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Tensile cracking in clay is an important phenomenon that
affects the strength and permeability of clays in many
facilities, such as dams, embankments and landfill liners,
as well as being a precursor to slope failures in the
natural terrain. This study investigates the stress–strain
criteria for cracking in clays by performing four-point
bending tests on consolidated kaolin clay beams. Loadcontrolled and strain-controlled tests were performed on
clay beams with varying initial suction to understand the
stress–strain criteria for crack initiation in clay. At no
stage was the negative pore pressure permitted to exceed
the air entry value of the clay, so the clay remained
saturated throughout. Strains in the clay were obtained
by particle image velocimetry analysis of digital images
of the clay beam, and suction measurements were obtained from pore pressure and tension transducers installed within the clay beams. Results from this
investigation showed that the threshold tensile strain to
cracking in kaolin clay decreased from about 4% at an
initial mean effective stress of 15 kPa to about 1.5% at
an initial mean effective stress of 100 kPa. The extreme
fibre stress at failure of the clay beams indicated an
effective tensile strength that was a fraction, dropping
from 0.27 to 0.11 of the preconsolidation pressure as the
overconsolidation ratio increased from about 2 to about
20. Alternatively, the tensile strength could be regarded
as 0.45 6 0.15 of the geometric mean of the preconsolidation pressure in the plane of shear and the initial mean
effective stress. Most significantly, evidence is presented
of a new understanding of cracking in clays. Cracks were
seen to open either as pure tension cracks at zero minor
principal effective stress, or as mixed-mode shear-tension
cracks when an effective stress path reaches the Hvorslev
criterion of brittle shear rupture, but only if the minor
total stress is also tensile.

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581]

N. I . T H U S YA N T H A N * , W. A . TA K E † , S . P. G . M A DA B H U S H I a n d M . D. B O LTO N

Tensile cracking in clay is an important phenomenon that La fissuration sous traction de l’argile est un phénomène

affects the strength and permeability of clays in many important qui affecte la résistance et la perméabilité des

facilities, such as dams, embankments and landfill liners, argiles pour de nombreuses structures telles que bar-

as well as being a precursor to slope failures in the rages, remblais et sous-couches de décharge. Elle consti-

natural terrain. This study investigates the stress–strain tue également un précurseur de fractures de versants en

criteria for cracking in clays by performing four-point terrain naturel. Cette étude examine les critères de con-

bending tests on consolidated kaolin clay beams. Load- trainte-déformation de la fissuration dans les argiles en

controlled and strain-controlled tests were performed on réalisant des essais de flexion quatre points sur des

clay beams with varying initial suction to understand the poutres en argile de kaolin consolidée. Des tests contrôlés

stress–strain criteria for crack initiation in clay. At no en charge et en déformation ont été réalisés sur des

stage was the negative pore pressure permitted to exceed poutres en argile en utilisant une succion initiale variable

the air entry value of the clay, so the clay remained pour mieux comprendre les critères de contrainte-défor-

saturated throughout. Strains in the clay were obtained mation d’initiation de fissure dans l’argile. La pression

by particle image velocimetry analysis of digital images interstitielle négative a été maintenue inférieure à la

of the clay beam, and suction measurements were ob- valeur d’entrée d’air de l’argile à tout moment, de sorte

tained from pore pressure and tension transducers in- que l’argile est restée continuellement saturée. Les défor-

stalled within the clay beams. Results from this mations dans l’argile ont été déterminées par vélocimé-

investigation showed that the threshold tensile strain to trie par images de particules sur des images numériques

cracking in kaolin clay decreased from about 4% at an de la poutre d’argile. Des capteurs de pression intersti-

initial mean effective stress of 15 kPa to about 1.5% at tielle et de tension intégrés dans les poutres d’argile ont

an initial mean effective stress of 100 kPa. The extreme permis d’obtenir des mesures de la succion. Les résultats

fibre stress at failure of the clay beams indicated an de cette étude montrent que la déformation en traction

effective tensile strength that was a fraction, dropping seuil pour la fissuration dans l’argile de kaolin diminue

from 0.27 to 0.11 of the preconsolidation pressure as the de près de 4 % pour une contrainte effective moyenne

overconsolidation ratio increased from about 2 to about initiale de 15 kPa à près de 1,5 % pour une contrainte

20. Alternatively, the tensile strength could be regarded effective moyenne initiale de 100 kPa. La contrainte ex-

as 0.45 6 0.15 of the geometric mean of the preconsoli- trême de la fibre à la rupture pour les poutres d’argile

dation pressure in the plane of shear and the initial mean indiquait une résistance effective en traction correspon-

effective stress. Most significantly, evidence is presented dant à une fraction, diminuant de 0,27 à 0,11 de la

of a new understanding of cracking in clays. Cracks were pression de préconsolidation tandis que le rapport de

seen to open either as pure tension cracks at zero minor surconsolidation augmentait de 2 à 20 environ. Une autre

principal effective stress, or as mixed-mode shear-tension alternative consiste à considérer la résistance à la trac-

cracks when an effective stress path reaches the Hvorslev tion comme 0,45 6 0,15 de la moyenne géométrique de la

criterion of brittle shear rupture, but only if the minor pression de préconsolidation dans le plan de cisaillement

total stress is also tensile. et de la contrainte effective moyenne initiale. Plus impor-

tant encore, on présente ici une nouvelle approche de

compréhension de la fissuration des argiles. On a pu

observer la rupture de fissures résultant uniquement de

la traction pour une contrainte principale mineure effec-

tive nulle ou survenant en mode mixe contrainte-tension

lorsqu’un cheminement de contrainte effective atteint le

critère de Hvorslev de rupture de cisaillement en régime

KEYWORDS: clays; cracking; negative pore pressure; suction; cassant, mais seulement lorsque la contrainte mineure

tensile failure totale est également en traction.

Cracks can be initiated in clay soils during many pro- mass strength of the material. The significance of this loss

cesses, including those of desiccation, shrinkage and swel- of strength is perhaps most dramatic in the case of natural

ling, ice lens formation and a variety of shear clay slopes in which an essential component of their

deformations. Cracking is an important issue in many stability is derived from the clay’s tensile strength accom-

panied by negative pore water pressures. In addition to

affecting the mechanical properties, cracks also provide

Manuscript received 28 September; revised manuscript accepted 28 preferential flow paths to fluids, thus increasing the hy-

March 2007. draulic conductivity manyfold over its previously uncracked

Discussion on this paper closes on 3 March 2008, for further

details see p. ii.

value. This is highly significant for processes driven by

* Schofield Centre, Department of Engineering, University of infiltration (such as slope instability, water and nutrient

Cambridge, UK. transport for agricultural crops), and in applications in

† Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, which clay has been specifically chosen for its low per-

Ontario, Canada. meability to form all or part of a barrier system (landfill

581

582 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

liners, earth dams, etc.). In the vast majority of these EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY

applications the clay is above the water table, and there- Flexural test set-up

fore the pore water pressure is typically in suction. The flexural test apparatus is shown schematically in Fig.

Despite the significance of cracking for the hydrological 1(a) in both elevation and profile. It consists of a motorised

and mechanical behaviour of clays, relatively little experi- actuator, a load cell, and four 30 mm diameter acrylic

mental work has been performed to investigate the criteria dowels to impart four-point loading. The aspect ratio of the

for crack initiation compared with the effort expended on test specimen and the positions of the loading points (Fig.

investigating plastic shearing. 1(b)) have been selected to conform to BS 1881: Part 118,

Early work on triaxial extension tests was performed by which describes the accepted procedure for performing four-

Parry (1960) on saturated Weald clay. This work demon- point bending tests on concrete specimens (British Standards

strated that the failure points of saturated clay in both Institute, 1983). Because of the stiffness of the clay to be

drained extension tests and undrained extension tests (in tested in the present study, no specific mechanical system

which the back-pressure had been elevated to maintain posi- has been included to counteract the self-weight of the clay

tive pore water pressures) satisfy Hvorslev’s failure concept beam. The self-weight of the beam was taken into account

(Hvorslev, 1937). Tension tests on clay were also carried out in the applied bending moment. In strain control tests,

by Bishop & Garga (1969), using a modified triaxial cell. loading was applied at a uniform vertical displacement rate

They performed drained tension tests on intact samples of of 0.23 mm/min. In load control tests, the motorised actuator

London clay to obtain tensile and compressive strengths was replaced by a dead weight system and load applied in

expressed in terms of effective stress and the corresponding 19.6 N (2 kg) increments every 180 s. Further details of the

failure strains. The investigators looked to rock mechanics experiment can be found in Thusyanthan (2005).

principles based on ‘true cohesion’ to analyse the results.

Adopting a fracture mechanics point of view, they used

modified Griffith crack theory to derive a ratio of drained Specimen preparation

tensile strength to unconfined drained compressive strength The clay to be used in the experimental programme of

in the range 0.144–0.178, closely comparable to their test bending tests was chosen to be in a remoulded rather than

results. More recently, fracture mechanics (Harison et al., an intact state in order to permit the creation of a large

1994) and Griffith’s theory have been applied to evaluate number of identical specimens, and to evaluate the zero

crack growth in unsaturated compacted clays (Hallett & tension line effective stress criterion often quoted for these

Newson, 2001) and saturated clays (Hallett & Newson, materials. The material chosen, E-grade kaolin, is well

2005), and crack-tip stress in saturated soils (Dégué et al., characterised and has a liquid limit of 51%, a plastic limit

2003). of 30%, and a saturated permeability of the order of

Ajaz & Parry (1975) continued to work towards a strength 109 m/s (Barker, 1998). The values of critical state para-

of materials (SOM) criterion for tensile crack initiation by meters of E-grade kaolin clay acquired from various sources

performing direct tension, unconfined compression and bend- in the literature are summarised in Table 1. The water

ing tests on two unsaturated compacted clays in order to retention curve for E-grade kaolin is given by Rabozzi

investigate the stress–strain characteristics leading up to (2005); it shows an air entry suction of 250 kPa. At no time

cracking. Since this research predated the development of during preparation and testing was the negative pore pressure

high-capacity tensiometers, stress analysis of their results in the current tests allowed to exceed 110 kPa, so the clay

can be performed only in terms of total rather than effective can be regarded as remaining fully saturated in every case.

stress. However, the work of Ajaz & Parry (1975) clearly The powdered E-grade kaolin clay was mixed under

demonstrated that the tensile strain at failure increased with vacuum with an equal mass of water. The resulting kaolin

an increase in clay moisture content, both above and below slurry of 100% water content was then one-dimensionally

the Proctor optimum for the two compacted clays, irrespec- consolidated in stages to a final vertical effective stress of

tive of the type of tension test. Tensile strain at failure in a either 250 kPa or 500 kPa. Unloading was then performed in

bending test was shown to increase with water content from increments of less than 100 kPa, with swelling permitted at

0.5% at a water content of about 22% to 1.5% at a water each stage to avoid generating large negative pore pressures,

content of about 35%. These values fall within the range of which could possibly lead to cavitation. Prior to the final

tensile strains at failure extracted from the literature by unloading increment from approximately 30 kPa to 0 kPa,

Lagatta et al. (1997), from 1.6% in dam embankments to the specimen was isolated from all sources of water to

4.4% in landfill clay liners. However, the need to rely on eliminate the possibility of swelling. On unloading, the clay

moisture content to describe the state of the clay in this block was therefore forced into an initial negative pore

work conflates the effects of void ratio and effective stress pressure of slightly less than 30 kPa. This modest initial

on the observed tensile behaviour, thus eliminating the suction was imposed on the clay to ensure sufficient stiffness

possibility of deriving an SOM criterion for crack initiation. to permit undisturbed beam specimens to be cut from the

Much the same conclusion applies to work on hydraulic large block of clay. Beams 320 mm long and of 80 mm

fracture. Murdoch (1993) investigated hydraulic facture in cross-section, weighing 4 kg, were cut from the 676 mm 3

clays by injecting dyed glycerine into silty clay in a triaxial 200 mm 3 400 mm clay block (Fig. 2(a)) and wrapped with

cell and observing through a transparent loading plate. a polythene cover for protection against evaporation. As

Results simply showed that an increase in the water content shown in Fig. 2(b), the longitudinal direction of the beam,

of the clay decreased the injection pressure required to herein defined as the z-direction, has been chosen to be

initiate a hydraulic fracture in clay. transverse to the direction of consolidation loading. The

This paper presents an investigation of the stress and significance of this and of the direction of plane strain will

strain criterion for crack initiation in kaolin clay using be discussed later in the paper.

beam bending tests equipped with embedded high-capacity

tensiometers and external digital-image-based strain meas-

urement to revisit the possibility of deriving an SOM Pore pressure measurement

criterion for crack initiation in clay by obtaining a full The ability to measure the magnitude and distribution of

record of total and effective stresses and strains leading to negative pore pressures within a clay beam is essential if an

failure. effective stress criterion is to be found for crack initiation.

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 583

Motorised

actuator

Load cell

Glass sheet

Glass sheet

Digital

camera

Clay beam 80 mm

(a)

20 mm

40 mm

20 mm

30 mm

80 mm

Compression PPTT

Middle PPTT

80 mm d

Tension PPTT

20 mm 160 mm

b 240 mm

320 mm

(b)

Fig. 1. Flexural test set-up: (a) elevation and profile view; (b) geometry of beam specimen

urement of negative pore pressure, in this application the

high-capacity tensiometers must be placed in a high effective

stress environment in which they are being pinched and y

x

pulled, so they had to be designed to be insensitive to z

external stresses acting on the casing. In addition, they must

also be small enough to be embedded in the clay beam

without significantly altering the beam behaviour. Two types

of high-capacity tensiometer were used in the present work:

the miniature stainless steel tensiometers developed by Take

& Bolton (2003), and a newly updated version of the Druck

PDCR-81, which had been modified to the authors’ specifica-

tions by the manufacturer to make the device more robust

under tensile water pressures. The tensiometers used were (a)

about 6 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, with very flexible

and slim (3 mm diameter) connecting wires. σ ⬘v

In order to measure the evolution of the pore water 80

pressure distribution within a clay beam during flexure, three 320

tensiometers were embedded at the mid-span of the beam:

80

K0σ ⬘v

º 0.124 0.124 0.124 K0σ ⬘v

k 0.02 – 0.0158

ˆiso 2.65 – –

ˆ1D – 2.723 2.4

Mcom 1.05 – 0.94 (b)

crit – – 248

Fig. 2. Specimen preparation: (a) large block of consolidated

* Reported in Barker (1998). clay; (b) 320 mm 3 80 mm 3 80 mm clay beam

584 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

one located near the compression face, one near the tension

face, and the other near the neutral axis. As shown in Fig.

1(b), the tensiometers were positioned along a diagonal of

the cross-section of the beam to mitigate their tendency to

weaken the cross-section. Each tensiometer was installed in

turn, beginning by slowly drilling in 1–2 mm increments

from one end of the beam with a thin-walled hollow cutting

tube and auger system to remove the spoil. A wooden

framework and an aluminium guide were used to ensure that

the drilling alignment and cover depth were consistently y

followed along the length of the beam. Once the hole Z

reached the mid-span, the ceramic tip of a tensiometer that

had just been saturated using the procedures of Take &

Bolton (2003) was coated with a small amount of kaolin

paste and inserted into the drilled hole, backfilled with a

clay slurry behind the device, and allowed to set. After

installation, the negative pore pressures were monitored to

ensure internal consistency between the equilibrium readings

of all three devices. Beams were wrapped with polythene

covers during equilibration, for protection against evapora-

tion. All three tensiometers achieved uniform initial negative (a)

pore pressures about 5 min after installation (Thusyanthan,

2005). Z0

The inclusion of the tensiometers was essential to the Patch in image 1

research, but it was recognised that they might act as crack- Strain ⫽ (Z1 ⫹ Z2)/(Z0)

raisers. After each test, photographs were taken of every Z1

Patch in image 2

Z2

fracture surface. The fracture plane was seen to intersect one

or more tensiometers in 7 out of 17 tests. Equally, cracking (b)

did not coincide with the devices in 10 out of 17 tests, even

though the tensiometers were located on the plane of maxi- Fig. 3. Strain measurement by PIV analysis: (a) 32 3 32 pixel

mum bending moment, taking both self-weight and applied size patches at which displacement is tracked; (b) strain

loading into account. It can therefore be concluded that their calculation

influence on crack initiation could not have been significant.

about 0.3 m (White et al., 2003).

Strain profile measurement Digital images of the beams were captured every 10 s

The experimental investigation of cracking described in during flexural testing by two 4 megapixel digital cameras:

this paper concentrates on the stress–strain behaviour of the one was focused on a wide field of view to observe the

mid-span of the beam, where the change of bending moment behaviour of the entire beam, and the other was zoomed to

induced by the loading was uniform at its maximum value. capture the detailed behaviour of the mid-span. As shown in

The evolution of the magnitude and distribution of the Fig. 1(a), a thin glass sheet containing a grid of black

longitudinal bending strain zz at this location was precisely control markers at known locations was placed in front of

measured using the non-contact digital image correlation the beam to provide a reference coordinate system visible in

technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). This tech- both cameras. This coordinate system was then used to

nique is described by White (2002), Take (2003), and White improve the precision of the measured strains using photo-

et al. (2003): it allows the precise determination of soil grammetric camera calibration to remove camera errors such

displacements though a series of digital images without as the variation in scale factor due to imperfect camera

resorting to predefined target markers, instead operating on positioning, radial and tangential lens distortion, and refrac-

the visual image texture of the soil (colour, grain orientation, tion (White et al., 2003).

etc.). In this application, the grain size of the soil, E-grade

kaolin, ensured that the natural texture of the material could

be seen only at the microscopic level. Thus, using the TESTING PROGRAMME AND EXPERIMENTAL

technique described by Take (2003), an artificial texture was RESULTS

applied to the longitudinal elevation of the beam using dyed The stress and strain criterion for cracking in E-grade

fine sand. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the resulting image texture kaolin clay was investigated for beams of varying preconso-

is a high-contrast black-and-white random pattern ideal for lidation pressure (type A beams having been consolidated to

PIV analysis. a vertical effective stress of 500 kPa, and type B to

As PIV operates on image texture rather than predefined 250 kPa), of varying initial negative pore pressure over the

target markers, the displacement of any location throughout range 15–102 kPa, and tested in both load and strain control.

the beam could be measured. In this application, 33 pairs of At no time did the suction exceed the air entry value of the

32 3 32 pixel measurement patches were defined in the clay, which is 250 kPa (Rabozzi, 2005). Identical experimen-

digital image on either side of the mid-span of the beam tal techniques could be used to investigate cracking under

throughout the full height (Fig. 3(a)). Thus these pairs of conditions of partial saturation, so long as the tensiometer

displacement nodes can be thought of as 33 virtual strain filters were of sufficiently high air entry value and remained

gauges, which can be used to calculate the longitudinal saturated. In the simpler conditions used here the clay

strains throughout the depth of the beam by dividing the remained saturated throughout, permitting the application of

horizontal movement of the two patches making up each Terzaghi’s effective stress principle in the analysis of the

pair by the original distance between the patches (Fig. 3(b)). results. In particular, the initial negative pore pressure in the

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 585

10

unloaded beam can be simply equated to the initial mean

effective stress in the clay. A full description of the 17 beam 9

tests that have been performed for this study is included as 8

Table 2. 7

Having come into moisture equilibrium following the

6

installation of the three tensiometers, each beam was ob-

served to have a uniform negative pore pressure profile in 5

the range 15–30 kPa (Thusyanthan, 2005). As the majority 4

of the tests listed in Table 2 required higher initial negative 3

pore pressures, the initial suction on the surface of the Type A beams (load-controlled tests)

2

beams was set by slowly allowing controlled evaporation. Type A beams (strain-controlled tests)

Beams were rotated at regular intervals to facilitate uniform 1 Type B beams (strain-controlled tests)

drying from all sides. Once the target value of negative pore 0

pressure had been reached, the beams were once again 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Initial effective stress in beam, s⬘i : kPa

covered with a protective film for an additional moisture

equilibration period prior to testing. The protective film was Fig. 4. Maximum bending moment applied to beams at failure

removed just prior to testing.

As expected, all clay beams experienced brittle failure

by cracking on the tensile face in the mid-span region of EVALUATION OF DEFORMATION-BASED CRACKING

the beam. The load, and hence the bending moment CRITERION

experienced by the beams, increased up to the onset of Observed longitudinal strains

cracking. Shortly after the initiation of a crack on the Typical isochrones of strain calculated from the digital

tensile face, complete collapse occurred in the load-con- images record of the load-controlled and strain-controlled

trolled tests, whereas in the strain-controlled tests the load beam tests are presented in Figs 5(a) and 5(b) respectively.

was observed to decrease while the crack propagated Although measurements of strain were obtained every 10 s,

vertically upwards into the beams. Complete collapse of Fig. 5(a) shows strains only every 30 s and Fig. 5(b) every

the beams in the strain-controlled tests was observed once 50 s for the sake of clarity. In the load-controlled test, the

the crack had propagated through about two-thirds of the strain rate was observed to be very rapid during load

beam thickness. application, and was then followed by a period of creep

A summary of the maximum observed bending moment strains on the order of 0.1% for the 180 s constant load

for all beams is presented in Fig. 4. In general, beams period. As expected, the strain rate in the strain-controlled

having a higher preconsolidation pressure exhibited a tests was constant until the initiation of cracking. It is clear

higher load at tensile failure. Very roughly, type A beams from these results that the strain profile is almost perfectly

that had been consolidated to twice the consolidation linear with depth for both the load-controlled and strain-

pressure of type B beams were shown to carry a higher controlled tests up until the point of crack initiation. This

maximum moment in roughly the same proportion. How- confirms that the oft-made assumption that plane sections

ever, this generalisation is not true for all beams. Beams remain plane during flexural tests is valid for the present

with low initial effective stresses experienced similar fail- study.

ure loads despite their differences in preconsolidation The observed extreme fibre compressive and tensile

pressure. In the following sections of the paper these strains are plotted against time in Figs 5(c) and 5(d) for the

experiments are analysed in detail to evaluate experimen- load-controlled and strain-controlled tests respectively. As

tally whether a deformation- or effective-stress-based cri- shown by the symmetry of these figures, the absolute values

terion could be developed to predict this complex crack of the compressive and tensile strains of the extreme fibres

initiation behaviour. are almost identical until the point of crack initiation. This

bending test measured, s9i : kPa pressure, s90 : kPa

clay type A beams AL45 45 297

(2 kg every 3 min) AL75 75 297

Strain-controlled tests on AS25 25 297

clay type A beams AS45 45 297

AS62 62 297

AS75 75 297

AS82 82 297

AS80 80 297

AS100 100 297

AS102 102 297

Strain-controlled tests on BS15 15 148

clay type B beams BS22 22 148

BS45 45 148

BS46 46 148

BS65 65 148

BS92 92 148

A: 500 kPa consolidated beams; B: 250 kPa consolidated beams; S: strain-controlled tests;

L: load controlled tests

586 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

80 80

70 70

60 60

Elevation: mm

Elevation: mm 50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0 1 2 3 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0 1 2 3

Strain: %

Strain: %

(b)

(a)

900 1200

Tension face Tension face

800

Compression face 1000 Compression face

700

600 800

Time: s

Time: s

500

600

400

300 400

200

200

100

0 0

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0 1 2 3 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0 1 2 3

Strain: % Strain: %

(c) (d)

Fig. 5. Isochrones of longitudinal strain: (a) load-controlled beam AL15 strains profile every 30 s; (b) strain-

controlled beam AS45 strains profile every 50 s; (c) beam AL15, extreme fibre tensile and compressive strains

every 10 s; (d) beam AL45, extreme fibre tensile and compressive strains every 10 s

implies that the stiffness modulus of the clay in compression the mid-depth. As the magnitude of the effective stress

and in tension is similar in magnitude for the two tests decreased, the observed neutral axes rose to become slightly

presented in Fig. 5. The universality of this observation was higher than mid-depth. This implies that the stiffness of the

tested by analysing the strain profiles from all beam tests to clay in tension at low effective stress is lower than in

infer the depth of the neutral axis prior to the initiation of a compression, albeit slightly. The data also indicate that there

crack. A neutral axis found at the mid-elevation would is no significant difference between the neutral axis depth of

confirm that the two moduli are identical, whereas a neutral beams consolidated to 500 kPa (type A) or to 250 kPa (type

axis higher than mid-depth would imply a stiffer response in B). In all the beams, the neutral axis shifted upwards at the

compression than tension. initiation of a crack, as expected.

The observed depths of the neutral axis in all beam-

bending tests are plotted against the initial negative pore

pressure (equal to an isotropic effective stress) present in

each of the beams in Fig. 6. At the highest effective stresses, Other strain components

the neutral axes of the beams were found to be very close to While the bending of beams induces compressive and

tensile longitudinal strains, compensating strains must simulta-

1·0 neously occur in the plane of the cross-section to maintain

Type A beams

0·9 constancy of volume during an undrained increment of bend-

Elevation of neutral axis, d

0·8 Type B beams ing moment. Fig. 7 shows that the vertical strains, interpreted

0·7 from PIV, remain a small fraction of the longitudinal strains. It

0·6 must follow that the compensating strains occur across the

0·5

width of the clay beams (in the x direction), with their

0·4

magnitude roughly equal to the magnitude of the longitudinal

strains, but their signs reversed. A conceptual sketch of the

0·3

deformed longitudinal elevation and the cross-section of the

0·2

central portion of the beam are shown in Fig. 8. It follows that

0·1 an undrained deformation of the beam can be considered as

0 the superposition of horizontal laminae, each of which de-

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Initial effective stress in beam, s⬘i : kPa

forms approximately in plane strain with the intermediate

principal strain yy 0 lying in the vertical direction. This

Fig. 6. Neutral axis location against initial effective stress in ideal situation will not apply exactly, of course, if sufficient

beam time elapses for drainage to take place.

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 587

5·0

3

4·5 Type A beams, load controlled

4·0 Type A beams, strain controlled

2

εzz of extreme fibre on 3·5 Type B beams, strain controlled

compression side

3·0 εcrack ⫽ 14s⬘i ⫺0·5

1

εyy at mid-length 2·5

± 25% error bounds

Strain: %

2·0

0

1·5

1·0

⫺1 0·5

0

εzz of extreme fibre on 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

⫺2

tension side Initial effective stress in clay, s⬘i : kPa

effective stress

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Applied bending moment: N m

EVALUATION OF STRESS-BASED CRACKING

Fig. 7. Strains measured in beam AS45 at mid-length

CRITERION

Pore pressure response

εyy ⬇ 0

A typical response from the three miniature high-capacity

tensiometers embedded within the clay beam specimens

Initial central during a load-controlled test is presented against time and

section

y applied bending moment in Figs 10(a) and 10(b) respec-

tively. The immediate effect of every increment of bending

was a pore pressure increase on the compression side and a

z

Deformed central

section ⫺30 Compression PPTT

Pore pressure: kPa

⫺50

(a)

Self-weight

⫺60 loading

Tension PPTT

Initial cross-

section ⫺70

y

Deformed ⫺80

central section

x ⫺90

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Time: s

(a)

⫺30

⫺35

portion of a beam: (a) elevation; (b) cross-section ⫺40

Pore pressure : kPa

Middle PPTT

⫺45

Strain criteria for crack initiation

The measured tensile strain at the instant of crack initia-

⫺50

tion in each of the 17 beam tests is presented in Fig. 9. An

equation that may be used to predict the tensile strain at

⫺55 Tension PPTT

which a crack: initiates in clay is also given in Fig. 9

(crack ¼ 14s90

i

5

). The results indicate that the tensile strain

required for crack initiation in clays reduces with increasing ⫺60

mean effective stress, falling from about 4% at 10 kPa to

about 1.5% at 100 kPa. Although the scatter in the results ⫺65

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

precludes quantitative conclusions, type B beams consis-

Bending moment: N m

tently plot at the lower end of the range of observed strain

(b)

values, indicating that the tensile strain for crack initiation

increases with increasing preconsolidation pressure over the Fig. 10. Pore pressure measurements: (a) pore pressure against

range of values tested, although it is less significant than the time in beam AL45; (b) pore pressure against bending moment

effect of current effective stress. in beam AL45

588 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

decrease on the tension side, as would be expected from the It is evident from Fig. 10 that the process of bending the

imposed changes of total stress. The absolute magnitude of clay beam was partially drained. Although there was negli-

each of these pore pressures then tended to decrease with gible evaporation, there clearly was some progressive inter-

time under constant bending moment, as would be expected nal drainage from the compression side to the tension side.

by considering transient flow due to the induced excess pore Since the objective is a description of bending and cracking

pressure gradient. As the imposed total stresses were in- in terms of effective stress changes, it is necessary only to

creased, the negative pore pressure increments due to tension deduce effective stress increments and relate them to strain

exceeded the positive increments due to compression. At this increments. This is attempted next.

time, the high-capacity tensiometer located at the neutral

axis correspondingly begins to register a build-up of increas-

ingly negative pore pressures. This indicates that the influ- Stress distribution in the beam

ence of shear-induced excess pore pressure is not The total and effective stresses imposed on the extreme

symmetrical. The magnitude of the pore pressure change is tensile and compression fibres and at the neutral axis of the

larger on the tension side as additional negative pore pres- clay beams during flexure are shown diagrammatically in

sures are induced due to suppressed dilation. Fig. 11(a). As expected with a four-point bending test, the

σzz σ ⬘zz ⫽ σ zz ⫺ u

Extreme (σ ⬘1)

compression

fibre

σxx ⫽ 0 σ ⬘xx ⫽ ⫺u

y

σyy ⫽ 0 σ⬘yy ⫽ ⫺u

x

τyx

τyz

σzz ⫽ 0 σ ⬘zz ⫽ ⫺ u

z Neutral

axis

τzy

Mx τzy (σ ⬘1)

σxx ⫽ 0 σ ⬘xx ⫽ ⫺u

Extreme

tensile fibre

σzz σ ⬘zz ⫽ σ zz ⫺ u

(σ⬘3)

σxx ⫽ 0 σ ⬘xx ⫽ ⫺u

(a)

y y

40 mm 40 mm

Compression Compression

σzz σzz

Tension Tension

⫺40 mm ⫺40 mm

(b) (c)

Fig. 11. (a) Principal stresses (xx , yy , zz ) and bending moment (Mx ) in a cross-section of a beam; (b) linear elastic stress

distribution; (c) non-linear elastic stress distribution

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 589

total stress in the longitudinal direction corresponds with the Equation (4) provides the predicted bending moment for a

maximum and minimum principal stresses at the two extre- given C, and k, of which the parameters C and remain

mities, in compression and extension respectively. Shear unknown. By comparing this predicted bending moment with

stresses induced at the neutral axis of the beam by four- the moment applied to the beam throughout the test, it is

point bending are zero. Further, the geometry of the beams possible to obtain the value of parameters C and for all

has been selected so that the shear stress induced by the the beams. In this process, the parameter C was considered

self-weight of the beam does not exceed 1 kPa. Shear to take the form C ¼ a(s90 )Æ (s9i ) , where a, Æ and are

stresses on the cross-sections are therefore negligible. As the material parameters, s90 is the mean effective consolidation

design of the experimental study has ensured that beams pressure defining the yield surface (Modified Cam Clay

have remained saturated throughout testing, the effective (MCC)), and s9i is the initial mean effective stress in the

stresses can be determined simply by Terzaghi’s equation beam (i.e. the initial negative pore pressure present in the

(Fig. 11(a)). beam). The values of 0.4 for , 2–2.5 for a, and 0.5 for Æ

The distribution of the longitudinal total stress in a beam and satisfied all the tested beams rather well. The full

of linear elastic material that is being subjected to four-point details of the evaluation of parameters C and are given in

bending can be derived from elastic beam bending theory. the Appendix.

This assumption leads to a linear stress distribution with Using these derived parameters, the full stress distribution

depth as shown in Fig. 11(b). However, in the present study in the beams during flexural testing can be obtained from

the beam material is overconsolidated clay, and will there- the observed strain profile. Fig. 12(a) shows such a plot for

fore exhibit non-linear stress–strain behaviour. The stress test AS45, in which the evolution of total stresses within the

distribution is therefore likely to be non-linear, as shown in beam has been plotted every 50 s. The observed stress

Fig. 11(c). distribution is significantly non-linear. The total stress at the

The stress distribution was not measured directly in the tensile face at the instant of crack initiation in this beam

beam-bending experiments. However, the imposed bending (the isochrone of Fig. 12(a) with the largest magnitude of

moments and the precise strain distributions have been stress before the strain rate jumps) was found to be

measured. Thus, if the stress–strain relationship of the over- 66 kPa.

consolidated clay were known, the measured strains could be Isochrones of observed pore water pressure and excess

used to infer the total stress distribution throughout the pore water pressure are given in Fig. 12(b) at corresponding

experiment. The bending moment, also known at every

stage, would then offer an independent check on the validity

of the stress–strain assumption. 80

A power law function, as given in equation (1), where C

and are parameters to be found, can be assumed to be an 70

t⫽0s

appropriate stress–strain relationship for overconsolidated 60

clay (Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995; Bolton & Whittle, 1999;

Elevation : mm

strain relationship for both tensile and compressive loading 40

has already been established earlier in the paper. This

simplified total stress relation for the initial curve-fitting of 30

the data will later be followed by an effective stress inter-

t⫽0s

20

pretation.

zz ¼ C zz (1) 10

0

Since the strain profile in the beams remains linear till ⫺80 ⫺60 ⫺40 ⫺20 0 20 40 60 80

near crack initiation, it is possible to use equation (2) to Total stress: kPa

relate the curvature k of the beam to strain zz . (a)

Pore pressure: kPa

zz ¼ ky (2)

⫺65 ⫺55 ⫺45 ⫺35 ⫺25

80

The assumed stress distribution and the measured curva-

ture can be used to predict the corresponding bending 70

moment in the beam as a function of constants C and .

The bending moment predicted by this stress distribution is

t⫽0s

60

given by

ð d=2

Elevation : mm

50

BM xpredicted ¼ b zz y d y (3)

d=2 40

which are equal to 0.08 m.

t⫽0s

ð d=2 20

BM xpredicted ¼ 2b C ð kyÞ y d y

0 10

!

Cbk

d þ2 0

¼ (4) ⫺20 ⫺10 0 10 20

2 þ2 Excess pore pressure: kPa

" # (b)

Cbk d þ2

¼ Fig. 12. (a) Stress distribution in beam AS45 (every 50 s);

2 þ 2 (b) excess pore pressure in beam AS45 (every 50 s)

590 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

times with that of the strain isochrones. As the pore water initiation now 95 kPa. Thus, in terms of effective stress,

pressure was measured at only three discrete locations in the this beam (AS80) has experienced crack initiation at an

beam profile, the assumption has been made that the pore effective compressive stress of 13 kPa. The zero effective

pressure distributions are linear, although it is recognised stress tension hypothesis was therefore not sufficient to

that some internal drainage may have reduced the magnitude predict cracking of clays when the soil was at moderate

of the excess pore pressures at the extreme fibres by a effective stress levels. The remaining task is to attempt a

few kPa. Thus the extrapolated pore water pressure at crack normalisation of the data so that ‘low’ and ‘moderate’ effec-

initiation in this beam can be approximated as 67 kPa. tive stress levels can be given objective definitions.

For remoulded materials, it is often assumed that tensile

cracking occurs when the effective stress hits the zero

tension line, 9 ¼ 0. In the beam AS45 presented in Fig. Effective stress criterion for crack initiation

12(b), the effective stress at cracking was observed to be 9 In an attempt to explain the observed cracking phenom-

¼ – u ¼ 66 kPa (67 kPa) ¼ 1 kPa. The zero ena, the behaviour will be analysed in terms of the stress

effective stress criterion for crack initiation has therefore paths followed by the extreme fibres of the beam. As

predicted cracking of this particular beam excellently, con- discussed earlier, the longitudinal stresses at the extreme

sidering the assumptions made. This crack initiation criterion fibres are principal stresses, and can be calculated using

was observed to work equally well for the other beams that equation (1) and the observed strain distribution, while the

began with low effective stress levels. other two principal stresses xx and yy are equal to zero. As

The stress distribution for a beam of identical preconsoli- yy was shown to be approximately zero, it follows that t–s9

dation pressure but with a higher initial effective stress level effective stress space would be the appropriate framework

(80 kPa) is presented in Fig. 13(a). This diagram is identical for the stress paths in a horizontal lamina deforming

in shape to that of the previous beam, with the total stress at approximately in plane strain. The shear stress t and mean

the tensile face at crack initiation now 82 kPa. The pore effective stress s9 at the two extreme fibres can be calculated

pressure isochrones for this beam are shown in Fig. 13(b), as

and indicate a pore pressure at the tensile face at crack

zz xx

t¼ (5)

2

xx þ zz

80 s¼ (6)

2

70 s9 ¼ s u (7)

t⫽0s

60

where u is the extrapolated pore pressure at the extreme

fibre.

Elevation: mm

50

Using the above equations, the effective stress paths

40 followed by the extreme tension and compression fibres up

to the instant of crack initiation are presented for the load-

30 controlled beams in Fig. 14, and for the strain-controlled

beams in Fig. 15. Since the results are being plotted in t–s9

20 space, equations (5)–(7) involve only the stress components

t⫽0s

10 K0 directions during consolidation, it should follow that an

isotropic MCC yield surface, applicable to yielding in the

0

plane of the lamina, can be anchored through this consolida-

⫺100 ⫺80 ⫺60 ⫺40 ⫺20 0 20 40 60 80 100

tion point. Since the kaolin clay was one-dimensionally

Total stress: kPa

consolidated, the value of K0 can be taken as 1 sin crit ,

(a)

which is 0.593. This results in s90 of 297 kPa for type A

beams and 148 kPa for type B beams. The yield surfaces are

Pore pressure: kPa

further annotated with the locations of the critical state line

⫺100 ⫺90 ⫺80 ⫺70 ⫺60

80 and tensile effective stress cut-off in both compression and

extension.

70

100

t⫽0s

Tension t: kPa Compression

Elevation: mm

50

50

40 Compression

MCC surface

30 0

Tension

t⫽0s

20

⫺50

10

Tension cut-off Apparent failure line

0 ⫺100

⫺20 ⫺10 0 10 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Excess pore pressure: kPa s⬘: kPa

Fig. 13. (a) Stress distribution in beam AS80 (every 50 s); (b) Fig. 14. Stress path to failure in load-controlled bending tests

excess pore pressure in beam AS80 (every 50 s) (type A beams)

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 591

100

whereas for beams with higher initial negative pore pres-

Critical state line

sures, crack initiation occurred near the ‘apparent failure

line’, which scales appropriately with the size of the MCC

50

yield surface. Thus the stress-path analysis provides an

MCC surface explanation for the complex behaviour of Fig. 4, in which

type A and B beams of low initial suction cracked at similar

t: kPa

suction showed a factor of almost 2 in failure loads.

The observed cracking pattern for those beams that had

⫺50 failed on the zero effective tension cut-off ( 9zz ¼ 0) was

different from that observed for beams in which crack

Tension cut-off Apparent failure line initiation began when the effective stress path intersected the

⫺100 apparent failure line. A close-up image of the mid-span of a

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

s⬘: kPa

beam that failed with effective stresses on the tension cut-off

(a)

line (BS22) demonstrates that this beam has experienced

Mode I fracture (Fig. 17(a)). A similar image taken from a

50 slightly higher-suction beam (BS45) in which crack initiation

40 Critical state line occurred with effective stresses on the Hvorslev surface

30

shows a highly inclined crack, in which both shearing and

opening are occurring simultaneously (Fig. 17(b)). In other

20

words, it is a mixed Mode I and Mode II fracture.

10 These observations of crack initiation are highly signifi-

t: kPa

MCC surface

0 cant for soil behaviour. In his Rankine Lecture, Schofield

⫺10

(1980) proposed a simplified map of remoulded soil behav-

iour in which he identified three classes of limiting failure

⫺20

states: tensile fracture, Coulomb rupture, and ductile yield-

⫺30 ing. In his diagram, the process of tensile cracking (Mode I

⫺40 Tension cut-off Apparent failure line fracture) was confined to the region of low effective stress,

⫺50 shear rupture (Mode II fracture) was deemed to occur at

0 50 100 150 higher effective stress levels on the dry side of critical, and

s⬘: kPa

the process of ductile yielding was regarded as occurring on

(b)

the wet side of critical. The present study has therefore

Fig. 15. Stress path to failure in strain-controlled bending tests: shown that what is missing from this view of soil behaviour

(a) type A beams; (b) type B beams is the shear-initiated cracking of soil on the Hvorslev sur-

face, in total stress tension but effective stress compression.

A modified map of soil behaviour is proposed in Fig.

The initial effective stress point of each beam, within the 17(c). As before, tensile fracture (Mode I) occurs at low

applicable MCC yield surface, is solely a function of the effective stresses, and ductile yielding at states wetter than

initial negative pore pressure, plotted for each beam in Figs critical. When total stress is positive (i.e. compressive), shear

14 and 15 as a star. Once the self-weight of the beam and failure is strictly Mode II as before. When total stress is

the subsequent external loading are applied, the maximum negative (i.e. tensile), shear failure will inevitably be accom-

shear stress within the outer compression lamina increases in panied by crack-tip opening. In other words, shear failure in

the positive t direction, while that of the outer tensile lamina this latter case will always be a mixed Mode I and Mode II

increases in the negative t direction. All stress paths end at fracture. This is more than just a pedantic change, as it will

the point of crack initiation at the tensile face. As shown greatly influence cracking in regions of soil in effective

consistently for all beams, crack initiation occurs when the stress compression, but in total stress tension such as the

stress path reaches either the tension cut-off line or an crests of embankments and the core of dams.

‘apparent failure line’, which is akin to the usual Hvorslev

line of failure states (Schofield & Wroth, 1968) observed on

the compression side in normal triaxial tests. As can be seen Total stress criterion for crack initiation

from a summary of all results in Fig. 16, for beams with Although the normalised effective stress criterion presented

low mean effective stress cracking occurred at the tension in Fig. 16 has been shown to define the point of crack

cut-off line ( 9zz ¼ 0) irrespective of the stress history, initiation, in many practical cases an estimated total stress

criterion would be useful. The normalised extreme-fibre

stress–strain relationship observed in the strain-controlled

0·3 tests on type A and type B beams is presented in Fig. 18, along

Critical state Type A, load controlled

line Type A, strain controlled with the proposed relationship of equation (1) using the

0·2 Type B, strain controlled

appropriate values of a (see Appendix and equation (8)). It is

evident from this figure that the stress–strain behaviour of the

0·1

extreme fibre agrees reasonably well with the proposed stress–

t/s0: kPa

0

0 0·2 0·4 0·6 0·8 1·0 1·2 Furthermore, the maximum tensile strength can be estimated

s⬘/s0: kPa as 0.45 0.15 times the geometric mean of the preconsolida-

⫺0·1

tion pressure in the plane of shear and the initial mean effec-

tive stress:

⫺0·2

MCC surfaces

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Tension Apparent T ð0:45 0:15Þ s90 s9i (8)

⫺0·3 cut-off failure line

Fig. 16. Stress state of extreme fibre in tension at failure Figure 19 shows the variation for all the beams of the

592 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

q/p⬘u

(a) p⬘/p⬘u D

Mode I

G

fracture

Yield

or

Mixed Mode I & Mode II

fracture when σ ⬍ 0

(b) (c)

Fig. 17. Observed cracking pattern on: (a) the tensile cracking line (BS22); (b) the apparent failure line (BS45).

(c) Map of soil behaviour modified from Schofield (1980)

⫺0·6 a ⫽ 2·5 effective stress in the beam, with both axes normalised by

the effective preconsolidation stress s90 . Equation (8) is seen

1 )

⫻ s⬘0·5

a⫽2

⫺0·4

Extreme fibre stress, (s⬘0·5

0

CONCLUSIONS

An investigation of the stress and strain criteria for crack-

⫺0·3

ing in kaolin clay has been performed using beam-bending

tests equipped with embedded high-capacity tensiometers and

⫺0·2 Crack initiation: Type A external digital-image-based strain measurements. Load-

Crack initiation: Type B controlled and strain-controlled bending tests were performed

⫺0·1 Tension side Compression side

on clay beams with various initial suctions. Longitudinal

strains along the depth of the clay beam at mid-length were

0

obtained by PIV analysis of the digital images obtained

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0 1 2 3 4 5 during the bending test, and the pore pressures were measured

Strain: % by the pore pressure and tension transducers (PPTTs) within

Fig. 18. Normalised extreme fibre stress against strain the beams.

Strain plots obtained in both load-controlled tests and

strain-controlled tests showed linear variation with depth

until near the initiation of a crack. The strain plots also

showed that the neutral axis remained at or close to the mid-

⫺0·45

depth of the beam until the initiation of a crack. The strain

Extreme fibre stress at failure, σT/

⫺0·35 ⫾ 33% error initial mean effective stress in the clay beam. The strain

Consolidation stress, s⬘0

Type B

bounds level for crack initiation decreased from about 4% at 10 kPa

⫺0·30

to about 1.5% at 100 kPa. The tensile strength (in total

⫺0·25

stress) for the range of kaolin p beams

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ tested in the present

⫺0·20 study could be written as 0:45 s90 s9i 33%.

⫺0·15 The stress states of the extreme fibre in tension of all the

⫺0·10 beams at initiation of a crack showed that cracks initiated

σT ⫽ ⫺0·45 ⫻ s⬘0 s⬘i when the effective stress state reached either the tension cut-

⫺0·05

off line for low mean effective stresses or the ‘apparent

0 failure line’ for higher mean effective stresses corresponding

0 0·1 0·2 0·3 0·4 0·5

Initial effective stress in clay, s⬘i /Consolidation stress, s⬘0

to Hvorslev’s normalisation of the Mohr–Coulomb failure

envelope. These effective stress criteria for crack initiation

Fig. 19. Extreme fibre stress at failure/consolidation stress have been derived only from tests on remoulded saturated

against initial effective stress in clay/consolidation stress clays. However, the discovery of a crack-opening criterion

CRACK INITIATION IN CLAY OBSERVED IN BEAM BENDING 593

15

apparently coincident with the brittle shear failure criterion

can reasonably be regarded as more universally significant.

When total stress was negative (i.e. tensile), it was demon-

strated that crack initiation would occur by shear failure and

as such will always be a mixed Mode I and Mode II

fracture. 10

This work clarifies that all states of clay on the ‘dry’ side

of critical states are brittle, and liable to crack opening. If All C ⫽ 300 kPa

sheared, they approach brittle shear rupture with an effective β ⫽ 0·3

stress criterion already known as Hvorslev’s normalisation of

β ⫽ 0·4

the Mohr–Coulomb failure surface. If stretched, uncemented 5

overconsolidated soils with small negative pore pressure β ⫽ 0·5

approach failure at zero tensile effective stress. In either

β ⫽ 0·6

case, cracks may open if the total stress is also tensile.

0

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 0 5 10 15

The authors would like to thank all staff at the Schofield Measured bending moment: N m

Centre, and especially the Chief Technician, Chris Collison, (a)

and Frank Sixsmith for their help with the experimental set-

up. This work has been funded by EPSRC Award GR/ 15

R91830/01 and a Gates Cambridge Scholarship awarded to

the first author.

APPENDIX: CHOOSING PARAMETERS C AND

10

The bending moment in the beam was calculated from the All β ⫽ 0·4

measured loads applied to the beam. The proposed equation C ⫽ 600 kPa

(1) ( ¼ C ) has two variables C and , which have to be

determined to define the stress–strain relationship of the C ⫽ 450 kPa

clay. For a given C and , the bending moment can be

C ⫽ 300 kPa

predicted using equation (3). The parameters C and can be 5

values of C and the predicted bending moment can be

compared with the measured bending moment. These para-

meters are chosen such that the experimental bending mo-

ments match the predicted bending moments. Fig. 20(a) 0

0 5 10 15

shows the comparison of predicted bending moment with the

Measured bending moment: N m

experimental bending moment of beam AS45, for varying (b)

values of ( ¼ 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) and a fixed value of

C (C ¼ 300 kPa). It can be seen that, for a value of ¼ Fig. 20. Finding parameters C and

0.4, the predicted bending moment matches quite well with

the experimental bending moment. Fig. 20(b) shows the

comparison between predicted and experimental bending 10

AS25

moments for varying values of C (C ¼ 150, 300, 450 and

AS45

600) and a fixed value of ( ¼ 0.4). The various combina-

Predicted bending moment: N m

AS62

tions of values of C and were analysed, and the best 8

AS75

match between predicted and experimental bending moment

AS80

was obtained for a value of C ¼ 300 kPa and ¼ 0.4, as 6 AS82

shown in Figs 20(a) and 20(b).

AS100

The value of is expected to be the same for all the

AS102

beams, whereas the value of C is expected to vary from 4

beam to beam. The comparison between predicted and BS15

experimental bending moments of all the beams confirmed BS22

2

that the best match was obtained for a value of 0.4 and BS45

various C values (Fig. 21). BS65

The value of C is expected to depend on mean preconso- BS92

0

lidation pressure (s90 ) and initial mean effective stress (s9i ). 0 2 4 6 8 10

Since there is no total stress in the beam initially, the mean Measured bending moment: N m

effective stress is equal to the negative pore pressure present Fig. 21. Comparison of predicted and applied bending moment

in the beam. The parameter C can be related to preconsoli-

dation pressure (s90 ) and initial mean effective stress (s9i ) by

equation (9), where a, Æ and are constants to be found.

Æ (9), can be used to find the values of Æ and . Fig. 22(a)

C ¼ a ð s9i Þ ð s90 Þ (9) shows the graph of log C against log s90 and Fig. 22(b) shows

log C ¼ log a þ Æ log s9i þ log s90 (10) the graph of log C against log s9i . It is clear from these

graphs that the values of Æ and can each be taken as 0.5.

Since the values of C for all the beams have already been A value of a in between 2 and 2.5 satisfies equation (9) for

obtained, equation (10), which is the logarithm of equation all the beams.

594 THUSYANTHAN, TAKE, MADABHUSHI AND BOLTON

2·0

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