You are on page 1of 44

WORKSHOP TRAINING MANUAL

COURSE: WS1020

Training Modules: Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation, Communication,


Pneumatics and Hydraulics

CENTRAL WORKSHOP
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS
CHENNAI – 600036, INDIA
TRAINING MODULE: ELECTRICAL

1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE

The Learning objectives of this module are


 To become familiar with electrical safety instructions, components and their symbols.
 To make simple circuits using switches and lamps on their own.
 To understand the operation of Motors and their starters.

2. INRODUCTION

 Electrical equipments and appliances are inevitable from human life.


 Basic information about Electrical input devices like switches, push buttons, limit switches
etc will be provided.
 Basic information about Electrical output devices like lamps, heaters, motors etc will be
provided.
 Basic information about Electrical interfacing devices like relays, contactors, timers etc will
be provided.
 Basic information about wiring between input devices and output devices will be provided.
 Additional exercises in wiring will be provided.

1
3. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN

 Listen to the instructions given time to time.

 Have your breakfast/lunch enough to work workshop.

 Safety Footwear must be worn.

 Workshop uniform must be worn.

 Long hair must be tied back.

 Wrist watch, Ring, Bracelets, Long chain must be removed if any.

 Never run in the workshop or any laboratory.

 Never indulge in reckless behavior in the workshop.

 Never adopt a casual attitude in the workshop.

 Always be conscious of the potential hazards.

 Ensure that at least a second person is within your call.

 Obtain consent before using any equipment in the workshop.

 Do one work at a time.

 Keep only needed tools in hand as well as on the worktable.

 Connect the power to test any circuit in presence of the Supervisor.

 Always be alert when you are doing electrical based exercises.

4. COMPONENTS USED IN ELECTRICAL

Symbol Component name Meaning

Electrical Wire Conductor of electrical current

Connected Wires Connected crossing

Not Connected Wires Wires are not connected

SPST Toggle Switch Disconnects current when open

SPDT Toggle Switch Selects between two connections

2
Pushbutton Switch (N.O) Momentary switch - normally open

Pushbutton Switch (N.C) Momentary switch - normally closed

DIP switch is used for onboard


DIP Switch
configuration

SPST Relay
Relay open / close connection by an
electromagnet
SPDT Relay

Used for zero potential reference and


Earth Ground
electrical shock protection.

Chassis Ground Connected to the chassis of the circuit

Digital / Common Ground

Resistor (IEEE)
Resistor reduces the current flow.
Resistor (IEC)

Potentiometer (IEEE)
Adjustable resistor - has 3 terminals.
Potentiometer (IEC)

Capacitor Capacitor is used to store electric charge. It


acts as short circuit with AC and open
Capacitor circuit with DC.

Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor

Variable Capacitor Adjustable capacitance

Inductor Coil / solenoid that generates magnetic field

Iron Core Inductor Includes iron

Variable Inductor

3
AC Voltage Source AC voltage source

Electrical voltage is generated by


Generator
mechanical rotation of the generator

Battery Cell Generates constant voltage

Battery Generates constant voltage

Lamp / light bulb


Generates light when current flows through
Lamp / light bulb

5. BASIC ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

5.1 Tube light circuit


AIM OF THE EXPRIMENT:

To conduct the experiment on tube light circuit

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

SPST Switch module, Tube light holder module, Fuse module, Fuse, Power cable, Casing and
capping, Tube light, Thermal starter, Choke, Multi strand wire (Red and Black color wires) for
circuit connection and working board.

TOOLS REQUIRED:

Screw driver, cutting plier, nose plier, wire stripper, nipper, line tester, knife and insulation tape.

4
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

Make connections as per the circuit diagram on the working board.

OBSERVATIONS:

After confirming the circuit connection when switch “S1” is switched ON, the tube light started
glowing.

RESULT:

The given experiment was successfully carried out.


6. ADDITIONAL EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

6.1 One lamp controlled by SPST switch


6.2 Stair case lamp control circuit
6.3 Series parallel lamp circuit
6.4 Godown circuit
6.5 Direct on line starter
6.6 Semi automatic star delta starter
6.7 Automatic star delta starter

7. REFERENCES
1. B.L.THERAJA and A.K.THERAJA (2005 Ed), A Textbook of Electrical Technology
Volume 1, S. Chand publishers.
2. S.K. BHATTACHARYA and BRIJINDER SINGH (1996), Control of electrical
machines, New age international publishers.

5
TRAINING MODULE: ELECTRONICS

1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE

The Learning objectives of the module are


1) Measuring Instruments and electronic components
 To study and become conversant with the use of different meters in the measurement of
electrical parameters like voltage, current, resistance and power
 To study and use Digital Multimeter, DC Power Supply, Function Generator and Oscilloscope.
 To become familiar with waveform measurements.
 To study the RC Circuits & Transformer and their applications
 To study the characteristics of diode and zener diode.
 To build and test a simple DC Power Supply
2) Analog and digital circuits
 To become familiar with the operation and applications of Operational Amplifier circuits, basic
gates, multiplexer, demultiplexer, and decoder.
3) Applications of analog and digital ICs
 To study the Soldering practices
 To study the operation of 555 Timer IC and its applications
 To study the operation of A/D converter and D/A Converter.

2. INRODUCTION

Some of you may be encountering electronic circuits and instruments for the first time. Others may have
‘played around’ with such stuff if, for example, you were ever bitten by the ‘ham radio’ bug. In either
case, this sequence of laboratory experiments has been designed to introduce you to the fundamentals of
modern analog and digital electronics. To that end, our goal is that by the end of the lab session, you will
be able to design and build any little analog or digital circuit you may find useful, or at least understand it
well enough to have an intelligent conversation about the problem with any person who has knowledge
about electronics. A basic knowledge of electronics will also help you to understand and appreciate the
quirks and limitations of instruments you will be using in research, testing, development, or process-
control settings.

2.1. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

2.1.1 Multimeter

 The Multimeters are the general purpose meters which can be used to measure

i) Voltage – ac and dc

6
ii) Current – ac and dc

iii) Resistance

 Switches on the meter are used to select both the function and
the range of the meter.
 Make sure that the meter is adjusted to the correct function
and initially set the meter to a less sensitive range than is
needed. (Note all meters are not provided with auto range and
over load cut out)
 Before measuring the resistance, check the meter at zero
resistance by shorting the two leads and when the instrument
is not in use, always return the
selection knob to to the normal “off” position to avoid
draining the battery.

7
 Digital multimeters have better accuracy and resolution. They usually have auto ranging, and auto
zero facilities, which means the user need only to set the function switch and get the reading.
 The digital mutimeter converts an input signal into equivalent digital display. The signal input might
be a dc voltage, an ac voltage, a resistance or an ac or dc current. Advanced meters will also have
facilities to measure capacitance and frequency.

2.1.2 Clamp current meter

 The current clamp has two jaws which are opened to allow clamping
around an electrical conductor. This allows the electrical current in the
conductor to be measured, without interrupting the flow of current.
 The most common form of current clamp comprises a split ferrite ring. A
wire coil is wound round one or both halves, forming the secondary
winding of a current transformer. The conductor through which the
current to be measured forms the primary.
 The other type is based on Hall effect and is more sensitive and both DC
and AC can be measured.

2.1.3 Power measurement


 Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. True power is
symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W).

 Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as
reactive power. Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of Volt-
Amps-Reactive (VAR).

 Total power in an AC circuit, both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent


power. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps
(VA).

 These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another

 The ratio between real power and apparent power in a circuit is called the power factor. Where
the waveforms are purely sinusoidal, the power factor is the cosine of the phase angle (φ)
between the current and voltage sinusoid waveforms. Equipment data sheets and nameplates
often will abbreviate power factor as "cosφ" for this reason.

 For the purely resistive circuit, the power factor is 1, because the reactive power equals zero. For
the purely inductive circuit, the power factor is zero, because true power equals zero. The same
could be said for a purely capacitive circuit.

 The true power can be calculated from the formula P = V×I×cos φ , where V is the rms voltage,
I is the rms current and cos φ is the power factor.
2.1.3 Oscilloscope

 Oscilloscope is the most versatile of the test instruments. It can be used for waveform analysis,
signal frequency measurement, peak to peak voltage measurement and the most important for
signal tracing.

 The heart of an oscilloscope is the cathode ray tube (CRT). The working of a CRT depends upon
generation of electrons by a heated cathode, focusing it to a thin beam and making it to travel
towards positively charged anode. The electron strikes on a glass screen, coated with phosphor
which gives off light, making spot on the screen.

 The brightness of the spot can be controlled and so its position. The spot can be deflected to any
part of the screen by applying a varying electric field to the deflection plates – four of them
arranged in pairs, called X-plates and Y-plats. The Y-plates deflect the spot vertically up or
down, while the X-plate move it from side to side.

 Thus, an oscilloscope can be routinely used to

i) Display the waveforms

ii) Measure its frequency

iii) Measure its peak to peak amplitude.

 To use the oscilloscope, carefully observe all the controls on the front panel. The essential
controls are Intensity or Brightness control, Focus control, X and Y position control and Trigger
control.

 Before using the instrument, make sure the following setting:

 Intensity control fully anticlockwise

 Trigger control to Auto

1
 Vertical and horizontal position controls to midway round

 Volts/cm control to highest value of the range

 Time/cm control to 1ms/cm or its nearest value

 Triggering is probably the most complicated function performed by the scope. To create a stable
image of a repetitive waveform, the scope must ‘trigger’ its display at a particular voltage,
known as the trigger ‘threshold’. The display is synchronized whenever the input signal crosses
that voltage, so that many images of the signal occurring one after another can be superimposed
in the same place on the screen. The level knob sets the threshold voltage for triggering.

 You can select whether triggering occurs when the threshold voltage is crossed from below
(‘rising-edge’ triggering) or from above (‘falling-edge’ triggering) using the trigger control
knobs and switches. You can also select the signal source for the triggering circuitry to be
channel 1, channel 2, an external trigger signal, or the 240 V AC power line.

 For voltage measurement, count the number of centimeters on the vertical scale from negative
peak to the positive peak and then multiply this number by the settings of the volts per
centimeter switch. For example, if the volts/cm switch is set to 5V/cm, and the waveform
measures 4.8 cm from peak to peak, the waveform voltage is 4.8 x 5 = 24.0 V peak to peak.

 For frequency measurement, the method is to measure the time period of one complete cycle on
the screen i.e. the horizontal distance between two identical points on the neighbouring waves.
This distance multiplied by the setting of time/cm switch to calculate the period of one cycle.
The reciprocal of this time is the frequency of the waveform. For example, if the peaks of the
waveform are 5 cm apart and time/cm switch is set to 200 ms/cm, the time of one cycle is 5 x
200ms = 1 s and the frequency is 1Hz.

2
2.2. ELECTRONIC DISCRETE COMPONENTS

2.2.1 Resistors
 Usually resistors are little cylinders of carbon, carbon film, metal film, or wound-up wire,
encased in an insulating coating, with wire leads sticking out the ends. Often the resistance is
indicated by means of colored stripes according to the resistor color code (Table 1). Resistors
1 1 1
come in various sizes according to their power rating. The common sizes are W, W,
8 4 2

Table 1. Resistor colour coding

W, 1 W, and 2 W. You can easily verify this linear relationship between voltage and current
using the fixed 10 kΩ resistance provided between the two ends of one of the breadboard’s
‘potentiometers’. A potentiometer is a type of resistor that has an adjustable ‘center tap’ or
‘slider’, allowing electrical connections to be made not only at the two ends, but also at an
adjustable point along the resistive material.

 Resistors in series: In a series circuit, the current flowing is the same at all points. The circuit
diagram shows two resistors connected in series with a 6 V battery. The same current, 3 mA,
flows through each of the two resistors.

 Resistors in parallel: In a parallel circuit, the voltage across the parallel branches is the same.
The circuit diagram shows two resistors connected in parallel with a 6 V battery. The same
voltage, 6 V, appears across each of the two resistors.

2.2.2 Capacitors
 A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors
separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors, an

3
electric field is present in the dielectric. The value of capacitance is given by C = (εoεrA) / d;
where εo permittivity of free space and has the value εo= 8.854 × 10−12 F/m, εr is relative
permittivity, A is area and d is distance between the plates.

 Capacitors come in a variety of types, categorized according to the type of dielectric used, which
determines how much capacitance can be squeezed into a small volume. Electrolytic and
tantalum capacitors are polarized, which means that they have a positive end and a negative end,
and the applied voltage should be more positive at the positive end than at the negative end – if
you reverse-voltage a polarized capacitor it can burn out, or even explode! Paper, mica, and
ceramic capacitors are unpolarized and can be hooked up in either direction.

 The fundamental rule governing the behavior of capacitors is Q = CV, where Q is the charge
stored on the capacitor at a given time, V is the voltage across the capacitor at that time, and C is
the capacitance. Current can flow into or out of a capacitor, but only to the extent that the charge
on the capacitor is changing. In other words, the current into or out of a capacitor is equal to the
time derivative of the charge stored on it.

2.2.3 RC Circuits

 Integrator using RC Network

4
 Differentiator using RC Network

 Low Pass Filter using RC Network

 High Pass Filter using RC Network

5
2.2.4 Transformer
 A Transformer is a static apparatus consists of two or more
inductors. First inductor is powered by AC, inducing an AC voltage
across the second inductor. If the second inductor is connected to a
load, power will be electromagnetically coupled from the first
inductor (connected to power source) to the load. The powered
inductor in a transformer is called the primary winding. And
whereas the unpowered inductor in a transformer is called the
secondary winding.
 Transformers “step up” or “step down” voltage according to the
ratios of primary to secondary wire turns. A transformer designed
to increase voltage from primary to secondary is called a step-up
transformer. A transformer designed to reduce voltage from
primary to secondary is called step-down transformer.
 Losses in the Transformer;
i) Copper loss: It is I2R loss in the primary and secondary winding.
ii) Core loss: A time varying current in transformer, which causes a time varying magnetic
field in its core, causes energy losses in the core material which are dissipated as heat, due to
two processes:
– Eddy current: From Faraday’s law of induction, the changing magnetic field can induce
circulating loops of electric current in the conductive metal core. The energy in these
currents is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the core material.
– hysteresis: Changing or reversing the magnetic field in the core also causes losses due to
the motion of the tiny magnetic domains it is composed of. The energy loss is proportional
to the area of the hysteresis in the BH graph of the core material.
 By being able to transfer power from one circuit to another without the use of interconnecting
conductors between the two circuits, transformers provide the useful feature of electrical

6
isolation. Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and
current either up or down is called isolation transformers.

 E.m.f Equation of a transformer is given by E = 4.44 m f N Volts


NP
 Turns Ratio = Where, NP = No. of turns in primary ; NS = No. of turns in secondary
NS
I S N P VP
 Current Ratio =  
I P N S VS
 Voltage Ratio = VP  N P
VS N S
Po
 Transformer Efficiency    100 %
Pin
I1 I2
230/12Volts
a

230V V2 RL = 80Ω
V1
50Hz

 To measure the efficiency of the transformer, the above circuit is used.


 The measurement of primary and secondary power
o under no load condition will give core loss (primary power – secondary power).
o under full load condition will give copper loss (power loss – core loss) and efficiency
(secondary power/primary power *100)

2.2.5 P-N Junction Diode

 If a junction between P-type and N-type semiconductor material is created within a single
crystal, in such a way that the crystalline structure is preserved across the junction, the result is a
junction diode. Electrons from the N-region migrate across the junction into the P-region, filling
holes as they go. This creates a net charge build-up around the junction – positive in the N-
region and negative in the P-region – leading to an internal electric field as shown. Once the
holes are filled, the junction region becomes devoid of charge carriers and thus acts as an
insulator, preventing further current flow.
 If an external field is applied in the same direction as the internal field, the ‘depletion region’
(region around the junction devoid of charge carriers) increases in size, so current does not flow.
On the other hand, if an external field is applied opposite to the internal field, free charge
carriers flow toward the junction. Electrons flow into the N-type material from the metal contact.

7
A PN junction thus allows current to flow easily in one direction but blocks current flow in the
reverse direction.
 When the P-type material is at a more positive voltage than the N-type material, the diode is said
to be ‘forward-biased’. When the P-type material is more negative than the N-type material, the
diode is said to be ‘reverse-biased’.

VR
VR ID 1 kΩ
1 kΩ
1N4004
V 1N4004 VD
V VD

Forward bias condition Reverse bias condition

 V-I characteristic of the diode under forward and reverse condition can be obtained by using
above circuit.

2.2.6 Simple DC Power Supply


The simple power supply shown in figure is designed by two full wave rectifiers, one for
positive supply and the other for negative supply. The 1000μF capacitors act as the filter to
provide unregulated DC voltage. IC 7805, positive 5V regulator IC provides 5V regulated
output. Similarly, IC 7905 provides negative 5V regulated supply.

IN4001 7805
V2 1 3
+5V
9V + 2 10uF
1000uF
230V V1
50Hz

9V

7905
2 3 -5V
1
10uF
1000uF +

2.3 ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS

2.3.1 Operational amplifier

• An operational Amplifier is a direct coupled high-gain amplifier usually consisting of one or


more differential amplifiers and usually followed by a level translator and an output stage

8
• “Operational Amplifier,” was used in the computing field to describe amplifiers that performed
various mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication differentiation and
integration
• By the proper selection of feedback components, operational amplifier circuits could be used to
add, subtract, average, integrate, and differentiate.

2.3.2 Ideal Operational Amplifier


 Gain: Infinite
 Input Impedance: Infinite
 Output Impedance: Zero
 Response time: Zero
 Offset: Zero
 CMRR: Infinite
 Bandwidth: Infinite
 Slew rate: Infinite

2.3.3 Ideal Vs Practical Op-Amp

Ideal Practical

Open Loop gain A  105


Bandwidth BW  10-100Hz
Input Impedance Zin  >1M
Output Impedance Zout 0 10-100 
Output Voltage Vout Depends only on Vd = (V+ Depends slightly on average input
V) Vc = (V++V)/2
Differential mode signal Common-Mode signal
CMRR  10-100dB

Ideal op-amp Practical op-amp


+ AVin +
Zin Zout
Vin ~ Vout Vin Vout
~
 Zout=0  AVin

2.3.4 Pin details


OFFSET
NULL
1 8 N.C.
V1
+
-IN 2

7 V+ Vo
2.3.5 Op-Amp V2 
+IN 3 + 6 OUTPUT
Properties
OFFSET
V 4 5 NULL
(1) Infinite Open Loop gain
9
- the gain without feedback
- equal to differential gain i1~0 +
- zero common-mode gain Vo
- pratically, Gd = 20,000 to 200,000 i2~0 

(2) Infinite Input impedance


- input current ii ~0A Rout
- T in high-grade op-amp Vo' +
- mA input current in low-grade op-amp Rload

(3) Zero Output Impedance Rload


- act as perfect internal voltage source Vload  Vo
Rload  Rout
- no internal resistance
- output impedance in series with load
- reducing output voltage to the load (Voltage Gain) 20log(0.707)=3dB
- practically, Rout ~ 20-100  Gd
0.707Gd
2.3.6 Frequency-Gain Relation

 Ideally, signals are amplified from DC to the


highest AC frequency
1
 Practically, bandwidth is limited
0 fc f1
 741 family op-amp has a limited bandwidth of (frequency)

few kHz.
 Unity Gain frequency f1: the gain at unity
 Cutoff frequency fc: the gain drop by 3dB from dc gain Gd
GB Product : f1 = Gd fc

2.3.7 Feedback Amplifier


+
Vi A Vo
Vo = A (Vi-Vo)
-
Vo A

Vi 1  A

2.3.8 Unity-gain Amplifier or “Buffer”

 This is a special case of the non-inverting


amplifier, which is also called a voltage
follower, with infinite R1 and zero R2. By ohms law

Hence Av = 1. Vin
i
 It provides an excellent impedance-level Ri
transformation while maintaining the signal voltage level. V f  iR f
 The “ideal” buffer does not require any input current and Vo  V f
can drive any desired load resistance without loss of signal
Vo  iR f
voltage.
Vi R f
Vo  
Ri
10
Vo Rf
A 
Vi Ri
 Such a buffer is used in many sensor and data acquisition system applications.

2.3.9 The Inverting Amplifier: Configuration

 A “feedback network” composed of resistors Rf and Ri is connected between the inverting


input, signal source and amplifier output node, respectively.

Rf
Ri

V o
V ~in +
By ohms law

Vin
i
2.3.10 Non-inverting Ri
Amplifier
V f  iR f
 Its uses feedback and the input signal is applied to the non- Vo  Vi  V f
inverting input terminal of the op-amp
Vo  Vi  iR f
Rf
Vi R f
Ri

Vo  Vi 
Ri
V
o
+ Rf
Vo
A  1
Vin ~ Vi Ri
2.3.11 Differential Amplifier

• This If V1 = 0, V01 is given by,


Rf circuit Rf Rf
is also V01  V2 [1  ]
Ri called
( Ri  R f ) Ri
V1  a Rf
V01  V2
Vo Ri
Ri Similarly, if V2 = 0, V02 is given by,
V2 +
 Rf
V02  V1
Ri
Rf V0  V01  V02
Rf
V0  (V2  V1 )
Ri
differential amplifier, since it amplifies the difference between the input signals.

2.3.12 Comparator

• If Vin < Vref , Vo = -ve • A


Vref  Saturation
Vo

+
• If Vin >Vref , Vo = +ve
Vin
Saturation
Comparator compares a signal voltage on one input

11
of an op-amp with a known voltage called the reference voltage on the other input .

• It is open loop op-amp, with two analog inputs and a digital outputs; the output may be (+) or (-)
saturation voltage , depending on which input is larger

2.3.13 Digital Logic Gates

1. A logic gate is an electronic circuit/device which makes the logical decisions.


2. To arrive at this decisions, the most common logic gates used are OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and
NOR gates.
3. The exclusive-OR gate us another logic gate which can be constructed using AND, OR and NOT
gate.
4. Logic gates have one or more inputs and only one output.
5. The output is active only for certain combination's of inputs.
6. Logic gates are the building blocks of any digital circuits.
7. Logic gates are also called switches.
Volts
5V
2.3.14 Typical Voltage Assignments
Logic 1 1 1
4V

1. Binary 1: Any voltage between 2V to 5V 2V

2. Binary 0: Any voltage between 0V to 0.8V Not Used

0.8V

Logic 0 0 0 0
0V
t
2.3.15 AND Gate

1. The AND gate performs logical multiplication, commonly known as AND function.
2. The AND gate has two or more inputs and single output.
3. The output of AND gate is HIGH only when all its inputs are HIGH
4. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X.Y
5. Here dot (.) denotes the AND operation

X Y F=(X.Y)
X 0 0 0
F=X .Y 0 1 0
Y 1 0 0
1 1 1

2.3.16 OR Gate

1. The OR gate performs logical addition, commonly known as OR function.


2. The OR gate has two or more inputs and single output.
3. The output of OR gate is HIGH only when any one of its inputs are HIGH
4. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X+Y
5. Here dot (+) denotes the OR operation.

X X Y F=(X+Y)
F=X+Y
0 0 0
Y
0 1 1
1 0 1

12
1 1 1

2.3.17 NOT Gate

1. The NOT gate performs the basic logical function called inversion or complementation. NOT
gate is also called as inverter.
2. The purpose of this gate is to convert one logic level into the opposite logic level.
3. It has one input and one output.
4. When a HIGH level is applied to an inverter, a LOW level appears its output and vice versa.
5. If X is the input, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X',
6. Here dot ('). denotes the NOT (inversion) operation.

X Y=X'
F= X 0 1
X
1 0

2.3.18 NAND Gate

1. NAND gate is cascade of AND gate and NOT gate.


2. It has two or more inputs and only one output.
3. The output of NAND gate is HIGH when any one of its input is LOW
4. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = ( X.Y)',
5. Here dot (.) denotes the AND operation and (') denotes inversion.

X Y F=(X.Y)’
X
0 0 1
F=(X .Y)’ 0 1 1
Y 1 0 1
1 1 0
2.3.19 NOR Gate

1. NOR gate is cascade of OR gate and NOT gate.


2. It has two or more inputs and only one output.
3. The output of NOR gate is HIGH when any all its inputs are LOW
4. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = (X+Y)'
5. Here plus (+) denotes the OR operation and (') denotes inversion.
X Y F=(X+Y)’
X 0 0 1
F=(X+Y)’ 0 1 0
Y 1 0 0
1 1 0

2.3.20 Ex-OR Gate

1. An Exclusive-OR (XOR) gate is gate with two or three more inputs and one output.
2. The output of a two-input XOR gate assumes a HIGH state if one and only one input assumes a
HIGH state.
3. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X Y
13
4. Here denotes the XOR operation. X Y and is equivalent to X.Y' + X'.Y

X Y F=(XY)
X
F=XY 0
0
0
1
0
1
Y 1 0 1
1 1 0

2.3.21 Universal Gates

1. Universal gates are the one, which can be used for implementing any gate like AND, OR and
NOT.
2. NAND and NOR gates are called Universal gates.
3. But there are few rules that need to be followed when implementing NAND or NOR based other
gates.
4. To facilitate the conversion to NAND and NOR logic, we have two new graphic symbols for
these gates.
X X
F=(X .Y)’ F=(X+Y)’
Y Y

X X
F
F Output

Inputs
Y
Y

2.3.22 Multiplexer
Enable
E
1. A multiplexer (MUX) is a digital switch which connects data
from one of n sources to the output. Select SEL
2. A number of select inputs determine which data source is Multiplexer
connected to the output. Data
3. The block diagram of MUX with n data sources of b bits wide Y output
n data D0
and s bits wide select line is shown in below figure. Sources D1
4. MUX acts like a digitally controlled multi position switch
where binary code applied to the select inputs controls the Dn-1
input source that will be switched on to the output as shown
in figure below. At any given point of time only one input
gets selected and is connected to output, based on the select input signal.
5. The operation of a multiplexer can be explained better using a mechanical switch as shown in
figure below. This is a rotary switch can contact with any of the inputs and which is connected to
the output. As you can see at any given point of time only one input gets transferred to output.

2.3.23 De-multiplexers
Outputs

Input

1 Digital switches to connect data from one input source to one


of n outputs.
2 Usually implemented by using n-to-2n binary decoders where
the decoder's enable line is used for data input of the Enable E

demultiplexer. Select SEL


3 Figure below shows block diagram a demulitplexer which has Demultiplexer

got s bits wide select input, one data input of b bits wide and n data
D0
Data
outputs of b bits wide. Source Di D1 outputs

Dn-1

14
4 The operation of a De-multiplexer can be explained better using a mechanical switch as shown in
figure below. This is a rotary switch can contact with any of the outputs and which is connected
to the input. As you can see at any given point of time only one output gets connected to input.

3.0 Soldering practices

3.1 Soldering

• Soldering is a skill that requires both knowledge and practice.


• Soldering is a method of joining metal parts using a filler metal of low melting point (solder)
below 450 °C (800 °F).
• Purpose of soldering is
 (i) Good Electrical Connections
 (ii) Strong Mechanical Connections
• Soldering Iron is used to melt the solder and to make the joint of the metal parts.
• The reverse process of soldering is called de-soldering.

3.2 Good Soldering

 Clean Surface
 Flux
 Recommended solder type
 Recommended soldering Iron type and wattage
 Recommended soldering Iron tip
 Good timing

3.3 Flux

 Flux only cleans oxides off the surface to be soldered.


 It does not remove dirt, soot, oils, silicon, etc.
 Don’t use acid flux for electronic works.
 Use only ROSIN flux
 Now a days flux is contained in the core of the solder wire itself

3.4 Solders

 Solder is a metal or metallic alloy used, when melted,


to join metallic surfaces together. The most common Tin/Lead Melting Point
alloy is some combination of tin and lead. 40/60 230 °C
 Certain special applications may require Silver 50/50 214 °C
Solder.
 Solder can be selected considering following 60/40 190 °C
 Low melting temperature 63/37 183 °C
 Narrow or No soft region
 60/40 is the most common for electronic soldering.
 Solder wire available in different diameters, larger
diameter required for soldering connectors, small
diameters is sufficient for PCB soldering.

3.5 Soldering Iron

• To make good connection you have to heat the junction


somewhat above the melting temperature of solder this is
the job of the soldering iron.
• Soldering iron comes in different sizes.
• It is rated in terms of wattage (5W to 100W).

15
• Thicker connection such as connectors requires more heat from soldering iron so we need
higher wattage soldering iron.
• Lighter connections like IC pins requires less heat so requires only less wattage irons.
• Don’t rub the tip with file or abrasives
• Pencil type tips are suitable for 20W to 60 W soldering iron for electronic works.
• Very importantly – remember to tin it at the end of the session just after switching off, otherwise
the casing will be damaged and the tip will go rusty and will not solder properly in future uses.
• Use properly grounded tip to protect sensitive components like MOSFETs and ICs.

3.6 Different step for Soldering

• Cleaning
• Tinning
 Tinning is the Process of coating fresh
solder to a cleaned soldering iron tip. It
helps to reduces oxidization and
increases the amount of heat transfer to
the connection.
• Soldering.
• Wetting
 Wetting is the penetration of solder into
the surface of metal parts. Actually, it is
the process, which gives physical
strength and good electrical connections.

3.7 DESOLDERING TECHNIQUES

• Desoldering is done to remove the solder from a joint, because of replacement for a faulty
component or for fixing a dry joint.

• Desoldering Pump
 The usual way is to use a desoldering pump which works like a small spring-loaded
pump, only in reverse! (More demanding users using CMOS devices might need a pump
which is ESD safe.)
 A spring-loaded plunger is released at the push of a button and the molten solder is then
drawn up into the pump. It may take one or two attempts to clean up a joint this way, but
a small desoldering pump is an invaluable tool especially for PCB work.

• Desoldering Wick
 An excellent alternative to a pump is to use desoldering wick which are packaged in
small dispenser reels.
 This product is a specially treated fine copper braid which draws molten solder up into
the braid where it solidifies.
 The best way is to use the tip of the hot iron to press a short length of braid down onto
the joint to be de-soldered.
 The iron will subsequently melt the solder, which will be drawn up into the braid. Take
extreme care to ensure that you don't allow the solder to cool with the braid adhering to
the work, or you run the risk of damaging PCB
copper tracks when you attempt to pull the braid +5V

off the joint.


8 4

3.8 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR RA

7 3 TP1
 When the circuit is first turned on, the discharge input (pin TP2
IC 555
7) is disconnected from ground and output (Pin 3) is set RB
6

TP3 2
1 5
16
C
0.01F
high because the trigger input (pin 2) is below 33% Vcc Voltage.

 The capacitor, C, starts to charge through resistors RA and RB.

 The threshold input (Pin 6) is used to detect the voltage across the capacitor. The voltage across
the capacitor reaches 66.6% of Vcc, the output is set low and the discharge input is connected
back to ground.
f = 1 / (0.693 (RA+2RB)C)
 Now, the capacitor starts discharging though resistor RB.

 When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 33% of Vcc, the cycle repeats and creates a series
of output pulses.

 An astable circuit triggers from previous output pulse whereas a monostable circuit requires an
externally applied trigger

 The astable 555 timer circuit can be used in the following applications:
 modulate transmitters such as ultrasonic and IR transmitters
 create an accurate clock signal
 turn on and off an actuator at set time
 intervals for a fixed duration

3.9 MONOSTSABLE MULTIVIBRATOR


+5V
 The monostable circuit outputs one pulse for each high to
low transition at the trigger input pin.
8 4

 When the discharge input is disconnected from ground, the R 10k

output is set high. TP1


7 3
IC 555
 When the trigger input changes from Vcc to 33% of Vcc
TP2 6
Voltage, the capacitor, C, starts to charge through resistor,
R. TRIGGER
TP3 PULSE 2 1 5

 When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 66.6% of C


0.01F
Vcc, the output is set low and the discharge input is 100F

connected back to ground.

 When the discharge input is connected back to ground, the


capacitor is discharged. T = 1.1 RC

 The length of the output pulse depends on the charging time of capacitor. This rate is determined
by the charge capacity of the capacitor C, and resistance R.

 The monostable 555 timer circuit can be used in the following applications:

o Debounces a momentary/pushbutton switch


o Turning on an actuator for a set period of time
o Turn an output from a resistive sensor from analog signal to digital signal.

3.10 D/A CONVERTER USING R-2R LADDER

 An R-2R Ladder is a simple and inexpensive way to perform digital-to-analog conversion, using
repetitive arrangements of precision resistor networks in a ladder-like configuration. A string
resistor ladder implements the non-repetitive reference network.

17
 Advantage: Higher impedance values can be reached using the same number of components.

 Disadvantage: R-2R resistor ladder only increases linearly with the number of bits as it needs
only resistors.

10k

+12V
10k 10k 10k
2
- 7
6
741
3
20k 20k 20k
20k 20k
+ 4
-12V

D0 D1 D2
D3
D0 2 D1 4 D2 8D3
Vo   R f (    )
R R R R

+5V

3.11 A/D CONVERTER

 A direct conversion ADC or flash +5V


ADC has a comparator that fires for
each decoded voltage range. Vin
1k
+5V Pin 14: +5V
1 Pin 7 : GND
 A Flash converter requires 2n-1 0 + 4
8 G3 4
324 6
comparators for an n-bit 9
-
5
D0

conversion. 330
½ 7486
1k
 The comparator bank feeds a logic
circuit that generates a code for
5
each voltage range. 0 + 7 G2 D1
324
6
-
 Direct conversion is very fast 330
1
1k 3
2

3 ¼ 7486
+ 1
324
2
- 11
G1

1k

18
TRAINING MODULE: COMMUNICATION

1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE

The Learning objectives of the module are


 Teaches various advantages and applications of optical fiber communication.
 Understands the working principles of optical fiber communication.
 Familiarizes principles of voice digitization, and synchronous as well as asynchronous
time division multiplexing of several signals.

2. INRODUCTION

Optical fiber has rapidly become the most popular medium for long distance transmission of
data, voice and video signals. Optical fiber is usually a glass core / glass cladding fiber for
long distance communication. However, Plastic Coated Silica fiber or Plastic core / Plastic
cladding fiber may be used for short haul communication systems.

2.1. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

2.1.1 Advantages of Optical fiber

 The primary advantage of optical fiber is the large bandwidth that it offers. Since the
carrier is an optical signal with a frequency exceeding 1014 Hz, it is conceivable that
bandwidths of the order of 10,000 GHz can be supported.

 A second advantage of optical fiber is the low attenuation (loss) of the signal passing
through it.

 Optical fibers are immune to Electromagnetic and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI
and RFI) since optical fibers are made of perfect dielectric with a totally opaque jacket.

 A fiber does not radiate electromagnetic energy and thus optical fiber communication is
relatively secure.

 Optical fiber is extremely small in size and is of very low weight.


 Further, optical fiber sensors offer extreme sensitivity.

19
2.1.2 General Applications of Optical fiber
 Used in the transmission of signaling information for railways.
 Used for communication between NC (Numerically Controlled) machines on a factory-
floor.

 Used in a variety of local networks, and for communications within tanks, ships and
aircraft.

 Supports mind-boggling number of voice channels.


 Used to sense physical parameters like displacement, strain and pressure sensors,
temperature, velocity, acceleration, current, voltage etc.

3. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND DEFAULT SETTINGS DURING OPERATING


OPTIC FIBER COMMUNICATION TRAINER (OFT)

3.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

1. As the Optic Fiber Trainer is powered from 230V mains, observe electrical safety.
2. The Optical Transmitters are LASER sources. So, DO NOT stare at the light emanating
out of fiber for longer period. Also DO NOT focus LASER beam on you or other
student colleagues.

3. OFT is provided with many jumpers, shorting plugs and patch cords. Handle them
carefully without losing any, as the entire functioning of the unit depends on these
jumpers.

3.2 DEFAULT SETTINGS

1. Ensure that all shorting-link post pairs A & B in the OFT are shorted with shorting plugs.
2. Ensure that all jumper posts A 1 & B of Jumpers in the OFT are shorted using shorting
plugs. This is the default setting for the jumpers.

3. Set the ANALOG/DIGITAL selection switch SW8 to the DIGITAL position.

4. ELEMENTS OF FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION

Optical Fiber is primarily used for digital communication today. A fiber optic digital
communication system usually consists of the following:

1. Optical transmitter (TX), including Electrical to Optical (E/O) Converter


2. Optical Receiver (RX), including Optical to Electrical (O/E) Converter
3. Optical fiber

20
4. Connectors, couplers and splices
5. Timing recovery unit
6. Line coder

7. Line decoder
8. Voice Video Coders & Multiplexers
9. De-multiplexer & Voice Video Decoders

Figure 1. Elements of Fiber Optic Communication

6. EXPERIMENTS IN FIBER OPTIC TRAINER

6.1 Setting up a link

1. Once OFT is switched ON, LEDs L8 or L9 or both in the marker detection block will be
on, indicating that there is no link established.

2. Take the 1m fiber cable to set up a working fiber-optic link.

3. Connect the 1m fiber between LED1 (in the Optical Tx1 block) and PD1 (in the Optical
Rx1 block). (Unscrew the caps of the LED and the Photo Diode a few turns and gently push
the fiber in until firmly seated, then tighten the caps.) Set the GAIN knob to its minimum
position.

21
4. Now slowly increase the gain until L8 and L9 go off (in the marker detection block). Press
the RESET switch. Now LEDs L8 and L9 should both be off.
6.2 To verify if link established

1. Toggle the switches SWO to SW7 (in the 8-bit data transmit block) and see the
corresponding LEDs LO to L7 (in the 8-bit receive block) toggling. The OFT now has a
working fiber-optic link set up.

2. Connect one of the telephone handsets to the telephone socket PHONE 1. Blow into the
mouthpiece. You should hear the blowing sound in the earpiece, without any other noise. OFT
is now installed and ready for use.

6.3 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDM) OF SIGNALS

The basic multiplexer in optic fiber trainer has twelve 64 kbps channels which are time
multiplexed. Time Division Multiplexing is also the basis of time-switching used today in
Telecom switches. While multiplexing, say the voice signal from port 1, is transmitted before
the voice signal from port 2. But at the receiver, the first received signal can be fed to port 2,
and the later signal to port 1, resulting in switching between the two ports.

PROCEDURE

1. During power on, both even and odd marker patterns at the marker generator and
marker reference blocks will be set automatically as follows: Even marker in both blocks:- all
bits set to zeros and odd marker in both blocks:- 6th bit set to one and other bits are don't care.

i.e. Even marker 0000 0000

Odd marker x1xx xxxx

2. Ensure that the marker patterns are set to the above power-on default settings. Turn
on at least one of the Switches SW0-SW7 in the 8-bitdata transmit block. This ensures that
the multiplexer is correctly aligned.
3. When the optical link is working, the LEDs L8 and L9 in the marker detection block
will be OFF without any flicker. Toggle SW0 and observe the toggling of L0. The digital link
and the TDM MUX-DEMUX are now set up.
4. Connect the telephone handsets at PHONE 1 & PHONE 2.
5. OFT is now being used in the loop-back mode. The data and voice channels
multiplexed on the Transmit side are de-multiplexed on the Receive side of the Trainer. The

22
voice input at the mouthpiece is now being looped back through the fiber to the earpiece. Check
this by disturbing the fiber link by removing the fiber from PD1, while speaking into the mouth-
piece of one of the handsets. Note that you can now no longer hear yourself in the earpiece.
(The best way to check this is to blow into the mouthpiece while you disturb the link). Use
oscilloscope (CRO) provided to you to observe Time Division Multiplexed wave form by
connecting “Tx frame clock” in CRO channel 1 and “Tx Data” in CRO channel 2. The CRO
display in channel 2 should be similar to one given as Figure 2 (FRAME WITH MARKER
AND SLOTS).
6. TIME SWITCHING OF VOICE: Establish the fiber link again. Remove the
shorting plugs of the voice enable shorting links S7 and S8 in the timing & control block on the
Transmitter side. Using the patch cords, interchange the voice slots by interconnecting the Slot
Select 1 signal [post A of S7] to the Voice Enable 2 [post B of S8] and the Slot Select 2 signal
[post A of S8] to the Voice Enable 1 [post B of S7]. Voice 1 and Voice 2 are now cross-
connected and a conversation can be carried out between two people using the two phones. The
two slots carrying voice data are now time-switched to provide the necessary connection. Carry
on a conversation, while at the same time turning data switches SWO-SW7 on and off, to
observe the simultaneous transmission of eight bit data in one channel and two voice channels
on the link.
7. Reconnect the shorting links S7 and S8 to restore the original connection. However,
now remove the shorting plugs of the voice enable shorting links S27 and S28 in the timing &
control block on the Receiver side, and cross-connect them as explained before. Note that once
again the Voice 1 and Voice 2 are cross-connected. Now remove S7 and S8 again and cross-
connect as before. Note that Voice 1 Microphone signal is now connected back to Voice 1
speaker again. Switching at both Transmitter and Receiver ends cancel out each other.

6.3 MARKER IN TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING


In the last experiment, we have observed time division multiplexing and de-
multiplexing of several channels. In this experiment, we examine the role of the MARKER
used in time division multiplexing. The marker is a unique bit pattern placed at some fixed
position in the frame and is used to determine the start of the frame at the receiver.

This experiment is designed to demonstrate:

1. The necessity for the marker


2. Data bits giving rise to a false marker
3. Use of a complex marker to avoid false markers.
23
The objective of this experiment is to study the role of a marker in time division
multiplexing. The marker is usually a unique bit pattern used to determine frame boundaries.
Sometimes a different marker is used in alternate frames to counter the possibility of data bits
containing the marker sequence generating false marker detection. Such markers are also
examined in this experiment. Figure 2 shows a TDM frame with Marker and Slots.

FIGURE 2. FRAME
WITH MARKER
AND SLOTS
PROCEDURE

The power-on default marker patterns are explained already. Now to modify that default
pattern the following steps are used:

 To program the even marker in the marker generator block: connect the program
marker post P5 in the 8-bit data transmit block to the marker program post P6.
 Now the OFT is in marker program mode, and the 8 bits in the marker generator
block correspond to the settings of the data switches SW0-SW7. Toggle the switches
to set them to the required pattern. The marker will also be set to the same pattern.
 To confirm the marker setting, remove the patch cord from the signal posts. OFT
now comes out of programming mode.
 Similarly program the other markers in the marker generator and marker reference
blocks, suing their respective marker program posts and the program marker post P5.

1. Ensure that the odd & even markers are all set to zeros using the procedure given above.
Ensure that the shorting link S31 is shorted to select the single marker type. Set up the
fiber optic digital link and ensure that the multiplexer /de- multiplexer is working.
2. The start of the frame is determined by a marker. In this case, the marker is a bit pattern
which is always placed in slot 0 as shown in Fig 2, and its occurrence signals the start of
a new frame. Set the even marker in the marker generator block to 11000011. Ensure

24
that the even marker in the receiver block has the same data bit pattern as the even
marker in the Transmitter block. You will observe the multiplexer /de- multiplexer
working, as the marker bits are compared with those in the even marker in the receiver
block. Now change one bit in the even marker in the receiver block (say bit 5). Check if
the de- multiplexer is working. Press the RESET switch. Observe that the
communication is lost. Change the even marker in the receiver block back to the setting
of the even marker in the transmitter side. Check the functioning of the de- multiplexer.
3. Now set the switches SW7 - SWO as 11000011. Press the RESET switch several times
till you find the receive LEDs L7-LO all lighting up. Press the RESET Switch several
times again. You will find that while most of the time L7-LO correspond to SW7-SWO,
sometimes all the LEDs light up. This is when a data slot has been falsely accepted as a
marker. The voice communication will now be totally disrupted. Check this by listening
on a handset. Change anyone of the switches SW7-SWO. Notice that the OFT system is
working again.
4. The marker is supposed to be a unique bit pattern in the data stream which is identified
at the receiver to signal the beginning of a frame. What happens if the bit pattern is
contained elsewhere as data (either in one slot or sharing two slots)?
5. To avoid this situation, the receiver circuit is usually designed to detect a marker
repeating itself once in a frame. It is only the repetition of the marker bit pattern over
several frames which allow the bit pattern to be accepted as the marker. It is highly
unlikely that a random data stream will have this pattern repeating at the same position
in every frame. However, to avoid even such an unlikely possibility, which we generated
deliberately in steps 3 above, the marker is sometimes chosen to be different in alternate
frames; i.e. a certain bit pattern is taken as a marker called the even marker, and another
bit pattern with at least one bit different from the above is taken as the odd marker. The
"even marker" is to be the marker in say every even frame and the "odd marker" in the
odd frames. Data inserted in the frame is extremely unlikely to have this pattern
repeated. OFT allows setting up a Double marker, where the odd marker consists of
only 1 bit, i.e. bit 6, which would normally be set to be the opposite of the corresponding
bit in the even marker.
6. Disconnect the shorting link S31 to activate double marker detection. Program the even
marker pattern as 10011011 and odd marker pattern as - 1 - - - - - - in both the marker
generation and marker reference blocks. Bits other than 6 in the odd marker are 'don't
care'. Press the RESET switch. Operate the data switches and observe the multiplexer
operation. Note that both L8 and L9 are OFF when both markers are locked. Now make
25
bit 6 of the odd marker at the Rx side ZERO without changing the odd marker in the Tx
side. L9 will now turn ON indicating loss of alternate marker only. Turn bit 6 of the odd
marker back to ONE. Change one of the bits of the even marker in the Rx side without
changing the even marker in the Tx side. Again note that L9 goes ON, indicating
alignment with only the odd marker and loss of the even marker. Now turn bit 6 of the
odd marker at the Rx side to ZERO. Note that both L8 and L9 go ON, indicating loss of
both the markers. Correct the odd and even markers at the Rx side to once again lock the
frame. L8 and L9 now go OFF.
The marker is a repetitive bit pattern placed in some predefined positions in one
or more (multiple) frames. The receiver searches for this pattern in the received data.
Once this pattern is found for several successive frames (or multi-frames), the receiver is
considered to be locked, and de-multiplexing is carried out. Locking on to the correct
marker is crucial to correct de-multiplexing. We saw in the experiment that all
communication is totally disrupted when the receiver locks on to a false marker.

REFERENCES

1. Optic Fiber Trainer Lab manual.

26
TRAINING MODULE: PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS

1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE

The Learning objectives of the module are


 Familiarizes the handling of pneumatics and Hydraulics components safely.
 Understands the working principles of various pneumatics and hydraulics components.
 Teaches design of pneumatics and hydraulics circuits from simple to complicated
applications.
2. INRODUCTION

Pneumatics and Hydraulics comes under fluid power in engineering. It is the technology that
deals with the generation, control & transmission of power using pressurized fluids. It is
used to push, pull, regulate or drives virtually all machines

 Fluid power system using liquids as transmission media are called Hydraulic systems
(Hydra for water & aulous for a pipe in Greek).
 Fluid power system using gases as transmission media are called Pneumatic systems
(Pneuma for wind or breath in Greek).
 Pneumatics and hydraulics actuators can perform linear and rotary motions. Pneumatics
and hydraulics cylinders give linear motion as output. Pneumatics and hydraulics motors
give rotary motion as output.

3. APPLICATIONS

3.1 General Application of Pneumatics


 Air brakes,
 Industrial automation such as packaging, clamping, screw driving, riveting, etc.
 Door or chute control in processing industries.
 Sorting of parts and Stacking of components, transfer of materials in material handling
systems.
 Stamping and embossing of components in metal forming.
 power hammers, drills, riveting hammers, pneumatic cranes, etc. used in construction
industries
3.2 General Application of Hydraulics

 Earth moving and material handling equipments such as excavators, cranes, trucks for
pushing, pulling, digging, etc.
 Extrusion cylinders/rams in steel and plastic processing industries.
 Airplane controls such as landing wheels actuation.

27
 Machine tools slides movement (CNC Lathe and Milling, Surface and Cylindrical
grinding, Broaching, Power hacksaw machineries etc).
 Hydraulic brakes, hydraulic jacks,
 Tractors, crop harvesters and robots etc.
4. Comparison between Pneumatic and Hydraulics system

Parameter Pneumatics Hydraulics


Pneumatics uses air as working Hydraulics uses oil as working
Working fluid
medium medium
Cleanliness Very clean system Messy system
Suitable for low and medium
Speed of operation Suitable for high speed
speeds
Suitable for high power
Power Low power output
applications
Precise movement than
Low precise movement due to
Precision pneumatics due to in-compressible
compressibility
nature.
Weight Lighter in weight Heavier in weight
Less due to low pressure High cost due to suitable for high
Equipment cost
applications pressure applications

5. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS

5.1 Safety precautions during operating Pneumatic systems

It is essential to be careful when using pneumatics to build circuits and follow the essential
safety rules.
 Never blow compressed air at anyone.
 Don’t turn the main air supply on until the circuit is connected up. Disconnected pipes
can whip round and cause injury.
 If air is leaking from a joint – turn the air supply off.
 Always turn air off before altering the circuit.
 Keep fingers away from the moving piston rods.

5.1 Safety precautions during operating Hydraulic systems

 Check all hoses are connected properly before switch on the Pump.
 Check the Pressure relief valve setting is within the operating pressure limit as excessive
pressure may cause bursting of tubes.
 Do not spill hydraulics oil on the floor as it may cause slipping, falling. Clean up spills
immediately.
 Check all hydraulic hoses, tube lines and fittings are in proper condition before
operating the hydraulic machine and be sure all line connections are tight.
 Keep fingers away from the moving piston rods.

28
 Before disconnecting the tubes, relieve all hydraulic pressure and discharge the
accumulator.
 Do not bring any flame near the oil tank as it may cause fire accidents.
 Do not disconnect hoses when the pump is running as severe burns from hot fluid can
result.
 Clean your hand with soap and water after completing the experiment.

6. COMPONENTS USED IN PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS

6.1 Symbols of Pneumatics and Hydraulics:-

Fig .1 and 2 show the symbols of components used in pneumatics and hydraulics system as per
international standards. These symbols are used in building circuits in this laboratory course.

Figure 1: Symbols used in pneumatics system

29
Figure 2: Symbols used in Hydraulics system
6.2 Valve Symbol Description
Table 1 Lettering and numbering system used for ports in valves

30
7. TYPICAL PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS SYSTEM

7.1 Pneumatic system

Figure 4 shows the basic components in a pneumatic system. The following components are
used to construct a basic pneumatic system.
1. Compressor : to generate pressurized air
2. Air tank : to store high pressure air
3. Control valves: to control and change the direction of air
4. Actuator : to produce desired output of the pneumatic system

Figure 4: Basic components in a pneumatic system

7.2 Hydraulics system


The following components are considered as basic elements for a simple hydraulic system
1. Pump : to pressuresize the hydraulic fluid
2. Oil tank : to store oil
3. Control valves: to control and change the direction of oil
4. Actuators : to produce desired output of the pneumatic system
Figure 5 shows the circuit diagram for a simple hydraulic system to operate a double acting
actuator.

31
Figure 5: List of components used in the above hydraulics system

8. PNEUMATICS SIGNAL FLOW

Actuators
(Cylinders, Motors)

Final control elements (Directional control valves)


Signal flow direction

Signal processing Elements


(Logical valves, non return valves, pressure control valves, etc)

Input elements
(Push button valves, Roller lever valves,
Switches)

Supply elements
(Compressor, Reservoir, FRL unit)
Figure 6: Signal flow in a pneumatic system

32
9. EXERCISES ON BASIC PNEUMATICS CIRCUITS

9.1 Exercise: Design and simulate a pneumatic circuit to operate a single acting cylinder
by pressing a push button operated 3/2 way valve

Aim: - To operate a single acting cylinder by using a 3/2 push button operated valve.

Components required:-

1. Single acting cylinder

2. Normally closed3/2 push button valve

3. FRL unit(Filter, Regulator, Lubricator)

4. Connecting tubing’s

5. Pressure source

Figure 7: Circuit diagram (a) Normal position (b) during operation

Procedure:-

1. Select all the components as per the circuit diagram.


2. Fix all the components properly on the test rig.
3. Connect all the components as per circuit diagram shown in Figure 7(a).
4. Switch on the air supply.
5. Operate the push-button 3/2 valve and check the function of the circuit.
6. Switch of the air supply and disconnect all the tubing.
7. Remove all the components and keep the components in the rack.

Observation:- When the push button is pressed piston moves out (Forward stroke) with
maximum speed and the piston returns automatically when the push button is
released which is due to spring force. As long as the push button is pressed, the
actuator is in forward stroke.

33
9.2 Additional circuits for practice

9.2.1 Design a pneumatic circuit to operate a single acting cylinder at variable speeds by using
one-way flow control valve.
9.2.2 Design a pneumatic circuit to operate a single acting cylinder from two different places by
using a shuttle valve and two 3/2 way push button valves.
9.2.3 Design a pneumatic circuit to operate a single acting cylinder by using a ‘two pressure
valve’ for two the safety of the operation by using two 3/2 way push button valves.
9.2.4 Design a pneumatic circuit to operate forward stroke of a double acting cylinder manually
by using 3/2 way push button and return stroke automatically by using 3/2 way roller
operated limit valve.
9.2.5 Design a pneumatic circuit to operate a double acting cylinder for the continuous forward
and return motion by using two 3/2 way roller operated limit valves, one 5/2 way double
pilot operated valve and one push button 3/2 way valve.

10. EXERCISES ON BASIC HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS

10. 1 Design a hydraulic circuit for speed control of a double acting actuator

Aim: - To design and operate a hydraulic double acting cylinder at variable speeds by using 4/2-
way manually operated valve

Components used:-

1. Hydraulic double acting cylinder


2. 4/2-way Manual lever operated valve
3. Flow control valve
4. Hydraulic power pack
5. Hydraulic hoses
Procedure:-

1. Select all the components as per the circuit diagram.


2. Fix all the components properly on the test rig.
3. Connect all the components as per the circuit diagram shown in Figure 8.
4. Switch on the pump.
5. Set the pressure relief valve to approximately 30-35 bar.
6. Operate the lever operated 4/2 valve and check the function of the circuit.
7. Adjust the flow control valve and check the speed variation.
8. Switch off the pump
9. Disconnect all the tubes and components.
10. Clean the equipments by using cotton and clean your hand with soap.

34
Figure 8: Circuit diagram for speed control of a double acting cylinder

Observation:-

 When the lever operated valve is turned ‘ON’ position, the piston extends.
 When the flow control valve is adjusted, speed of the piston is varied in both the
directions.
10.2 Additional circuits for practice
10.2.1 Design and operate a hydraulic motor by using a 4/3-way lever operated valve.
10.2.2. Make a regeneration circuit to double the extension speed of a single-rod double acting
cylinder.

REFERENCES

1. Festo- Pneumatics Text book/Workbook basic-(TP-101), D. Waller, H. Werner.


2. Festo-Hydraulics Text book /workbook basic-(TP-501), D. Waller, H. Werner.
3. Fluid Power with Applications (7th Edition), Anthony Esposito.

35