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GpEK-AND -ROMAN STOICISM
D-SOME-Of-ITS-DISCIPLES

CHAS-H-STANLEY- DAVIS

IN

Rabbi Isadora Isaacson

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM AND SOME OF ITS DISCIPLES

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D. BOSTON HERBERT B. TURNER & CO. STANLEY DAVIS M. PH.D.. EDITOR AND COMMENTAAUTHOR OF A HISTORY OF EGYPT TOR OF THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD MEMBER OF THE SOCIETE D'ANTHROPOLOGIE OF PARIS THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE THE AMERIOF GREAT BRITAIN CAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY ETC.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM AND SOME OF ITS DISCIPLES EPICTETUS SENECA AND MARCUS AURELIUS BY CHAS. H. MCMIII . ETC..

by Co. . Turner & Entered at Stationers' Hall IN MEMORIAL I .Copyright. 1903. Herbert B. Boston . . Heintzemann. Printed by Carl H.

CONTENTS Preface 'The Greek Religion Greek Philosophy Socrates Greek Philosophy -founders of Stoicism vii 3 19 34 4$< Doctrines of Stoicism 06 85* Roman Roman Stoicism Jurisprudence Relation to Christianity 103 in131 Some Roman Epictetus Seneca Stoics : 145 163 188 Marcus Aurelius Selections from Epictetus Selections from Seneca Selections from 220 245 Marcus Aurelius .

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Stoicism contributed the noblest men. the and the Roman emperor. truths taught Phrygian by the Spanish courtier. high standards of action. no doubt prepared the way for Christianity. The multitude of great and memorable slave. if not the philosophy. and representing most powerfully the moral and religious con- victions of the age. whose type of character from the first was moulded on the Stoic lines. inculcating as they did the loftiest morality. as well as tinctured the thought of modern ages. Stoicism Vll is not only a system .PREFACE STOICISM was the noblest system of morals developed within the pale of Greek philosophy. of the Roman people. of absolute self-sacrifice for the sake of virtue. and the loftiest conceptions of virtue and morality that we meet with in history before the time of Paul. In fact. For over two centuries it was the creed.

PREFACE of philosophy. a brief account is given of the Greek religion and philosophy. In order that the reader may better com- prehend the origin and progress of the Stoic doctrines. The care. both of which undoubtedly had a considerable influence upon from Epictetus. Seneca. H. but also of religion. D. and they comprise some of the noblest C.S. thoughts of these disciples of Stoicism. and as such it was regarded by its first adherents. Vlll . and Marcus Aurelius have been made with great selections the rise of the Stoic philosophy.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM AND SOME OF ITS DISCIPLES .

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and is the great incentive of all human endeavor and progress. and however lofty the ideal of the old teachers of religion. To desire is to love that which as yet we do not and raise possess. and an assured in- tain dividual existence. a has life shown and that man's his aspirations harmonious. and no system can prevail that has not its had foundations already laid primitive rocks of human nature. constitute the primal founof all human motives. upon the find in the history of all religions that the underlying belief was an effort to relieve We humanity. Plato said. it is still " nothing more than an ideal. that which is not and of which we feel the lack." The intense yearning after the 3 .I THE GREEK RELIGION HERBERT SPENCER imperishable love of for a higher. Ethics or philosophy does not inspire men with an assured hope in an unending existence.

Paul said of certain people. in the most childlike form. a vast amount of finished truth." The ethnic reli- gions are the effort of man to feel after God. the principle which gave us being. heart. poured forth from the tion. and. we find showing itself all through the pagan world. find in the sacred books of all They human partially satisfied a great hunger of the We nations. with- out any attempt at formal reasoning. And in process of time religious progress as well as advance 4 . Zendavesta. no doubt. Koran. Vedas. in a great degree. From the beginning man has blindly and in ignorance groped his a few way slowly onward and upward after what has ever been beyond his power to define. the laws of Confucius. " that they should seek the Lord if haply they may feel after him and find him. the Bible. a cause. and illumined here and there by immortal truths. directed the human conscience toward they the right. mind by spontaneous inspira- All Oriental religions are the natural products of the religious instinct in man itself working out in accordance with the principle of natural evolution.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Divine.

but from the spiritual food it contains. in all form. amount of pure We We whose consciences struggle. or will struggle. We find 5 a belief in a fu- . or the puerilities of superadded theological dogmatism and priestly discipline. A writer has said.C. from mythology. teaches the doctrine of the immortality of the soul.THE GREEK RELIGION proves that their growths are an increment of both. dating at least 3000 B. in all change as well as in what is permanent and stable. a recognition of the Divine in nature. and also a cleansing in philosophy. also the practical help it gives towards righteous happy living. that a religion should not be judged by the amount of ancient mythic dross clinging to it. The oldest of the religious texts which have come down to us. or have struggled for the good. and it appears as a completed system with a long history of de- velopment behind it. " worship the souls of the holy men and women.." Over five thousand years ago the sacred books of Egypt taught the unity and spirituality of God. read in the Fravashis. the feeling that the Deity is in all life. born at any time or in any place.

C. and the like.). and a grand conception of law and responsibility. discretion. and considered what best for the As high as heaven. generosity. I gave bread to the hun6 . . ." Other texts exhort to the study of wisdom. to mercifulness. as wide stretch- ing as the earth. dating from the Xllth Dynasty (2400 is B. as deep as the sea. " ator of being. We the Book of the ~Dead. The Egyptian religion throughout breathes a lofty morality." beasts Thou alone existant. the Fourth Comhis mandment " The son who hearkens found in almost identical terms: to the word of father. to re- gard and respect parents and superiors. the crerest. chastity. extolling the spirit of him who has created all things." In the Prisse Papyrus. he shall grow old thereby. . Praise to thy spirit because thou hast made us .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM ture judgment besides a morality of justice and mercy. The scribe Pentaur wrote. we are thy creatures. read in sobriety. right . integrity. "In thy thou watched is over men. thou hast placed us in the world. " I did that which was I hated evil . the gods fall down before thy majesty.

and the same tendency to spiritual worship exists un- changed the Hindu mind to-day. purity. honorably minded towards all my fellow citizens. hymns and prayers. The Laws of Manu thus sum up the system of in : morals of the Brahmins act "Contentment. clothing to the " I naked." "I did that which was pleasing to my parents ." Many of the Vedic hymns rise to the purest heights of moral consciousness. door stood open to him who entered from without. I injured not a widow there was neither beggar . the of returning good for evil.THE GREEK RELIGION gry and water to the thirsty. I was the joy of my brethren. repression of that which is sensual. and I refreshed him. the knowledge of the holy books. its epics. succor to him who was in need. nor needy in my none were anhungered. time . I gave bread to the hungry and shelter to the traveler my . its In ancient Brahman- ism. temperance. were all intensely spiritual. union with the 7 . the friend of my companions." harmed not a child. widows were cared for as though their husbands were still alive. and faith in immortality is often expressed. its philosophy.

and selfishness. The treasure thus hid is secure and passes not away. and has found solutions of some of them which well deserve attention even of those I who ' have studied Plato and Kant. read in the Lalita Vistara: " From east 1 We to west the air thrills with the accents of Bud- dha." and the avoidance of anger these are the virtues which constitute our soul. Buddha. speak and the spirit of to the heart. has most deeply pondered on the great problems of life. 8 should point to India." Buddha up by : " The real treasure is laid man or woman Through charity and piety. who were thus saved from the depths of barbarism. through his ability to his personal influence and purity. inculcated a lofty system of morals which exerted a mighty influence upon millions of people. . a sweet. melodious sound which goes Said that straight to the heart. brutality.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM supreme \duty. his unsullied his life and work. Though he leaves the fleeting riches of this world thus man takes with him Max Miiller " If I were asked under what sky : 1 Says : the human mind has developed some of its choicest gifts. temperance and selfcontrol.

Vestiges of Phoenician. Assyrian and Egyptian vinities. See Lefevre. Let the wise man do good deeds that follows of itself.THE GREEK RELIGION A treasure that no wrong of others. La Grece Antique. are doubtless discovered in the philosophy of Greece. Entretiens sur les Origines et les Croy- . and no thief the treasure can steal. 1 The duced general ideas of our forefathers in the Aryan or Indo- European are manifestly repro- fundamental features of Greek religion. ances. and Syrian legends can also be traced in Greek mythology. mythology and 1 but from the earliest history of Greece we find a religion that had Professor Lefevre has shown us the relationship bedi- tween the Hellenic and Hindu. but the spirit of Greek philosophy is essentially Greek." The religion of Zoroaster had in it it sublime an eleanticipations of truth vating and salutary influence over the great nation professing it. and Oriental doctrines were a subsequent and late admixture and infusion. and Persia. Thracian. India. which made and the thoughts and aspirations of generations of people who had been blindly seeking after a higher and better life. The doctrines of Egypt.

To the Greeks everything beautiful was holy . The love of beauty was their religion. and was an active religious faith that was the origin of Greek art. proved an invaluable source of solace and help in the tribulations of life. religion as well as philosophy had to pass through They were founded a mythological period. everycarried to Each god represented some human thing pleasant to man was acceptable to the gods. but which became in time specialized and idealized. The Greek . But with rare insight the ancient prophets and philosophers taught many moral truths which. In the beginning. they worshipped the ideal in nature and human life . and had become monotheistic. The main idea in sight of the Greek in religion was the nature.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM outgrown the tive naturalistic religion of the primi- Aryans. something divine its human quality perfection. even in their imperfect form. at a time when science and methods of inquiry did not as yet exist. with a divinity essentially human. Their creed was a it deification of the human 10 faculties and the pas- sions and affections of mankind.

to embody in imperishable forms the attributes and 1 1 . each footsteps of a god. All was enchanted ground. and the statues the Greeks wrought and the temples they erected. Then nature. and was the offspring of human emotion and aspiration. Creation throbbed with life and youth. formed for love's embrace. and that nature can only become fit to be worshipped by being idealized and made human. The earth in brighter glory trod ." first in trace The The Greeks taught in plastic art. In fact. both sculpture and architecture emanated from the same grand ideal conception. : the bringing forth of that divineness that lay within the nature of man. the artistic all human emotions and energies. namely. And feeling warmed the insensible. Greek art origi- nated with the images of the gods.THE GREEK RELIGION ideal culture of was that of development. to commemorate special deity. that man should poetry and then not bow down to anything beneath him. Says Schiller u When o'er the form of naked Truth The Muse had spread her magic veil. the acts and attributes of some became living objects of beauty.

and artistically rendered human emotion. It was the embodiment of physi3 cal beauty in its most perfect forms. body and mind co-operated with each other. and noble elevation of soul. The elemental char- acter of the Greek religion was no doubt greatly influenced by the sculptors. with the Greeks was a sentiment. It had its root rather in human philosophy than in divine spirituality. and created new images in the world of imagination. wisdom. and the ideas of beauty were the generic 12 . serene benignity.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM acts of their hero-gods. enlivened sensuous emotion. and kept always before the eyes of a worshipping people the divine attributes of purity. doubt the amalgamation of two races of dissimilar mental development. In healthful exuberance and power. but it did not touch the heart. the sculptors accomplished for the mass of the Greek people/ Art. But the Greeks opened to themselves and posterity an entirely new world wherein the human mind had free development. " What the philosophers did to lead upward the minds of the thoughtful. quickened No mental impulse. however.

soft. and at sunset the sides of the mountains bathed in a deep. It displays a variety of surface and coast-line such as is pos- The world. hue. fresh and beautiful. and so created of vivid and intense loveliness. in which the deep. moral. The ever changing color. with the absolutely intoxicating fragrance .THE GREEK RELIGION which emanated from the perfect rhythm of their physical. yet quite vivid violet this. and in the noise and bubble of the waves. "The ancient Greek saw in the principles floating cloud a moving wing. in the summer wind a goddess's whisper. sessed by scarcely any other country in the The climate and the aspects of nature were favorable to develop an active imagination. intense blue constitutes the ground tone. the voice of the of the sea. and mental organization. and to suggest images of beauty. to his simple idea of the things in the world around him he added a old man new sense. a morality of suna poetry light and spring glories/' exuberant imagination of the Greeks inhabited a land well suited to foster and nurture the fancy and imagination. a religion of winds and waves.

" were in full of divine They placed Jupiter Olympus. the woods with Dryades. Lehrs (Gott. Neptune in the sea. divinities. wood. and the homes of men. . Apollo in the sun. was celebrated in song as the haunt of one or more of the numberless earth. cornfield. there arose before him not one God but there . every mountain. . could not help but appeal to the exuberant imagination of the Greeks." The Greeks had no doubt of the actual presence of the gods in places consecrated to them." life divine. every fertile plain. Their imagination filled the fountains with Naiades.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM exhaled in spring by the spicy pines and blooming shrubs. every shady grove. Goffer und on en). and made the sea teem with the children of Nereus. life. was a spontaneous outbreak of the fullness of He saw a world of gods. Every city. water. and Ceres among the yellow corn. Herodotus tells us that Ho- . these Says Dam "When your Greek contemplated nature and the feebleness and dependence of man. Bacchus in the vintage. or crystal stream. Air. As all the deities were the creations of a poetic imagination.

the Oreads heard shouting on the mountains. The Dryads could be seen glancing among the trees. and the Says Gladstone. and the happy inhabitant of Cyprus come suddenly on the fair form of Venus resting in a laurel-grove. and possibly themselves be selected as favored by some guardian deity. It was a heaven it. and the 15 . as it was their work which greatly moulding into form the popular gods which peopled heaven and earth. "The Iliad of Homer was a main instrument assisted in ideas regarding the various in establishing the dominant features of the Hellenic religion/' religion was filled with forms of and nobleness. The fortunate hunter. " It was a heaven so njsar beauty The Greek into own heroes had climbed and became demi-gods. peopled with such a variety of noble forms. might even behold the graceful figure of Diana flashing through the woods in pursuit of game.THE GREEK RELIGION mer and Hesiod were the framers of the Greek theogony. and the sea. that their whom they liked best. regions under the earth. of a moonlight night. that they could choose among them the protector at hand.

vi. 208). with respect to the origin of the world. according to 16 . Zeus was the Supreme Being. To the Greek.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Naiads found asleep by the side of their streams. nor any inquiry made." poorest and most abandoned might rely on his " " " and the homeless beggar could claim his powerful protection (Odyssey. beyond what Homer and Hesiod had intimated finally." " Cloud Thunderer. to no rational speculation seems have been entered upon.' There is much that is noble and beautiful in Greek legendary faith. or the first principle of things. For care. several centuries. and Source of Wisdom and Justice." Supreme Compeller " Father of Gods and Men." came to believe in the rule of a Divine Providence. as in their poems." The Lord. and it led in time to a spiritual conception of one sole Supreme Being. "when the unquestioning acceptance of life had yielded to reflection. But the Greeks Erdmann says. the Ruler of human destiny. Ruler and Preserver of the universe. We read of him in the Iliad and Odyssey as the " Cloud-veiled One.

so we must not judge deeper and purer than its the piety of the Greeks by their art. the development of the Greek conscience side by side with advancing civilization and aesthetic culture. 17 It was . by following its own moral institutions. reflect the conviction which all the higher The minds of Greece were coming to hold. literature. and we can trace all through Greek poetry down to the age of Pericles. The religion of Greece taught that Nature worked in obedience to the Divine laws. and to the educated Greeks the old religion had in its essence passed away. or superstitions. poets of the fifth and sixth century B. to a very elevated conception of deity. and there was recognized an indwelling of the Divine presence in natural phenomena and every visible created thing. that the world is under the rule of one Divine Being.C. and is every religion ritual. The religious sentiment of Greece rose gradually. therefore the philosophic mind of Greece was thus prepared to inquire into and all speculate upon the laws themselves.THE GREEK RELIGION justice voted to as and mercy. and while they were deritual and outward observances.

18 . The Greeks were also the first to afford first the Greeks who hend the nature of the us the picture of personal inner development. and the first to attempt to solve the riddle of the universe.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM attempted to comprehuman mind.

which both were more definitely determined by one another. and the grounds on which it is based. Empedocles. We find that the early others visited Oriental countries in order to study philosophy. owes its rise to a in and speculative elements. Thales.II GREEK PHILOSOPHY THE Stoic system. by the metaphysics of the Greek and Indian philosophers have many points in common. Although Greek philosophy was to a great extent an original conception. According to Greek tradition. Democritus. it will be necessary to very briefly consider some of the previous systems of Greek philosophy. and and also East. Anaxagoras. as union of ethical such. At the advent of the a Bud- dha the Jain sect had already attained prom- . In order that we may more thoroughly understand the rise of Stoicism. yet it was no doubt somewhat influenced by the Greek religion.

The doctrines of the Eleatics. hence their ideal was physical. and later on the doctrines taught by some of the Greek philosophers. men- moral. all are to be found in the philosophy of the Upanishads and the Vedanta system. governed by laws inherent tution. that everything existing in multiplicity has no reality. Jains taught that the cosmos has no beginning and no end. that nothing of 20 all that perish- . The Jains were advocates of the development theory tal. which is its outcome. taught that the universe is a system by They itself. in its very consti- The The universe is not for man alone. This doctrine had influence on the Sankh- ya philosophy. that God and the universe are one. the doctrine of Empedocles.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM inent position in the religious world of India. Again. living but is a theatre of evolution for all beings. and spiritual perfection. . and that thinkthe making a ing and being are identical complete abstraction of everything material . The search for a cause or origin is the outcome of the inner conviction of the things human mind effect its that a state of must be the of sufficient cause.

philosophical. we can see the influence of Indian doctrines in many subsequent schools of phil- osophy. and the mystical speculations of the Pythagorean school. perhaps. and to an investigation of the ultimate basis and . about the In fact. philosophical speculation was devoted to knowing the order of the world. mathematical. Plotinus and Porphyry. Pythagoras was greatly indebted to Indian philosophy and science. And as all subsequent philosophers borrowed from Pythagoreanism. But above all. nothing ever really findeth an end in death.GREEK PHILOSOPHY eth ever is created. the assumption of five elements. almost all the doctrines ascribed to him.C. religious. more particularly. transmigration theory. About five or six centuries before Christ. were B. known in India in the sixth century. the Pythagorean theo- The rem geometry. with the Neo-Platonists and its disciples. independent in its application to the common utilities. all have their in close parallels in ancient India. has its exact parallel in the characteristic doctrine of the Sankhya system and indestructibility of eternity matter.

and to resolve all some great unity. 22 . more accurately. and the succes- sive phases of their philosophic speculation constitutes a most curious and interesting chapter in history.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM essential nature of the external world. gave theories. those who first sumed only material Aristotle says. rise to a great many it But the its basis upon which they rested was in nature unsubstantial. that "of philosophized." 1 "The 1 Greeks. or. for included errors due to imperfect and erro- neous observations. possessed Some Aspects of Greek Genius. never excelled. and the examples of intellectual acuteness have been rarely equalled. The attempt of the earlier philosophers to generalize the universe. The schools grappled with the most difficult problems. "before any other people of antiquity." says Professor Butcher. or common or principle. to substance discover which element of nature is the fundanature into mental element. the majority asprinciples or elements. The Greeks faced the problems of life and science and art in a direct them with great manner and formulated simplicity.

was with them an in instinct and a passion. and but they had that fearlessness of intellect which is the first condition of seeing truly.' may be taken not only as motto of the Platonic philosophy. on man and the world. and sought to wrest her secrets from her. Their methods often absurd. whithersoever as the it leads. The Pythagoreans penetrated into the mysteries of mathematical science. on life and death. there were intellectual giants in those days." all the crudities and puerilities of thought. To see things as they really are. They inter- rogated Nature. but expressing one side of the Greek genius. Poets and philosophers alike looked with unflinching eye on all that met them. The Eleatics formulated much valuable truth as to the 23 . to discern their meanings and adjust their relations. without misgiving and with- out afterthought. science and philosophy might be very their conclusions faulty. The Ionic philosophers boldly met and But with solved the most abstruse questions of ontology.GREEK PHILOSOPHY the love of knowledge for its own sake. They took no count of the ( Let us follow the argument consequences.

. The Greek mind saw the world as a cosmos.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM nature and attributes of Deity. he aimed at inducing mankind likewise to lead a harmoni24 . The Atomists conducted their investigations in the most approved methods of induction. a reasoning principle. Regarding the world as a perfect har- mony. and to which they called were again resolved. modified. therefore. from the Stoics to Philo Judseus. Anaximander adopted as the foundation of the universe something by him the infinite or undeterminate. air. etc. From Heraclitus to the Stoics. Anaximenes chose air as the element which best represented or symbolized the underlying principle of nature. water. Thales considered water the primordial and fundamental principle. the term passed. out of which the various substances. fire. changed. expanded in turns. produced. Philosophy was tion with practical first life brought into connec- by Pythagoras (582- 504). dependent on number. were generated. and ruled by or logos. and reached results which the disciples of Lord Bacon little have done more than verify. but always there.

Jive stood for color. and directed to a strict principle of union was culture of the character. " a world of guesswork or opinion. ever living. as he expressed it. etc. and this number has two natures. six for life. The whole tendency of Pythagoreanism was in a practical respect ascetic. eternal." said the Pythagoreans. the known thing the odd-even or union of the two/' This God. self-identical. things. ending. " All " as known." Parmenides drew a deep division between the world of reason and the world of sensation. without beginning or At the same time he recognized a world of phenomena. immovable. the different different numbers being representative of natural properties and powers thus . Xenophanes attacked the popular polytheism.GREEK PHILOSOPHY Pythagoras gave number as the essence and foundation of all existing things ous life. the is odd and the even . incorporeal. or. ever one. between probative argument and the guesswork of sense-impressions. eternal. Heraclitus maintained a theory of incessant 25 . have number . . and he insisted that God must be one.

and the power of the sun. therefore. its subtlety. there is no stability or fixed- stability and fixedness are the attributes of the unreal image of life. All things. attraction of each for tive chaos its By own kind. "All things were as one. then com26 . but excepting intelligence. Anaxagoras treated the world as made up the of elements. or symbol. As is life in the living body. Fire was a symbol. and return to it again by a never-resting process of development. its its mobility. wherein while there ness . but indefinite in number. no element ever was perfectly pure. power of penetrating all all things and devouring cence in the life-giving things. a power of perpetual destruction and renovation. its powers for benefi- warmth of living bodies. the primi- was separated.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM change. the characteristic of each substance being deter- mined by the predominance of the proper element. not of life itself. From fire all things originate. suggested by the special characteristics of fire in nature. are in a perpetual flux. the negation of all substance and stability. Heraclitus considered fire as an image. of the underlying reality of existence.

but leavthe rest to their own inherent Empedocles took his stand upon the four elements. who supplanted The celebrated atomic theory originated with Leucippus and with his pupil Democritus. ." Intelligence he conceived as something apart. The doctrine of the latter was antithetical to Empedocles. and by division brought all things into order. Being and Nonentity. 27 immovable Being. who worked out on abstract lines a theory of one indivisible. movement of things. like those of Parmenides before him and of Lucretius after him. that of Democritus.GREEK PHILOSOPHY eth intelligence. declared for two co-equal elements. His speculation about things. as enmity or discord a poetical representation of attraction and repulsion. on the contrary. he eternal. The latter. out of which all things were constituted by the action of the opposing principles of love. are set the first down in verse. giving doubtless the first impulse to the ing them for tendencies. Empedocles was philosopher guesses about the world by inquiry into the world itself.

we may say that the realistic period of the old Grecian With Anaxagoras. and science. and religious character of the 28 . The object of the philosophers had been to demonstrate the absolute unity of the external world. in truth. had been no but their thoughts still exercise a potent. together the principles of all his predecessors. in all civilized countries of the old world and the new. teachings struck al. though unnoticed. Their conceptions out of their of human knowledge. oratory.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM maintained. was as real as the former. All the visible structure of the universe in the movements of it. origin the atoms that constiits infinite had its tuted and conditioned changes. It development. arising theories as to the constitution of things. and to establish that all variety was. roots into whose the whole mor- political. sway in almost every department of philosophy. who combined was the ending of an old and the beginning point of a new course of philosophy closed. less various. only the apparent diversity under which it is given to the perishable senses to contemplate it. It now remained its for the Sophists. literature.

and neither by precept nor example un29 . right and good. now became the conviction of its dominant idea being submission to that law which every man can discover by duty . had state at first Philosophy which been a protest against the existing of things. and that therefore we have no other standard of action than The utility for the individual. theoretical principle of the Sophistic philosophy was that the individual Ego can arbitrarily The determine what is true. rests solely Sophists taught. and on happiness. on justice. They opened up discussions on virtue. Plato remarks in his Republic that the doctrines of the Sophists only expressed the very principles which guided the course of the great mass of men of that time in their civil and social relations. a persevering examination of himself. that all thought on the apprehensions of the senses and on subjective impression. on the laws. The Greek religion at first announced no moral law. Their philosophy came sal in contact with the univer- consciousness of the educated class of that period.GREEK PHILOSOPHY Athenian life of that time.

and others consented to practise on public occasions the rites which openly derided in their speaking and writing. gradually undermined the old religion and substituted for it more noble ideas. however. myths of paganism. disengaged from religious superstition. and profound ethics. It was not until Grecian wisdom had outgrown the that philosophy appeared in a pure state. They feared that a rabble without superstition would be ungovernable. to inculcate outfor established forms of religion an instrument of government. did not attempt to less they not disturb the faith of the multitude. ward respect as agreed in one thing. So the Stoic. The faith of the multitude in the old gods remained unshaken. and the current of moral 3 . however. for they considered that a traditional mythology was necessary to maintain order in the state.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM dertook to guide men's consciences. as a matter of expediency and prudence. for it had long attributed the deliverance from the perils of various wars to their mighty and merciful influence. Epicurean. Philosophy. All the Grecian schools. namely. Peripatetic. a pure monotheism. The philosophers.

we find an apostolic succession of great men.GREEK PHILOSOPHY philosophy reached the depths of many souls there a fruitful deposit. Pythagoras. true men of noble life prophets and relofty The progress of philosophy from vealers. Thales. a grand prinof honor and saving power. and elevated fluenced a code of morals for which has in- mankind " two thousand years. mysteries of rule for and to have found a safe human action. Heraclitus. It originated and carried out the boldest speculations respecting the nature of the soul and its future existence. (b. Empedocles. In Thales. ever achieved. Of all things. 1 the wisest is time. Parmenides. and others. Thales to Plato was the noblest triumph and which the human mind.) said. Many inciple quiring minds turned to philosophy and to left and teachers who professed to have explored the life." "Death does not differ at all 3 from life. the first Grecian philosopher 494 B.C. the simplest is thought. great thinkers." He . under pagan influence. the most beautiful is the world. the oldest is God. and great poets thoughts.

and that we can recognize God by the divine ele- ment in ourselves. without besight.) Diogenes of Apollonia (500 that there was a taught primum mobile. the Soul of the Universe. being all and perception. 600 B. B. but in tions. and the world itself is God in process. God realizes himself. wholly in every part. sufficient for himself. 584 B. He regarded the universe as issuing from an 32 .) taught that was one yet not outside of the world. or first source of being in action. almighty.C.C.C.). and perfect being. .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM also taught that a divine power was in all things.C. finite. God Pythagoras (b. feeling. declared God to be the one and all. He is both finite and inexternal. Empedocles (460 B. Xenophanes (b. overseeing the beginnings of all things and their combinait.) declared God to be the Absolute Being. the universe in its evolution is the self- picturing of God. God is the soul of the world. the head of the Eleatics. ginning or ending. Through the interchange and intergrowth of all the contrarieties of lower existence.

Then came the sceptical first movement which taught the doctrine of Divine Providence. asking. by which it was at once vivified and ordered. Socrates instituted a severe logical analysis of the meaning ended when Socrates "What is piety?' "What is impiety?' "What is noble?' "What is base?" "What is just?" "What is temperance?" "What is madness?" "What is a state?" "What constitutes the character of a citizen?" "What is rule over man?' "What makes one able to rule?' of ethical terms.GREEK PHILOSOPHY intelligent principle. a rational as well as sen- sitive soul. 33 . declaring that we can only know God in his works.

and that all that men can know dependent upon sensation and perception through the senses. he rejected entirely the physical speculations in v had indulged. and to turn its regard on its own phenomena. But it was left is for Socrates to teach the real objective exist- ence of truth and morality. tike the Sophists. He believed every man has within himself the germs of knowledge. Socrates aimed to withdraw the mind from the contemplation of nature. and made the subjective thoughts and opinions of men his starting-point.Ill GREEK PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES for a cen- THE speculations of philosophers tury or more had arrived at the hopeless conclusion that there was no absolute standard of right and wrong. He endeavored to exhis predecessors which tract from the common intelligence of man- kind an objective rule of practical life. and the only way by which men can 34 .

to conviction. working at the same problem which occupied 35 . It was for giving utterance to that principle that Socrates was condemned to death/' Socrates was not the founder of any school. posited the individual as capable of a final moral decision. The Greeks had a morality of cus- tom . Socrates. the determination ing ness of what he of men's actions. although all the subsequent celebrated schools of Greece were developments of his principles. but we should rather call him the inventor of morality. in contraposition to country and customary morality. He was the first philosopher who endeavored to provide religion with a stable foundation.GREEK PHILOSOPHY conquer truth is SOCRATES to struggle valorously with himself for its possession. The moral man is not merely he who wills and not the merely does that which is right innocent man but he who has the conscious- is doing. in assignto insight. Hegel says that " Socrates is celebrated as a teacher of morality. and thus manifested towards the Athenian a revolutionary aspect state. but Socrates undertook to teach them what moral virtues and duties were.

Socrates could not conceive how a man it . that the world bears the stamp of his intelligence. Therewith him the good action followed as 36 . thus placing it on its true basis. wrested it from a purely objective naturism. and all that he the author and vindicator of But while Socrates taught the unity of God. and attests is it by irrefragable evidence. and the moral responsibility of man. and established it on the domain of psychological facts. own well-being should same time knowingly despise it. that is to say. Socrates taught that the Supreme Being the immaterial infinite governor of all. and building rule of one up the is God. should know the good and yet not do his it was to him a at the logical contradiction that the man who sought fore. the soul's immortality. and he was the first to teach ethics systematically. yet his philosophy is of purely an ethical character. and from the immutable principles of moral moral laws. obligation. Cicero said that Socrates brought philosophy down from heaven to earth.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the prophets of Israel.

must be sought by endeavoring to mould ourselves after the divine image. own ignorance. It more the principle. Socrates taught that the human soul is allied to the divine essence. the seat of desire. 37 . that he was wont to all boast of his ignorance. Knowledge of every other kind. virtue. The practice of virtue he inculcated as indis- pensable to happiness and true religion. The Phaedo of Socrates stands among the masterpieces of literature. the Deity. Self-knowledge appeared to him the only object worthy of man. and his philosophy is exclusively an inquiry into the nature of virtue. but by a similarity of nature that if the soul of man is a portion of . as the starting-point of philosophy. not by a particithat he was conscious of his pation of essence. and to declare that he excelled other men in wisdom only in this. he pronounced so insignificant and worthless. affection.GREEK PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES necessarily from the knowledge of the good as the logical conclusion from its premise. and therefore happiness. But the soul which Socrates is is in the Phaedo called immortal spirit vital not the soul or of the Christian doctrine.

but from wisdom. because no man can depart from them with impunity. as well as profit . in a state in will receive the reward of their principles of virtuous conare. Socrates was the is first to maintain that reason is above nature. the 38 . which consists in the knowledge and practice of virtue that the cultivation . and that it is absurd is of virtuous manners to attempt to separate things which are in nature so closely united as virtue and interest. He taught that true felicity is not to be derived from external possessions. According to the spiritual principle in man will excels all philosophy of Socrates. other animals in the faculty of reason. than the man. the Creator and Disposer of the universe. be continued after death. and that the natural merely subservient to intellectual ends.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and reason. in the existence He believed of one supreme Divinity. according to Socrates. that the honest man alone is happy . and that the existence of good men which they virtue. the laws of first The duct God. necessarily attended with pleasure.

and to reverence the Divinity. though himself invisible. that God would guide him. power. the Ruler and Governor among the nations. to infer the existence of an invisible power. not riches." 39 . God only knew what was his dialogues for his true and highest good. and con- stantly superintends all events. omniscient. honor. perfectly wise and just and good. In Enthydemus. Learn. then. pleasure. His one only and constant prayer was. preserves the course of nature unimpaired. this supreme Deity. He who who is dis- the source of all that is fair and good. amid the successive changes. is everywhere present. hears things. and omnipotent. and give him. he of the Divinity all : says that he sees : with Aristodemus and with " Such is the nature all things.GREEK PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES Maker and Father of mankind. and to whose laws all beings are subject. which were as likely to prove a bane since as a blessing. but what was best for him . is manifestly seen in his magnificent operations. all-powerful. from the things which are produced. poses and directs the universe. invisible. who.

which wrought his faith. and that his doctrine of providence and prayer a future state was the controlling princiwas an acute inquirer into ple of his life. courage. but at the same time endowed with a heart of childlike piety. his doctrine. lectual as well as his intel- nature. above man. but infinitely below the Supreme Being.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Socrates did not deny the inferior deities. but regarded them only as we regard angels and archangels. to give views of duty. He the existing philosophies of the day. the worth of friendship. men to think aright. goodness is something and he had no respect for for their object and end the attainment of some practical good. saints and prophets. and a lofty moral character. It was the beauty and glory of Socrates' character. and his life into com- 40 . as finite beings. sobriety and justice. He constantly enforced the virtues of temperance. and wisdom. a profound and original thinker. and to expand into life right Socrates taught and vigor man's moral. the love He of goodness. taught the love of knowledge. sacred in theories that To him had not itself.

History of Greece. bk." 2 " There can be no doubt that Says Grote. and by his lofty wisdom he was Greek John 1 the Baptist. 2 41 . the philosophy. IV. belongs to him and his propaedeutic influence can easily be traced. while the power of his teaching and his life is still felt in all the literature. That honor justly .GREEK PHILOSOPHY plete accord. 1 Smile. and largely through him and his followers. " He was raised up a to be a prophet to the whole civilized world. The ing the fathers of the Christian church vie virtue of with heathen moralists. in deservedly extoll- wisdom and self-denying Says a writer. preparing the way for a higher " Socteacher than himself. Socrates. in the history and philosophy of the Greeks and Romans before and after Christ." Says Rosseau. and the religion of all Christian nations. SOCRATES first and he was the who caused the truths of philosophy to exercise a practical influence upon the masses of mankind. rates himself would have aspired to no higher honor than that of being a forerunner of Christ among the Greeks. like that of Plato.

fire which sets light to original thought .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the individual influence of Socrates permanently enlarged the horizon. and which often changed. trines but which were modified by the influence of the Socratic philosophy. or extracted from others the fresh and unborrowed offspring of a really parturient mind. Subsequent philosophers and a may have had a more elaborate doctrine. 42 . larger number of disciples who imbibed . to a manner never since paralleled. Of such were the Cynic school of Antisthenes and Diogenes. but none of them applied the same stimulating method with the same efficacy none of them struck out of other minds that their ideas . improved the method. which incorporated some of the fundamental doc- of Socrates or contained some systems which existed anterior to the age of Socrates. or perverted the tenets of their common master. none of them either produced in others the pains of intellectual pregnancy. exaggerated." After the death of Socrates a number of schools of philosophy came into being. and multiplied the ascendant minds of the Grecian speculative world.

and Diodorus Chronos. of philosophical schools deviated from the spirit of Socrates. Academic school of Plato. The majority. and the Epicurean doc- trine of the highest pleasure as the chiefest But when Zeno had elaborated his something was offered to the people that their religion was no longer able to bestow. the Pyrrhonic school of Pyrrho. ethical system. while the Stoic system of ethics partakes largely of the self-sacrifice. and the Peripatetic school of Aristotle. the Megaric or Eristic the school of Euclid. who had taught men to have a mature consideration. high regard for their duties and to act after The schools of philoseither the idealism of Plato or ophy learned the analytic later method of Aristotle. however. We shall see how much Zeno and good. the later teachers of Stoicism were indebted 43 . but the nature of this aim varied with the teaching of the various disciples. the Epicurean school of Epicurus. The fundamental thought of the followers of Socrates was that man should have one universal and essentially true aim.GREEK PHILOSOPHY SOCRATES the Cyrenaic school of Aristippus.

in order phers that the reader may see to what extent Zeno have only may have been influenced by his predecessors. and to Socrates. Plato and Aristotle.GREEK AND to Socrates for ROJV1AN STOICISM of their best and noblest many thoughts. The moral philosophy of Plato was adopted from the teachings of Socrates without notable modification or alteration. the was undoubtedly very He Shakespeare of Greek philosophy. as he has been called. Outside the sacred literature of the world. Plato. We briefly referred to the philosobefore Socrates. factors and Aristotle were the main of civilization. It is not our purpose to follow the course of Greek philosophy from Socrates to Zeno. the great master. Plato.. B. have persistently dominated human belief to the present day. acted upon Aristotle. in his turn. these philosophers and their disciples made an end to the more 44 .C. Socrates. gave the impulse to Plato. and the systems of philosophy developed by Socrates. the influence of Socrates great. They fulfilled a truly sublime mission in their day and nation. As we have seen. for in the fourth century.

45 . and still do very many instances. and ideas we shall find in their religious * and their psychology many points of union with Christianity. the fundamental principles of the nation's life. 1 had a marked influence The old morality Stoics. and built SOCRATES up those sys- tems of philosophy. apart from all that is merely accessory.GREEK PHILOSOPHY ancient materialism. Its thinkers evolve from their inner consciousness. The philosophy fluence upon in of a people is the highest and truest expression of its genius. Zeller has shown that the decadence of the national Greek life upon philosophic thought." We shall see that the philosophy of Greece did inestimable service in preparing the way for Christianity. by purifying the idea of the Deity. At the time that the philosophy of Greece reached its highest point in Plato and Aristotle. Says Pressense. Greece was in all other respects in a hopeless state of decline. which have exercised so vast an inthe progress of man. and Sceptics. They were the great prophets of the human conscience in the pa" gan world. including the natural sciences. Epicureans.

and the philosophy of the day offered no substitute for the loss of the old belief in the gods. by the essentially practical character of their teaching. philosophy was looked to to supply the deficiency. and the Semitic peowhich they ples. Stoic and even Epicurean were preparing the way for the Christian religion. the Stoics As a had replaced the soli- incomprehensible tary God of Aristotle. supplied the needs of the educated people by inculcating peace of life mind by avoiding sometimes arise all those disturbances which at from external influence. and by their concentration of thought on ethical problems and on the moral of the individual. other times from internal emotions. and Greek 46 civilization was an . and the who own the God which underlies the Vedas as underlies Hellenism. As this was not to be found in the national religion. writer has said. by a living God penetrates and fills the universe with his life it God of Plato.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and propriety of conduct had disappeared. age required moral bracing and strengthening. and Epicureanism The and Stoicism. Although under conditions did not understand.

1 Christianity and Greek Philosophy. theistic argument "3. 47 . it demonstrated the insufficiency of reason to elaborate a perfect ideal of moral excellence. and in the elevation and purification of the moral idea. tion. and the purifying and " spiritualizing of the theistic idea. In the awakening and enthronement of conscience as a law of duty. and develop the moral forces necessary to secure tion. its realiza- "5. by an experiment conducted on the largest scale. In the fact that.GREEK PHILOSOPHY essential SOCRATES condition of the progress of the l sums up the work of done by Greek philosophy. as preparation seen : Gospel. Professor Cocker "i. It awakened and deepened the consciousness of guilt and the desire for redemp. In the release of the popular mind from polytheistic notions. "4. 2. In the development of the in a logical form.

also to provide THE the individual in a period of great moral depravity. but a large proof the successive leaders of the Stoic school. in the island of Cyprus. his father. 1 who was a merchant. Zeno was born 1 at Citium. early devoted him noticeable that not only Zeno. by Zeno of Citium.IV THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM aim of Stoicism was to popularize the doctrines and the teachings of philosophers.. a Greek city having a large Phoenician admixture. and especially Chrysippus of Soli. came portion from this and other places having Semitic elements in them. who died about 206 B. and brought to fuller systematic form by his successors as life. It is .C.C. Cleanthes of Assos. with a fixed moral basis for practical Athens about 310 B. Proving a studious boy. which had been for some time the property of the learned class. This school was founded at heads of the school.

visit Athens where he could study the philosophical systems at their fountain head. and. So interested did he become he determined to in his philosophical studies. the elder While on a visit Zeno purchased several of the writings of the most eminent philosophers. cidentally to Happening his ac- meet in a bookstore. him.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM to the study of philosophy. he taught that a speculative philos- 49 . an Athenian by birth. Cynic philosopher. about The 380 like B. the acquaintance and. he was so well pleased that he became one of his disciples. which he did in his thirtieth year. school of Cynics was founded by Antisthenes. he could not reconcile himself to their peculiar manners. Crates. He was a pupil of Socrates. and the indifference to speculative inquiry which characterized the Cynic sect.C. and it was not long before he be- came dissatisfied with the coarse. and these the young Zeno read with great avidity. attending some of his lectures. he formed But while 'he admired the general principles and spirit of the Cynic school. ostentatious disregard for established usages. to Athens.

In this respect the Cynic school was like the Stoic. The doctrine of Antisthenes was mainly confined to morals but even in this portion . Indeed. and produce simplicity of manners. and treated all who ap- proached them with great rudeness. In fact. and his striking figure and bold epigrams attracted great attention. ate raw meat. all speculation seemed to him quite idle or fantastic which did not bear directly upon . Diogenes. the sole the Cynic philosophy seemed to be to end of subdue the passions. scarcely furnishing anything beyond a general defence of the olden simplicity and moral energy. became one of the most famous of the Cynics. of philosophy it is exceedingly meager and deficient. and should be supplanted by the practical ethical training whose end and tranquil life. The followers of Antisthenes wore the most filthy clothing. But the rigorous discipline finally de- generated into the most absurd severity. of Sinope. but differed in defining virtue to be extreme is a moral simplicity in living. against the luxurious indulgence and effeminacy of later times.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM ophy was unprofitable.

and taught philosophy in his native town. its essence consisting in freedom from wants by the avoidance of evil. a work which It afterwards caused some trouble to the school. and could be a branch of knowledge that could be taught. and that once acquired could not be lost. only Socratic strength. Such was Stilpo's inventive power and all dialectic art.. indeed. that he inspired almost cal Greece with a devotion to the ethi- Megarian philosophy. a philosopher. . of pleasure and desire. dwelling especially upon the conception of virtue and its considerations. who was a native of Megara. On moral topics Stilpo taught that the highest felicity consists in a mind free from the dominion of passion. a doctrine afterwards incorporated into the Stoic belief. was while he was with the Cynics that Zeno composed his Republic. Zeno's inquisitive turn of mind led him to follow the teachings of other philosophers. alone sufficient for happiness.e. Its acquisition needs no dialectic argumenta- tion. i.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM moral questions. Like Socrates he regarded virtue as necessary. notably that of Stilpo.

and disciple of the Megaric school. Zeno determined to become the founder of a new sect. At last Zeno became a disciple of Polemon. after twenty years of preparation. By tics.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Plato. of Polemon was aware that Zeno's inten- tion in thus passing from one school to another was to collect materials for a new system of his own. also a disciple as director He of Xenocrates. the latter Zeno was instructed in dialec- became acquainted with the doctrines of Socrates and with Platonism. Zeno I perceive . your design garden and steal away that is to creep slyly into my my fruit. having made himself master of the tenets of the prevailing philosophies. whom he succeeded of the Academy. Zeno afterwards attended the lectures of Xenocrates and Diodorus Chronos. in his dialogues. brings his philosophic conceptions into striking relation with the theories of the Megarian as well as the Cynic schools of thought." At last. He strictly adteaching to the doctrines hered in his Plato. " I am no stranger to your Phoenician arts. Said Polemon. which 5 2 . a native of Caria.

to make that Thirty Tyrants. as Diogenes Laertius observed. noticeably those of Heraclitus. Stoa. spot tranquil . men of the up and down in the e. to which he gradually added the tenets of other systems. This portico. by means of a philosophy which. Zeno began Diogenes of Apollonia. and there he delivered his discourses. by purity and strength of moral will.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM should have for object the liberating of himself and his followers from the degeneracy its of the times. The place he made choice of for his school was called the Poecile^ or "Painted Porch. being the most famous in Athens. and the Pytha53 . Arishis totle." It was from this circumstance that the followers of /." Zeno used to walk beautiful colonnade. for in the time of the teaching as a Cynic. " the Porch. y " Zeno were called Stoics. and procure inward peace. was called by way of distinction. would procure independence from all external things. so called from the pictures of Polygnotus and other eminent masters with which it was adorned. nearly fourteen hundred of the citizens had died by the executioner's hand. wishing." a public portico. Porch.

he formed a speculative philosophy. words than He retained the spirit of their moral teaching. the latter 54 . there. which Heraclitean influence is unmistaka- ble. can be no doubt that he transferred into his in it own school. that the former The disdained the cultivation of nature. however. In their theory of knowledge. Juvenal remarked that the distinction between new system of the Cynics and the Stoics lay only in the coat they wore. which had been an of the Cyn- in an extension throughout the natural world. the Cynics made use of "reason.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM goreans. ethical or psychological principle reason. or the logos. But he belief of the Cynics. enlarged upon the and made ics. advance of the As to the moral doc- trine of the Cynics. but he came to formulate far in his distinctive theory of the universe teaching of the Cynics. principal difference. between the Cynics and the Stoics was. but from his studies of other philosophies." which was also one of their leading ethical conceptions. In this particular Zeno followed them. in with but very little change In fact it differed more reality.

Man must live to be virtuous. worth. and real. bravery. According to Zeno. but knowledge was needed in order to praclife.e. a virtuous activity. strength. and the future practise virtue was the highest duty of tise virtue. which was castsought ing its funeral veil of doubt and uncertainty to over everything pertaining to the soul. tue. capacity. etc. excellence. is we have through the senses. cour- age. vir- 55 .THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM affected to rise above it. How. On his physics. and of Epicurus. to do brave deeds. shall ? we obtain sure and certain is knowledge The only knowledge which sure. Zeno combated Plato's doctrine that virtue consists in contemplation. that it consisted in pleasure. i. vigor. but inculcated. God. above everything else. to be a man in the true Latin sense of the word vir-tus manliness. to man. The philosophy of Zeno did not absolutely the knowledge to deny man the right to speculative endeavor. then. Zeno received the subject of doctrine from Pythagoras and Heraclitus through the Platonic school. certain. He oppose scepticism.. aptness. immediate. mankind.

That he is the universal reason which rules over 56 . avoided interfering with the national religion. all of whose divinities were to him manifestaBeing. which would imply that the Deity was defective in either or power. They taught that God was the soul of the great animal world. He taught a devout recognition of an tions of the One all-powerful and perfectly good God. and modifying them in return. he denied the existence of evil. With him sense furnishes the data of knowlthe soul edge. and reason combines them . he believed that the mind is at first. To show how God goodness and the universe were distinct and yet one. Regarding every- thing in the world as of divine origin. Zeno. in his teaching. as it were. and that the tinctness of sensuous impressions is the terion of their truth. and in virtue of this he was able to respect popular beprinciple liefs.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM what Zeno was persuaded that if we only knew is good we should be certain to practise it. on discri- which sensation writes marks. who directly controls the universe. being mortified by external things. a blank tablet. was the problem of Zeno and his disciples.

and he attended his lectures whenever he came to Athens. King Antigonus held Zeno in great respect. the basis of law. of Socrates. education I am inferior to you. Endeavor. That he is that gracious Providence which cares for the individual as all. being convinced not refuse what is that you will asked of you. and invite you to it On good come to me. While the teaching of Zeno was mainly ethical. it differed little from the moral doc- trines curus . Apollonius quotes the following letter of Antigonus to Zeno " I : think that in good fortune and glory I have the advantage of you but in reason and . well as for ture is He is infinitely wise. Plato. The Athenians had so much respect for Zeno that they honored him with a golden crown. to address you. and a brazen statue. and Epibut it was accompanied by theological ideas which gave it a peculiar character. and also in that perfect happiness which you have atwhich account I have thought tained to. and permeates all.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM all. His naforbidding evil and commanding good. Aristotle. 57 .

. so donians. and who it is natural that his subjects for the most part shall be also. Come powerless against him weak is the dart . or To bend that iron frame." Philemon speaks thus of Zeno. nevertheless. evidently the road to happiness. Bread his only food. as a person of great powers of endurance and . Of the fierce summer sun. In naught resembling the vast common crowd But.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM therefore. and the ceaseless rain. by all means to come to me. con- sidering this fact." is described by Diogenes Laertius. night and day. He fell disease. and wearing a thin cloak. Clings to his studies and philosophy. His best dessert dried figs . that you will not be the instructor of me alone. water his drink. gets disciples. Zeno of very simple habits. stands apart. For as the ruler is. . entitled The Philosophers : " This man adopts a in his play new He He teaches to be hungry philosophy. but of all the Maceleads him in the path of marshals all his subjects on virtue. patient and unwearied." 58 . living on food which required no fire to dress it. so that it was said of him : u The cold of winter.

but none of his writings remain except the following beautiful hymn to Zeus. of Corinth Posidonius. 328. out and elaboration of the Stoic philosophy. disciples of Zeno were very numerous. of Chios. 1 The Ethics of Aristotle. a Sidonian. of Assos. onides. invoked by many names. the son of Phanias. of Ariston. but resolution and perseverance ties enabled him to overcome every difficulty. p. Among ." glorious God. eternally omnipotent. of Theles Callippus. and we owe to him the carrying Soli . and Zeno. of . and while he was not his equal in point of knowledge.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM The Citium tiades . But one of the most noted was Cleanthes. His natural faculwere slow. by his genius he raised himself from a humble rank in life to a position of great eminence. of Alexandria Athenodorus. Zeus. of the Bosphorus . the son of MilPhilSphaerus. Persaeus. . The Lord of nature. pronounced by Most Sir Alexander Grant "the most devotional fragment of Grecian antiquity. He wrote much. the most eminent were. . He succeeded Zeno. Hail For all men may speak to thee unblamed O ! . 59 . ruling all by law.

From which the wicked flee. But thou canst perfect make e'en monstrous things. bodily delights. and some Pursue. God. And order the disordered : . . Thou holdest in unconquerable hands So grand a minister. Shudder and thou therewith directest wise For 'neath . ill-fated men. or in the vault Ethereal and divine. . seek each some different ill. will I all this hymn. all things in nature awed. mingling with the lights both great and small . Nor see nor hear God's universal law. and willingly is ruled by thee. Obeys. enriched with mind but they in haste . things not dear Are dear to thee for into one thou so Hast harmonized the whole. Obeying which they might achieve a life Worthy. is any work O Performed on earth or sea. 60 . all-penetrating king. its strokes. Who. The Nor great supreme.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM From Thee Thee thee we spring. longing ever to obtain the good. with reasoned speech endowed Alone of tribes that live and creep on earth. without thee. ungoverned. turn to gain . the good and ill. disordered. which through all Roams. cosmos. That one eternal reason dwells in all . ever living thunderbolt . circling round the earth. The universal reason. For glory some arouse the eager strife . save whatso'er The wicked do through folly of their own. the double-edged. Forsaking good. sing the power. And some. and ever The burning.

since nor men nor gods can grander honor than to greatly hymn universal and eternal law. According to Heraclitus. Thee we in turn may honor.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM But Zeus. know The dynamical theory of physics. so that. Dispel. the end of wisdom ground and principle of all things. honored thus by thee. which. as founded by Thales. Thou ruler of the thunder. whether physical or moral. produced all phenomena. and pervades and is in all phenomena. The physical doctrines of Heraclitus were a principle of vitality. And grant that we attain that wisdom high which relying thou dost rule the world With Justice . oh ! redeem Mankind from mournful ignorance. had taught that the universe was an eternal living being. from our souls this fault. wrapt in sable cloud. as doth beseem On A A mortal. which is an eternal and ever-living unity. all bounteous. embodied by Zeno in his eclectic system of philosophy. Do thou O Father. developed by Anaximenes and Diogenes. and finally consummated The by Heraclitus. and may hymn Unceasingly thy works. This principle is not distinct from the soul or is to discover the 61 . possessing in itself by spontaneous development.

it remained Cleanthes to take this idea out of the region of ethics. all is constantly in a process of formation. 62 . and the river in exists as a river only virtue of this continual change. -whose differences in finest this theory consummate themselves / While Zeno adopted harmony. This eternal movement eternal strife Heraclitus pictured as an of opposites. as it had been considered by Zeno. and en- deavored to identify the Cynic "reason" which is a law for man. This supreme and perfect force of life is obviously without its activity. The vital principle pervading all phenomena is a purely physical fact. as guiding and directthe mundane development. with the "reason' which for is the law of the universe. but which. and accounts for the diverse destinies of all innumerable particular things it is the true cause of the movement . even as in a river the water is ever changing. is endowed ing with wisdom and intelligence. consequently.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM vital energy. nothing forms can remain fixed. In the eternal flux and flow of being constitutes its limit to that it reality. and to discover the motive cause.

He was a man of much greater attainments than Zeno or Cleanthes. so points he dissented from Zeno. as taught his followers. With them ciation to the philosophy is the science of the principles on which the moral life ought to be founded. and he has been regarded as the chief prop of the Stoic school. seeking rather to give a practical appredogmas which they took readymade from the previous systems. a native of Soli or of Tarsus. in which respect it was said of him. in every .C. " He was a man of great natural ability. and of great acuteness that in many way. Says Diogenes Laertius. The and doctrines. that without Chrysippus there would have been no Stoic school at all. Herein lies the key to the entire system of the Stoics. Doubtless the origin and success of the Stoic philosophy may be traced to the inade- quacy of the Platonic and the Aristotelian philosophy to discover the principle of connection between God and the sensible world. contained little by Zeno that was new.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM and process of the universe. however. in Cilicia. Cleanthes was succeeded by Chrysippus. who died about 208 B.

he always repented. In most respects And he had such a high reputation as a dia- lectician that most people thought as dialectics in that if there were such a science it among the no respect different from gods. and systematized the doctrines of 64 . where Cleanthes is concerned . he was not perfect in would be style. so that he used frequently to say I am a happy man. and using a great abundance of testimonies. same sub- wishing to put down everything that occurred to him ." Chrysippus wrote. developed. and for himself. Chrysippus assimilated. and constantly correcting his previous assertions. But though he was eminently able in matter.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM from Cleanthes. would discover the demonstrations But whenever he opposed him : with any vehemence. over seven hundred books. to whom he often used to say that he only wanted to be in- and also structed in the that he dogmas of the school. that of Chrysippus. according to Diogenes Laertius. and he often wrote several books on the ject. Excepting For in that matter I am far from fortunate.

65 . securing them in their stereo- typed and final form. and Chrysippus. particularly in the Academic and Epicurean sects. and Aulus Gellius. Seneca. from the poets to illustrate and enforce his views. In disputation he discoursed with a degree of promptitude and confidence.THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM his predecessors. that the world a universal effusion of his spirit. except a few extracts which are preserved in the works of his writings Of Cicero. hardly anyrivals. but to the foundations then laid. eruChrysippus dition. At first. things. we owe the building up of the character and of Stoicism. He supported his teachings by an and culled liberally immense erudition. Plutarch. which consisted mind and reason. containing the labored after thoroughness. the thing of importance was afterwards added. owing to the many spirit progress of Stoicism was very slow. was the common nature of whole and every part. and scientific completeness. To Zeno. nothing remains. or and that the in Stoics in general. He maintained with the was God. superior part of this spirit. Cleanthes. as well as a vehemence and arrogance which created him many adversaries.

however. conceived the individual as no longer the political being conceived by Aristotle. Cleanthes. like the Epicureans.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM seen. With the exception of the threefold division of the elements. there is hardly a single point of the Heraclitian theory of nature which the Stoics did not appropriate. and was graduand Chryally developed by Zeno. the Stoic system. They rose above the city to the notion of a more comprehensive fellowship 66 . The Stoics. In followers of logic and dialectics they were Aristotle and the Cynics. Socrates. sippus. like the rest of the great Socratic schools. and Aristotle. derived its As we have main principles first at Athens. The Stoics. in the course of the third century before our era. In physics they were followers of Heraclitus. Their formal logic followed that of Aristotle. avoided the labor of original invention.

The Stoic doctrine showed itself to be an essentially practical one by laying the most stress on a proper mode of life. however. the distinction of things good. and indirectly from Socrates. but this proper 67 . in accordance with the specific excellence belong- ing to that life." teaching of Socrates and This Plato. Says Aristotle.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM of mankind. although the sufficiency of virtue. the whole withdrawal from the outer world within the precincts of the mind. and the philosophers of the Old Academy. then in accordance with that excellence which is the best and the most rounded and complete. and indifferent. and if there be more specific excellence than one. evil. " the chief good of man consists in the full realization and perfection of the life of man as man. the ideal pictures of the wise man. The Stoics themselves. the Cynics. but they gradually diverged further self- and further from the Cynics. is in fact the In ethics the Stoics followed Socrates. and the strength of the moral will. deduced their philosophical pedigree direct from Antisthenes. or the Cynics. are ideas taken from the Cynics.

science are one. from a proper conviction. virtue and far. but give as the reason of its division into logic. Virtue is the perfect adjustment of all the desires and acts life. and logical. the divine reason and provi- dence. have connected philosophy most intimately with the duties of practical Stoics The Philosophy is with them the practice of wisdom. as Socrates re- quired. one and inThis ethical view is essentially the is same with sects. the of the soul submission of the will to the universal and persistent logos. and by the appreciation of a certain standard. ethical. necessarily. . the exercise of virtue.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM mode of life must proceed. or the effort to attain it. This is only possible when laws. that of the most rigid Christian into Virtue consists in bringing man's actions harmony with the laws of the universe. physics. or criterion. man knows that order and those With g the Stoics. at least. The Stoics not only define philosophy as the art of virtue. thus. in so that they divide virtue in reference to philosophy into physical. 68 and ethics. and with the general order of the world. Virtue divisible. in Christian phraseology.

and ethical virtues. and what is known as formal logic. lectic.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM the fact that there are logical. but constantly changed and modified. They use the name of logic. i. useless. elaborate divisions and subdivisions into which they divided both rhetoric and tic. The Greek . This they divided into rhetoric and diathe word. upon hypothetical They laid particular stress and disjunctive syllogisms. and with others. In man it is the soul. and from the Stoics to Philo Judaeus. St. but adopted from Aristotle. and is an important item in the history of Christology. The for one's self. as not necessary for us to speak many of them irrelevant to now seem trivial. it It was in no sense speech or word.. which they did not introduce. but 1 was the relation or term logos has a peculiar significance in and the early Greek Fathers. From Heraclitus to the Stoics. John. Heraclitus found the logos inseparable from the world. the term logos passed. it is dialecof. Philo.e. physical. because it 1 treats of the logos. because it is possible for others. thought or together with the production of both. the arts of monologue and dialogue re- to speak either spectively.

and combated scepticism by affirming that every representation of an object implied the existence of the object itself. with the Stoics. And when many similar recolject is gone. they said. Besides the ideas which 70 we . for example. is the active principle which is lives in and determines the world. first expectation and finally experience. as and even called God. the recollection remains when the obobject. 'In logic. which furnish the materials fashioned by reason. though conceived material.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM reason of things objectively. is nothing else than a representation which is produced by like itself. lections have accumulated. This operative principle. : Plutarch refers to this as follows a white perceive. a present object in a manner The soul is conceived as a blank tablet upon which ception either by from which altering the psychical condition. we have what is "When we called experience. there is the object produces a conactual impressions or by subsequently generated by repeti- tions. the Stoics found the criterion of knowledge in sensuous impressions. it.

such as a rational anifact a In mal alone The rise to capable of having. or upon analogy. 71 in affirming that the true or conceivable repre- . thought may be defined as a kind of mental image. The formation of conceptions by comparison. the mass of perceptions. is developed of. sometimes takes place methodically and artificially. repeated acts Perceptions give of memory to \ experience. In the strict way only these latter ought to be called ideas. in the second seven years' period of life. there are other ideas which we get through teaching and information.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM get in this natural and quiet undesigned way. in virtue of which we out are called reasoning beings. or over and beyond." Stoics regarded sensations as the only is ' source of all perceptions. memory. the former rather should be called perceptions. and conclusions based on experience suggest conceptions which go beyond the sphere of direct sensation. that they Thus the Stoics conceived had answered the whole problem. Now the rational faculty. or upon the combination of perceptions. at other times naturally and spontaneously.

undoubtedly adopted from Plato. that is the generic type formed in the It mind unconsciously and sponwas under Chrysippus that the taneously. and referring them to fixed types. as a concession to his opponents. sense. indeed. itself. formal logic of the Stoics reached scientific " completeness. however. was persistently attacked by the Epicureans and Academics. and that the utterances of reason that reason is lack consistency. Chrysippus. At the same 72 . who made clear dependent upon. Zeller says.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM sentation reveals not only object. in scientific precision it lost more than it gained by the labors of Chrysippus." He considers that no very high estimate can be formed of the formal logic of the Stoics. making every allowance for the extension of the field of logic. expended by the Stoics greatest since the time of Chrysippus in tracing the forms of intellectual procedure into their minutest ramifications. " care was that the We see. substituted for the logos the new standards of ception sensation and general cc/nanticipation. but also its This theory of Zeno. if not derived from.

" Physics.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM see that the real business of logic was lost sight of in the process. p. as was the fate of the part treating of inference. physics. Hence the field whole contribution of the Stoics to the of logic consists in their having clothed the logic of the Peripatetics with a new terminit ology. or they would not have been passed over by writers ever on the alert to note the slightest deviation from the Aristotelian logic. and giving its laws. 123. The Stoics can have made no discoveries of im- portance even as to logical forms. 73 . The Stoics. where they follow for the In their most part Heraclitus. With1 Zeller. that everything essential is corporeal. whilst the most useless trifling with forms was recklessly indulged in. especially from Plato and Aristotle. whilst they wholly neglected other parts. the business time. or the 'Theory of Nature. by their thoroughly carried out proposition that nothing incorporeal exists. the Stoics are distinguished from their predecessors. we of portraying the operations of thought. Epicureans and Sceptics. and having developed certain parts of with painful minuteness.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the corporeal they recognized two printhe material. But since the Stoics considered the world ensouled by God in the a living and rational being. the fashioner of all things. and the Deity permeating and influencing it. The one is God God passive. the two are identical. There is nothing in the world with any independent existence a : all is unalterable chain of causation. however. There is in reality but one or being existing. they were light of of God not obliged to treat the conception only in a physical but also in its ethical aspect.. i. and on the side of its active and changeless mat- energy. matter as one side of call its therefore. who in certain cycles of ages gathers up 74 all things unto him- . active. considered God and identical substance. God. We is may call him God. God is the source of all character and individuality. Ultimately. who is indestructible and eternal. The one is the the other is body which is ani- mated by the life. which. matter and force. bound together by They. the other life.e. on the passive and changeable capacity they ter. fin ciples. we may the call him the universe.

The they are due to material causes. in so far as as material objects. out of the totality of the whole universe is proceeds. hereafter to be again resolved into it. forethought. a soul or reason in a liv- G' ing thing. having O every existence must have a <_> That body was the doctrine which moulded the whole of the * very indefiniteness in which they left the idea of the corporeal. universe. Emotions. in its ethical aspect. therefore. but is also the universal reason which rules the whole world and penetrates all mat- Treated in 75 . theology of the Stoics. and there also the union of the two. and this reason every part. all This it existence . showed that they were far removed from the school of the Epicureans. The world The is governed by reason and extends through is it. were regarded and for the same reason not only artistic skill but individual actions were said to be corporeal. and then out of himself brings them . impulses. notions and judgments. God is not the world as the ruling and living only energy. again to birth verse wherein there is the matter of the uniis God works.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM self.

and he rises or falls in the scale of dignity and happiness as he succeeds or fails in doing thus with persistent purpose. and enjoined virtue in man. until it returned in a necessary cycle back itself. a perfect and blessed ? life. he punishes and rewards . Tiedemann says of the Stoics.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM ter : he is the gracious Providence which . was righteous. if stern. what not P is Stoicism rejoins. again to law pervading and ruling Everywhere was one universal all things and all beings. none defended the existence of God with so warm a zeal or so many powerful arguments. and was regarded as but flowing out of the most perfect life through certain channels. Man can only lead a rational life by conforming to a general law. To he possesses the question. " Among all philosophers of antiquity." It is thus seen that the system of the Stoics 76 . what is God Everything in the world seemed to God them to be permeated by the divine life. and is evil . and that law. cares for the individual and the whole he is the ground of that natural law which commands the good and forbids the wise.

the Thought of the Universe. p. Their aim to discover a firm basis for action. is to speak of God with the imperfections of human thought and language. Zeller considers that the real causes will be found in the central idea of the whole system of the Stoics the practical character of their philosophy. Becoming. Substance. the Stoics in their theory of nature occupied the their ground of common views. or to those who receive it. Nature. the Absolute. or has been different relations. John Hunt. in speculation was In human actions. They are efforts to think and speak of God under the aspects in which God has appeared to different minds. To call God Being. eternal Geometrician. 397. Supreme Ruler. D. " Devoting themselves from the outset with all energies to practical inquiries. men are brought into direct 1 The speculations which have been called pantheistic are legitimate exercises of the human intellect. which know of no real object excepting what is grossly sensible and corporeal. Paneven as Lord. as they admitted no essential difference between God and the world. and yet such names are as legitimate as Creator. or Father of men.D.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM was 1 strictly pantheistic.. In discussing the question as to what led the Stoics to this materialism. selves ' ' theism and Christianity. vast Designer. the infinite I. 77 . however. Nonbeing. or the "not our- viewed under which works for righteousness.

Stoicism is very near to some of the 1 minated in their ethics. Even when an impression is conveyed to the soul of man. Epicureans and Sceptics." In Ethics.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and experimental contact with objects. Their as it reality is proved practically. In every such ex- power. declared that world of bodies. the direct instru- ment is something material the voice or the gesture. nor is an opportunity afforded for doubting their real being. and acted upon by ideas. not being able to soar is above that which reality l most obvious. 78 . both subject and object are always material. Stoics. inasmuch ercise of affects us and offers itself for the exercise of our powers. with their practical material. or is : us. Such a thing is naturally the Stoics. In the region of experience there are no such things as non-material impressions. 134. still more in its ethical ideal. belongs only to the The philosophy of the Stoics cul- its speculation on the origin of things. p. This was the ground occupied by the Stoics a real thing is what either acts on us. The objects thus presented to the senses we are brought face to face with in naked reality.

They taught that it is wisdom alone to live in that renders men happy. Their ethics were . for nature 79 but a syn- ." The first object of existence. and that a wise man ought not to be moved with either joy or but to show the utmost indifference to grief. pain. In the " life consistent with nature ' is included also. conformably with reason and the demands of universal good. life in and accordis ing to a social order.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM noblest phases of Christian theology and morals. A consistent with " itself. A consistent with nature. and the chief good can be only life according to nature." or. as life it was otherwise expressed. pleasure. a protest against moral indifference their followers were taught harmony with nature. but is held in its natural simplicity. that the ills of life are but fancied evils. is virtue and the chief for virtue good. Therefore live in harmony with thy rational nature so far as this has not been dis- torted nor refined by art. this man is the preservation of his existence and his consciousness of his own own This is its life according to nature. and all external The chief end of life is cc good or life evil.

From this moral principle we deduce the Stoic conception of virtue. therefore. Nothing can be conformable to nature for any individual thing. a gentle No longer will there be anything to 80 . like river. fulfils all healthy. of the ruling part or rational soul. the common nature Herein we discover an internal mankind. Then flow on smoothly and uniformly. and it that it affects. harmony and of a consistent The formances for very little. source of the external regularity Stoics taught that nature counts for everything and external perlife. First imparts this character to the soul is made strong.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM onym for reason. it is absolutely perfect. make the soul perfect life will good. sists is Only virtue is exclusively in the perfection of his soul. Once let the reason become all right. and happiness convirtue.. i. The virtue of man and you make the life perfect.e. which is a rational life. an agreement with the general course of the world. when. it thus the conditions of its being. unless it be in harmony with the law of the universe. and beautiful . or with the universal reason of the world. and society is but a natural of offspring of reason.

this harmonious accord between is impulses and acts itself man's well-being or welfare. whether from the casualties of existence. the advantage which gained by philosophy is. a hardening process which. says Seneca. or from the severity of the Stoical virtues. so 81 . that of livwithout fear. The by a Stoics held that pains are an evil. Even pleasure and pain. proper discipline. To be free from disquietude. but allowed to their followers partly by promising them the victory over pain. and partly by certain enjoyments of of an elevated cast that grew out of their plan life. is the peculiar privilege of the wise . is . if persisted in. Pain of every kind. was to be met with by a discipline of evidence. and rising superior to the ing troubles of life. would succeed in reducing the mind to a state of apathy or indifference. Happiness consists in independence and peace of mind rather than in the enjoyment which moral conduct brings with it.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM hope or fear. They disallowed the direct and osten- sible pursuit of pleasure as an end (the point it of view of Epicurus). may be triumphed over. however. but.

It was pointed out how much might still be made of the worst circumstances poverty. Life of and Zeno. and the constant liability to accidents: whence we should always be anticipating and adapting ourselves to the worst that could happen. p. good reputation. death. are things indifferent. and bad reputation. 82 . strength. and their contraries. poverty. sickness. old age 'Diogenes Laertius. 292. banish- ment. life. nobility of birth. while they shrink from a deadly from Things indif- ferent are things that are neither beneficial nor injurious. disease. pleasure. drawn pain as to pleasure. so as never to be in a state where anything could ruffle the mind. Yet they have a relation to the higher law. 1 birth. riches. and Great stress was laid on the instability of pleasure.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM far as concerns the absolute end or happiness of our being. baseness of the like. for the con- sciousness of the first that our souls them was so implanted in us at by natural impulse are enemy. weakness. disgrace. labor. such as health. public odium. beauty. we cannot call them either good or evil.

The man he who. in every moral relation. is The man rest wise man. love. therefore. companion Zeus himself. beautiful. of which he forms a . the perfect huperfectly adjusted to the of the universe. perfect. and friendship. The is is wise who lacks it man is drawn as rich. Only the wise man is ing capable of feeling gratitude. yes. a perfectly contained and for self-satisfied. as with triple steel.DOCTRINES OF STOICISM every consideration was advanced that could "arm the obdurate breast with stubborn patience. so as to act according to nature? answer To this question. All he does are true. and completely governed is fit by reason. and por- traying their ideal of the wise man. that is." The Wise Man. he lacks altogether. all his opinions free. the Stoics describe in general terms the action according to nature. above all edge is passion. being. being perfect in his knowlof the laws of the universe. he alone right. He sesses it whole and it the gods. even for who possesses virtue posentire. skilled to govern. capable of giving or receiva benefit. How must we act in every incfividual instance.

It is for him. in her operations. fortitude. the moral idealism of the Stoic system at- tained its zenith. as the things necessary to virtue. It was a great point with the Stoic to be conscious of "advance. he kept himself constantly acquainted with his moral and it was both his duty and his satis- faction to be approaching to the ideal of the perfect man. and never spares individuals. aims at the universal." or . justice. improvement. temperance. The wise man is directed to remember that Nature. The one problem reason of life is to make the in divine paramount and supreme the sphere of one's own conduct. therefore. to submit to his destiny. state. In this picture of the wise man. 84 . en- deavoring continually to establish the supremacy of reason. By self-examination. and cultivating. knowledge. but uses them as means for accomplishing her ends.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM part.

and advice. which. engrossed Stoic philosophers. are by nature irrational. but that reason and the passions exist side by side in the soul as distinct faculties. adherents. belonging to the province of moral phil- osophy. be the cause of the passions. some as did Epictetus and Seneca. exhortation. so that became a mere system of practical wisdom. much of the attention of the The Stoic doctrine was its but rarely kept pure by diluted it it. will is Mere thought or not sufficient to arouse and control pas85 . precept. Posidonius enumerates.VI ROMAN AFTER the STOICISM time of Chrysippus. He held that reason cannot. and others exaggerated it by ascetic additions derived from the doctrines and rules of the Pythagoreans and Cynics. he thought. details showing the practical application of the principles of the Stoics to the special relations of life. as . as the earlier Stoics declared.

and notably in ethics and juris- prudence. this By view Posidonius relaxed the evident strain in the faith system of the earlier Stoics upon the of ordinary consciousness in its own immediate presentiments. Stoicism has demonstrated the thought of after ages to a surprising degree. his moral dignity. achieve until it its crown- was brought to Rome. however. the strength. the indomitable endurance of the Roman his indifference to : intellectual speculation or intellectual activity of any sort. "The sternness. Stoicism did not. belonging to the Roman world. except in highly cultivated natures. although the Romans never added a single principle to the philosophy which the Greeks elaborated. we have seen. Although on Hellenic Stoicism. ing triumph where for over two hundred years it was the creed. The Roman type of character from the first was moulded on the Stoic lines.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM sion. if not the philosophy of all the best of the Romans. arose the school can hardly be con- sidered a product of Greek intellect. his devotion to 86 . find the most famous names in connection We with the Stoic doctrine. as soil.

He Athens.C. 8? ." Panaetius was the chief founder of Ro- man part in the history Stoicism.. and was a member of the historic embassy which proceeded from Athens to Rome in 155 B. to philosophers. also of the historian Polybius and the poets Terence and Lucretius. p. Panaetius was a man of means and culture. He. however. belonging to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of studied under Diogenes. 35.ROMAN acter of STOICISM duty. Stoics and Saints. At Rome he was received into the circle of the younger Scipio and his friend Laertius. plead for toleration for Stoic school was repre- but its most active apostle was Panaetius. The sented by Diogenes. and the simplicity of his tastes and which lent a strong tinge to the charhabits even the degenerate Romans of the seem to mark out the Roman as Empire 1 the typical Stoic. which played so important a of the Roman Empire. and he was able to gain numerous adher1 Brown. departed more widely than any of the later Stoics from the dogmatic spirit and the tenets of the earlier. at Rhodes.

and returned to Zeno's original all exclusion of that lectic. meaning. but rather an eclectic philosopher. namely. not as a mere translator. such as Antipater and Posidonius. Cicero himself said that he chiefly followed Panaetius. but corrections quadam adhibit a. and in representing it in a refined and polished form. He modified the rigid tenets of his sect to make it the practical rule of life of statesmen. politicians and others. and dwelt upon the practical aspects of the creed. to Panaetius was not apparently a strict Stoic. while containing references other teachers of the Stoicism. to the might appear as too diaAulus Gellius says that Panaetius rejected the principle of apathy adopted by the earlier Stoics. His treatise is upon Propriety of Conduct based confessedly upon a trea(De Officia) tise of Panaetius. that the wise 88 man ought to .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM ents among the Roman nobles by his skill in softening the harshness and subtlety of the Stoic teaching. who tem- pered the austerity of his sect by adopting something of the more refined style and milder principles of Plato and other earlier Academicians.

the harshness of its judgment on defaulters. xciii. domestic. and (more at least The strength of Rome. and the Stoic ethical system to popular sentiment. At Rome Stoicism fell upon congenial soil. He accommodated the Stoic theology to the popular religion. the firmcode. the devo- Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 89 to Himself. the stern repu- diation of emotional considerations and im- and pulses. all commended inflexibility it to Roman sympathies. civic. the time was ripe for its acceptance . And the Stoic conception of virtue corresponded closely to the range of qualities denoted by Roman virtus manliness. lay in character^ in an operative code of honor. The traditional type of 1 Roman steadpatriot. Says Rendall " The emphasis it laid on ness and austerity of its ' : morals. the one philosophy congenial to the Roman type. the patrician fastness of a Camillus or Dentatus. .ROMAN know how STOICISM which to master the impressions he receives through the senses. of her empire. the secret than in other states) international. it was. even the narrowness of its moral logic. in fact. p.

were exemplifications of unIts treasured historical formulated Stoicism. to many of the great philosophers. the sternness of a Brutus ordering son to execution. the immova- ble stituted order and often ruthless allegiance to the conof the commonwealth. and even emperors of Rome. Utica) was typically very narrowness and obstinacy of view was in its favor. and so long as there was a ceremonial obedi90 . the dogged self-sacrifice of his disobedient Regulus. the doctrines taught by the Stoics were a source of consolation and a guide in the vicissitudes of life. and by his faults much as his backbone of a time the ideal of Roman At trine a time when there was no belief or doc- which offered support to men in their hour of trial.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM tion of a a Deems. It had but little if any influence on man's moral nature. The religion of the time had not the least influ- ence towards exciting or nourishing solid and true virtue in the minds of men. statesmen. In Rome there was a universal corruption and depravity of manners. Cato (of and limitations as virtue became for Stoicism/' Roman.

that that the reverence shown 9' to we are well aware them is a compli- ance rather with custom. and more beautiful man.ROMAN STOICISM ence. Plato said. All that the Roman knew of his gods was that the custom of his fathers required him to offer them prayers and sacrifices at particular times and seasons. of the uneducated were only engaged with the numerous powers and energies flowing forth from that one Highest Being. The vivid imagination of the Greek turned every deity of his religion into a stronger. Seneca in his Contra Superstitiones to that great multisays tude of common gods. than a thing due to . The devout man was he who punctually performed his religious obligations. that it was hard to find out the Father of all. wiser. with this feeling. when you had found him. which in a long course of time a multifarious superstition has col: " We must pray lected. who was pious according to law. to make him known to all. and that it was impossible. was only the philosophers who could comprehend the one God the imaginations It . there was no occasion to look for any spiritual influence beyond.

averting ca- Epicurum. Chaldean astrology." The more intelligent of the Romans looked 1 upon the whole religious system as a just object of ridicule and contempt. the priest utters who slays the victim is to him only a butcher. as something commanded by the law. It was simply a method of obtaining 1 prosperity. and while he is sacrificing. All these things the philoso- pher will observe. the sensual rites of Cybele. not as a thing pleasing to the gods. were instruments for helping to the attainment of very substantial earthly objects. above all man things else. ch. divination of all kinds." there was a crop of superstitions native to the soil. The gods. and we must believe it accordingly. 22.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the actual truth. Lecky in his European Morals describes religion as follows: "The Roman religion was purely selfish." So Plutarch says: "He feigns prayer and adoration from fear of multitude and he ! words which are against his own conviction. scep- In Rome ticism and superstition. and the fouler orgies of the Bacchanalia. 92 . Ovid said that "the existence of the gods is a matter of public policy.

his insatiable longing after existence. A of contradictions. since the other creatures full have no wants transcending the bounds of their nature. which has sprung from human weakness and human affairs it pride. to imagine that such an infinite spirit would concern himself with the petty men. It is difficult to say. Its selfsacrifice was patriotic. What God is. if in truth he be anything distinct from the world. but no saints. he is the most being wretched of creatures. may : be seen in this extract from the elder Pliny "All religion is the offspring of necessity. weakness. Man is full of desires and wants that reach to infinity." What religion had come to in the minds of the more intelligent people. have one of and led a reproach to its object.ROMAN STOICISM Rome lamity. than to is of might which men to be wholly without this kind. But it is a foolish delusion. and fear. have him also to dream of a life after death. whether not be better for religion. not religious. it is beyond the compass of man's understanding to know. Ancient produced many heroes. The vanity of man. and can never be 93 satis- . and reading the future.

uniting the greatest with the greatest pride. and it fell more and more into a decline. devotion to the state. preaching and catechizing were unheard of. that the Roman was a reflection religion in all its details of the Roman state. His nature stowed on life. Much greater weight was paid to the punctilious performance of religious obligations. The priests had never been the social moralists of Rome." man is the power to take his own In Rome. Mommsen remarks. In time the state religion became undermined by philosophy. the best thing God has be- fied. the Tacitus of private life. Among these poverty so great evils. "It 94 is not . was the atmosphere which men breathed. and the highest functionaries of religion might be and sometimes were men of scandalous life and notorious unbelief. than to any belief in the doctrines of religion. have only to read the pages of Juvenal. to the public good.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM is a lie. or Ovid. or Suetonius. their religion changed with them. Those who desire to study closely the moral infamy. institutions of When the constitution and Rome changed.

indeed. "Will any woman blush at divorce when some who are illustrious. count their years. freedom . and the banquet. but by the number of their husbands?' The Epicurean able. but that state of body and mind which might be called 95 tranquillity. One of the chief and highest pleasures of life Epicurus found in the possession who provided for each other not and protection. of all the vanities feeble restraining influence. and of rank. or a placed the highest good in makes pleasure happy closely he to be the principal constituent More of happiness. and. and even calls it the highest good. school of philosophy apit pealed strongly to the luxurious. By the word pleasure the Epicureans did not understand what was profligate and really sensual." writes Martial. but a lifelong joy. marrying her tenth husband. the worldly." Seneca asks. The and follies which disgraced the life. the fashion- and exercised upon them a Epicureans were the patrons of the circus. and the theatre. only help of friends. not by their consulships.ROMAN more than Thelesina is STOICISM "and thirty days. latter days of Rome. Epicurus happiness.

pain. have but one The accumulation of de- power and wealth gave rise to universal ceased to be of any value. and to change the reproaches of criminality. into mere imputations of mistake. 1 Law The 96 . and that pleasure was the only Says Ferguson. guage of to suppress the specific sentiments of conscience and elevation of mind. It is a man's duty to endeavor to increase to the utmost his pleasures. he maintained that the world was governed by chance. "the ordinary langood. served this sect. he denied the existence of moral goodness." The influence of such a philosophy could effect. ch.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM from disturbance and the foundation of all care. and self-indul- gence was the ultimate good. 1 representing virtue as a mere prudent choice among the pleasures to which men are variously addicted. by which even bad men are restrained from iniquity. History of the Roman Republic. iv. or variations of taste. he affirmed that the soul was mortal. pravity. profligacy. But self-love was action. and diminish to the utmost denied the his Epicurus providence of God. or vileness.

where virtue was a crime that led to certain ruin. The was a festering mass of rottenhigher classes on all sides exhibited principle. were seized by that where execrable race as their lawful prey . where the sacerdotal order. where freemen betrayed 97 . where the guilt of informers and the wages of their iniquity were alike detestable . and them. were offenses without distinction. and desert places stained with clandestine murders. and Rome itself a theatre of horrors. the government of provinces. .ROMAN social fabric STOICISM ness. where slaves were suborned. nothing safe from the hand of rapacity. where the vigor of mind that aimed at civil the modesty that declined dignities. rocks violated . Says Tacitus: "The holy ceremonies of religion were adultery reigned without control the adjacent islands filled with exiles . a total extinction of moral the lower were practical atheists. and even the cabinet of the prince. nothing was sacred. where nobility of descent and splendor of fortune marked men out for destruction. the consular dignity. or by their own malevolence excited against their masters .

because it raised them above the corruption around them. and philosophic indifference to wealth Roman and pleasure. and he who had lived without an enemy died by the treachery of a friend. The did not appreciate practical-minded the deep speculations of many of the philosophers of the day. and proclaimed an ideal standard of morality. Stoicism votaries enlarged the minds of its worthy by purer conceptions 98 of . but he easily appreciated the Stoical principles of self-control. the firm- ness and austerity of its code. type. the stern repudiation of emotional considerations or impulses. and furnished strength and solace in the darkest hours of the troubled times. Stoicism was the philosophy congenial to the Roman The emphasis it laid upon morals. and the Stoics rallied to themselves souls all the noble fearful who desired to rise above the moral degradation of imperial Rome. moral energy." In this very corrupt age. all commended itself to many noble and powerful minds. and thus the leaven of Stoicism soon began to work among the social circles of the capital.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM their patrons.

this produce from which was like to their best. common interest of goodwhich Providence was all for and in which rational creatures were concerned. in all things. and the absolute worthlessness of external advantages . the reverse of the tenets of the Epicureans. referring all truth to the sensuous presentation. teaching the necessity of dispensing with. and another. the Stoics spread and gained It credit in the empire. from a desire to find something better 99 . The more serious minded turned to some moralist for consolation. Says Montesquieu. teaching the unity of God with man. and more literal views of humanity.ROMAN man with one "The sect of nature had itself STOICISM Deity. reliance in the Roman Stoicism placed a firm moral energy of man. The in places which the sun had it Romans owed emperors. plants growing never seen. and of a ness and justice exerted. seemed as if human made an admirable effort to sect. They maintained the reality of Providence. resignation and recommending to the divine dispensations. almost in every particular. ." The Stoics maintained.

. moderation with his slaves above all. the just from tinguish the unjust. be loving to his his parents. not to be overmastered by pleasure. so philosophy alone can cure the weakness or the sickness By her help man learns to disthe noble from the base. Puer.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and more satisfying to the nature of man than could be found in the religions and mythologies of Greece and Rome. friends. but to guide and help and strengthen them it. loo . 10. the things worthy of our choice of the soul. from those which we should shun . Philosophy aspired not only to furnish struggling men with an authoritative standard. warning him to honor laws. obey the submit to governors. not to triumph overmuch prosperous days. she teaches him how he ought of his social life. to act in all the relations fear the gods. show self-control with womankind. respect old age. tenderness with children. in or brutalized by passion/' 1 l De Educ. or to be cast down in adversity. cp. : in their efforts to attain Says Plutarch " As exercise and medicine provide for the body's health and strength.

ROMAN The ruling classes STOICISM precepts of the Stoics. and providence were emia law-making and an organof time the unbend^* But in process ing strictness of the old Stoicism began to a 101 . and put no restraints on the spirit of inquiry which was sapping the positive beliefs of the day. and made rapid progress among the noblest families. owing to the blending of the Stoic philosophy and the Roman religion. and we meet with traces in Its the most diversified spheres of action. national author- but it soon found a ready acceptance. This philosophy was undoubtedly better adapted for it Rome than for the land where its first arose. but the Stoic philosophy was raised into the semi-official state philosophy. theories of order nently suited to izing race. The speculative element was weakened. and it therefore at first met with the jealousy of the ities. The government heretofore had suffered the philosophers to teach as they pleased. stood forth in bold and startling hostility to the principles of existing authority. But Stoicism gave rise to a new state philosophy and state religion. addressed to the of the empire.

and held it so long. accommodate purposes Its adaptations to the of civil polity. Stoicism attached itself to the religion of Rome as closely as science can at all itself to faith. Lorimer. and its stern moral doctrine seemed to appeal to the Romans. speaking of Stoicism. Alexandria and Tarsus. and given more warmth and color to meet the demands of the Roman people. says "With the single exception of Christianity.GBEEK AND ROMAN STOICISM certain extent to be relaxed. and it continued to flourish after the reign of the An- tonines." 1 ' Institutes of Law. 102 . and in ing the time of Juvenal this sect prevailed almost through the whole Roman empire. at at which time the Stoics were flourish- Athens. 61 . either of the human ancient or the 1 modern world. and it moulded human institutions and afa fected all destiny to a greater extent than other philosophical systems. rigorous definitions and many of the and maxims were toned down. no form of belief ever took possession of so great : number of Europeans. p.

The Grecian philosophers had long ago insisted on a law of nature. special The Stoics laid a it the emphasis upon it. independent of the acci- dents of time and place. keynote of their moral system. consisting of those laws which are common to all mankind.VII ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE THE came Stoics taught that all things in nature about by virtue of a natural and un- changeable connection of cause and effect. as a guide to theory and a rule for practice in all the de- and made partments of man's action. They were therefore strenuous in their teaching of the unconditional depend- ence of everything on a universal law and the course of the universe. distinct from the conventional usages of different lands and ages. 103 They considered . as nearly as can be conjectured. and are supposed to be. as the nature of the universe and the general law require.

Rational beings can be treated on a social footing. . though attached to the speculative doctrines of the New Academy. for the sake of cultivating and perfecting which we were born and sent into the world. great a capacity for is implanted in the and what beautiful 104 association. either directly or indirectly. of which each individual is one body. organic member. Cicero. accepted with little change the ethical principles of the Stoics. .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM that law embodied rights. duties and rules of conduct evolved primarily by intercourse. of which every individual an integral part is an . to the good of the whole. and how the noblest enterprises mind of man. Marcus Aurelius wrote. every manifestation of which contributes. that the passion of is love of society. all from one social unit. and can only only feel happy themselves when working for reason the community one lated to for all rational beings are reanother. social life and is Hence the social instinct a primary instinct in man. that in no kind of discussion can it be more advantageously He displayed how much has been bestowed upon man by nature. says.

/ the virtues of humanity. all cases in which forgiveness is possi- A of its philosophy so vigorous and elevating in had a great influence all moulding the opinions those persons who were brought under influence. Cicero instructs. liberality. 105 . charity. then the true fountain of laws and rights can be discovered. and the later Stoics. a and had 1 marked Legibus. and Musonius. and a readiness to for- give in ble. Seneca. in one of the most beautiful and perfect ethical 1 codes to be met with among ancient writers. Epic- Marcus Aurelius. beneficence.ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE what natural fellowship. Two the Stoics fundamental points are insisted on by the duty of justice and the duty of mercy. as being founded on the universal law of nature. an unlimited benevolence. emphasized the most extended and unreserved tetus. binds men together by reciprocal charities and when we have explained these grand and universal principles . its general spirit and method influence upon Roman juris- De iv. and justice toward other people. gentleness. meekness. of morals.

An innate genius for law distinguished the Roman people. to which a man must conform. as in ment Roman the state during the period in which the influence of the Roman jurisconsults was most marked. and received the almost uninterrupted support of Stoic philosophy. They saw in the law of nature an for the ideal of simplicity legal student spirit and universal truth its and reformer. The science of jurisprudence was to them the intellectual life that the older philosophy was to the Greek. most of the nations of modern great jurists of The Rome were familiar with the it was an important eleeducation and culture. to ning 1 06 in their . they were the law upon rational laws of life. They embodied very beginthe cardinal doctrine of the Stoics.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM prudence. and still exists and is obeyed and consulted among times. They took of great pride in building up their system a firm foundation . which in its turn has exerted its influence over all Eastern legislation. and general and method affected the jurisprudence of Rome rather than any one doctrine that Stoicism taught.

not a yielding to personal attractions. This rational principle is a constituent element of all being. but as a rational principle producing order and perfection. Therefore laws were required as the expression of a divine intelligence. and a nature With the Stoics. Love was In marriage they required chastity to be a matter of reason. nor a seeking of sensual But it was to the state that the gratification. Stoics were the most strenuous. nally binding. In their writings and moderation. there was a nature of the society in of the world as a whole. If man is in- tended to associate with his fellow men in a how can society regulated by justice and law. man. from the most common instituhe withdraw 107 . the universe was considered as imbued with an looked all-pervading soul or power. It taught that there was a nature to which everything should conlive form . which was upon not only as a dynamical force producing motion. a nature of which man lived. not of emotion. the Stoics attention to the state and the dopaid great mestic life. and therefore exter- and precepts.ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE according to nature.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM tion the state? If laws further the well- being and security of the citizens. represented as jurists. or in the succeeding to inheritances. how can the wise man fail to regard them as beautiful and praiseworthy? The point in status of an individual was a strong Roman law. Roman who had developed depending on three conditions. his capacity for the exercise and enjoyment of legal rights. This capacity the a highly doctrine of status. in the payment of taxes. 1 of his status. in the details of common domestic life. if they advance virtue and happiness. In daily business. zndfamilia (or This citizenship affected every relation of life. in the making of contracts. is By ing) of a person meant the status (or standthe position that he holds with reference to the rights which are in recognized and maintained by the law other words. family relation). the Roman was continually reminded franchised. in the disposing of property by will. dom). which differentiated him from all who were not en- 08 . libertas (or personal free- civitas (or citizenship).

This became the jus naturale. instead of being the product of local. It was the investigation of the fundamental principles underlying the law of The lawyer investigated the meanof the various terms with which he dealt.ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE The Roman cording to jurists derived from Stoicism their ideas of the fundamental principles acwhich human conduct should be shaped. and it was owing to their conception of the Stoic laws of nature that they were led to change the jus gentium and bring it into harmony with the new theory of natural law. and variable causes. or that law which springs from the universal nature of man and the conditions of human life and society. sought to express by careful definitions the exact nature of the concepts which en109 He . ing all ages. a scientific foundation was given to the study of law. accidental. It comprised more than a mere knowledge of the law of any one age. It was no longer an empirical study. temporary. Says Lee: the basis of jurisprudence with the eternal order of things through the " By connecting conception of &jus naturale.

1 10 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM tered into the law. But the scientific study of law by analysis of the legal conceptions and processes could not stop with the results of that analysis. dations law was stripped of adventitious matter and seen to be more comprehensive and more widely 1 applicable/' p. Historical Jurisprudence. not merely a convenient summary of human conventions. If in every generalization the jurist came nearer to the real nature of things. 258. All this he did with in the processes the conviction that in this logical analysis he was attaining to a real knowledge. 'Lee. He traced the principles in- volved of law. and expressed them in terse maxims. By the study of its foun. he could also reverse the process he could apply the generalization to the practical cases which every day came to his notice.

in short. If we examine closely the background upon which the structure of Christianity was erected. Greek philosophy in a new appliwas not until Judaism had come into wide and permanent contact with Helis It lenic culture. of. and genuine piety. the general points of view mental presuppositions which they brought to the interpretation of the facts of Christianity. the general conceptions of nature and human or life. The 1 1 1 rapid and powerful itself process of organization in Christianity . that Christianity could be devel- oped from it. CAIRO has said. that it was from Greece that the early fathers of the Christian church borrowed its forms and processes of thought.VIII RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY DR. A very large portion of what we call Christian theology cation. vigorous life. we shall find serious thought. and had been fertilized by it in many ways.

is "The same thing which now called Christianity among the ancients and was not absent from the beginning of mankind until Christ appeared in the flesh. 2 History of Religion. whence the true religion. Retr. If Christianity triumphed in the end. unde vera religio quae jam erat. which already existed. began to be called Christian/' ' second Greek religion which arose under the influence of philosophy and found its The way wherever Greek culture spread. I 12 .. i. p. quousque Christus venerit in carne. without which its spread must have been much more doubtful. 13. is considered by Menzies to have been a prepara2 tion for the the coming of Christianity in the Greek world. erat apud antiques nee ipse defuit ab initio generis humani. Says Men- zies: "In 1 the Grseco-Roman religion the ad- Ipse res quae nunc Christiana religio nuncupatur. 420.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM would not have been possible. it was by virtue of a very wide sympathy and a very extensive preparation in the mind very of paganism. Augustine. existed Says St. coepit appelari Christiana. were it not for the independent efforts of paganism after a similar ideal.

as is the case with Christianity also. Thought has been busy in building as up a great doctrine of God. and thus many minds were and destiny. the central point of which was. and goodness. a a God infi- human reason can arrive Being nitely wise and good. therefore. Greek thought also to reach a true account of found much occupation in the attempt man's moral nature in theory and in practice an attempt was made to build up the many ideal life of man. such at. and that there is an unbroken line of connec- "3 . who is the first cause and the hidden ground of all things. not outward sacrifice but mental activity. if ilated to Christian institutions were assim- some extent to the Greek schools. The Greek philosopher's school was a semi-religious union. It has recently been shown that the celebration of the Eucharist came very near to bear a close resemblance to that of a Greek mystery. beauty. It is not wonderful. the sun of all wisdom.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY vances which appear in Christianity are already prefigured. Both prepared for a religion which places the riches of the inner life above all others. and in whom all men alike may trust.

and the preacher kept up an oversight of the moral conduct of his adherents. in deliverance from " the bondage of the flesh. They classed mankind as wise men and fools. and may even be seen to be doing so in some of the books of tion between the discourse of the the Testament. In common with Paul they could not paint in colors too glaring the universal depravity of mankind. The The Stoics. the agreement between Greek and Christian practices amounts to New something more than coincidences." thoughtful student may find many of likeness in which the Christian thepoints ology and morals may have been indebted to the doctrines of the Stoics. the entrance on the ' great eternal peace. placed value upon moral sentiments. virtue. and wisdom." with Paul's teachings. and " which they birth-day of eternity taught a called the day of death. In some of the Greek schools pastoral visitation was practised. We see here an affinity who divided mankind 114 . as we have seen. While Christianity certainly had vigour enough to shape its own institutions.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Greek philosopher and the Christian sermon.

." To a great extent.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY into the regenerate looked beyond heaven. however. and salvation by faith. at all events became current coin through their influence. but by the help of the Divine Spirit. therefore. the crowning triumph of ethical nomenclature . is to estisays Lightfoot. and that inexorable fate not the ruling power of the universe." leavened the moral vocabulary of the civilized world at the time of the Christian era. and he placed value upon faith alone." And he refers to conscience (conscientia). and perhaps the extent to which Stoic philosophy had It is " " difficult. dinal points are conviction of sin. the general diffusion of Stoic language would lead to its 1 1 . what we may call Paul's method of salvation. But Christ taught.. that a true spiritual condition is attainable. There are many points in Stoi- cism which harmonize with the doctrine of Christ. " the most important of moral terms. however. if not struck in the mint of the Stoics. Stoicism lacked. not very easy to over-rate mate. of which the carthis and the degenerate they world to the glories of . not by unaided individual will.

pagan rationalism had arrived at the idea of a spiritual and directing power. although sentiment than by reason. and consequently a providential influence on mankind. 116 . origiIt was nally identical with the universe. and lived among men. Such teaching was offered to the people as a truth of consciousness rather than a dogit was afterwards preserved in a theological form by the preaching of Paul.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM adoption by the x first Vignoli has shown teachers of Christianity. 184. Christianity taught that God himself was made man. the unity of the race. but rather the conscious and inevitable order of nature. the brotherhood of all peoples. neither the Olympus of the common people. p. and the pagan mind was more affected by ma. 1 Myths and Science. that when Christianity began. The unity of God was associated in their aesthetic imagination with the earlier conception of the supreme Zeus. Says Vignoli " : Christianity proclaimed the spiritual unity of God. which now took a more Semitic form. the redemption of the world. nor the Semitic Jehovah.

and they sought to explain the striking resemblance between the doctrines of Plato and those of Christianity. A confused sentiment as to the mystic union of peoples. Justin was. had effect on the imagination and the a powerful heart. Socrates. as he him117 . and in many ways the schools of Greece were the forerunners of Christianity. Some of the early fathers recognized a Christian element in Plato. In the ardor of proselytism and of the diffusion of the new creed. since they had already learned to regard the world as the creation of one eternal Being. they hailed the historical trans- formation of the earthly endeavour for after temporal acquisitions and pleasures into a providential preparation the heavenly kingdom/' very early resulted that Christianity came in contact with the contemporaneous philosoIt phy. were working at the same problem which oc- cupied the prophets of Israel. and others.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY into a Olympus was gloriously transformed company of elect Christians and holy fathers of the new faith. Plato. who and became brothers in Christ. Aristotle.

a Stoic.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM self relates. and an authority based on "I give the name phitradition." Origen was a student 118 of the doctrines of . is The opinion of upon ideas the true Christian and or- thodox philosophy. which he had sought earnestly. Clement of Alexandria tried to harmonize Greek philosophy and Christianity. a Pythagorean. and a follower of Plato. although the Gos- pel stood infinitely higher in his view than the Platonic philosophy. and hoped to have finally contentment reached the goal of intellectual in the Platonic philosophy. and above Plato all to that of Socrates. yet he regarded the latter as a preliminary stage to the former. He says: losophy to that which the doctrines of the is really excellent in all Greek philosophers. an independent reason. These intellectual lights among the Greeks have been communicated by God himself. but in And. an enthusiastic admirer of Plato full satis- before he found in the Gospel that faction vain. a Peripatetic. in philosophy. such as Plato describes him to have been. as he says in his Dialogues. Justin was successively.

His power of appreciating and assimilating Greek 119 . but with no ally influencing satisfactory result from the conflict. confirming the particularly former by the latter. in terms of Platonic metaphysics. and the Stoics. those of Plato. In harmony with the ideas of his nation he derived all philosophy and useful One knowledge from the Mosaic record. the incarnation. All the previous systems were struggling together. Roman philosophy and Jewish and Oriental mysticism met each other face to face. every one was groping. and in his Stromata he compares the doctrines of Chris- of the philosophers. and were all struggling for preeminence and mutueach other. It was at Alexandria that Greek and religion.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY Plato. and even to court the mysteries of the trinity. Many of the Greek tianity with the teachings Fathers strove to base their apologetics upon the theism and ethics of Plato. and the atonement. Nothing was settled. no one as was recognized "one having authority." attempt to mediate between these contrasts was made from the Jewish side by Philo the Jew. Pythagoras.

more 20 . dissolve the Greek myths to reduce to simple observations the images and personifications contained in the tradi- tions of the popular religion . minds of the often seen. by terpretation. however. translators of the Septuagint is the suggestion for a Platonic in- The Platonism of this period. It may be traced back even to the translators of the SeptuaThe influence of Greek thought on the gint. that physical inquiry was of very avail. The attempt of Philo at a combination of Greek and He- brew wisdom. was not so much a regularly constituted school as a pervading influence which had impressed certain of 1 its tendencies. but he did not hesitate to wrest Scripture to his use by various that allegorical interpretations.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM conceptions is admirable. which had gone on for a long time at Alexandria. In this re- to spect he followed the Stoics. who liked into abstract ideas. was a process of assimilation of these two elements. asserting had fallen from his primitive wisdom man and little purity. and the method they employed was the allegory. but that an innocent life and burning faith are what we must trust to.

from which the rest was derived. are often inthat which genious. the divine and human. Although firmly Greek planted on the basis of the preceding maniphilosophy. mysticism. it may be considered a new festation of the genuine creative power of the Greek spirit. upon most of Another attempt to mediate between Greek from the philosophy and Judaism was made Greek side by the Neo-Platonists. It was the last form of philosophy which the Greek civilization developed.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY the religious and philosophic speculations of the time. alternately attracting and repulsing it. This new philosophy may more properly it be called a theosophy. Their expositions of the relations between God and the world. by means of ecstacy. They considered the all spiritual knowledge of religion to be attain- 121 . and even thaujmaturgy^. by a mystical self-destruction of the individual person. spirit and matter. It attained its highest principle. and stood in a curious relation to Christianity. although also in- clined towards dogmatism. But in their speculations is specifically Greek is lost. asceti- cism. or less strongly.

peculiarity of the Platonic philosophy is precisely this direction towards the supersensuous world. it seeks the elevation of consciousness into the realm of spirit. which itwas unable to " the satisfy. doctrine of Plato was fused with the most many important elements in the Aristotelian and Stoic systems and with Oriental speculations. they com- bined The superstitions into their system. In fact. and after a communion with the invisible world. Platonism awakened an indefinite desire after the supernatural. and by an artful admixture of truth and falsehood. was through the source of the Neo-Platonists that errors and corruptions crept into the church. who lived in contemplation. The new Platonists took some of the more popular and especially Oriental conceptions of Plato.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM able only by the philosophers. but it also from the same source received no small addition. that the internal spiritual essence of man is his true essence. ciple/' and has made it the universal prinit In the course of time. 22 . The Christian religion has also set up this high principle. as Hegel says. both to its numbers and I its strength.

76. but it had been to many 'Interpretations of Poetry and Religion. Plato. Neo-Platonism declined and finally became a scholastic tradition. of all the doctrines in Plato. them to the full. of abstractions/' The mental great exponent Plotinus. . After the death of the Emperor Julian. but he found the germs. at least. and with philosophy. time. God/' an ascent His theory was to a combination of the theologies of Parmenides. with civil power. held flight philosophy to consist in a from this world to a higher re" like gion. and the principle the hypostasis of Neo-Platonism. proach which it which had given form dained it Neo-Platonism could satisfy But the avenues of aphad chosen and the principle . If the demands of the age were for a revealed religion and an ascetic morality.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY " Neo-Platonism responded as well as Christianity to the needs of the 1 Says Santayana. and had besides great external advanits tages in alliance with tradition. The avenue to its was dialectic. and Aristotle. Socrates. to failure system foreoras a religion. p. . . in becoming the Idea of the Good.

The in- 124 . exalting all. Gnosof Persian. indeed. united to conceptions of Oriental or Hindu origin. Gnosticism stands on the border line between the philosophical systems of Plato and the Stoics and the Christian system. The Gnostics also drew largely from Oriental theosophy and the Jewish religion. and Egyptian doctrines. as Augustine said. which led them to Christianity. Christian their own doctrines above a and Pagan. and to the cabalistic science of the Jews. Neo-Pla- tonism exercised a discernible influence on the historical development of Christianity. Gnostic means From one that knows. They seem. The oldest of these were the Gnostics. and the word seems to have been applied to all the heretics whose speculations on nature and being did not agree with the speculations approved of by the church. and more especially on the mysticism of Western theology during the middle ages. ticism presents combination Chaldasan. Jewish. and besides this.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM a bridge. In fact. to have been of every form of professed religion. the speculative side of the church sprang the philosophical heretics.

The Gnostics consid- phies. of the personal existence of intellect. cal. The Gnostic doctrine of the opposition between soul and matter. In trying to harmonize Christian revelation with its own system it gave up the monothe- ism of the Scriptures. To the pagan rites and symbols. 2. and the identification of soul and light are derived from the Sankhya system. will. in part or in whole. ered their doctrines as superior 1. The men division. the many heavens of the Gnostics are evidently derived from the fantastic cosmogony of later Buddhism. and allegorized away. and so forth.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY fluence of Indian philosophy on Gnosticism seems undoubted. the great facts of Christ's work and person. peculiar to several Gnostics. however. To the Hebrew 125 doctrines. which they professed to explain. Unlike Greek philosoits thought was not methodibut poetical. Again. and charged with Oriental imagery and freedom. the errors . of into three classes is also based on the triple Sankhya doctrine cf the three dunas or constituents of primeval matter.

the Gnosrepresented experimental Christianity as knowledge rather than faith. it pretended to To the common belief of the Chris- tian church. 126 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and imperfections of which unfold. Influenced by Greek philosophy. It is interesting to note how the pagan Stoic philosophy was revived again in the sixth century by Boethius. became the He connecting link between the logical and metaphysical science of antiquity and the scientific attempts of the middle ages. was nothing but the weak or corrupted envelope of the transcendent Christianity of which they claimed tics to be the depositaries. in the view of the Greeks. which. and gave her an impulse towards thought. 3. His Consolations of Philosophy exercised a very profound influence upon the thought and feeling of nascent Christendom. and made knowl- edge the standard of the moral condition. and a more comprehensive discussion of doctrine. The influence of Gnosticism was good in arousing the church to a -clearer definition of her fundamental doctrines.

Boethius was a thorough student of Greek philosophy. This work is tinctured with the its Stoic philosophy. and Thomas Aquinas wrote a commentary on it. In the fourteenth century Chaucer made an English into translation. and a greatest Philosophiae. it and be- fore the sixteenth century was translated Greek. Spanish. During the century in which he lived Boethius shone forth with a philosopher. Italian. the logical and metaphysical science of antiquity. His work.RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY It is difficult to trace the influence of Greek philosophy. as orator. and thus 127 great influence . German. an the brightest lustre in the republic of letters. and We know what position it occupies development of Dante. King Alfred translated it into AngloSaxon. a poet. De Consolations dom. is in the spiritual The Consolatio theistic in its language. and in an uncompleted work he had endeavored to reconcile the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. upon mediaeval thought. but affords no indication that Boethius was a Christian. was read during the middle ages with the greatest reverence by all Christen- divine. French.

which stayed the study of the literature of Greece for nearly a thousand years. 128 . Stoics and Saints. Through Boethius. yet during that time not one unequivocal truth was added to the domain of philosophy. 76. p. 1 Brown. whose edition of Tacitus is almost epoch-making in the completeness and elaboration of its exhaustive commentary. x Occasionally.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM promulgating the Stoic doctrine among the " It was scholars of later times. the Stoic system found its champions and exponents. accordingly. such as Justus Lipsius (i 547 1 606). and carries on the ancient philosophy into the life of the modern world/' Although Aristotle. The last voice which sounded from the old classical civilization through the endom was growing of this thousand years during which Western Christto its manhood. called par emi" nence the philosopher. however. was that very noble teacher of the Stoic school. Stoicism has become an appreciable factor in the thought of Christendom. prior to the breaking up of the empire. the last work in dealing with Greek philosophy." dominated the minds of the scholars for three or four hundred years.

SOME ROMAN STOICS .

.

in Epito rus. else he could not have been more than twenty-one when Domi- mn published that edict against philosophers. 68 A. in consequence of which Ep- ictetus retired Rome to Nicopolis. probably during one of the last eight years. a city built by Augustus commemorate know that he was the victory of Actium. a town on the Lycus. The names We and condition of his parents are he appears to have come of a unknown.. and " cleared him. born at Hierapolis in Phrygia.D. he must have been born.. . before the end of Nero's reign. but humble stock. The year of his birth is not known. not far from Laodicea andColopae.D. had been one of his body-guard." in Rome from of what most shamed 89 A. Epictetus was a slave of Epaphroditus. a profliand who gate freedman of the emperor Nero.IX EPICTETUS VERY little is known of the life of Epictetus. however.

the commentator on the Encheiridion. and he evidently had for him a great admiration. and lame from a very early age. Origen pre- served an anecdote of him. to attend the lectures Epictetus was permitted We of C. but he could not have been a slave when he left Rome in consequence of learn that the edict against philosophers.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and Simplicius. Epictetus refers to Rufus in his Discourses. feminate youths. that when his master put his leg in the torture. desire instruction all the more. deformed. says that he was sickly. " to train ef" It is not easy. . Musonius Rufus. We are not told how Epictetus managed to freedom." says Epictetus. But those of fine nature. any more than it is easy to take up whey with a hook. For which reason Ru132 . ' " Did equal to anything which Christian martyrol- ogy had effect his to show. break that only observed. even if you discourage them. I not tell you would do so ? This circumstance is you adduced by Celsus in his famous controversy with Origen as an instance of Pagan fortitude it. Epictetus quietly " You will break it " and when he did said. a Stoic philosopher.

that just fling it as a stone. numerous slaves." Garnier. so vividly did he portray our individual faults. the author of a Memoire sur les ouvrages d' Epictete. in the their ." He used indeed so to address us that each one of us." In his Discourse on Ostentation. even if you into the air.EPICTETUS fus often discouraged pupils. thought that some one had been privately telling tales against him in particular. so also a noble nature. among the great of Rome to reckon among poets. Epictetus says that Rufus was in the habit of " remarking to his pupils. so completely did Rufus seize hold of his characteristics. will fall down to the earth by gravitating force. sitting there. in that its own proportion tends more in its own natural direction. If you have leisure to praise " me. I can have done you no good. says that Epictetus was in: debted " apparently for the advantages of a good education to the whim. for he used to say. and philosophers. grammarians. using this as a criterion of fine and of common natures . very common at the end of the Republic and under the first emperors. in proportion as it is repulsed. rhetoricians.

For we cannot suspect that it was predilection for the Stoic doctrine and for his own use.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM same way as rich financiers in these later ages at a great cost rich is have been led to form and the numerous libraries. writing during the reign of the first Antonine. Epictetus was treated with favor. and how a rigid Stoic was the slave of Epaphroditus. At Nicopolis Epictetus opened a school where he taught his philosophy until he became an old man. " speaks of Epictetus as being dead.D. Epicte'34 . 117). Suidas says that he lived until the reign of Marcus Aurelius. but Aulus Gellius. peror (A. but they contain frequent mention of Nicopolis. had received a good education. one of the officers of the imperial guard. Epictetus ever reAfter Hadrian became em- ister desired to possess such a slave." It is a question turned to Rome. how a wretched child. that the confidant and the minof the debaucheries of Nero would have whether. but there is from Spartian's life of Hano evidence of any of his discourses having been delivered at Rome. This supposition only one which can explain to us. as we learn drian. born as poor as Irus.

the wisdom of Epictetus by study over are told by Arrian. took by his pupil of Alexander down in . for three thousand drachmas. Lucian ridicules this purchaser. an Irus in povand favored by the Immortals. who." in maimed Epictetus lived for a long while in a small hut. He was obliged also to take a woman into his house as a nurse for the child. with no other furniture than a bed and lamp. on a account of his poverty. his lamp was purchased by some enthusiastic admirer. as he tells us.EPICTETUS tus. or over five hundred dollars of our currency. as hoping to acquire it. and without an attendant. his style was superior to that of Plato. Epictetus wrote nothing and all that we have under his name was written Arrian. he adopted and brought up a child whom a friend of his was about to expose to death. to Origen. erty. However. that he was a powerful and exciting lecturer . body. tetus We learn from Lucian that Epic- was never married. a slave. We and according . in his preface to the Discourses. We are also told by Lucian that on the death of Epictetus. afterwards the historian the Great.

Neither have put them forth among 136 . No He but we are interested here with the conversations of his teacher. are all quotations by various that we know of his teachings. Arrian had become residence at a disciple of Epictetus during his Rome. There were originally the Encheiridion. Only four of the original eight books are extant. dressed to Arrian. he united the literary with the military character. and an account of the life and death of Epictetus. and while prefect of Cappadocia he distin- guished himself by his valor in the war less than seven against the Massagetae. with the Encheiridion. Like Xenophon. was by Arrian in the form of a letter to a friend. in The following preface written to the Discourses. eight books of them. and a few frag- ments preserved authors. Lucius Gellius. of the epistles of Pliny the younger are adwas a prolific writer.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM writing the philosopher's discourses. which indirectly throws some light on the origin of the Encheiridion : " I did not write the words of in the manner in which a I man might Epictetus write such things. besides which was compiled from them. These.

the words here written should do to do. not such as he would write in the idea of finding readers long afterwards. And if. Such they are. these things I have endeavored to set since. they it among men. indeed. that having written might preserve to myself for future times a memorial of his thought and unstudied speech. then they will do. and to Epictetus not at all. I think. For when he was speaking them it to was evident that he had only one aim stir the minds of his hearers towards the best things. therefore. they are such things as one man might say to another on the impulse of the moment. let those who read them know it this. if any one shall despise his words. even write them But whatever I heard him (in literary form). speak. without fell my But will or knowledge.EPICTETUS men. that which the words of philosophers ought this. that when he himself spoke them was impossible for the hearer to avoid feeling whatever Epictetus desired he should feel. and I know not how. as I say. Naturally. shall to me matters little if I appear an incompetent writer. . I did not down them in his I very words. But if not.

among 138 . they are merely words. discussed. with the moral stamina of Socrates. it tells us what kind of man Epic- tetus was. It was one of the most valuable moral treatises that has come down to us from antiquity. and its lessons applied. and a reverent piety. tary on the Encheiridion was written by Simplicius. when have not fault. and. who selected from the Discourses of Epictetus what he considered to be most useful. Each chapter is dissected. as Pasphilosophers. and figure of theologian of the Stoic sect. and most adapted to move men's minds. it perhaps perhaps it is that I am in could not have been other- wise.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM And if his words. No other philosopher before him has recal shows. In the sixth century an elaborate commenin Greek. Simplicius states that the Encheiridion was put together by Arrian. preacher. and most necessary. who also wrote a commentary on Aristotle. Epictetus was the prophet. has more truly recognized man's duties toward God and himself. a native of Cilicia. A unique grandeur. this effect. as Simplicius says. no one.

Nowhere in heathen literature do we find such a joyful conception of God and his beneficence as in the following passage: "For to if we had understanding. And if God has given us a priceless gift. for We only what God wills and sends. and reason.EPICTETUS vealed precepts so much in accordance with the spirit of Christianity. ought we else both jointly and severally than to sing hymns and bless the Deity. we should be contented. and the strange insensibility of felt he owed all to God. and he rises to a of the height of lyric fervor when he speaks of God. that we God. and do anything '39 . by which we attain to greatness. He his that all was his gift. ungrateful men. which are doubtshould wish. but for our grateful not only souls. to our external relations. and that we should be for our bodies. and seek to fulfill our allotted part. and we should avoid pride and haughtiness. indeed. and not even seek alter less for the best. Epictetus formulated clearly enough the doctrine which was expressed in the hymn are the offspring of of Cleanthes. of the moral beauty of providence works. as well as discontent.

same 140 . nor will I praise God. this is I am a ra- my and I ought to work: I do it. and the power of breathing while we sleep/ This we ought to sing on every occasion. tional creature." Says Canon Farrar. . I desert this it. the power of swallowing our food. and enjoyed the 'Seekers after God. p. post so long as I am allowed to keep 1 and exhort you to join in this same song.. imperceptible growth. great is God who has given us hands. It is interesting that the oppressed heathen philosopher found the same consolation. to Great is God sing this hymn to God ? has given us such implements with which we shall cultivate the earth.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM to tell of his benefits ? Ought we ( not. and the utter- ance of such warm feelings toward Divine origi- Providence that constitutes the chief to think nality of Epictetus.. when we are digging and ploughing and eating. "There is an almost lyric beauty about these expressions of resigit is nation and faith in God. 197. is who what to and for sing the greatest and most divine hymn these giving us the faculty of comprehending things and using a proper way.

ish interests as a brother to his fellow men. c as the persecuted all Christian 'Whether ye of eat or drink/ says St. upon the strength and dignity of man141 . or whatsoever ye do. as a citizen God. He said that heaven's wrath would light on him who intruded rashly into a ministry so holy. anointed with the unction of God's grace to a missionary work of lifelong self-devotion. rather. he would have them ever live think of the human brotherhood. he must love and help them. Epictetus speaks of the true philosopher as set apart by a special call. Epictetus insists. being members one of another.EPICTETUS contentment. and not for themselves but for the world. Let discourse of you God be renewed daily more surely than your oftener than breathe. apostle.' " Epictetus would not have his disciples rest content with the selfish hope of saving their own souls . he must have no self. food. do of ( God/ 'Think God/ says Epictetus. he must imitate and obey him of the world. child of As a . to the glory Paul. as the apostle of a high social creed. as few creeds have ever done.

also been restored ? But he who has taken it from me is a bad man. Is Is restored. the object of our solicitude. and advises all men to call themselves citizens. No hostility and ill-treatment should is quench our benevolence. simply as being man. and not say that they are an Athenian or Corinthian. No one is so low but that he has claims on the love and justice of his fellow men.' But what is it to 142 you by whose hands . restored. Epictetus would have us always ready to resign the blessings which God's providence has lent us for awhile. but say I have restored it. your child dead ? It has been your wife dead? She has been ( Has your estate been taken from you ? Has not this. of the world when asked to what country they belong. Even the slave is a man deserving our esteem. The same thought leads Epic- tetus to give a wider range to the conceptions of nationality and race.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM hood. for their father. therefore. since all have in same degree God. All the men are brothers. wno and whatever else he may be. then. " Never say about anything I have lost it. and able to claim from us his rights. Man.

Epictetus illustrated the difference of his age from that of Plato and also of Chrysippus. called his " school a healing-place for diseased souls. He urges con: tentment upon the principle that all things occur under the allotment of Providence. in that tion.EPICTETUS the giver demanded it back ? So long as he may allow you. the pursuits and avoidances. and the assents exercise which are given by the understanding. his real strength was in his preaching and teaching." He ." Epictetus mentions three topics or classes under which the whole of moral philosophy is comprehended. His moral precepts are mainly summed up in two words endure and abstain. There are the desires and aversions. dogmatic pracWhile he accepted and handed on the speculative basis of morality as laid down by the earlier Stoics. take care of it as a thing which belongs to another. that is. or the of active powers. that an inexorable fate presided over all things. he practically abandoned to all specula- and confined himself tical ethics. as travelers do with their inn.

' 144 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Says he : " Before all. my own soul is the material at which I must work. as does the carpenter at wood teacher of the and the shoemaker at leather. must the future human race undertake himself to extinguish his own passions. and say to himself.

was considerable wealth. was brought by his father to Rome. about 8 Seneca. a M. was adopted by his father's friend.C. and the friendship of distinguished Romans. born in Cor- dova." eldest son 1 The Lucius Annaeus. none of these things. Gallic. Mela. visiting Spain he by her three sons. and shared in the misfortunes of that unlucky poet. Anman ot rhetorician. H5 . While and had ried Helvia. but lived a good part of his many life in Rome. and became the Roman governor of Greece who " cared for The second son. He was a native of Spain. was the father of the poet Lucan. where he was trained in his father's art. a His father.X SENECA Lucius naeus ANN^US SENECA was B. Spain. when a child. 12-17. 1 but subsequently forsook rhet- Acts xviii. mar- The youngest. enjoying the privileges of Roman knighthood.

" and De consolatione ad Polybium 146 liber y "On Con- . and. be only short lived. he pleaded in courts of law. addressed to his mother Helvia. the wife of Claudius. who sought to life him to the and he final- vengeance of Caligdestroy him. and had already risen high in the favor of the Emperor Claudius. and that he would. but spared his when it ca's health was was represented to him that Senefeeble. ly left the bar. he was exiled to Corsica. fearing the ula. through the efforts of Messalina. the brother of Claudius. when.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM oric for philosophy. in all probability. He afterwards attained the quaestorship. and as an orator achieved considerable success. in obedience to his father's wishes. where he re- mained eight years. deriving from philosophy what consolation he could. He traveled in Greece and Egypt . cultivating the practical ethics of the Stoic school. Seneca liber y composed De ad Helviam "On Consola- tion. who accused Seneca of some disgraceful actions with the daughter of Germanicus. But his success as an advocate exposed dangerous jealousy of Caligula. During consolatione his exile.

D. and contained the most fulsome flatteries in- young man tended for the ears of both. in conjunction with Burrus. to undertake the education of her son Lucius Domitius. lost a brother. 49. addressed to Polybius." The work was addressed to his mother to console her not only under the misfortune that had befallen her in his sentence. but upon the death of Burrus.SENECA solation. afterwards the Emperor Nero. Under his two tutors Nero gave some promise of statesmanlike development. Diderot. when she had destroyed her imperial rival. The second work freedman Polately was addressed to the dissolute lybius. Seneca was recalled to Rome. in his Essay on the Life of Seneca^ has attacked the authenticity later editors of the work. a favorite of Claudius. fine It contains some passages. but under all that had been experienced by her. and raised to the praetorship by Agrippina. a who had of great promise. H7 . one of the of Seneca. and Ruhkoff. who was his governor and military tutor. In A. but is unworthy of coming from the pen of Seneca. considers it of doubt- ful authority.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
Nero began
straint.

rapidly to develop the worst side

of his character, and was soon beyond all reAs Tacitus says, " By the death of
Burrus, Seneca lost the chief support of his power. The friend of upright measures was

snatched away, and virtue could no longer make head against the corruptions of a court,

governed altogether by the wild and profligate. By that set of men Seneca was undermined."

While Seneca was
writing the

his

favorite minister,

young emperor's addresses

to the

senate, etc., he had obtained great influence over his pupil, and he had also taken the opportunity to greatly enrich himself, hav-

ing accumulated 300,000 sestertia, or over $12,000,000 of our money. It is uncertain

how

far Seneca was implicated in the murder of Britannicus, but there seems but little doubt that he at least consented to the assas-

sination of Agrippina, which Nero defended in a letter to the senate, penned, according to

Tacitus, by Seneca, condoning at least, and justifying the deed as a political necessity.

Seneca

of popular censure, particularly after being attacked by
the
object
148

now became

SENECA
Suillius,

who

accused him of usury, avarice,

and

rapacity.

Nero

listened to evil counsellors,

who charged Seneca

with having exorbitant wealth, above the condition of a private citizen; he was accused of courting the affections

of the people, and, by the grandeur of his villas, and the beauty of his gardens, hoping to vie with imperial splendor. In matters of
taste

and genius, too, and especially in poetic composition, he had the hardihood to become the rival of his imperial master. Seneca was now
sixty years of age,

and when these accusations

reached him, he avoided the court, and lived an abstemious life, in constant danger. His

speech to the emperor, in which he offers to resign all his wealth and power, and asks permission to
retire, is a fine

specimen of apolo-

But he was accused of treason, getic eloquence. and Sylvanus the tribune, by order of Nero,
surrounded Seneca's magnificent villa, near Rome, with a troop of soldiers, and then sent
a centurion to

acquaint
'

him with

the

em-

that he should put himself to peror's orders, death. Says Tacitus
:

1

Annals, xv,

Ixii.

149

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
" Seneca heard the message with calm composure. He called for his will, and being deprived of that right of a Roman citizen by the { centurion, he turned to his friends, and you

not at liberty to requite your services with the last marks of my esteem. One thing, however, still remains. I
see/ he said,
that
I

c

am

leave

you the example of my life, the best and most precious legacy now in my power. Cherish it in your memory, and you will gain
at

once the applause due to virtue, and the fame of a sincere and generous friendship.'
All
present melted into tears. He endeavored to assuage their sorrows he of-

who were

;

fered his advice with mild persuasion ; he used c f the tone of authority. Where/ he said, are

the precepts of philosophy, and where the

words of wisdom, which and

for years have taught us to meet the calamities of life with firmness

a well-prepared spirit ? Was the cruelty of Nero unknown to any of us? He mur;

dered his mother

he destroyed his brother and, after those deeds of horror, what remains to fill the measure of his guilt but the death
;

of his guardian and his tutor
150

'

?

SENECA
delivered himself in these pathetic terms, he directed his attention to his wife. He clasped her in his arms, and in that

"

Having

fond embrace yielded for a while to the tenderness of his nature. Recovering his resolution, he entreated her to appease her grief,

and bear

in

mjnd

that his

life

was spent

in a

constant course of honor and of virtue.
consideration

That
still

would serve

to heal affliction,

and sweeten

all

her sorrows. Paulina was

inconsolable. She was determined to die with

her husband; she invoked the aid of the executioners, and begged them to end her wretch-

ed being.

Seneca saw that she was animated

by the love of glory, and that generous principle he thought ought not to be restrained. The
idea of leaving a beloved object to the insults of the world, and the malice of her enemies,

pierced

him

to the quick.

'It has

been

my

care,' he said, 'to instruct you in that best philosophy, the art of mitigating the ills of
life
;

but you prefer an honorable death.
fall.

I will

not envy you the vast renown that must

at-

Since you will have it so, we will leave behind us an will die together.

tend your

We

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
example of equal constancy but the glory
;

will

be

all your own/ "These words were no sooner

uttered, than

the veins of both their arms were opened. At Seneca's time of life the blood was slow and
languid.

The

poverishing diet to which he had self, left him in a feeble condition.

decay of nature, and the imused him-

He

ordered

the vessels of his legs and joints to be punctured. After that operation he began to labor

with excruciating pains.

Lest his sufferings

should overpower the constancy of his wife, or the sight of her afflictions prove too much for his own sensibility, he persuaded her to
retire into

another room. His eloquence conits

tinued to flow with

usual purity. He called for his secretaries, and dictated, while life was

ebbing away, that farewell discourse, which has been published, and is in everybody's hands."
In order to hasten his death, Seneca also took hemlock, and had himself suffocated in
a

vapor bath. His wife was saved against her

wishes by the soldiers at the entreaty of her slaves and freedmen. Seneca's body was buried
privately without ceremony, as he had directed
152

but to appetite. A Happy and Benefits.D. Mind. Tranquillity of stancy. and 'Treatises on Anger. in the woods. because they served not to nourishment. Philosophical ConLife. that grew drink was water.SENECA by his will (A. The Shortness of Life. However. Tacitus says that at one time Seneca persistently lived and his sole on wild apples. "as of all given by Seneca. Owing to his tutor At- talus." says Humboldt. Seneca's extant writings are mainly on moral subjects. and consist of Epistles. but his father prevailed upon him to use flesh he should be suspected of abstaining upon superstitious grounds. mushrooms and oysters. " The theory of earthquakes. Consolation. Philosophical Retirement. contains the germs that has been stated in our times concerning the action of elastic vapors enclosed in the . Seneca also wrote seven books entitled Questiones Naturales^ in which he is thought to have anticipated some notions re- garded as principles in modern physics. Providence. Clemency. Seneca early became a vegetarian. 65). he meat lest renounced the two great dainties of the time.

Seneca excels all other writers of antiquity in the particular department of morals by which he is best known." Seneca was unquestionably the most brilliant figure of his time. says. " You may get a motto for every sect in in religion. their abundance of knowl- edge unalloyed with pedantry. but nothing is ever thought out by him. for he was the most elaborate of all the interpreters of the Stoic philosophy.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM interior of the globe. In many of his educational and 1 social doctrines History of he is surprisingly in ad288." Says Coleridge. and he may also be regarded as the most important of the Roman Stoic school. We learn from Seneca scientific researches the point to which the ancients carried their without the aid of instru- ments. p. their nobility of thought and warmth of feeling. and their gorgeous style enlivened with all the resources of rhetoric. 154 . that they 1 reader by their breadth of view. their large and fine observation. referring to the philosophical writ" charm the ings of Seneca." Teuffel. or live morals and philosophy from Senethought ca. Roman Literature.

"To knock once at the . guide. and he gives minute precepts for every circumstance of life. and it must be seconded. and treating slaves and . door when you come at night is never enough the blow must be hard. mortification and retirement friends. to the spirit (i) by subduing the flesh through feeling. living for one's 155 . bodily as well as spiritual. intellect. it is a neces- In an age of unbelief and compromise. (2) by family. He says. At all times he gave the wealth of his knowledge and and apand reiterated his appeals to pealed strongly. and adviser in all matters. taught how to act so as to He win happiness here. men's hearts rather than to convincing their his varied experience to his friends.SENECA it is astonishing how the knowledge that he displays. and is He conscience. Repetition sity. yet he culled his precepts from every form of doctrine with impartial appreciation." is not a fault. penetrating became to a certain extent the director of vance of his age. Seneca taught that truth was positive and virtue objective. and country. His teaching was a refined and spiritual Stoicism.

etc. but it is full of conand Seneca deserves praise for the cessions. His system. but when he places himself under any banner it is always that of Zeus . self-knowledge. but while he started from the Stoic system. first He was the moralist to enunciate the brotherhood of man. the unholiness of war. (4) by self- examination. he good rich man differs from the bad in spirit. it is for us to learn how to apply them. "have been discovered long ago . that the taught that riches being indifferent need not be given up. however." he says. simplicity of liv" The reming. cleverness with which he steers over danger- ous ground. its barren austerity was toned down.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM inferiors kindly as fellow servants in the work and welfare of existence. not in externals. and its crotchets were laid aside. (3) by devotion to philosophy as the awakener of conscience and the best preparation for death . the sanctity of 156 . its harshness softened. For instance. taken outline is in its main rigid enough. and patience under suffering. edies of the soul." Seneca was too practical to care for abstract speculations.

" declares Seneca. p. and he lacked the firmness to live a up to his own standard. the tutor. as. the rights of slaves. Brown.SENECA human life. when we and consider the immense Stoic Saints. on acts and not on words it is disgraceful to " . "He was rich. cultivated and famous in the foremost rank in the foremost city in the world . As a writer has said. . it is for a rich man to enter into the " depends Philosophy. As man he dishonored the doctrines which he expounded and defended with so much eloquence and power. 157 . but he set his ideal too high. Kingdom of God/' say one thing and to think and write another. and he had many of the noble qualities of an old Roman. it was about as hard for him to live out the Stoic doctrine. the counsellor of the imperial masters of the whole realm of civilization. the friend. according to a higher master than Seneca. The But 1 writings of a philosopher ought to be capable of application to his it is own conduct. 39." and difficult to reconcile the theory the practice. Seneca was intensely practical. and their claims to our affections.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM wealth of Seneca. xiii. and perfectly what was likely to tickle the ears of his contemporaries." and they accepted the view that he had adopted their 1 faith. From his earliest days he was capable of adopting self-denial as a principle. he retained the simplicity of his habits. in the very midst of wealth and splendor. The Fathers of the church called him " the divine pagan. Seneca lived purely. a friend of one of Rome's most wicked emperors. temperately and lovingly. ///// illi 1 son. Living as he did amidst the splendors and vices of the court. her vero ingenium amoetemporis ejus auribus accommodatum. Tacitus says num " et He knew possessed a most agreeable wit. so 3. and was all claimed as a convert to a church with which he shows no sympathy." Dio Cassius makes gross charges against the private character of Seneca. and the temptations which they involve. often did his religious and Annals. dishonestly obtained. 158 . and recognize him as the writer of the apology for the murder of Agrippina by Nero. but they do not rest on a particle of evidence.

of the peace of the eternity there awaiting us. and happy society of souls made perfect seeing in his when sentence one . like M. of the light of knowledge his description which nature will there .SENECA moral maxims approximate to those of Christianity. that the body is a lodging house. its from which the soul will return to own home which . his will joy in looking forward to the day rend the bonds of the body asunder. will be pronounced on every a future life . have endeavored to show that they can only be accounted for by the supposition that Seneca had some acquaintance with the sacred writings. calls the birthday of eternal life . that the that this life is a prelude statements of Seneca to a better . his making the thought of the great stimulus to moral conduct here even the way in which he consoles himself for the destruction of the soul by the thought "59 . Zeller has shown. of the freedom and bliss of the heavenly life. in common with the early Christians. some writers. Indeed. Fleury. death a great day of judgment. however. which he. be shed on all the secrets of his language on the future recognition .

Rome iv. Seneca's rela1 Zeller.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM that after it will live again in all another form here- contain nothing at variance with the Stoic teaching. Augustine also refers to this correspondence. p. 12 sqq. Epicureans. But Erasmus and others have declared these letters apocryphal. however near they may approach to Platonic or even Christian modes of thought. but the other how much one was influenced by M. The Stoics. that Paul dwelt in i. (Acts xxviii. and it would be difficult to find any one now who would deny this conclusion. and possibly he may have met Seneca. Fleury has made an elaborate collec- tion of the passages in Seneca's writings which seem to be Christian in tone. and was ac- quainted with Seneca's brother Gallio(Acts xviii.). 1 and Sceptics. 17). 60 . 1 There has been much discussion regarding Seneca's relation to Christianity. Jerome speaks of letters which passed between Paul and Seneca. However. 13 . we know 30. 2 Tim. and says they were read by many (leguntur a pluribus]. we do not know. Phil. and he ranks him in the catalogue of saints. 219.

forgetful. he weak. speaks of the house built upon the rock life He . of . Seneque et St. The world in which life. therefore." There are many striking resemblances be- tween Seneca and traces of St. as a warfare and a Seneca was very urgent that there should be a framework of general theory. and the talents out at usury. which would of men. and says.SENECA tion to Christianity has 1 been exhaustively treated list by Aubertin. etc. irresolute. of hypocrites like whited walls. regarded pilgrimage of the athlete's crown of victory. a voice that can speak with some 1 misleading maxims. 161 . Christ. the help. Paul. or led astray by bad example. serve as a rule of are The mass they live is full of specious falsehoods and They need. the sympathy. Paul. the guidance of a living rule. in an essay in his treatise on the "Epistle to the Philippians. as of the sower. soon blinded by sophistry. passionate. and a carefully selected of parallel passages is given by Bishop Lightfoot. and some of the best we even find known parables of rich fool. and the and the debtor.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM authority to heart and conscience. or stone. or conditions. nor waits the ministrations that he has . which is God or nature. and Roman. proverbial maxims or striking illustrations. ranks. 162 . that men must believe in God before they can approach him that the true service of God is to be like unto him that are . are alike under his all-seeing providence. and none performed all the works of the law that God is no respect. no delight is in all the blood of victims that he near to his creatures. bond and free. all sinned. which would tend to implant the right convictions in the mind. members of one body. that his spirit resides in men's hearts. Says Seneca. barbarian. that that all men are truly his offspring. but all. God dwells not in temples of wood of human hands. we . friendly counsel. men have er of nations.

Epicurean. their extension and en163 . for they both conformed their lives to their teaching. to Socratic formulas. semblance. Says Kendall : " In the emphasis. Aurelius is most allied and in scope of thought. and to rival schools . or Sceptic. of philosophy Cynic.XI MARCUS AURELIUS Epictetus have the real heroes of the been considered to be Stoicism of which Seneca was only the elegant preacher. their recurrence their abandonment of and Stoic arrogations of certitude indefectibility. in doctrine. their psychology and their episte- mology agree they insist on the same main ethical dogmas they take the same attitude towards abstract dialectic. Kendall has shown that MARCUS AURELIUS and Epictetus is the teacher to whom Marcus in age. In their concentration upon practical ethics. as well as in the subof their teaching there is a close restance. .

ex." He adds: "He was certainly the noblest character of his time and I know of no other man who com." 1 Marcus Aurelius was by no means so deep or so strong a thinker as Epictetus." hundred years before Marcus Aurelius. it is his. mildness. and most conscientious of men. gentlest. Pythagoras had taught the benefit and necessity of self-inquiry. His innate benevo- lence of heart served to chasten the severity of the pure Stoic system. but he was one of the purest. Night and Nearly five morning he prescribed pecially was 1 for himself and his these times es- followers an examination. and humility with such conscientiousness and severity towards himself. 164 . and " if there is any sublime virtue. it At meet to take account of our Rendall. Niebuhr says that it is more delightful to speak of him than of any man in history. their ethical omnipresent immanence of God. they occupy the same position towards Stoicism. bined such unaffected kindness. Marcus Aurelius to Himself.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM realization of the forcement of social obligation.

MARCUS AURELIUS
soul and
its

doings
I
'

;

in the

evening to ask,

"Wherein have
what
failed to
I

do

?

transgressed? what done? In the morning, c< What

must

do
'

?

wherein repair past days' forget-

fulness

?

upon

his followers

Socrates pressed this introspection and taught that it was the

duty of every
thyself, that
is,

man

to

know

himself.

Know
;

to realize thyself;

by obedi-

ence and self-control come to thy full stature be in fact what you are in possibility ; satisfy
yourself, in the only
satisfaction

way

in

which true

self-

self the law

is possible, by realizing in yourwhich constitutes your real being.

This introspection occupied the attention of many philosophers. Men were searching into
their relations with each other, their duties to

each other, with the idea to inspire them, that brotherhood, love and kindness, and not enmity, was the normal relation to mankind.

With Marcus

Aurelius, his whole

life

was

given to self-inquiry. There was in him a certain childlike piety which he owed, not entirely

to Stoicism, but, as

he says, to the

influence of a pious mother on his education. often speaks not only of contentment,

He

165

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
but of joy in God, and which he crowned his
that
all

in all the
life.

mercies with
is

He

confident

the woes and wrongs of life, and even death itself, cannot be evils, since God allows
to exist within the sphere of his benign and righteous reign. One of his rules was to fix his thoughts as much as possible

them

on the virtues of others, rather than on their " When thou wishest to vices. delight thyself,

think of the virtues of those

who

live

with thee

the activity of one, the modesty of another, the liberality of a third, and some other good quality of a fourth."

" Men exist for the Says Marcus Aurelius, sake of one another. Teach them or bear with

them."

"The

best

way of avenging

thyself

is

not to become like the wrongdoer." "If any has done wrong, the harm is his own. But " Believe perhaps he has not done wrong." that men are your brethren and you will love

man

them."

Marcus Aurelius taught

that our fellow
heart.

men ought

to be loved

from the

They

ought outward decency, but because the benefactor
1

to be benefited, not for the sake of

66

MARCUS AURELIUS
is

penetrated with the joy of benevolence, and thereby benefits himself. Whatever hinders

union with others has a tendency to separate the members from the body, from which all
derive their
life
;

and he who estranges himself

from one of

his fellow

men

voluntarily severs

himself from the stock of mankind. " If any one can show me that I do not
think or act correctly, I will change gladly, for I seek the truth, by which no one was ever harmed." " It is not right that I should
give myself pain, for I have never given it " It is a great thing to willingly to another." live in truth and justice, with kind feelings

even to the lying and unjust."

"

He who

wrongs me
spirit

is

my

kinsman

in

unity of the

angry with
that

and divine sonship, and I cannot be " my brother." Let me remember
exist for each other,

and that they " It is do wrong unwillingly." peculiarly human to love even those who do wrong."

men

When

asked

if

he had seen the gods or had

learned of their existence, Aurelius replied, " I have never seen any soul, and yet I treat
it

with reverence

;

so, also,

when

I

constantly

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
experience the power of the gods,
I

learn to

recognize their existence, and I honor them." Aurelius realized the distinction between an

outward abstinence from
of

evil,

and a true

in-

ward holiness, and recognized the sinfulness
all

mankind. "

When

thou seest another

sin,

think that thou thyself sinnest sometimes, and art just such an one thyself. And even

though thou abstainest from many sins, yet thou hast within thee the inclination to such from fear, from vanity, or practices, though some similar disposition, thou avoidest them."
Aurelius was by turns the accused, the witness, advocate and judge. No more noble
utterthoughts, or pure and lofty spiritual ances have issued from the heathen world. He

recognized that the universe is wisely ordered, that every man is part of it or must conform

which he cannot change, that whatever the Deity has done is good, and that all mankind are brothers, and that it is
to that order

the duty of every
his

man

to

love and cherish

brethren and try to make them better, even those who would do him harm. It was
a tenet

of ancient philosophy that the
1

life

of

68

MARCUS AURELIUS
the wise

man

should be a contemplation
of the
life
it

of,

and

a preparation for, death.

The keynote

of Aurelius we
is

find in his saying, "Since

possible that

thou mayest depart from life this very moment, regulate every act and thought accordingly/'

Aurelius
;

believed

that

life is

the

presence of God the course of the world is the evolution of Providence the hand of the
;

Deity
voice

is
is

operative everywhere ; above all his articulate within man's self, as his inlife

dwelling
for

and

soul.

In philosophy sought
truth,

and found,
lie

justice,

wisdom, and

courage, Yet, while firmly believing in the tenets of the Stoics, Aurelius was broad-minded, and
so loved freedom of thought, that he made an impartial distribution of the lectureships in philosophy among the four great schools, so
that Platonists, Aristotelians, and Epicureans were paid for proclaiming their views. The contemplative Stoicism of Aurelius

the cardinal virtues of Stoicism.

proceeded from philosophic speculation, and a resignation which could coolly contemplate

even the annihilation of our personality
169

;

but

170 He sought . must be when it must leave the body. and conscientious rulers who ever adorned a throne. effect. as the Christians and it must also be the result of contemplation. and not from mere obstinacy. the spirit with be dissolved. As " The soul thusiasm. This must proceed from free choice. Roman emperor. so that a man should be able to per- suade another to the same course. philanthropic." While Aurelius was one of the most benign. from political as well as reof the ligious motives. appeared to Aurelius a mere delusion of en- Neander says. He could see in Christianity only a "foolish 1 less' and boundand he felt compelled. without any theatrical . to protect the religion state from its pronounced enemies. or to remain a readiness little longer with the body. either prepared to be extinguished. yet in his reign the Christians were subjected to persecutions more severe than even under Nero. or to which the Christian martyrs met death and even sought it.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM he had no sympathy with calmness and resignation that arose from a living faith. Says Aurelius. as superstition. and a lofty spirit.

and prevented the 171 . farmers. shoemakers. women. A opposition to the religious life of the people. endangered the to existence of the empire. a broadly and philosophically educated scholar. by seeking stand separate. that the Christians not only set themselves in children. and the rule empire. and the more zealous ignorant of men.MARCUS AURELIUS to base the stability of the throne on a rigid morality. but they also opposed the emperor and the ruler there must be. Celsus. on self-denial and self-sacrifice. striving for the general supremacy of their cause. on the frontier of the empire. that laborers. But the Christians. it Lucian of Samosata. and strong argument of Celsus was. A of the emperor is a bulwark against the threatening danger of the barbarians. and that they chiefly addressed themselves to slaves. they demanded philosophical grounds what they believed. should be preachers of the Gospel. makes class a matter of mockery. The educated Romans looked with disdain upon a for doctrine which required only a blind belief. the first writer against Christianity. and a friend of the noted satirist.

and that it con- demned the terms. Abso172 power had best and . to serve the emperor. Christians must be made to submit to the whole community. says: " If ever any one possessed of for thinking himself the He grounds most enlightened among his contemporaries.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM execution of public benefits. therefore. and a mysterious political conspiracy which was secretly spreading throughout the empire. and declared that all the heathen religions The were false. In the interests of the empire. John Stuart Mill draws a lesson from the course taken by Aurelius. and this was a declaration of hostility against the Roman government. which can be effected only under a strong and united gov- ernment. Mr. Aurelius saw in the new religion an im- moral superstition. thus saving civilization from barbarism. it was the emperor Marcus Aurelius. a most striking warning against the danger of interfering with the liberty of thought. and to protect it. prevalent religion in the strongest Christians rejected all the heathen ceremonies. to assist him in the ruling of the empire. and of public order.

But such as it was. preceptibly. persecuted Christianity. with his duties to which he was so deeply penetrated. from the characteristic teachings of Christ. he preserved through life not only the most unblemished justice. differ scarcely . if they differ at all. This a better Christian. he yet failed to see that Christianity was to be a good and not an evil to the world. with an open. The few failings which are attributed to him were all on the side of indul- gence while his writings. Existing society he knew to be in a deplorable state. what was less to be expected from his stoical breeding. the tenderest heart. and a character which led him. by . or thought he saw. the highest ethical product of the ancient mind. Placed at the summit of all the previous attainments of humanity. and prevented from being worse. to embody in his moral writings the Christian ideal. of himself. dogmatic sense of the word. that it was held together. unfettered intellect.MARCUS AURELIUS lute monarch of the whole civilized world. but. in all but the most man. he saw. than almost any of the ostensibly Christian sovereigns who have since reigned.

and a sys- tem which purported to rest entirely upon a foundation to him so wholly unbelievable. if the Christian faith had been adopted as the 174 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM belief and reverence of the received divinities. it has in fact proved to be. authorized the persecution of Christianity. it duty to put it down. it at dissolving these ties. there- was his seemed to be his duty to adopt that religion. how different a thing the Christianity of the world might have been. then. this is one of the most tragical facts in all history. As a ruler of mankind. and saw not how. after all abatements. unless. The new religion aimed openly fore. if its existing ties were removed. under a solemn sense of duty. It is a bitter thought. or of divine origin as this strange history of a cruci- God was not credible to him. To my mind. he deemed it his duty not to suffer society to fall in pieces. the gentlest and most amiable of philosophers and rulers. could not be foreseen by him to be that renovating agency which. any others could be formed which could again knit it together. Inastheology of Christianity much. inasmuch fied as the did not appear to him true.

lieves that atheism is false. But it is equally unjust to him. and false to truth. or more single-minded in his devotion to it when found let him abstain from that assumption of the joint infallibility of himself and the multitude.MARCUS AURELIUS religion of the empire. to deny. thought the most capable of appreciating Unless any one who approves of punishment for the promulgation of opinions. than Marcus Aurelius believed the same things of Christianity . which the great Aurelius made with so unfortunate a result/' Aurelius speaks of the Christians as obsti- . that no one plea which urged for punishing anti-Christian teaching. might have been it. of all men then living. flatters himself that he is a wiser and better man than Marcus Aurelius more deeply versed in the wisdom of his time more elevated in his intellect above it more earnest in his search for truth. he who. the propagation of can be Christian Christianity. was wanting to Marcus Aurelius. for punishing. as he did. No firmly beand tends to the more dissolution of society. instead of those of Constantine. under the auspices of Marcus Aurelius.

brought heathenism as near as in its strength and wisdom it could come to Christianity. "It seems. and he no doubt accepted the current prejudices of the ruling classes. ever. he How- remained the very loftiest expression of that purified Stoicism which bordered on Christianity without entering its territory or taking anything from it. and neglected to look deeper into the real doctrines of the church. says of heathendom grows less proud. He is the great link or connection between the heathen and Christian schools. draws nearer Roman M. and he seems to carry to a higher point and nearer to the Christian faith the great religious ideas which formed the basis of the He Stoic school.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM nate fanatics in his Meditations. which before him were un- known. and which Christian grace has alone surpassed. and is ready to fling itself into the arms of the 'Unknown God/ In the said Meditations of Aurelius we find a pure serenity. and nearer or which it to a Christianity which it ignored. despised. sweetness." "that in him the philosophy Martha. and docility to the commands of God. If he has not yet attained to charity 176 .

The father of Marcus Aurelius was Annius died in his praetorship. His mother. so lofty and so pure. the second King of Rome. 177 . the son-inlaw and successor of Antoninus Pius. 121. Domitia CalMartha. without thinking of the sadness of Pascal and must pause the gentleness of Fenelon. and died March 17. he has already gained unction. A. unique in the history of pagan philosophy." Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He came of a family which had long been settled in the south of Spain.D. 180. to contemplate ancient virtue in its softest brilliancy. We and how penetrating a grace they have found in their new simplicity.MARCUS AURELIUS in all that fullness ity has its of meaning which Christian- given to the world. and which was summoned to Rome to fill the highest offices of the state. moral delicacy to which profane how they laid down doctrines have attained to see the their pride. and one cannot read his book. before this soul. and was Verus. Les Moralistes sur 1' Empire Remain. was born April 25. he ascended the throne in 1 6 1. descended from a long line of illustrious men who who 1 claimed descent from Numa.

along with Lucius C. simplicity of life far removed from the habits of the rich. he was made consul.D. the daughter of Pius. he was adopted. no pains to give him a good spared education. from his mother. and abstinence not only from evil deeds. he continued to death 178 . and. On the death of his father. Marcus Aurelius was adopted who by his grandfather.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM villa. him Verissimus.. In the year 140 A. was selected for his wife. but even from evil thoughts. the successor of Hadrian and Faustina. Aurelius says that from his grand- father he learned good morals and the gov- ernment of manliness his temper. modesty and . His fine qualities early attracted the notice of the emperor Hadrian. piety and benef- icence. When by Antoninus Pius. Commodus. well a who used to term name which Aurelius liked times enough in later years to have it put at upon the coins struck in his mints. was also a lady of consular and kingly race. from the reputation and remembrance of his father. further. . and from this period to the of Pius. in 161 A.D. only seventeen years of age.

his adoptive father disinherited him. ever. and exantiquities. and pro- curing the nomination of Aurelius as sole successor by the senate. During his early years. When Antoninus Pius was chosen by Hadrian as his successor. But the latter had so far that disgraced himself by his early profligacy. he was fifty-two years old. Aurelius. and first Rome saw for the time. On his accession. addiction 179 . how- who now assumed the name of Antoninus. who henceforth bore the name of Lucius Aurelius Verus. associated him with himself in the empire. gave an equal share of the government to Commodus. and the greatest of his day took part in his instructeachers tion. no pains were spared to fit Aurehis high station. before ascending the throne.MARCUS AURELIUS discharge the duties of his various offices with the greatest promptitude and fidelity. two co-rulers all share between them on an equal footing the dignity of absolute power. He had a o great love of reading taste for olius for 7 to philosophy. and he was selected on the express condition that he should in turn adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

We missed a meeting of the senate.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM treme docility of temperament. sources. and is characterized by the most unaffected simplicity 1 and modesty. that that " from "he never changed his countenance for grief or gladness/' read that during three he absented himself but two and twenty years. Like many young Romans he tried his hand at poetry and studied rhetoric. forms the first book of his Meditations. he never nights from the side of Antoninus . 80 . and he poetry and attached himself to the sect of the Stoics. or left before he would give days to the hearing its close . grave but affable". and extended the days of assize to two hundred and thirty in the year. Aurelius has recorded the names of his teachers and the obligations which he owed to each of them. His gratitude to them was warm and profound. which was written during one of his campaigns. of a single case. We learn from contemporary childhood he was of a serious cast". modest and strenuous. Finally. that his demeanor was that of " a courteous gentleman. This sketch. he abandoned rhetoric for philosophy.

learned to eschew rhetoric and poetry and fine language. Thanks to him I am weaned from rhetoric and poetry. among them. or fancy portraiture of . the letters which passed between Fronto and Aurelius were in an old manuscript. teachers Fronto was one of the most Not many years ago. From Rusticus found he learned that his character required improve- ment and discipline. " From Rusticus. 181 . discourses provocative of virtue. He warned me from the treacherous paths of sophistry. and he made him acquainted with the memoirs of Epictetus." He gave in after years to Rusticus the credit of his conversion from letters to philosophy. Says he. the sage or the philanthropist . I first conceived the need of moral correction and amendment renounced sophistic ambitions and essays on philosophy. from fine writing . "It was he who made me feel how much I needed to reform and train my character. from affected elegance of style. over which another work had been written. to abstain and many other things. from formal speeches of parade which aim at nothing higher than applause.MARCUS AURELIUS Of his famous.

and Marcianus were his chief instructors in philosophy. and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed. 182 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and can write now with simplicity. polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech. and to look to nothing else. Helvidius. Then follow Alexander the Platonist. ex- He taught how to receive favors. and his brother Severus. From him I have learned to concentrate my thoughts on serious study. and not agreeing with fluent speech. and Bentus. with a methodical account of what he learned from each. with Thrasea. not cept to reason. Tandasis." And so on through a long list of instructors. Bacchius." all to be surprised into the random utterance of Diognetus. Apollonius taught him freedom of will and undeviating steadiness of purpose. from whose lives and recorded words he learned " the idea of polity in which there a is the same law for all. Cato. factitious even for a moment. and Catulus. Dion. without either sacrifice of self-respect or churlish regard.

when accompanied with victories. Yet by the irony of fate. he led a most strenuous tlest. and in his family relations. even the legions. His delight was meditation. The Parthians defeated and all 183 . His private His only life was one of extreme simplicity. To the gentle heart of Aurelius. Then came the horrors of war and rumors of war. after Aurelius had become emperor. life. purest. First came the Parthian war. yet the life best years of his were spent in the turmoil of camp all life. but he did nothing. tion pleasure was in books and meditation. and in later life his power of digesand sleep wholly gave way. Soon and after his accession to the throne an inundation of the Tiber caused great ruin distress which ended in a widespread famine. He was one of the gen- and most conscientious of men. The surroundings and associates of war were harsh and unconwas necessary with genial. was extremely distasteful. in which Verus was sent to command.MARCUS AURELIUS Marcus Aurelius was in very poor physical health from his boyhood. and was strained by overwork. yet his presence war.

80.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM but destroyed the Roman army. and devastated with impunity the Roman province of Syria. but Verus took all the Roman gencredit. shattered by perpetual anxiety and fatigue. and the hardships of camp life. after a reign of twenty years. in his fifty-ninth year. and the Catti were the waiting for an opportunity to devastate Rhenish provinces. the greater part of which was 1 amid spent in the most uncongenial work. but to other erals. the then Sirmium. and many years were spent by Aurelius in driving back the invaders. in Vienna. Aurelius spent in the north. What little success the Romans had was not due to Verus. five years without ever returning to Rome. were on the point of revolt. A. it is supposed. undermined his originally weak condition. and he died. enduring the greatest hardships with the serenity of a philosopher.D. A formidable insurrection had long been prethe Britons paring in the German provinces . on the seventeenth of March. But the constant from hosstruggle to preserve his dominions tile invaders. 184 . The north of Italy was threatened by the rude people beyond the Alps.

" It was during his camp life.MARCUS AURELIUS the tumults of perpetual war. unconnected and paragraphic form. After his and philanthropic aspiradecease. and yet the everlasting presence of war never him to sink into a mere warrior. which many more than a hundred years after was still found among their household gods. not for instruction like Epictetus. He tempted main- tained uncorrupted to the end of his noble life. and the distraction necessarily arising from the government of so vast an empire. Hence the brief. They are . that Aurelius wrote down his thoughts. They were written. wherein his Meditations have come down 185 to us. every Roman citizen. and for no eye but his own. died without beholding it. which have come down to us as his Meditations. but only for re- of sleeplessness and solitude. his philosophic tions. not for lief effect like Seneca. or reflections. which was felt to be a national calamity. and others in distant portions of the empire. As a writer has said "The man who loved peace with his whole : soul. procured an image or statue of him. surrounded by uncongenial associates.

" Says Dr. Aurelius " perhaps Matthew Arnold most that beautiful figure in history/' Lecky he was "the purest and gentlest of all the pagan world. writings of "As Epictetus gives a higher tone to the theology of the Stoic school. tations form." Nowhere else is the morality of paganism couched in so pure and high and reverent a spirit. which.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM a collection of maxims and reflections in the spirit of the Stoic philosophy." Taine pronounces him "the noblest soul that ever lived." Says Montesis quieu. as it were. I know no other any sublime virtue it is man who combined such unaffected kindness. and the Mediness. so the M. shaming weakfor him and rebuking discontent. breathe the purest sentiments of piety and benevolence. without much connection or skill in composition. "yet the centuries still turn to wisdom. an indispensable supcalls plement the says spirit to Holy Writ. and the thoughts remain imperishable. "If there his. dignifying duty. mildness and humility with such conscientiousness and sever- toward himself. Aurelius manifest an improve186 . ity Lightfoot.

As a cona stern preacher of righteousness. : conscientiously alive to the claims of all men far and near.' 187 . the Roman emperor commands deeper respect.MARCUS AURELIUS ment in its ethical scious witness of God and teaching. . The brooding melancholy and the almost feminine tenderness are a marked contrast to the hard outlines in the portraiture of the older Stoics. His natural disposition softened the harsher features of Stoical ethics.. the Phrygian slave holds a higher place but as a kindly philanthropist..

XII

SELECTIONS FROM EPICTETUS
i
.

1

The

imitation of God.

not enough simply to wish to be honorable and good; it is necessary besides to be
is

IT

instructed in certain points; accordingly, what these are.

we must

inquire

The

philosophers

tell

us that before

all

things it is necessary to learn that God is, and that he provides for all things, and that from

him nothing can be hid not deeds only, but even thoughts and purposes. Next must be
learned of what nature the gods are; for such

found to be, he who would please and obey them must endeavor with all his might to become like unto them. If, e.g., the Divine be faithful, so must he be faithful if
as they are
;

free, so

must he be

free; if

beneficent, so must

he be beneficent;

if

Selections from the "Encheiridion," and "Fragments" of Epictetus.

high minded, so must he " Dissertations'
188

SELECTIONS
do
all

EPICTETUS

such things as are agreeable to the

same.
2.

Divine government of the world.

We
life

conduct ourselves
as

in the

assembly of
Beasts are

much

people do

at a fair.
;

brought to be sold, and oxen and the greater part of the men come to buy and sell, and
there are

some few who come

to look at the

market and to inquire how it is carried on, and why, and who fixes the meeting and for what purpose. So it is here also in this assome, like cattle, trouble life) themselves about nothing except their fodder. For to all of you who are busy about posses-

sembly (of

:

sions
fices,

and lands and slaves and magisterial ofthese are nothing except fodder. But

there are a few

who

attend the

fair,

men who
is

love to look on and consider what

the

world,

who governs it. Has it no governor? And how is it possible that a city or a family
exist,

cannot continue to
est

not even the short-

time without an administrator and guar-

and that so great and beautiful a system should be administered with such order and
dian,

yet without a purpose and by chance
189

?

There

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
is

then an administrator.

What

kind of ad-

ministrator and

who
for

how does he govern ? And who were produced by him, and what purpose ? Have we some connection
are we,

with him and some relation towards him, or none ? This is the way in which these few are
affected,

to this

and then they apply themselves only one thing, to examine the meeting and

then to go away.
iculed
fair are

What

then

?

They

are rid-

as the spectators at the the traders; and if the beasts had by any understanding, they would ridicule those who admired anything else than fodder.

by the many,

3

.

'The providence of God.

Concerning the gods, there are some who say that a Divine Being does not exist and
;

and and hath no forethought for anyuncaring, thing; and a third class say that there is such
others, that
it

exists indeed,

but

is

idle

and he taketh forethought also, but only in respect of great and heavenly things, but of nothing that is on the earth and a
a Being,
;

fourth class, that he taketh thought of things

both

in

heaven and earth, but only
190

in

general,

SELECTIONS
is

EPICTETUS

and not of each thing severally. And there a fifth class, whereof are Odysseus and
Socrates,

who
all

say,

Nor

can

I move without

thy knowledge.

things, then, it is necessary to investigate each of these opinions, whether it be justly affirmed or no. For if there be no

Before

gods, how can the following of the gods be an end ? And if there are gods, but such as take no care for anything, then, also, how can
the following of them be truly an end ? And how, again, if the gods both exist and take
care for things, yet if there be no communication from them to men, aye, and by heaven,

and even

to

mine own

self?

The
all

wise and

these things, good man, having investigated will submit his own mind to him that gov-

erneth the universe, even as good citizens to the laws of their state.
Omniscience and omnipotence of God.

4.

On

being asked

how we could
is
:

be convinced

that everything

done

all

Epictetus replied things in the universe are united in one?
191

Do you

observed by God, not believe that

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
Yes! said the other. Well, then, do you not think that there must be a sympathy between
the things of earth and those of heaven
do, said he. the
?

I

For how

else

do

plants, as if at

of God, when he bids them, flower in due season? and shoot forth when
bids

command

he bids them shoot, and bear fruit when he them bear ? and ripen when he bids them

ripen ? and again they drop their fruit when he bids them drop it, and shed their leaves

them shed them ? and how else bidding do they fold themselves together, and remain motionless and at rest?

when he
at his

bids

and how

waxing and waning of the moon, and the approach and withdrawal of the sun, do we behold such a change and reelse at the

versal in earthly things ? But are the plants and our bodies so bound up in the whole,

and have sympathy with
not

it,

and

are our spirits

much more

so
in

?

And our

souls being thus
in-

bound up and

touch with God, seeing,

deed, that they are portions

and fragments

of him, shall not every

movement of them,
?

inasmuch
to

as

it

is

something inward and akin

God, be perceived by him
192

But you

are

and have a certain com- munication with all ? But is the sun able to illuminate so great a part of the All. . namely. or suspend your judgment.SELECTIONS able to meditate EPICTETUS all upon the divine government. things. leave so little without light. you strike upon ideas similar to earlier impressions. and you retain many different arts. same time in the senses and in the intellect by ten thousand things. and at the same time to assent to some and dissent to others. and be present with all. is filled with the shadow of and it shall he who made the sun. and guideth in its sphere. shall ? a small part of him beside the whole. and you preserve in your mind so many impressions of so many and various affected at the and upon and to be all divine and human affairs. cannot take heed of these things at once. and memories of ten thousand things and shall not God have the power to overlook all things. which the earth. and to that part. saith the man. ble of perceiving all he not be capa- things But all I. and being affected by them. And who said you could do this ? that you had equal powers .

as soldiers do to Caesar. nor be deceived. receiving so many and great things. Is this oath like unto that other? The soldiers swear to esteem no other man before Caesar. will those indeed . But mark what ye who receive pay swear to prefer but the safety of Caesar before all things ye. for ye are not alone. who is charged to watch over him. To remember never is to say that ye are alone. never to blame aught that he hath given. a genius that cannot sleep. the genius of each man. but God is there. and your genius these of light to there. ye yourselves above all. will ye not abide what shall ye swear? Never to dis- Or obey. and what need have are doing ? To this God it were fitting also that ye should swear an oath. nevertheless. never unwillingly to do or suffer any necessary thing. ye not swear? by it? And swearing. what greater and more watchful guardian could he have committed us ? So. when ye have shut the doors. and made darkness in the house. he hath placed every man's side a guardian. never to accuse.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM with at God? But. 194 to esteem .

one man will not see the use of things which are and which happen thankful for them. If he does not possess these two qualities. even If . also. another will not be if he does know them. On the other God had made hand. what would have been their use ? None at all. easy to praise Providence. from the very structure of things which . ? and that Is it to this who has And who and in- that has fitted the knife to the case ? the case to the knife no one ? And. but had not made objects such as to fall under the faculty. and a grateful disposition. fitted this to that is it Who is it. colors. sup- pose that he had made both. deed. but had not made light? In that case. what in that case also would have been the use of it ? None at all. then. they would have been of no use. EPICTETUS 'The great Designer. if a qualities man possesses these two the faculty all of seeing what belongs and happens to persons and things. Well. is From everything which it is or happens in the world. if he had made the faculty of vision. but had not made the faculty of seeing them.SELECTIONS 5.

we are accus- tomed act show that the work of some artificer. ficient to is not even this sufto induce move some men. then. in a manner. let them explain to us what it is that makes each several thing. resemble them. let us consider the constitution of our understanding according to which. but select we also something from them. when we meet with sensible objects. and that to is it certainly the has not been constructed without a purpose. 196 . and. we do not simply receive impressions from them.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM have attained their completion. and do not visible things and the faculty of seeing and light demonstrate him ? If they do not. Does. in fact. and them not to forget the workman? If not so. each of these things demonstrate the work- man. and compound by means of them these things or those. and subtract something. and add. pass from some to other things which. or how it is possible that things so wonderful and like the contrivances of art should exist by chance and from their own proper motion.

Consequently for them it enough to eat and drink and rest and is breed. and to end only where is Nature in our case ends namely. who have been further endowed with the faculty of observation. 197 . observation is another. . Man has been brought into the world by . have several points in common with Use is one thing. these forms . with con- templation and study and a life in harmony with herself. therefore.SELECTIONS 6. it is a shame for man it to begin and end where do the animals. . then. God . EPICTETUS Man more than animal. and not only to contemplate these. and whatever else each of them per- but for us. to contemplate him and his works. requires of the animals that they should simply use and submit to objects of sense of us that we should observe and investigate these. And. his business rather to begin from the point they end at. We the animals. Take heed. things are not enough. that ye die not without having considered these things. but to inter- God pret them.

and weeping. any difficulty have means given me by thee them. O pleasest. compulsion or gift but put it our own hands. Man equal to his fortune. them. still. trembling with fear that some you things will happen. even reserving to himself any power to prevent or impede its use.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM 7. accompanied with no hindrance. do you also having observed these things look to the faculties which you : when you have looked at Bring now. being depressed or crushed by but. and lamenting. and then. And yet God faculties to bear all that not only bestowed on us such may happen without it . . not straint. and sit then you blame the gods for cowardice of this kind is sure to be followed by impiety. and groaning for what does happen . like a his re- good king and true father. say that thou and the powers for honoring myself through the things which happen. 198 . Come. have. You do not so but . And yet with such all in at their free disposal. for I Zeus. men do not use do not realize what they have received. and from whose hands but they sit moaning means .

and not recognizing their benefactor while others are sordid enough to resort to complaints and accusations against God. either in company or alone. These things it were fitting is that every man should sing. the Divine Being. great God. and laud Great is God who hath given us such instru- ments whereby we shall till the earth. and a stomach.SELECTIONS EPICTETUS . what proof can you show me that we were constituted to complain and reproach. The praise of God. and groaning. who hath given us hands. than to hymn him and rehearse his gracious deeds? Should we not. and to chant the 199 . some quite blind as regards the giver. 8. sing this hymn to God. Are us? these the only works of Providence in but what tell may suffice to rightly praise and thereof. them? For had we understanding would any other thing better beseem us. and to breathe while we sleep. while I can show that we have been fitted and fashioned to exercise courage and high mindedness. as we dig or plough or eat. and swallowing. Yet. who maketh us to grow without our knowledge.

and in the name of all to sing this I hymn to God? For what else can old man and lame. after that of a swan. wants for some one to pay him neither does the laborer. and are they likely Is any good man fail tenance should to fail the virtuous? The good soldier never . What come Since the most of you have beblind. in the you. I summon me same song. than sing hymns . But now I am a reasoning creature and this as it it behooves is is my And to sing the praise of God: task.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM greatest and divinest hymns for this. 9. and this I do. nor. an to God? If I were a nightingale I would do after the nature of a nightingale if a swan. as long I me granted me. that he hath given us the power to observe and consider his works and a way of life to follow. will ever abandon this to join post. afraid lest means of sushim ? But they do not fail the blind and the lame. God's care of individuals. nor shoemaker. should there not be one to fill then ? this place. too. do. and yet shall the good man want for such? What! Is God so 200 .

and only exists. all my For. art thou knowest ignorant of thy high ancestry? not whence thou earnest? Wilt thou not thou Why it is remember. his ministers. and that but governs whether living or dead. there is no such thing as evil. it was my busi- ness to sing praises unto God. 10. witnesses. just what a good general does. however. as I came into the world when he pleased. Why. that is O man. And so long as I lived. both by myself and with individuals. who that eats. that all indifferent to his instruments. His real presence are in man. thou hast in thee something a portion of him. in thine eating. I obey. and in the presence of many. supthat he does not give me food? Is posing to the virtuous. 2OI . commander. I follow. You. so again when it pleases him. Well. then. whom as living proofs to the he not things well. the while praising and singing his deeds. never neglects the interest of man.SELECTIONS his EPICTETUS alone he employs ignorant. I depart. but how. when he gives me the signal for retreat? not this. God's chief work thou art a part of God.

and external to thee ? Nay. Man s sonship and brotherhood. and subject to the wrath of God. thou art not ashamed of the things thou dost both desire and do. never complain of him to any one. exert. to to obey him in all things. and seest not that thou defilest him with thine impure thoughts and filthy deeds. unhappy man. never to say or do anything injurious to him. Thinkest thou I speak of some exercise. remember that you are a son. is What the profession answering to this character? To consider everything of his as belonging to a father. Next.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and whom thou dost nourish? In society. In the presence even of an image of God thou hadst not dared to do one of those things which thou doest. ting of thine O thou unwit- own nature. in the presence of God himall who seeth and heareth things. although. and bear about with you. But self within thee. in do you not know that it is God you keep. 1 1 . but in thyself thou dost bear him. god of gold and silver. to yield and 202 . in debate. you are unconscious of it.

for here. way before him and work are a with him to the utmost of your power. and desireth only to behave him- unseemly before the people. the never claiming for one's self any of the things that depend not on our but the cheerfully resigning of these. For in no well-ordered house doth one come in and self say to himself: the house.SELECTIONS give EPICTETUS in all things. that you and to this character corresponds the duty of readiness to yield. The ideal philosopher. shall I should be the steward of the lord of the house it. that you may have a greater interest in what your will can determine. remember brother . will. 12. too. else. of right speech. of compliance. there master of the house who 203 ordereth each and . Once more. he will drag him forth and chastise him. that whosoever shall without God attempt so great a matter stirreth up the wrath of God against him. But so much I have to say to you. So it is also in this great is a city of the universe. when have observed and seeth him inso- lently giving orders.

be then course. in all things that man thou must utterly give over pursuit.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM all. saying to the sun : Thou art the sun . Or. concern thyself. For it must be understood that other men shelter 204 . and to stir the winds. thou must appear in nothing like unto what thou now doest. and still them. or else. canst fight a duel with Hector. either he would not gain it. But supposing an Agamemnon. Thou came forward and claimed the command. nor vanity. . Go forth. and avoid only those things that are in the power of thy will anger is not meet for thee. he would disgrace himself before that Thersites many witnesses. nor envy. nor pity. nor resentment. and temperately to warm the bodies of men. thou hast the power to make thy circuit and to constitute the year and the season. nor comneither amorousness. . and to increase and nourish the fruits. gaining it. passion nor a craving even for the smallest luxury. run thy and minister thus to the greatest and to the least. Thou must not accuse God nor First. thou hast the things power to lead the host against Ilium. be an Achilles.

SELECTIONS

EPICTETUS

themselves by walls and houses and by darkness when they do such things, and many

means of concealment have they. One shutteth the door, placeth some one before the chamber if any one should come, say, he is out, he is busy. But in place of all these
;

things

it

himself behind his

behooves the philosopher to shelter own piety and reverence
;

he doth not, he shall be put to shame, naked under the sky. This is his house, this his door, this the guards of his chamber, this
but
if

his darkness.

For he must not seek

to hide

aught that he doeth, else he is gone, the philosopher hath perished, the man who lived

under the open sky, the freeman. He hath begun to fear something from without, he hath begun to need concealment nor can he
;

find

when he would, for where shall he hide himself, and how? And if by chance this
it

tutor, this public teacher,
guilt,

should be found
suffer
?

in

what things must he not

And

fearing these things, can he yet take heart

with his whole soul to guide the rest of mankind ? That can he never it is impos:

sible

!

205

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
First, then,

faculty,

and

this vocation

thou must purify thy ruling of thine also, sayI

ing

:

My

with,

mind is the material just as wood is to the
is

have to deal

carpenter,

and
is

leather

to the

shoemaker

;

and

my work

employment of objects. Neither the body nor its parts have anything to do with me. Death ? let it come when it will death
the right
either of the whole, or
flee
it ?

any part of
?

it.

What!
cast

but whither

?

Can any one
It
is

me

altogether out of the universe
ble
;

impossi-

for

wheresoever

the sun and
visions,

moon

go, there will be and stars ; there will be
I shall

omens, and communion with God.

And furthermore, when he hath thus fashioned himself, he will not be content with
these things, who But know that he
is is

a

philosopher indeed.

a herald

from

God

to

them the truth about good men, and evil things, that they have gone astray and are seeking the reality of good and evil where it is not, and do not consider where it is. ... For the philosopher really is a kind of spy, to report what is friendly, and what is hostile, to mankind. And having carefully
declaring to
206

SELECTIONS

EPICTETUS

spied out these things by himself, he must come and report the exact truth, neither be-

ing so stricken with panic as to report enemies where there are none, nor in any other way

being confused, or bewildered by vain impressions.

In what, then,
these things
it is

is the good, seeing that in not? Tell us, thou, my lord
!

missionary and spy

It

is

there where ye

deem
seek

it
it.

not, and where ye have no desire to For did ye desire, ye would have
in yourselves,

found

it

nor would ye wander

to things without, nor pursue things alien, as if they were your own concerns. Turn to

your own selves understand the natural conceptions which ye possess. What kind of thing
;

do ye take the good to be? Peace? happiness? freedom? Come, then, do ye not naturally conceive it as great, as precious, and that cannot be harmed?
will

What kind of material, then, take to shape peace and freedom withal ye that which is enslaved or in that which is
That which
it is

free?

is

free.

slaved or free?
that

We

Have ye the flesh enknow not. Know ye not
207

the slave of fever, of gout, of oph-

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM
thalmia, of dysentery, of tyranny, and fire, and steel, and everything that is mightier than itself P

Yea,

it

is

enslaved.

How,

then, can

aught that is of the body be free? can that be great or precious which
is

and how

dead, mere dust or

clay

?

What

by nature then do
!

ye possess nothing that is free? Nothing perhaps But say, who can force you to assent to
!

what appears to be false? No one; or assent to what appears to be true?

to refuse

No

one.

Well, then, you see by this, that there is in you something which is by nature free. Or,

which of you can desire or avoid, pursue or shrink, purpose or prepare for anything without having formed a conception of what is
again,

unbecoming? No one. Here, too, then, you have something that is unimpeded and free; this part of you, miserable men, ye should cultivate, and attend to, and
profitable or
in this

seek for the good.
is
it

And how

possible that one can live

hath nothing; a naked, homeless, hearthless, beggarly man, without servants, without a country ? Lo, God hath
sent

prosperously who

you

a

man

to

show you
208

in

very deed

SELECTIONS
that
it is

EPICTETUS
!

possible.

Look at me

I

have neither

country, nor house, nor goods, nor servants; I sleep on the ground ; I have no wife nor
children, nor garret; I possess nothing but earth, sky, and one poor cloak. Yet what lack
I I
?

Am
of

I

not free?

not free from grief and fear ? When did any of you see
pursuit or meet with what did I blame God or
I I

Am
me
had

fail

my
did

avoided?

When
me

man?
any

When
do
I

accuse any

man?

When did

of you see

of a sullen countenance?

How

Do

meet those whom ye fear and marvel at? I not treat them as my slaves ? Who that

seeth me, but thinketh he beholdeth his king and his lord?
13. Life a voyage.

We

must

act in life as
is it

voyage.

What

starting on a possible for me to do?

when

To

,

and the crew, the season and the day. Then perhaps a storm bursts upon us. Well but what does it matter to
select the captain
!

me any more?

because all that was mine to do has been already done; the problem is now another's, namely, the captain's. But the
209

if he shall choose a long.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM ship is actually sinking. of such a kind as the manager may choose Remember he assigns you a short part. of a private person. or a long one. but knowing that what is born must Why. . as an . belongs to another. to act well the part that 2IO is given to you. What have I to do thenP drown simply the only thing I can without terror or screaming or accusing God. see with a short part. I or by a fever ? For pass some other way. but a man a fragment of the whole. see that you act each gracefully. if he wishes you to act the part of a beggar. just as an hour is of the day like the hour. hour pass away. if that you act the part naturally. I must arrive. but to select the part. that thou art an actor in a play. For I am no eternal. fore What does it matter there- how I pass away. 14. of a magistrate. also perish. whether by drowning. then. For this is your duty. must in this. or Man an actor on the world 's stage. if the part of a cripple.

How Death should find you not know that both disease and death must surprise us while we are doing something? the husbandman while he is tilsailor while he is on his ling the ground. but 21 I I was content . for you must be surprised are doing something ? If you can be doyou ing anything better than this surprised.SELECTIONS 15. because it was thy will. the voyage? Do What would you be doing when death while surprises you. I wish to be found I may be able to practising these things that Have I in any respect transsay to God : gressed thy commands? have I in any respect used the powers which thou gavest wrongly me ? have I misused my perceptions or my preconceptions ? have I ever blamed thee ? have I ever found fault with thy administration ? I have been sick. when you are For I wish to be surprised I by disease or death when else am looking after will. do it. free from compulsion. EPICTETUS us. and so have others. that I may nothing be free from perturbation. that I may be free from hindrance. and than my own in a state of liberty.

child dead? it is returned. I have returned it. too. while am thus writing and reading. thy will. in any case. I because . Loss truly restitution. thy administration. me to see thy works. I May death surprise me while I am thinking of these things. merely it But you tell me he that took 2 12 was a . proached ready to do thy signals ? Is it part from the I give thee all thanks that thou hast allowed commands and to obey thy now thy will that I should deassemblage of men ? I depart. should I have never Hast thou ever seen me reason discontented ? have I not always apthee with a cheerful countenance. Is your wife dead? Never she is returned. Is your and so. I have lost so say. I have not I filled a magisterial office. ? Have you had your ! property taken away returned ? well is not this. have been poor because it was but I was content also. it was not for this thy pleasure that desired it. but only.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM to be sick. to join in this thy assemblage of men and and to comprehend this. 1 6.

then write. . When thou art wrathful. other. but use yourself to do rather some other thing instead of it. then do it not. if how your if legs are enfeebled. running. In general. then rise up and endeavor to walk a good distance. But when you have not read aloud for thirty days together. and you shall see Thus. I EPICTETUS what does it concern you. the of running by faculty of walking by walking. manage it as you would the property of an. thus in spiritual things also. answer whose action he that gave it you dethrough mands it back so long as he allows it to you. but done something else. 17. then do it from anything. If you will read aloud well. then do it constantly. if you will write. you would make yourself skilled in anyand if you would refrain thing. but that thou And 213 .SELECTIONS rogue. you shall see the result. Every and faculty increased by the corresponding acts as. maintained and . you have lain down for ten days. use it as wayfarers use an inn. Good habit s^ skill their nature is and attainment. know that not this single evil hath happened to thee. then.

do also. if reason. and increased sible spread and grow mightier. the infirmities of the soul grow up.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM hast increased the aptness to were. and. think not that this defeat but thou hast nourished thy in- it. poured oil upon the fire. it re-established. surely. art it. be called to aid. For when thou hast once been ing acts. in passion. but thou bring no remedy to then shall the soul return no more to the excited by the corresponding appearance. and through its infirmity the love of money is strengthened. or continence. then both the desire faculty is is set at rest. For he that hath had a fever. first ginning. And covetous of money. And when next when this is continually happening. For it is imposbut that aptitudes and faculties should spring up where they were not before. shall be kindled to desire even more quickly than before. as if and our ruling was in the beaid. But estate. when the illness hath left him. which leadeth to a sense of the vice. as the philosophers say. by the correspondthus. as it When thou overcome is all . the soul becomes callous in the end. is not what he was before his 214 .

certain traces if a the which man shall do not wholly eradicate. Know that good is But how this to be done ? Resolve at last own commendation. EPICTETUS And somewhat and unless he have been entirely healed. nor gether . is God. was not vexed. be no longer of a not nourish the Then do it it. and with God. then the aptness stroyed. now for three days. give be tranquil from the days when thou hast not been wrathful. I and then deto- To-day for I morrow. nothing that will increase the outset. For to- at first enfeebled. on this wise also it happens . Then to seek thine 215 . Wouldst thou. but sores. wrathful temper aptness to it. make no longer scars. I have not been wrathful now now for two. desire to become pure with thine own pure self. to appear fair in the eyes of God. when he hath been it again scourged on the same place. and number for one. nor two or three months thus.SELECTIONS fever. ? then. in the affections of the soul scars are left in it. but if sacrifice to thou have raved thirty days. but to was heedful when anything happened thou art in move me care.

divine the enterprise . unhappy man. and be not swept away. Think upon God: call on perity. It shall even suffice if thou seek the company of good and wise men. But if be once worsted. for prosfor peace. whether he be one of the living or of the dead. he who exer- ciseth himself against such appearances. go and pray in the temples of the protecting gods.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM when thou shalt fall in with any appearance such as we have spoken of. and then . what a storm itself but a thing of sense ? since you have only to take away the fear of is you may stand as many lightnings and thunderings as you please. what saith Plato ? Go to the purifying sacrifices. Great is the struggle. and try thyself by one of them. This is the genuine athlete. it sovereignty. for freedom. even as a sailor calls curi) in a upon . is for him to be your helper and defender . the Twin Gods (Diosis storm for what storm greater than that which arises from objects strong enough to dash reason from her seat? Aye. Stand fast. for you will find what a great calm and serenity there will be in the ruling faculty of your soul. and say that you will you 216 death.

How maxims by which it behooves thee and dost thou live by them ? What still teacher dost thou look for to whom to hand over the task of thy correction ? Thou art no longer a boy. then. If. long wilt thou delay to hold thyself worthy of the best things.SELECTIONS EPICTETUS conquer the next time. but forget that thou art making will go on as one of the vulgar living and dying. 217 sort. and then the same again and again. as not even to perceive henceforward that you are doing wrong. but you begin to frame excuses for your misdoing. be sure you will at last be- come so cowardly and weak. and to transgress in nothing the decrees of reason ? Thou hast received the to live . and and ever making resolve after resolve. fixing one day after another on which thou wilt begin to attend to thyself. but already a man full grown. both . thou art neglectful and sluggish. thou wilt no advance. and thus confirm the truth of Hesiod's words "With ruin ever the prowill : ' crastinator wrestles ! 1 8. How to live.

therefore. ground was thus that Socrates made himself in all things that befell what he was. if it appear evil to him. When some speak it ill one may do you an injury. and there is no deferring that in a single day and is to be lost or gained. having regard to But thou. remember that he either does it or speaks for is right and meet him do so. And if any toil or pleasure or reputation or the loss of that it be laid upon thee. Why we should bear with wrong. that he can follow the thing that apto pears to you. it 218 . albeit as one that would be Socrates. so thee to live. but the thing that appears him. yet it behooveth 19. him. It the contest. and let an inviolable appeareth the best be to thee as law. here already are the games. remember now is Olympian them any longer. It is not possible.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Now. pressing at last. Wherefore. no other things than reason. then. and in a single trial. or believing that to it of you. thou be yet no Socrates. to live as a man of full hold thyself worthy age and one who is everything that forward.

Setting out. why fear thou who will wrongly rebuke thee? 219 . But if rightly. you deceived.SELECTIONS is EPICTETUS he that if is injured. In doing aught which thou hast clearly dis- cerned a right to do. so it vile you. That we should be open in our dealings. 20. even though the multitude should be destined to form some wrong opinion concerning not right. it. from these opinions. say on each occasion. ap- peared to him. will bear a re- gentle mind towards any man who may For. For also one should take a true consequence to any be false. being deceived. For if thou dost avoid the deed itself. seek never to avoid being seen in the doing of it. it is not the consequence that is is in- jured but he which then.

only the sign and mark of it for the obligation rests in the mind. or hold in actual possession by the courtesy of another. and all those advantages which we see. at least the benefactor it is is the founitself. they presently cast it up: such a house be worth? such an " as if that such an estate ? is were the ben: efit. of all benefits. that take the matter for the benefit. the benefit and stamp. that makes it valuable current. are but several modes or ways of explaining.XIII SELECTIONS FROM SENECA i . nay. that benefit. There needs no great sub1 Selections from the " Morals" 220 of Seneca. When any- thing office is "What may ? given them. . makes the THE good will of the tain or. 1 The intention^ not the matter . and tax the obligation by weight and measure. handle. I know. and putting the good will in execution. not in the which matter. Some there are.

. not anything in this world. that is more talked of. and it is the dignity of the office is accompanied with all the charms and delicacies of humanity. the gift continues. in obligation lies in the manner of it. . than the business of a happy life. when : he that puts a man and off from time to time. rests in the intent the . when even brutes themselves are able to decide question. this . and wherein it consists. and improved by the manner of conferring it. Of a happy is life. the judicious application of the profit. perishable : for the benefit still when it. he manner of obliging. is it but not any benefit so glorious in itmay yet be exceedingly sweetened. with despatch too. good nature. was never right at heart. There self. perhaps. we have no longer the use or the matter of i. for 3 . The benefit is immortal. and address then perfect. It is 221 There .SELECTIONS tlety to SENECA prove that both benefits and injuries receive their value from the intention. The virtue. and less understood. I know. but the beauty and ornament of an matter.

and within our ings reach. which is he that in the dark. we search for. however. and makes every man his own supporter. and yet not one of a thousand that knows wherein that happiness consists. without rinding is "Tranquillity a certain quality of mind. for it it is the state human perfection raises us as high as we can go. which no condition of fortune can either exalt or depress. for wants nothing. in a blind and eager pursuit of and the more haste we make in a wrong way. of mankind are within us. We live.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM every man's wish and design. and like people we have. to understand our duties to- The ward God and man. The great blessso. . we fall foul upon the very thing it. may fall. the farther we are from our journey's end. but we shut our eyes. He 222 that judges aright. it. but to rest satisfied with what is abundantly sufficient. Not to amuse ourselves with either hopes or fears. to enjoy the present." Nothing can make of it : less. without any anxious dependence upon the future. true felicity of life is to be free from perturbations . whereas he that is borne up by any- thing else.

good man are so that all . with good or ill fortune. haustible delights . it is of inexitself. measure. and valued for One may ernor. a be a good physician. steady. There can be no happiness without virtue. he squares he draws to him- self love and admiration. enjoys a perpetual calm: he takes a true prospect of things he observes an order. If it be true. SENECA . is Virtue that perfect good. for the seat of it is a pure and holy mind. not to be elevated or dejected.SELECTIONS and perseveres in it. that the understanding and 223 . without being a . a good govgood grammarian. It is sociable and gentle . full and fearless. which is the the only ima happy life mortal thing that belongs to mortality it is the knowledge both of others and itself. Philosophy is the guide of life. only accessories things from without. 4. free. content within itself. 5. a decorum in all his actions . : he has a benevolence in his nature his life according to reason . . it is compliment of : an invincible greatness of mind.

There is not any duty to . beginning with that philosophy which principally us in the regards our manners. that wisdom and provement virtue (which are the best imof these two faculties). either of fortune or of appethat is not subject to our reason . measures of a virtuous 224 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the will are the two eminent faculties of the reasonable soul. even in this life. the perfection also of our reasonable being and consequently the undeniable foundation of a happy life. of the impediments that obstruct it. From this general prospect of the foundation of our tranquillity. temptation. miseries. we shall pass by degrees to a particular consideration of the means by which it may be acquired and . it follows necessarily. So that it is our own fault if we either fear or hope for anything which two affections are the root of all our any passion or . nor affliction for which virtue has not provided a remedy. must be . which providence has not annexed a blessing nor any institution of heaven which. and instructs and quiet life. not any tite. we may not be the better for.

of all the good and ill that he does .SELECTIONS 6. but only the end of man." This is it that fortifies the a " A mind against fortune. To see a man fearless in dangers. SENECA No felicity like peace of conscience. and the reward of it. composed in a 225 . when has gotten the mastery of his passions. Every man has a judge and witness within himself. whereof he all good of human member. good conscience is the testimony of a good life. and of caves. learned to be content with his condition . We of nature. has conor do toward the summated essary for that to either profitable or nec- him know establishment of his peace. and administers to us have a veneration wholesome counsels. is no evil in itself. untainted with lusts. strike for all . the heads of and the springs of medicinal waters rivers. the works us with an impression of religion and worship. happy in adversity. which inspires us with great thoughts. placed his treasure and his security within himself. man and that death to virtue. the horrors of groves. his He is that has dedicated mind and is to the a society.

The reason of this is obvious. as the guard and the prisoner and the one treads upon the heel of for anything. or the fear than the hope. upon the main. . ing else but a a mortal body. men must acknowledge. which plausible : in truth. No the other. man can be said to be perfectly happy. for the one cannot be without the other but the hope is stronger than the fear. they are both of them yet coupled in the same chain. for they are passions that look forward. how distant forever they may seem to be the one from the other. that runs the risk of disappointment . only the and are more hope is weakness of the two. for without fear it were no longer when hope. that this can be noththat influences beam of divinity Hope and fear are the bane of human life. we call it the one or the other . but certainty . as without hope it were 226 . ever solicitous for the future . 7. are inseparable. and laughing at all those things which are generally either coveted or feared all .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM tumult. which is the case of every man that fears or hopes For hope and fear.

and yet not be fearful . without the vice of but yet a fre- quent admittance of it runs into a habit. It is man may fear. If the present. and uncertain to set one step forward. than hang always in Can suspense ? 227 . if we do but consider. but not timorous or careless . fear. for a man loses the present which . that had not rather fall once. . that we are either troubled about the present. in expectation of the future nay. We may come to understand. it is easy to judge. resolute. It is a shameful and an unmanly thing to be doubttimorous. and another backward. I will be as prudent as I can. before they come. he might enjoy. It is a foolish thing to be miserable beforehand. the future. for fear of misery to come . whether our disputes are vain or no. and the future is uncertain.SELECTIONS no longer fear. but SENECA despair. which of is no more than to have the affection it . and I will be- think myself. and forecast what inconveniences true. the fear of losing anything is as bad as the loss itself. a may happen. there be any man so fearful. and to be irful. or both.

and as little covers it so that if mankind would only attend human nature. without gaping at superfluities. and he that governs his life is He by opinion shall never be rich is . for . whose bounty was . a . but fancy boundless. little As for meat. never wanting to our needs. for nature limited. the stomach craves and water calls it upon . us. needs the body.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM 8. clothes. There is not anything that is necessary to us but we have it either cheap or gratis and this is the provision that our Heavenly Father has made for us. in what condition soever we are. and money signifies no more to it than it does to It is the mind that 228 . but then a small matter contents is a little bread and sufficient. It is true. The blessings of temperance and moderation. and lodging. a cook would be found as V v- as needless as a soldier .O to great pains for ex- makes us rich and happy. we may where- have necessaries on very easy terms we put ourselves O O t. shall never be poor. and all the rest is but su- that lives according to reason perfluous.

curb our appetites. Let my den narrow compass. hun- that stands ger. if the religion be sincere. expense. and . and neither a bur- my purse nor to my body. thirst. hunger. a business very small matter that does our and when we have provided against cold. no matter it is for the ornaments only luxury and avarice that makes poverty grievous to us . . is abundantly enough for nature. for it is . . self into a at who when a man draws him- him. or to many waiters. encourage virtue. That which is too little for luxury. Happy is that man that eats only for . not for ostentation and pomp.SELECTIONS . and clothes so too my meat without much . and drinks only for thirst upon his own legs. and by example . not and provides for use and necesLet us sity. rather be beholden to ourselves for riches than to fortune. SENECA the gods. all the rest is is but vanity and excess and there no need of arti- expense upon foreign delicacies. has the least mark my bed be plain and clean. 22Q . . and lives by reason. not to go out the same way it came in. or the fices of the kitchen.

however. not. 230 Man . because emancipation from evil is by itself such a blessed thing. Why should one take pleasure in being alive ? merely to act as a sort of filter for so much food and drink all doctor for merely to pamper and one's life a sickly and wasting ? body. . and renders it worthy of pands the mind. if he does not ! rise human things Is it a very great matter to contend against our passions. but because virtue ex- knowledge of heavenly things. the ? one event price- are born for No Take ! away the life is less blessing of thought. What makes life worth living. . The virtue we is grand in its way. have we done such wonders aspire to after all ? . when having trodden all evil under his the gods.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM 9. fits it for the communion with only then attains the fullness and perfection of his destiny. and it not worth ! the sweat and fever abject thing the level of is entails. which is only kept from death by peated nourishment? re- Or we to abide in fear of death. and even when we conquer these. Oh what an above man.

is only a prelude to eternity. Then the universe all ? What and is God but the sum of only do that is visible invisible.SELECTIONS feet SENECA penetrates . Then him the absolute perfection that is his due. Consolations against death. fore expect our last and decretory hour with our bodies. but courage. . he is nothing but mind he is all reason. he lifts his mind above. when we acknowledge him to constitute all things by himself. Then he begins to apprehend God for what is God but the mind of at last . The last (I say) to . where we are to expect another original. and his operation to extend over all without and within. into the inner heart of nature. what he has long sought to know. and . 10. we ascribe to What us the difference then is there between God's : own ? Simply this while with mind is the nobler part. and return as naked out of the not to our minds 231 . our luggage we must leave behind us. . nature and our . and life This another state of things we have no prospect of heaven here but at a distance let us there. he learns.

we run our childhood out of sight our youth next and then . is it. So that what we . and we live just as we sail first. after that follows old age. or my what is all this to me ? u I traduced. Some are be. yet the difficulty of it article of death. fear as a rock. proves to be but a port in many cases to be desired. The day which we but the birthday of our eternity and it is the only way to it. never to be refused and he that dies young." all Undoubtedly that which puts an end to other evils cannot be 232 . Nay. our middle age . and brings us to the common end of man- kind.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM world fear as as we came last. is memory have more than balanced by the contemplation of the future. It is a great providence that we have more ways out of the world than we have into it. the draws a great many very into a very narrow compass and blessings the fruit of it does not seem to exalthough tend to the deceased. done my duty. suppose that all the business of this world should be forgotten. has only made a quick voyage of it. calmed. others cut it away before wind : . into our . Our security stands It on a point. . .

but this we presume. nothing immortal. . frees us from the miseries we know not. To and it suffer death is is but the law of nature . or else return to our first princilive ples. a folly. a very great evil itself. and that life. only to value the pres- Death life is is as much a debt as it: but a journey towards 2 33 money. and yet it is thing for flesh and blood to despise .SELECTIONS SENECA no easy life. where we shall it is What with tranquillity and splendor in divine mansions. and ent. either that we shall pass out of this into a better life. but by divers ways everything comes to an end. . free There is from the sense of any inconvenience. What an arrogance it is then. in the very convulsions of done it we have of this consolation. that it our pain all is near an end. a great comfort that it can be but once . nor many things lasting . and it were rash to condemn what we do not understand. that condemned to a disso- man is forever? It alone should expect to live unjust not to allow unto the giver the power of disposing of his own bounty. when the world itself stands lution. and some despatch .

that goes to 234 . others later. The day will come that shall separate this mixture of soul and body. and knows whither it is to go. he would not take 1 1 . I will leave where I found my soul I will restore to heaven. of divine and human my body it. that attend long life a blessing so deceitful. it considers whence it came. The thunderbolt un- doubtedly just. tor. . Poverty a blessing.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM it sooner. that have proved dissolute men? Over and above the ruins. great soul takes no delight in staying with the A body. how many men have been if the worse for longer living. at liberty to refuse it. that reputation. that if a child were in condition to judge of it. No man shall ever be poor. which would have been there already. shipwrecks. but for the clog that keeps it down and be: side. ments. but we must all is have the same period. that draws even from those that are struck with it a veneration. prisons. and it. might have died with had been sooner taken they disappointments of hope- away? ful How many youths.

It is not sity. outrageous. no matter whence it comes. adry let his thirst be quenched. To promise a man riches. but he that has enough is at rest. We have here to encounter the most dan- gerous. and nature is satisfied. is him poor. but yet whatsoever is beyond necesnot necessary. gry. though he for it may be beholden to his patience. that wants nothing. be never so coarse . : and to teach to deceive him but shall I call him poverty. is precarious. himself for what he wants and that is the way to riches: nature indeed will have her due. silver. or whether he drinks in gold. Of Anger.SELECTIONS readiest SENECA . 12. and her business to gratify the palate. but to satisfy a craving stomach: bread. whose riches can never be taken away? Whether it is better to have much or enough? He that has much desires more. rather than to his fortune? Or shall any man deny him to be rich. does his work. which shows that he has not yet enough. or in the hollow of his hand. and water when he let it is when a man is hun. brutal and intractable of 235 .

the grandest and loveliest work of nature.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM all passions. the most loathsome and unmannerly . nay. . the subduing of this monster will do a great deal toward the establishment of human peace. but a vice pointblank against nature for it divides. the one unites. instead of Anger is . measure joining. the most ridiculous too and . Consolation in exile. and the intellect which was created to 236 . This uni- verse. that binds up mankind. . other. One man was born to help another. pernicious . the one is beneficial to us. anger makes us destroy one another. the one succors even strangers. the other destroys the most intimate friends the one ventures all to save an. the other mischievous . 13. the other ruins himself to undo another. Man's man best gifts lie beyond the power of either to give or to take away. is Nature for it is is bountiful. and in some end of providence in human frustrates the society. . not but mutual love. the other separates . not only a vice. but anger fear.

the distance of the divine from the human remains as the same. so long my eyes are not robbed of that spectacle with which they cannot be satiated. midst of such phenomena. some some revolving. and lingering gaze on the other constellations.SELECTIONS observe and to admire it. Cheerful. so long I may look upon the sun and moon. and consider their rising fix my and setting and the spaces between them and the causes of their less and greater speed. erect. SENECA are our special and eternal possessions. others dazzling the gaze a flood of fire as though they fell. as far as a man may. and others leaving over a long space their trails of light while I . and mingle myself. throughout the heaven. therefore. some suddenly with blazing forth. let There is no land where man cannot dwell. with in the am things celestial. while I may contemplate the multitude of stars glittering stationary. Wherever we are. while 237 my soul is ever oc- . So then. which shall last as long as we last ourselves. no land where he cannot uplift his eyes to heaven. and us hasten with undaunted footsteps whithersoever our fortunes lead us.

same with those who devote themselves closely to no one work of genius. which is no friendships and it is necessarily the sooner taken in than it is passed out. If you would extract anything that may settle permanently authors and your memory. severe into which you reliance. if it be but the home of virtue. He is in nowhere that their life everywhere. nor be assimilated with. 238 . That meat can never benefit. but hastily skim every book they come across. . . no exile . involve giddiness and inconstancy of mind.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM cupied in contemplations so sublime as these. Take care lest your habit of reading many all sorts of books. Those who pass in travel find many inns. may go with such a 14. but form no is . . what matters What the what ground I tread ? though fortune has thrown me where it most magnificent abode is but a cottage ? The humblest cottage. you must dwell and feed upon a few choice and definite spirits. Profitable reading. the body. may be more beautiful than all temples no place is narrow which can contain the crowd of glorious virtues.

his share will come at 239 . which disorder and do not nourish it. Those examines.SELECTIONS " But SENECA ! [you tell me] 1 like to turn over now it is this work and now that. I that day inwardly digest. Therefore I say. and if at any time you amusement to others. and and to spare. he and hardens." Ah only a dainty stomach that is fond of tasting numerous and diverse dishes. death. still always come back to the former. such as he ap- pears to favor feminate. approves and loves. exempt from perity may have lasted. I select a particular one to appre- 15. only become efare reserved by him for evil to suppose that any one however long his pros- come. The discipline of God. and other plagues of humanity . pick out some one that you may on This things ciate. I always do myself. For is it is a mistake to ills. always read well approved authors . and after running through several such passages. whom God tries. Procure every day from them some help turn for against poverty. out of the many read.

the watcher and guardian of all we do. how much human nature could We The presence of God in man. or storm a fortress. to reconnoitre a road. as though we should be heard the better for that. need not lift our hands to heaven. and it is the picked men whom the general sends to a night attack. or affliction. It may seem to have been remitted. with you. ards and weaklings grieve at. 1 to try 6. There dwells within us (believe me) a holy spirit. 240 . who are called to suffer what none but cowrather." but "He must have thought highly of such should be the language of those me". It just comes to this. it but deferred. " My general has dealt hardly with me. or troubles the same principle that in war the bravest soldiers have the hazard- of other kinds? ous enterprises entrusted to them. nor beseech the sacristan for permission to approach the idol's ear. No! God is near you. In their case no one thinks of saying.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM is length. does God visit the best Why On of men with ill health. that God has deemed us worthy subjects whereon bear. in you.

you Guide and guardian of the universe. 17. when from God no secrets are hid? He is present to must we think as our minds. According so he deals with us. as within the hearing 1 of God. builder and master of all so great a work to him names belong. For what is the good of hiding anything from man. though One could look into our inmost heart. 241 . soul What What is is God? The mind of and spirit of the world . SENECA as we is deal with him No one virtuous with- out God's influence.SELECTIONS good or bad. So should we in the sight live with our fellow men as God. he? All that you see. and all that do not see. 8. The eye of God. What is God? the universe. So must we so live as under the eye of One. he enters into the very core of our thoughts. so should we speak to of man. and no one without his aid can rise superior to fortune he it is from : whom all high and noble counsels proceed.

offenders they correct. on him all depends. so that it This goes safely through its motions. Had : you rather say Providence? This will be right by his plan the world is watched over. Or Nature? title does him no wrong: of him are all things born. Or Universe? that You are not mistaken: he is all we see. and bestowing all things freely in love. They harm . though inflict. the next is to ascribe to possessing all them tial their proper majesty. the attribute of goodness. 19. condemn. neither nor are susceptible of. and sometimes 242 visit with punish- . present in every part. who exercise guardianship over the human race while not neglecting the individual. To believe in the gods is the first step in worship. and. all wholly things. and sustaining The worship of God. who guide all things by their power. never be satisfactory till a right conception has bee'n formed of God as Worship will things. and then to feel that it is the gods who govern the world. what is essen- to majesty. coerce.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Would you err: cause call him Destiny? You will not of causes. and in him we live.

If you would win the divine favor. and efficacious in freeing 243 them from great . at other times in answer to prayer. man who maintains this can never have heard the accents of prayers nor the well in private as in public. you have only to be virtuous . sometimes of their own proper motion. and unThe affected alike by benefits or injuries. Prayer as evidence of divine providence. but is indifferent and regardless. but that they were sure that the gods bestow benefits. the truest worship of the gods is to imitate them. either busied about other matter. or (what Epicurus thought to be the upon height of bliss) doing nothing at all. and the whole of mankind could never have joined in such madness as to implore deaf gods who had no power to help. I know that it is contended that God be- stows no blessings on us at all. vows everyas where made with uplifted hands to heaven Surely this would never be done. not deigning to look the world. and that such benefits are large. 20. reasonable.SELECTIONS ment SENECA in the form of blessing.

so born and destiny as not to have experienced and impending danger. penal at one time or another this liberality of the gods? 244 .GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM Is there a single beto a hard ing so wretched. so despised.

like me into what is 1 Selections from the " Meditations " of Marcus Aure- lius. for no one can force disgraceful. you wake. I cannot be injured by any of them . self-seeking them the results of men not knowing what I shall . like feet. 245 . cunning. and of the evil. one who is related to me. that it is ugly. say to yourself to-day encounter meddling. vioall of lence. malice. that it is beautiful. nor can I hate. Charity for everybody. WHEN is good and what is evil.XIV SELECTIONS FROM MARCUS AURELIUS' i. ingratitude. and flesh also the nature of the offender himself. For we are made for co-operation. But as for me who have understood the nature of the good. or be angry with. but in the same mind and partnership with the divine. is that he related to me not by community of and blood.

truly. The conservation of the world-order depends not only on the changes of the elements. every part of nature that which nature brings. from the gods is full of proviThat which is from fortune is not separated from nature or without an interweaving and involution with the things which by providence. and from the heart thankful to the gods. To are ordered . is and The ordering of providence. but also on those of the compounded wholes. like eyelids. But cast away the thirst after books. acting against one resentment or aversion. and which helps towards its conservation. like the rows of the upper and lower teeth. is All that dence. that you may not die murmuring.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM hands. is good. things flow and that which is for the advantage of the whole universe. From thence all and there -is besides necessity. of which you are a part. Be content with what you have. find there your principles of life. 246 . but cheerfully. one another then it is con- trary to nature another to show 2. To act against .

and what is he contriving. and why. and to the great dis- your being is an effluence. how often the gods have granted days of grace. clouds from your mind. It is high time to give heed to the order of which you are a part. of to note that a limit of time is fixed for you. and poser. and what is he saying. and what is he thinking of. meddling and ill nature . and a man 247 . except when bent upon For you lose the opporof doing something else when you have tunity such thoughts as these what is such a person unselfish gain. whom which if you do not use and you 3. : doing. ought then to check We in the series is of our thoughts everything that without a purpose and useless. and whatever else of the kind makes us wander away from the observation of our own ruling power. will go. for clearing it will go away the and you will never return. The right way of living. which you have failed to use. life Do some not waste the remainder of in re- garding other men. and above all.SELECTIONS MARCUS AURELIUS Think how long you have gone on postponing.

invulnerable by pain. which is the mastery of passion. convinced 248 . does he regard what other men say or do or think. "What is in your thoughts now? with per' fect truth all you might immediately answer. or malice and suspicion. free from all touch of arrogance. and only in view of some large unselfish gain. such who eschews vo- luptuous or even self-indulgent fancies. him action his own conduct without action is his sole concern. and he destiny realizes . or jealousy of any kind. A mood which one would blush man so minded. and committed of virtue. and with his whole heart welcoming falls all that be- seldom. steeped in justice to the core.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM should use himself to think of those things only about which if one should suddenly ask. as befit a social being. a combatant in the greatest of all combats. In as his portion . innocent of all baseness. fail the web of his own he makes high. which keeps a man unsoiled by pleasure. is finally to the pursuit indeed a priest and minister of gods. or any other to own. that your thoughts were simple and in charity. true to that inward and implanted power.

for his apportioned desthe vaster sweep of tiny sweeps man on with things. sea-shores. and mountains . Accordingly he does not value at all the since they praise which comes from such men. houses the country. and what they are. too.SELECTIONS that destiny is MARCUS AURELIUS good. and you. But this is altogether a mark of the most common sort of men. men they are both at home and from home both by night and by day. 4. are not even satisfied with themselves. Men in seek retreats for themselves. and with what men they live an impure life. and that to care for according to man's nature and a his . But as to those who live not so. but of those confessedly live accord- ing to nature. for it is in your power. know full well what that yearn- ing means. hold on to the opinion not of only who all. The blessings of retirement. he always bears in mind what kind of . And creature all he remembers also that every rational is men is man should kinsman. to retire into yourself. For nowhere either with more 249 . whenever you choose.

and be quiet at last. Have a few principles brief and elemental. and that to endure is a part of justice.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM quiet or more freedom from trouble does than into his a man retire own soul. have been stretched dead. Ever and anon grant yourself this retirement. are With what you discontented ? the badness of men Recall to With your mind ? this conclusion. and fighting. perfect tranquillity and I affirm that tran- nothing else than the good ordering of the mind. recurrence to which will suffice to shut out the court and its ways. that rational creatures exist one another. and consider how many already. after mutual enmity. Or is it the portion assigned you in the universe. hatred. or blind 250 . with which you are dissatisfied ? Recall to mind the alternative either a foreseeing providence. particularly when he has within by looking into quillity is him such thoughts that them he is immediately in . suspicion. and that men do wrong involunfor tarily . reduced to ashes. and anon send you back unchafing to the tasks to which you all must return. and so renew yourself.

readiest to let But hand to which you shall turn. but stand without it . Or does some bubble of fame torment you ? Then fix your gaze on swift oblivion. and how small a nook this it. and how few are there what kind of people are they who in your and will praise you. as a human citizen. as a mortal. into this territory of Remember to your own. your there be these. among the things cannot touch the soul. things 251 a being. indiscriminating fickleness of professed applause. retire all do at not strain or strive. Above free. which are two first. on the gulf of infinity this way and of plaudits and the that. whether moving gently or violently. on the narrow range within which you rattle on the empty are circumscribed. Or is it bodily ? and is all the world as it troubles that assail that the Consider then further mind mingles not with the breath. This then remains. but be things as a and look as man.SELECTIONS atoms MARCUS AURELIUS the abounding proofs that were a city. when it has once drawn itself apart and discovered its own power. For the whole earth in it is is a point. dwelling.

life a process of views. . The universe as a Constantly regard the universe as a living organism. The world is of variation . having one substance and one soul . as Epictetus said. the perception of this one living being and how all things act with one . to subsist in conse- Time is like a river made up of the events which happen. and no good for things quence of change. all you see.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM stationary in a . tumult can : arise only from views things within ourselves secondly. Thou It is art a little soul bearing about a corpse. for as soon as a has been seen. movement and all cooperate towards all that come to pass observe too the continuous .and a violent stream. moment change and all will be no more ay. living organism. 5. it is carried thing 252 . think of the changes in which you have a process yourself borne part. . spinning of the thread and the contexture of the web. . and observe how all things have reference to one perception. no evil for things to undergo change.

that I might lie abed and keep warm beneath the sheets? But (do you say?) this is more comfortable. or summer fruit. 6. if I am going to do the very things for which I was born. so with disease. thought be present to you I am getting up to perform the duty of a man why : . and have been brought into the world? Or. 253 . and not rather for action and exertion? Do you not the plants and birds. and all else that joys or vexes fools. say you.SELECTIONS MARCUS AURELIUS its away. slow to act accordone requires ing to your nature? But. Were you then born only to be comfortable. The wrongfulness of sloth. the ants and spiders and the bees contribute to imtheir several departments of the uni- observe how prove verse. intrigue. let this In the morning when you feel loth to rise. then am I out of humor. and another comes in will be carried away too. slander. All that happens is is place. death. was I made only for this. and yet do you refuse to perform the duties of a human being. and this as accustomed and fait miliar as spring rose.

or the his art vainglorious sons. who love their trade will wear themselves out at work. True ! but then Nature has assigned limits to this also. but you stop short of what you for you have no true love for your. man his pretty praise. One and 254 . compared with advancing what they are set upon. when passionately inclined to anything. not so. regardless of washing and food. care neither for food nor sleep. Such per- moreover. it is could do self. else you would love both your own nature and that nature's purpose. Why! those.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM rest as well as work. all we work towards one consumsome knowingly and intelligently. and yet you go beyond these limits. for instance. 7. beyond what is sufficient. and yet you honor your own nature less than the turner of turning. just as she has done in regard to eating and drinking. or the dancer his skill in dancing. less than the miser his coin. or deserving of less devotion. Man made for cooperation. mation. In your action. and yet do you regard social actions as of less value. on the contrary.

that they too are at work. fellow-workers in the conduct of in dif- the universe. for the universe had need of even such persons as these. 8. But men work together ferent ways. therefore. does a full share of cooperation. Consider. said of those who sleep. cooperative service. doubtless they counselled well god of ill counsel one can scarce imagine.SELECTIONS MARCUS AURELIUS others unconsciously. which is the first obhurt? What ject of their providence? But if the gods have not decreed anything about me individually. they have at all events certainly decreed about 255 . into the ranks of those who are engaged or disposed to. nay. was it not. for you may be sure that he who governs all things will make some good use of you. even the man who comand subvert plains and endeavors to resist the course of things. And what should impel them to seek . and welcome among whom you you in. Just as Heraclitus. Man s true interest. a my advantage were it either to them or to the universe. If the gods took counsel about me and what ought to befall me. range yourself.

nature is rational far and I social. I to welcome and be content with. if. for anything. It is What is evil? again and again. 9.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM the general course of things. perchance they a make no decree about wicked belief to entertain. and adjurations. can alone be good for me. But the true interest of every man is that which is conformable to his constitution and nature. I am free in that case to provide for myself. me to consider what is for and it belongs to my interest. Life a mimic pageant. say. then we must give up sacrifices and prayers. so far as I am a am Antoninus. so as Rome world. and whatever am bound But if happens by way of consequence therefrom. is human being. it is the whose advantage These are the societies. My city and country. . and everything else we do on the faith of the gods being present and living 1 with us. and my . And 256 what you have seen on the occasion of this in everything which happens keep mind. they make no decree about what concerns us.

exercises with spears. ? If I can. flocks of sheep. why am I dis- things which are external to my mind have no relation at all to my mind. and you stand upright you can ever renew your life. a crumb dropped in the fish-tanks. . repeating themselves every day in our cities own all is stale and homes. those mediaeval are those of our own . which I ought to have. la- boring of ants and burden-carrying. puppets pulled by such is life. the scamper of scurrying mice. There and fleeting. Everywhere.SELECTIONS that it MARCUS AURELIUS you have often seen. I can have that opinion about anything. plays on the stage. A mimic pageant. you will find the same things. un- impressions which correspond to them are extinguished ? But it is your power continuously to fan these thoughts into a flame. See things once more as you saw them before and therein you have . turbed The Grasp that. In such surroundings strings 257 . is nothing new How less the can our principles become dead. new life. a bone cast to dogs. up and down. with which the old histories are is that which filled. day .

scowl upon the face is a violation of nais when it is often assumed. that the measure of the man's worth is the worth of his . what was the point of view. and again other things from the substance of them. Self introspection. For your same as his. the result all comeliness dies away. When self at any one does you a wrong. not surprised or angry. their substance will make other things. considerate and undisdainful yet understand the while. set youronce to consider. A ture that . 10. if once sensibility to sin what object in still living on ? Nature which governs the whole will soon change all things which you see. aims. good or bad. that led him wrong. As soon as you perceive it. Try to conclude from this very fact that it is contrary to reason. and at last is so completely extinguished that it is past all rekindling. or kind and you will make Or supposing your own view of 258 . in order that the world may be ever new. own view of good something allowance. like in is either the . you will be sorry for him. and out of is lost.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM you must take your stand.

nowhere. . nor wealth. and in . and nowhere have found the unhappy life not in systems. Now eyes are really self-content. nor fame. You have but to apprehend that will.SELECTIONS MARCUS AURELIUS will find good and bad has altered. 1 1 . misguided ways. nor self-indulgence. nor even from youth up. One good corrective to vainglory is to remember that you cannot claim to have lived your entire life. and let noth- you have tried much. be only for life's remainder. you ing else distract you . you for his mistakes come easier. if facts open never mind what others think of you to what the are. Where then is happiness ? In doing that which man's nature craves. chanty The pursuit of happiness. just so long as nature wills you to live on. and get your that your plan of life also opposes it. as But both to many others and plain that to yourself it is you are far from philosophy. How do it? from which come enBy holding principles 259 . so that You have fallen into disorder it is no longer easy for you to the reputation of a philosopher. a philosopher. then.

In every action try to each. "will inter" Nay. just. and all is gone. brave. and one who is under the same law with God P 12." "But may not some form of action be pre" vented ? Possibly but by welcoming that prevention. and a social being. contributes part. which does not . if what I am now doing is the work of an intelligent human being. What more do I seek." tice. free noth- does not produce opposite On How the occasion of every act ask yourself: is this with respect to me P Shall I reit ? pent of A little time and I am dead. " 260 . ciples What touching good and is principles ? Prinbad to wit. and with a good grace adopting the alternative. make him results. The object of life." you say. "Some fere. it make life a its whole: if can. outer obstacle. reasonableness of the intention. but nothing can touch the jus- wisdom. you at once substitute a course . temperate. no man can hinder. good that for a man. that nothing ing evil. so far as satisfied.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM deavors and actions. be and that.

to be The present lived for. as the coming and gray hairs. As youth and and prime. to a very little. not the past. not disturb yourself by thinking of the whole of your life. And to remember. and repudiate moral inability to hold out merely against 14. take. Let not your thoughts at Do once embrace all the various troubles which to befall you may expect you. that. Death should be welcomed.SELECTIONS that will in view. Do fully. but always But this is reduced against the present only. say to yourself. cheerfully resign. but accept it cheeras being one of those events which nature wills. as begetting and pregnancy 261 age. when you strictly circumscribe it to itself. not despise death. but as is each there trouble comes. what here too hard to bear or to endure? will and you be ashamed to confess. as growth of teeth and beard . that you have not against yet again bear up the future or the past.' fit MARCUS AURELIUS place in the whole into its we have Modestly 13.

which could hold you back and chain you still to life. deal gently with them. as all other operations of nature. As it is. besides. impatient and contemptuous but will wait for it as one of the opera- tions of nature. with which your soul will cease to converse. Just as you wait now shall issue for the time when the embryo from the womb of your wife. such also is thoughtful in man the process of dissolution. and the characters heart. you see what great trouble arises from the want of harmony in those who live to- 262 . how- whose ever. if you reflect on the objects you are about to part with. therefore will not regard death A a careless. rather. that you are parting with men principles are not your principles. But if you want. spirit. would be companionship of kindred spirits. The one thing. if any. which come with the seasons of your life. Far be it to take offence at them. nay. so should you be expecting the hour when your soul shall drop out of its shell.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM and bearing of children. care for them and yet remember. a commonplace consideration to touch and console your you will be most favorably disposed towards death.

a agreement. too forget The inner self. dislocates life its and infringes a unity. for fear 15. directly or remotely. "Come my- quickly. and that you may also take into account the bond of brotherhood. yourself are a component part of a social system. to this social end. just man acting popular himself stands apart from the general by as when in a assembly. 1 6. so let every act of yours be a As you component part of social life. MARCUS AURELIUS to enough make one I cry.SELECTIONS gether. Impulses and actions should govern. Any action of yours that does not tend. that you may know whether he has acted ignorantly or with knowledge. self!" O Death. It is of the nature of mutiny. and that of your neighbor. Let there be freedom from perturbations 263 . and that remember of what you are a part. that you may just. Hasten (to examine) your own inner self and that of the universe and that of your neighbor. your own that you may make it of the universe.

264 O my soul. seeing short is the time from birth to dissolu- tion.GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM with respect to the things which come from external cause and let there be justice in the . agitations that beset you are superfluand depend wholly upon judgments of ous. be good . and in so The indeed live at large. your own. and those who have been spectators of its dissolution will very soon perish too. and the illimitable time before birth as well as the equally boundless time after dissolution. other words. Wilt thou one day. things done by virtue of the in internal cause . You can rid yourself of them. by embracing the whole universe in your view and doing will comprehending all eternity and imagining the how swiftness of change in each particular. let social action their impulse and act make one end. and so fulfil the law of nature. The soul at peace. turely. at the And he who dies extremest old age will be brought into the same condition with him who died prema17. All that you see will quickly perish.

nor to be condemned by them 265 . good. that their good pleasure. for the enjoyment of pleasures ? nor yet desiring time wherein thou shalt have longer enjoyment. longing for nothing more. that all things are well with thee. or society of men with whom thou mayst live in harmony ? Wilt thou be content with thine actual estate ? happy in all thou hast ? Convinced that is thine. just and beautiful.SELECTIONS and simple. nor desiring anything. their unity and their scope. pass for the salvation of the living whole. or place. all naked. from which all things have their being. that all comes all all from the gods. more manifest than the body which surrounds thee? Wilt thou never enjoy an affectionate and con- tented disposition ? Wilt thou never be full and without a want of any kind. either animate or inanimate. or pleasant climate. must be well which is and which they bring to and into which they are received at dissolution for the production of new forms of being like themselves ? Wilt thou never be such that thou shalt so dwell in community with ? gods and men as neither to find fault with them at all. MARCUS AURELIUS all one.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM 1 8. torn till to-morrow. for yourself the When you have claimed attributes good. Do not belie your good attributes. Keep true to these attributes. the high mind sovereignty of the intelligence over the physical currents. modest. worthy of the mangled and disfigured. And 266 . take care that you do not change these names. remember. or any other others. make haste to reclaim them. and if you should lose them quickly return them. And should you them. high-minded. To go on being what you have been hitherto. over vainglory. Enter your claim then to these few attributes. should import discriminating observation and attention the forfeit . trial. smooth or rough. true. to lead a life still so distracted and polluted. cry out gladiators who. without pining for recognition of the same by and a changed man you will enter upon a changed life. open-minded. The open mind. to be flung to be remanded once more to the same fangs and claws. even mind unforced acceptance of the apportionments of nature. death. were stupidity and cowardice indeed. even-minded.

and that what does the work of a dog is a dog. freely. is unrelated to an- since all things are coordinated. and you remember is what does the work of a fig-tree a fig-tree. achiev- ing at least this it. mind ble beings to be if made that like themselves . One universe. one God^ one reason^ one truth. and that they you keep wish not to be flattered. and that what does the work of a bee is a bee. modestly. stand fast one translated indeed to Islands of the Blessed. and that what does the work of a man is a man. 267 and . where you can still hold on. brave leaving of In order. and no one thing hardly other . or in the last resort take leave of life. not angrily but simply. however. to the remembrance in will greatly help you. yourself falling away and beaten in the fight.SELECTIONS if MARCUS AURELIUS as stand fast in them you can. if the gods. and are tied together in a sacred bond . All things are interwoven one with the other. much it of life. but wish all reasona- of these attributes. be a man and get away to if But you find some quiet corner. 19.

GREEK AND ROMAN STOICISM combine there is to adorn the same universe. one perfection for all creatures possessing the same nature and parbe. Lijejts short . Imitation of Antoninus the way of life and comfort in death. and one God pervading all. that there is also taking the same reason. of a Caesar. For all but one universe made up of things. his dislike of . and one truth . one substance and one law. and strenuous in duty. good. one common reason in all if so intelligent creatures. God-fearing. 268 holiness. grave. 20. and unselfish acts. or be dyed with that dye for it may happen so. serenity of look. his affability. unaffected. Reverence the gods and help mankind. and the one fruit of this earthly existence is disposition. Struggle to remain such as philosophy would have you. Take care that you become not too much . his unvarying equability. considerate. Keep yourself simple. a pious Do Rehis member his his resolute championship of reason. sincere. a friend to justice. affectionate. everything as a disciple of Antoninus.

how find religious without a spark of superstition. look on it all as a dream. food and service . . how he gave no ear to slander in a hurry how accurately he scrutinized character and action not given to reprimand nor frightened by clamor. Imitate him in these. that your last hour may you with a conscience as clear as his. 269 . MARCUS AURELIUS a sub- ostentation. off" Now once more. how industri- ous and patient he was. bed. Recall your true. thoroughly and unhe bore unjust re. not suspicious nor sophistical how little contented him in the way of lodging. . . in his how friendships. how firm and steady tolerant of such as and how pleased openly opposed if any one pointed out a better course finally. your sober self. clothes. his keenness for certitude about how he would never drop saw into it until he derstood clearly . his views.SELECTIONS the facts ject . how proaches without a word . how he was never . shake the slumber and realize that they were wide awake dreams that troubled you.

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