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The 14th Industrial Electronics Seminar 2012 (IES 2012)

Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (EEPIS), Indonesia, October 24, 2012

Designing False Color Photography Effect using Filter Recycle Over-Exposure

Negative Film feature White Balance

Setya Chendra Wibawa

Surabaya State University

Abstract through dust, smoke, fog and some concrete

Photography is fun, specially using DSLR camera,
we can try to resulting the best picture by optimizing 1.1 Imaging Sensor
camera features. That is an inspiration for a fact may not know that: The imaging sensor in
modification DSLR camera become False Color camera records only in black and white. Let that sink
Photography effect. False Color Photography is a in a minute. Each pixel on a digital camera's imaging
technique to gives interesting results like Infrared chip contains a light-sensitive photodiode that
photography. Infrared photography involves converts light to electrical current in proportion to the
capturing invisible light to produce striking images. quantity of light that falls on it. Photodiodes can't tell
To change a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera the difference between different wavelengths of light,
to infrared, can add a filter and make minor they only react to intensity. The typical way to add
adjustments or can modify the camera permanently color to the digital image is to apply a color filter
by removing the hot mirror. Usually, photography mosaic, using a red-green-blue pattern.
infrared, using very expensive filter, and has a risk There are several ways to do this, but the most
like scratched sensor. This experiment confirm the common is a filter arranged in what is called a Bayer
effectiveness of insert recycle over-exposure pattern, which looks like a mosaic of red, green, and
negative film (Filter re-ONF) infront of sensor blue squares. Half of the total number of pixels is
CMOS that without remove the hot mirror can filtered with green (G), while a quarter of the total is
resulting the false color effect using feature White filtered with red (R), and the other quarter with blue
Balance such as the color of object photography (B), in a repeating 2x2 arrangement. Rows of color in
change into reddish, purplish, old effect according a sequence of GRGRGR (etc.) alternate with a
to the table of result. sequence of BGBGBG. That's why this output is
called sequential RGB (or sRGB). The camera's
Keywords: false color, photography, infra red, processor actually uses the information from the
recyle over-exposure negative film. Bayer pattern to interpolate the color of all of the

1. Introduction 1.2 False Color, Intended and Unintended

Have stressed that, for natural color
Infrared photography (IR) is a technique that
reproduction with subtractive color film, the
gives interesting results, because the spectrum used
emulsion must be sensitive to red, green and blue,
for the resulting image is composed of wavelengths
respectively, and their complementaries, cyan,
of light invisible to the human eye. In infrared
magenta and yellow. Of course if do not insist on
photography, the film or sensor of the camera is
natural color reproduction, then the emulsions may
sensitive to infrared light so the images obtained
be sensitive in any spectral regions and the dyes
through this technique will look very different from
formed by the couplers would not necessarily have
the ones composed with visible light. Usually, in this
anything to do with the complementaries (if any) of
type of photography, an “infrared filter” is used.
these emulsion sensitivities. Any such change from
This filter allows the infrared light to pass to the
natural color reproduction is called false color.[5]
camera and blocks most of the visible light.
Because of that, the filter looks black or dark red
2. Previous Works
and once attached to the lens it will make it
2.1. Color Filter Arrays
impossible for the human eye to see anything
A camera sensor is, in essence, monochromatic.
through the viewfinder of the camera. This means
In order toacquire color information, the preferred
that the settings of the camera must be made prior
solution is to place a Color Filter Arrays (CFA) in
the filter attachment, unless a modified camera or a
front of the sensor. This array is composed of a
camera with live view is used.
mosaic of colored transparent material that allows
Infrared cameras usually only show images of
only a portion of the spectrum to pass through. In
one color channel because they do not distinguish
general, a CFA can be represented by a triplet. [9]
between different wavelengths of radiation. Infrared
cameras can also pick up infrared light signals

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cfa[n] = [cr[n], cg[n], cb[n]]T ∈ [0, 1]3, (1)

where the three components denote the relative

ercentages of the R, G, and B information retained at
pixel location n. Note that we enforce the range of
CFA values to be within [0, 1] to ensure physical
realizability (via subtractive color layers). Let [n],
g[n] and b[n] denote the ground truth R, G, B values
of the scene (i.e., the ones we would obtain from a 3-
CCD camera); the sensor reading after the CFA can
then be modeled as

yvis[n] = cr[n] r[n] + cg[n] g[n] + cb[n] b[n]. (2)

Recent work [3],[4],[6] has demonstrated that

the joint processing of visible and NIR data results in
image enhancement and analysis capabilities beyond (c) Enhanced Result
what can be achieved using visible information only.
Figure 3. Enhanced Result from Xiaopeng Zhang
2.2. Near-Infrared Acquisition
The research [8] propose a camera design for The electromagnetic spectrum (NASA, 2000) as
the simultaneous capture of high quality visible/NIR divided into types of radiation by ranges of
images, which requires no modification of the current wavelength and frequency (waves per unit time) with
imaging sensors. In fact, standard siliconbased the CIR section shown in red shading. Due to the
sensors, both CCD and CMOS, are intrinsically order of magnitude difference in wavelength, the
sensitive o wavelengths from roughly 200 nm to spectrum’s wavelength axis is presented
1100 nm. Thus, if one removes the hot mirror from logarithmically using the meter (m) and the following
the camera, the sensors will have the capability of meter-based units: [7]
imaging both the visible and NIR bands. One
component of the camera that does need modification Centimeter (cm) = 1 x 10-2 m
is the CFA. Without the hot mirror, the CFA filters Micrometer or Micron (μm) = 1 x 10-6 m
are partly transparent not only to their respective Angstrom (Å) = 1 x 10-10 m
color wavelengths, but to NIR as well [4]. This fact
makes the acquisition model in (1) no longer Wavelength can also be expressed in nanometers
applicable. (nm), which is 1 x 10-9 m. Thus, Visible light can be
described as extending from 0.4 to 0.7 μm or from
400 to 700 nm CIR can be described as extending
from 0.5 to 0.9 μm or from 500 to 900 nm, like figure
below :

Figure 1. The block diagram for the visible/NIR

acquisition processin the proposed camera design.

Figure 4 : wavelenght of light

3. Experiments and Result

Figure 2. A generic example of a 2 × 2 periodic This experiment using DSLR Canon 7D. First,
CFA. camera using natural color for comparison, the
second camera has modified by inserting filter
Photo result for [7] like images below : recycle over-exposure negative film and then using

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feature of White Balance (WB) like Manual, Shade, White Fluorense, Flash, kelvin Temperature). The
Cloudy, Tungsten, White Fluorense, Flash, kelvin range of Kelvin temperature using between 2500 oK -
Temperature. 8500oK.
According to the picture below,
Results below are shown only as needed :
No Result Technical Informatio
1 F 5.6 Normal
S 1/125 camera
ISO 1600 setting

Sensor Hot Filter Lens

CMOS Mirror re-ONF
/ CFA 2 F 3.5
S 1/50
Figure 5 : Camera body by inserting filter re-ONF
ISO 1600
Filter re-
The picture can be explained, in the body of camera ONF This
that Photography Object capturing by DSLR camera. WB Manual image as
DSLR Camera has modified by inserting filter Manual
recycle over-exposure negative film (Filter re-ONF). WB
The hot mirror on the camera without removed. Only 3 F 3.5
put Filter re-ONF in front of CMOS sensor and hot S 1/50
mirror. ISO 1600
Filter re-
WB Manual This
image as
Filter Red
Figure 6. Filter re-ONF

No Result Technical Informatio

4 F5 WB White
S 1/200 +
ISO 160 Filter
Filter re- Purple
ONF Color
WB Manual Plastics
Figure 7. Hot mirror infront of CMOS sensor

5 F 4.5
S 1/125
ISO 1600
Filter re-
ONF This
WB Manual image as
Figure 8. Filter re-ONF in front of Hot mirror and Manual
CMOS sensor WB
During capturing image, to get false color like Filter Red
the goals this work, using feature White Balance Color
(WB) like (Manual WB, Shade, Cloudy, Tungsten, Plastic

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Regular 4. Conclusions
In this paper, an effect of false color photography
using over-exposure negative film as filter not only
depend on it, but also feature White Balance (WB)
specially manual WB. The manual WB can use any
6 F 4.5 Without picture to get a variety of effect. The advantage this
S 1/125 added any experiment was not open the camera or remove the
ISO 1600 filter
hot mirror, because scratched sensor could be at risk.
Filter re-
ONF The disadvantage is the excessive use of the ISO,
WB Kelvin resulting in noise. Overall, this experiment confirm
2500oK the effectiveness of insert recycle over-exposure
negative film (Filter re-ONF) infront of sensor
CMOS camera that without remove hot mirror can
resulting the false color effect using feature White
Balance according to the table of result

7 F 4.5 Without 5. Future Works

S 1/125 added any The future work might try to remove the hot
ISO 1600 filter
mirror filter and replace it with UV Filter as IR Filter
Filter re-
ONF with λ 120-210 nm, and then capture image for
WB Kelvin fashion photography.
6. References
[1] Joe Farace, "Complete Guide to Digital Infrared
[2] Angel M Felicisimo, Vase Rollout Photography
Using Digital Reflex Cameras, Technical Briefs
The Following explanation : In historical archaeology, 2011, 6: 28–32.
Result 1 : [3] C. Fredembach and S. S¨usstrunk, “Colouring the
This an original image, without filter re-ONF, so near-infrared,” in Proc. IS&T/SID 16th Color
there is no effect of false color. Imaging Conference, 2008, pp. 176–182.
[4] C. Fredembach and S. S¨usstrunk, “Illumination
Result 2 :
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance estimation and detection using near-infrared,” in
manual and image as WB. Look the leaves turn Proc. SPIE Electronic Imaging,Digital
slightly reddish. Photography V, 2009.
[5] David Falk, Dieter Brill, David Stork, "Seeing
Result 3 :
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance The Light Optics in Nature, Photography, Color,
manual and image as WB and added filter red color Vision, and Holography", Harper & Row
plastics regular. Object perspective look slightly Publishers New York, 1986.
purplish. [6] D. N. Semi, ''An Article She Wrote in a
Result 4 : Conference'', Proc. 14th International Conference
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance on Pattern Re-cognition, vol.1, pp.120-130, 2000.
manual and white image as WB and added filter [7] The Statewide Mapping Advisory Committee,
purple color plastics regular. Object look more cool, "Using Color Infrared (CIR) Imagery : A Guide
with an old photo effect. for Understanding, Interpreting and Benefiting
from CIR imagery", July 2011
Result 5 :
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance [8] Xiaopeng Zhang, Terence. Sim, and Xiaoping
manual and image as WB and added filter red color Miao, “Enhancing photographswith near infrared
plastics regular. Object model look slightly purplish images,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on
and smoothy. This effect is as glamorous photo. ComputerVision and Pattern Recognition,
Result 6 : Ankorage, US, 2008.
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance [9] Yue M.Lu, "Designing Color Filter Arrays fot
Kelvin 2500oK. Object model look slightly bluish The joint Capture of Visible and Near-Infrared
purple. Almost similar to number 3 Images", School of Computer and
Result 7 : Communication Scienses, Switzerland
This image using filter re-ONF feature white balance
Kelvin 6000oK. Object model look slightly purplish.