transverse and Longitudinal Metacentric heights There is also a similar consideration in the movement of the metacentre forward and aft as a ship pitches. stays level. or sometimes GMt and GMl . This is always of significance in ship fuel tanks or ballast tanks. . there are different metacentric heights for any combination of pitch and roll motion. in which the period of the roll is equal or almost equal to the period of the motion of the centre of gravity in the fluid. When an edge is tipped. These are variously known as and . The significance of this effect is proportional to the square of the width of the tank or compartment. knowing GM and KG. an accounting of the 'as-built' center of gravity is done. Prior to the inclining experiment. depending on the moment of inertia of the waterplane area of the ship around the axis of rotation under consideration. Another worrying feature of free surface effect is that a positive feedback loop can be established. resulting in each roll increasing in magnitude until the loop is broken or the ship capsizes. the water rushes to that side which exacerbates the tip even further. Metacenters are usually separately calculated for transverse (side to side) rolling motion and for lengthwise longitudinal pitching motion. Measuring metacentric height The metacentric height is normally estimated during the design of a ship but can be determined by an inclining experiment or Inclining test once it has been built. so two baffles separating the area into thirds will reduce the displacement of the centre of gravity of the fluid by a factor of 9. The angle(s) obtained during the inclining experiment are directly related to GM (See Righting arm. This has been significant in historic capsizes. tanker cargo tanks. This can also be done when a ship or offshore floating platform is in service.
The center of gravity is not required to be lower than the center of bouyancy and in general most ship's center of gravity is above the center of bouyancy. It might be advantageous to look at the center of gravity with respect to the center of bouyancy in ship hull stability and thereby get a better grasp of the particulars. The fluid it is floating on pushes it up and it floats (assuming it is bouyant). Both gravity and bouyancy (the two forces at work) will have an effective center. The ship will heel until the Metacenter (which is a function of the actual Waterplane area) is at or above the center of gravity.Centre of buoyancy: The center of buoyancy is the center of volume of displaced water of the hull (of a vessel). Use the link below to our friends at Wikipedia and look at some diagrams concerning the stability of ships in terms of where the centers of bouyancy and gravity are in relation to each other . Gravity pulls down on a floating object.