MB0031 | Artificial Neural Network | Artificial Intelligence



Q.1:- a. Explain the impact of MIS in the area of police Information system. b. What are the functions and disadvantages of MIS? MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the management of an organization with information which is used by management for decision making. A management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures by management accountants to solving business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems. During the period of preindustrial revolution most of the data processing was d one manually.It was after the industrial revolution that the computers slowly started replacing manual labour. The modern digital computer was basically designed to handle scientific calculations. During the period 1940 to 1960 computers were commercially used for census and payroll work. This involved large amount of data and its processing. Since then the commercial application exceeded the scientific applications for which the computer were mainly intended for. MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the management of an organization with information which is used by management for decision making.

Mr. Mithesh Kumar

Reg. No. 520930668

Page 1



Impact of MIS: MIS has a major impact on the functions of any organization. The organization derives benefits from the systems in the following form: a) Speedy access to information. b) Interpretation of data. c) Quick decisions. d) Speedy actions. e) Increased productivity and thereby increase in the profit. f) Reduced transaction cost. The usage of Electronic media for data storage and processing the data is an in tegral part of MIS. The texts and images in electronic forms are effective in communicating ideas from source to destination. It is technology driven in the sense it revolves around wireless electronic gadgets, internet, money cards – credits cards, debit cards, id cards, ATM cards etc. MIS is very significant in modern day education systems where we come across usage of LCDs, smart boards, internet etc in class rooms. In the tourism MIS had led to radical changes in booking system, tourist information systems, hotel facilities, accommodation facilities, transportation modes available, images of the facilities that could be provide etc.

Mr. Mithesh Kumar

Reg. No. 520930668

Page 2



Fig: Impact of MIS in Difference Areas b) Function of MIS : The main function of MIS is to help the managers and the executives in the organization in decision making. i. Large quantities of data like customer information, competitors information , personal records, sales data, accounting data etc is collected from internal source like the company records and external source like annual reports and publications. ii. iii. iv. The collected data is organized in the form of a database. The data from the database is processed and analyses by using different tools and techniques. The results of the analysis are properly presented to the mangers to help them in decision-making.

Fig: MIS Function
Mr. Mithesh Kumar Reg. No. 520930668 Page 3

Write a scenario which shows the applications of OLAP systems. Highly sensitive requires constant monitoring. iii. what should be the stocking policy in order to minimize the wastage etc. Many big companies use OLAP to get good returns in business.. The output is sent only after thorough verification of the input facts fed to the system. b.. vi. ii. iv.2:goals? Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) : OLAP refers to a system in which there are predefined multiple instances of various modules used in business applications. The querying process of the OLAP is very strong. what should be the production quantity to maximize the returns. Effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management. A nearest match is found analytically and the results displayed form the database. Lack of flexibility to update itself. No. The system goes through a series of multiple checks of the various parameters used in business decision making. v.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Disadvantages of MIS i. Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs. a. OLAP is also referred to as a multi dimensional analytical model.ASSIGNMENTS. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Budgeting of MIS extremely difficult. Q. Any input to such a system results in verification of the facts with respect to the available instances. How does Information technology influence the organization ’s Mr. Takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores nonqualitative factors like morale of worker. It helps the management take decisions like which month would be appropriate to launch a product in the market. 520930668 Page 4 . attitude of worker etc.

No. Mr. and of any derived advantage. Comparison was drawn between ’sustainable’ and ‘contestable’ competitive advantage.. There are six faces of the box. Though many kinds of advantages which can possibly be derived from innovative use of IT. and hence to avoid ‘competitive disadvantage’. A distinction needs to be made between the sustainability of the original advantage. Model of OLAP b) There is always a mention about what IT contributes to corporate strategy. Region. 520930668 Page 5 .ASSIGNMENTS. Mithesh Kumar Reg. The notion of ‘competitive necessity‘was created to complement that of ‘competitive advantage’. it is possible to quickly neutralize it by others. It was recognized that corporation achieved a significant competitive advantage by adopting suitable IT concepts in building up their strategy. Ex. Sales & demand. Product etc. It quickly became incumbent on its competitors to neutralize that advantage. Each adjoining faces with common vertex may be considered to represent the various parameter of the business situation under consideration.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS A model of OLAP may be well represented in the form of a 3D box.

• Localized exploitation – This is part of the Evolutionary level and exists within individual business functions. The innovation in IT and its strategic importance to enterprise is compatible with the company’s existing characteristics and advantages. This referred to chains or clusters of organizations which collaborate in order to gain competitive advantage over other. No. similar organizations. An outline of factors that influence organization’s strategic goals is summarized in the following diagram. It addresses the local efficiency and effectiveness of a information system. Mithesh Kumar Reg. or to neutralize the advantage of one or more competitor organizations. Fig: Five Factors Influence the Organization’s Objectives (Scott Morton 1991) Organizations are facing the re-conceptualization of the role of information technology in business. Scott Morton proposes five levels of complexity at which reconfiguration can be applied.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS An enhancement to the Porter framework of competitive strategy was the notion of ‘alliance‘. One particularly important facet of this is the notion of ‘strategic alignment‘of IT policies and initiatives with the directions indicated by the corporation’s senior executives. The following five levels indicate how it is possible to reconfigure strategic information system based on the influence of IT.ASSIGNMENTS. 520930668 Page 6 . Mr.

beyond the enterprise’s boundaries.Induced reconfiguration Q. No. Draw a data flow diagram for a hospital management system. It involves reconfiguration of the scope and tasks of the business network.ASSIGNMENTS. Fig: Five Levels of IT. It evolves out of rationalization using a common IT platform. Explain with a scenario. Coordination and cooperation extend. • Business process redesign – This is part of the revolutionary level.3:.a. a) Mr. 520930668 Page 7 . It may change the organization’s conception of the business. It involves more thorough re-evaluation of the enterprise value-chain and the production process.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS • Internal integration – this is part of the evolutionary level and exists between different systems and applications. Mithesh Kumar Reg. b. selectively. and • Business scope redefinition – It is also part of the revolutionary level. Efficiency and effectiveness are enhanced by coordination and cooperation within the enterprise. It also helps in the creation and delivery of products and services. Explain the role of systems analyst in SDLC. • Business network redesign – This is also part of the revolutionary level. It involves migration of functions across the enterprise’s boundaries.

implementation. ii. Mr. design. the application areas of the system within the enterprise and the problems that the system should solve. 520930668 Page 8 . that is.ASSIGNMENTS. collection and analysis. Mithesh Kumar Reg. collection and analysis – It is concerned with understanding the mission of the information systems. No. It may be represented in the form of a block diagram as shown below: Fig: System Development Cycle Stage i. validation. System concepts which are important in developing business information systems expedite problem solving and improve the quality of decision-making. prototyping. meaning and direction.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS System development cycle stages are sometimes known as system study. Feasibility study – It is concerned with determining the cost effectiveness of various alternatives in the designs of the information system and the priorities among the various system components. requirements. Requirements. They are confronted with the challenging task of creating new systems and planning major changes in the organization. The system analyst gives a system development project. The system analyst has to do a lot in this connection. The typical breakdown of an information systems life cycle includes a feasibility study. testing and operation.

iv. No. Prototyping – A prototype is a simplified implementation that is produced in order to verify in practice that the previous phases of the design were well conducted. Implementation – It is concerned with the programming of the final operational version of the information system. DFD do not explain how the processes convert the input data into output. He knows how to use the right tools. Design – It is concerned with the specification of the information systems structure. 520930668 Page 9 . supporting and maintenance expert. His main role is as consultant. v. The person involved in the system development is known as system analyst. They do not explain how the processing takes place. Validation and testing – It is the process of assuring that each phase of the development process is of acceptable quality and is an accurate transformation from the previous phase. He is a problem solver and takes problem as a challenge and enjoys meeting challenges. Implementation alternatives are carefully verifies and compared. The system analyst is responsible for examining the total flow of data throughout the organization. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Various aspects of an organization like personnel interactions and procedures for handling problems of the computer are studied by him. There are two types of design: database design and application design.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS iii.ASSIGNMENTS. techniques and experience at the right time. he should work with a cross section of people and should have the experience of working with computers. Roles of Systems Analyst System analysts are the facilitators of the study of the problem and needs of a business to determine how the business systems and information technology can best solve the problem and accomplish improvements for the business. The database design is the design of the database design and the application design is the design of the application programs. vi. b) DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system. Mr.

520930668 Page 10 . DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail.ASSIGNMENTS. Data Flow Diagram for a Hospital Management System for different Level is shown below: Fig: DFD Level 0 Mr. No.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS DFD uses few symbols like circles and rectangles connected by arrows to represent data flows. DFD can easily illustrate relationships among data. external entities and stores. flows. Mithesh Kumar Reg. starting with a summary high level view and proceeding o more detailed lower level views.

No.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Fig: DFD Level 1 Fig: DFD Level 2 Mr.ASSIGNMENTS. Mithesh Kumar Reg. 520930668 Page 11 .

No.ASSIGNMENTS. MIS focuses on the business results and goals. Also adequate development resources are provided and the human and organizational barriers to progress are removed. 520930668 Page 12 . It sets clear objectives to ensure that the MIS focuses on the major issues of the business. An appropriate information processing technology required to meet the data processing and analysis needs of the users of the MIS is selected. defined and designed in terms of the user’s requirements and its operational viability is ensured. MIS is not allowed to end up into an information generation mill avoiding the noise in the information and the communication system. and highlights the factors and reasons for non-achievement.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Fig: DFD Level 3 Q. so that its open system design is modified according to the changing information needs.       Mr. The MIS recognizes that manager is a human being and therefore. the systems must consider all the human behavioral factors in the process of the management.4:. The MIS is kept under continuous surveillance.What are the features contributing to success and failures of MIS models? Factors Contributing to Success of MIS: The following features contributing a lot for the success of MIS and are listed below: The MIS is integrated into the managerial functions. Mithesh Kumar Reg. The MIS is oriented.

Mithesh Kumar Reg. The MIS concentrates on the developing the information support to manage critical success factors. It concentrates on the mission critical applications serving the needs of the top management. therefore. The MIS then becomes an impersonal system. No. has a basic potential capability to quickly meet new needs of information. The MIS is easy to operate and. A belief that the computerized MIS can solve all the management problems of planning and control of the business. Lack of training and appreciation that the users of the information and the generators of the data are different. an inability to get the processing done in a particular manner. The MIS is developed without streamlining the business processing systems in the organization.ASSIGNMENTS. the process and the outputs leading to insufficient checks and controls in the MIS. Underestimating the complexity in the business systems and not recognizing it in the MIS design leads to problems in the successful implementation. 520930668 Page 13 . lack of user-friendly system and the dependence on the system development personnel. and they have to play an important responsible role in the MIS. The MIS design. The MIS does not provide that information which is needed by the managers but it tends to provide the information generally the function calls for.        Mr. MIS recognizes that the information needs become obsolete and new needs emerge. The globalization of information in isolation from the different objectives leads to information overload and its non-use. the design of the MIS has such features which make up a user-friendly design. Adequate attention is not given to the quality control aspects of the inputs. Factors Contributing to Failure of MIS:    The common observed features which are responsible for the failure of MIS is as follows: The MIS is conceived as a data processing and not as an information processing system. therefore.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS  The MIS recognizes that the different information needs for different objectives must be met with. The MIS does not meet certain critical and key factors of its users such as a response to the query on the database.

as well as the unsuitability of the parameters fixed by the system. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Some customization may involve changing of the ERP software structure which is usually not allowed. Re-engineering of business processes to fit the “industry standard” prescribed by the ERP system may lead to a loss of competitive advantage. over frequent changes in sales forecast. Led MRP (Material Requirement Planning) to evolve into a new concept: Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP 2) and finally the generic concept Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).   Customization of the ERP software is limited. ERP systems now attempt to cover all basic functions of an enterprise. The MIS cannot make up these by providing perfect information. regardless of the organization’s business or charter. No. bias. proposing changes in business practices that are out of synchronization with the best utilization of the company’s selected ERP.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Lack of administrative discipline in following the standardized systems and procedures.5:. and certain assumptions not known to the designer. entailing continual readjustments in production.  Mr. Non-manufacturing businesses. wrong coding and deviating from the system specifications result in incomplete and incorrect information. The initials ERP originated as an extension of MRP (material requirements planning then manufacturing resource planning).  Q. Around 1980.ASSIGNMENTS. 520930668 Page 14 .What are the limitations of ERP systems? How do ERP packages help in overcoming theses limitations? Manufacturing management systems have evolved in stages over the few decades from a simple means of calculating materials requirements to the automation of an entire enterprise. companies can employ new managers lacking education in the company’s ERP system. Limitation of ERP: Personnel turnover. The MIS does not give perfect information to all the users in the organization. Any attempt towards such a goal will be unsuccessful because every user has a human ingenuity. non-profit organizations and governments now all utilize ERP systems.

lines of responsibility.000 US Dollars for multinational companies. and consolidation into a single enterprise may yield limited benefits. Technical support personnel often give replies to callers that are inappropriate for the caller’s corporate structure.ASSIGNMENTS. ERPs are often seen as too rigid and too difficult to adapt to the specific workflow and business process of some companies—this is cited as one of the main causes of their failure. No. at a company that requires an audit trail of changes so as to meet some regulatory standards.              Mr. There are frequent compatibility problems with the various legacy systems of the partners.000. Systems can be difficult to use. ERP vendors can charge sums of money for annual license renewal that is unrelated to the size of the company using the ERP or its profitability. Once a system is established. independent resources. Resistance in sharing sensitive internal information between departments can reduce the effectiveness of the software. The blurring of company boundaries can cause problems in accountability. for example when telling a non-programmer how to change a database on the fly. 520930668 Page 15 . The system can suffer from the “weakest link” problem—an inefficiency in one department or at one of the partners may affect other participants. Mithesh Kumar Reg. A company can achieve minimum standards. The system may be over-engineered relative to the actual needs of the customer. then over time “dirty data” will reduce the reliability of some applications. etc. Many of the integrated links need high accuracy in other applications to work effectively. missions. Computer security concerns arise. switching costs are very high for any one of the partners (reducing flexibility and strategic control at the corporate level). chains-of-command. Some large organizations may have multiple departments with separate.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS  ERP systems can be very expensive to install often ranging from 30. Systems are too restrictive and do not allow much flexibility in implementation and usage. and employee morale.000 US Dollars to 500.

When this happens to be the trouble an analysis has to be made right from the implementation process in order to check validity and ensure quality. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Otherwise some maneuvers have to be done to confirm the suitable of the operations and make it user friendly. Mistakes in installation and implementation process These problems occur when an ERP consultant is not given the required liberty and freedom to make his own decisions. Lack of proper usage At many a times it is found that ERP does not serve the purpose for which it is implemented in the sense the old procedures continue uninterrupted while ERP is made to do its assigned tasks. Privately owned small enterprises are often undercapitalized. and in the particular ERP Vendor package being used. In this case ERP does not add any values to the process.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Success depends on the skill and experience of the workforce. This basically shows that the induction and orientation done for change management Mr. including training about how to make the system work correctly. Poor does not only means low standards but also includes those facilities that are either ill-equipped nor up to the professional standards demanded for ERP. Many companies cut costs by cutting training budgets. When they realize it during the flaws in the regular course of business it becomes too late. Some of the common troubles and their solution include the following: Poor infrastructure and facilities The first and foremost trouble in ERP could be poor infrastructure and facilities. The management always tries to thrust their way of getting things done and turn deaf to the expert advice given by the ERP vendor and consultant. These do not necessarily speak on the future of ERP or its intervention in the company because they are capable of being solved through system manipulation in most cases.ASSIGNMENTS. The companies can make use of ERP software reviews for this purpose so as to avoid failed ERP systems. meaning their ERP system is often operated by personnel with inadequate education in ERP in general. No. 520930668 Page 16 . such as APICS foundations. ERP architecture of failed ERP systems has to be analyzed in this context.

No. The case histories of failed ERP systems have to be studied. The business process must akin to ERP operations without which there cannot be justification of its use. It can reason. Here in AI. conclude and solve problems. 520930668 Page 17 . Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is the science and technology based on various functions to develop a system that can think and work like a human being. so that it can be then said that computers also have common sense.ASSIGNMENTS. More precisely the aim is to obtain a knowledge based computer system that will help managers to take quick decisions in business. Q. While the earlier one talks about not using it at all or using it defectively and gaining lesser benefits this discussion is about using it but not using it to attain excellence. In fact it would be harsh to force people to accept change but if nothing else works out that has to be the only alternative. Frequently referring ERP software reviews will also help to a considerable extent. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Neural Networks (NN) Mr.ERP should be used with a long term objective in mind and not as a medium to solve minor hitches. ERP architecture has to be constructed only after this process. the main idea is to make the computer think like human beings.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS is not up to the required extent. ERP has to be put to use in a full fledged manner. Attitudinal change could be the solution to this issue because people are either reluctant to accept change or tend to accept it for the heck of it. If it is used as a toll to overcome issues like departmental inconvenience and without keeping the organizational goals in mind then there is no point in bringing ERP.6:. The systems which use this type of intelligence are known as artificial intelligent systems and their intelligence is referred to as artificial intelligence.explain the relationship between artificial intelligence and neural network with the help of a scenario. learn. analyze. It was said that the computer don’t have common sense. Not making out the maximum benefits This trouble sound very simple but it is not so.

walk.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS It is modeled on the basis of the neuron structure of the human brain. such as reasoning.ASSIGNMENTS. see. Mithesh Kumar Reg. It is a system which tries to learn from the database and the manager then decides what the right answer is. Chess-playing systems are some examples of such systems. stock analysis. mathematics and engineering. market analysis etc. The goal of AI is to develop computers that can simulate the ability to think. No. Applications in the cognitive science area of AI include the development of expert systems and other knowledge-based systems that add a knowledge base and some reasoning capability to information systems. A neuron is a micro cell which is connected to thousands of other micro cells in the brain and all the other parts of the human body containing nerves. The neural networks goes on building strong database for problem solving depending upon the decisions taken by the manager in the form of response confirmation given to the system by the manager.AI can be grouped under three major areas: cognitive science. The software renders the computer as a problem solver. Neural networks can be used in various business applications like forecasting. Fussy logic systems can process data that are incomplete or ambiguous. The entire neural network is realized in the form of software. biology. robotics and natural interfaces. they can solve semi-structured problems with incomplete knowledge by developing approximate inferences and answers. In other words. Thus. 520930668 Page 18 . hear. linguistics. learning and problem solving. Mr. psychology. as humans do. simulation of computer functions normally associated with human intelligence. Cognitive science focuses on researching on how the human brain works and how humans think and learn. talk and feel. Also included are adaptive learning systems that can modify their behavior based on information they acquire as they operate. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks Artificial intelligence is a field of science and technology based on disciplines such as computer science.

Like the brain. similar to the human brain.ASSIGNMENTS. The more data examples it receives as input. As neural nets start to recognize patterns. For example.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Neural network software can learn by processing sample problems and their solutions. the neural networks will change the strengths of the interconnections between the processing elements in response to changing patterns in the data it receives and results that occur. the interconnected processors in a neural network operate in parallel and interact dynamically with each other. Genetic algorithm software uses Darwinian (survival of the fittest). No. The neural network would continue to be trained until it demonstrated a high degree of accuracy in correctly duplicating the results of recent cases. they can begin to program themselves to solve such problems on their own. Mithesh Kumar Reg. 520930668 Page 19 . randomizing and other mathematics functions to simulate evolutionary processes that can generate increasingly better solutions to problems. called neurons. At that point it would be trained enough to begin making credit evaluations of its own. Mr. the better it can learn to duplicate the results of the examples it processes. it learns to recognize patterns and relationships in the data. That is. This enables the network to operate and learn from the data it processes. Thus. Neural networks are computing systems modeled after the human brain’s mesh like network of interconnected processing elements. neural network can be trained to learn which credit characteristics result in good or bad loans. The human brain is estimated to have over 100 billion neuron brain cells. The neural networks are lot simpler in architecture.

E-collaboration. 520930668 Page 20 . product information is available on an organization website which also has a feature of order placement. These enabling capabilities of technology have given rise to four business models that together work in an E-enterprise organization. Information and information products are available in electronic media.1:.Explain the different business models that work together in an E-enterprise system. and is a resident on the network. It has dramatically reduced cost of data and information processing. E-communication E-commerce. Give Example for each. rejection is communicated instantaneously to the customer. It is capable of linking to disparate systems such as logistics. information can flow seamlessly from any location to any other location. facilitate communication. Internet has enabled organizations to change their business process and practices. commodities and services. An order placed is processed at the backend and status of acceptance. interpret and use rules and guidelines for decision-making. For example. These models work successfully because Internet technology provides the infrastructure for running the entire business process of any length. They are:     E-business. and provide access to everybody from anywhere. No. Low cost connectivity physical. monitor and control the business operations through the workers located anywhere. It also provides email and other communication capabilities to plan.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Q. Internet technology is creating a universal bench or platform for buying and selling of goods. Essentially Internet and networks enable integration of information. its sending and storing. Once everyone is connected electronically. virtual and universal standards of Internet technology make it a driving force to change conventional business model to Ebusiness enterprise model. data acquisition and radio frequency used systems and so on. track. These basic Mr.ASSIGNMENTS. And software solutions make them faster and self-reliant as they can analyze data information. Such order is then placed directly on the order board for scheduling and execution. Mithesh Kumar Reg.

electricity. yahoo.com seekandsource.com gartner. msn.com Content Selling Online Service Virtual Communities E-Learning Table: Business Models Q. Examples are shoes. Some of them are given in Table below. Provides a marketing platform where buyers and sellers can meet to exchange information.com Information Store Transaction Process Online Marketing eauction. Business Model Virtual Store Description Provides information about product. money transfer & banking transactions. Linux Group New Groups Application Package User Groups Community Groups sifyelearning. professional groups like doctors. Provides platform to meet people of common interests. rediff. restaurant. E-books. pictures. Provides contents. Example amazon. No. CDs.com. and sells and delivers directly to customer or business organization. documents. Provides information of interest and earns revenue from sharing and advertising. commodities.com. A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. lessons. managers.What are the different emerging fields in MIS? Explain with an application of your own for each. airlines booking. music. Software user groups. 520930668 Page 21 . Examples: Tours and travels. articles. negotiate and place order for delivery.com billjunction.com icici. ebay.com. News. Mithesh Kumar Reg.com seekandsource.ASSIGNMENTS. Online maintenance service. satyaminfoway. Offers services to individuals and business at large and generates revenue. which cover the application of people. greetings are stored and sold at a price.com. Mr. user groups.2:. telephone.com.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS capabilities of Internet have given rise to number of business models. Processes bills for payment. Online examination. manpower recruiting and maintenance services. membership for club registration.com rediff. photos.com Railway.com aberdeen.com timesofindia. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business. conducts test and offers certification.

Strategic Information System (SIS) is a support to the existing system and helps in achieving a competitive advantage over the organizations competitors in terms of its objectives.  They are innovative (and not easily copied). service or a business-wide strategy. e. Decision. One of the major issue before any organization is the challenge of meeting its goals and objectives. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. An early example was the favorable position afforded American and United Airlines by their reservation systems. The alignment increases the capability to respond faster to environmental changes and thus creates a competitive advantage. Academically. Strategic IS enabling such organization in realizing their goals.  They have an external (outward looking) focus. A major source of controversy surrounding SIS is their sustainability. the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making. Saber and Apollo. and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product.  They are associated with higher project risk. This unit deals Mr. No. and Executive information systems.g. thus increasing their bookings relative to competitors. A Strategic Information System (SIS) is a system to manage information and assist in strategic decision making. Expert systems. 520930668 Page 22 . A strategic information system has been defined as.ASSIGNMENTS. "The information system to support or change enterprise's strategy.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS technologies. It is mainly concerned with providing and organization and its members an assistance to perform the routine tasks efficiently and effectively. SISs are different from other comparable systems as:  They change the way the firm competes. For many years these two systems ensured that the two carriers' flights appeared on the first screens observed by travel agents." A SIS is a type of Information System that is aligned with business strategy and structure. Mithesh Kumar Reg.

it was during the last few years that an additional potential was discovered. No. In management it is now a very power means to manage and control various activities and decision making process. information technology (IT) had been critical to the implementation of an organization's strategy. A strategic information system is concerned with systems which contribute significantly to the achievement of an organization's overall objectives. customers.ASSIGNMENTS. The emergence of the key ideas. The body of knowledge is of recent origin and highly dynamic and the area have an aura of excitement about it. In both of these forms. Subsequent to the development. The process whereby strategic information systems are created or identified is then examined. This unit indicates the theoretical concepts and the way in which the same are realized in practice. The strategic information system consists of functions that involved gathering. An organization’s strategy supported by information system fulfilling its business objectives came to be known as Strategic Information System. A number of weaknesses in the existing body of theory are identified. in some cases. maintenance and analysis of data concerning internal resources.3:How is MIS used for decision making in the organization? Today’s managers depend on information systems for decision making. It was found that. IS was regarded primarily as an operational support tool. suppliers. The tools have been developing year by year and the application of the tool has become more and more diverse. the process whereby strategic information systems come into being is assessed. areas of weakness are identified. government and other relevant organizations. Mithesh Kumar Reg. 520930668 Page 23 . The original idea of automating mechanical processes got quickly succeeded by the rationalization and integration of systems. and intelligence about competitors. and suggestions made as to directions in which knowledge is or may be progressing. Information system is regarded as a tool to provide various services to different management functions.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS with the critical aspects of the strategic information system. and secondarily as a service to management. The flow of the unit is in such a way that it starts with the development of contemporary theory about strategic uses of corporations' internal information systems leading to systems which transcend the boundaries of particular organizations. and directions of current and future development suggested. The managers have handful of data around them but manually they cannot process the data Mr. Q.

MIS support decision making in both structured and unstructured problem environments. and controlling the operations of the subsystems of the form and to provide a synergetic organization in the process. A subsystem is is part of a larger system with which we are concerned.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS accurately and with in the short period of time available to them due to heavy competition in modern world. 520930668 Page 24 . No. Therefore mangers depend on information systems. Initiate and Control operations. It supports decision making at all levels of the organization . computers. processed or otherwise used for information or inference purposes. The objective of an MIS (Management Information System) is to provide information for decision making on planning. initiating. Mithesh Kumar Reg. Information consists of data that have been retrieved.ASSIGNMENTS. Mr. procedures. or as a basis for forecasting or decision making. Organize. but for our purposes it comprises the process or activities what managers do in the operation of their organization: Plan. argument. databases.MIS are made of people. System can be described simply as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. interactive query facilities and so on. Decision Support System: It is sometimes described as the next evolutionary step after Management Information Systems (MIS).IS (Information Systems) are intended to be woven into the fabric of the organizations . not standing alone. IS support all aspects of the decision making process. organizing. They are intended to be evolutionary / adaptive and easy for people to use. Information : Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in a decision processes and usually take the form of historical records that are recorded and filed without immediate intent to retrieve for decision making. The concept of MIS Management : Management has been defined in a variety of ways. All systems are part of larger systems.

The critical path for the above mentioned network is as follows:D C O E Mr.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Methods of Decision Making: MIS is a technique for making programmed decisions.ASSIGNMENTS. a) The critical path is that path which takes the longest time for start to end. Also draw the critical path for the network. Mithesh Kumar Reg. calculate the activity time estimate. the prospects for a revolution in programmed decision making are very real. 520930668 Page 25 .B A. Draw the PERT network for the above data. If we include the computer and management science as integral parts or tools of computer –based information systems. No. b. the most likely time estimate as 12 and the pessimistic time estimate as 21.E --C --- Activity A B C D E a. Just as a manufacturing process is becoming more and more automated so is the automation of programmed decisions increasing to support this production and other information needs throughout the organization.4:- Below is the list of data from a sample project Most likely duration (Days) 4 7 5 11 9 Immediate Predecessors to activity E. Given the optimistic time estimate as 3. Q.

The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet are used to build an intranet. Sales people and support staff.ASSIGNMENTS. medium or large businesses. 2. We are not able to complete the network and find out critical path. Accounting and order billing. Members of the executive team. HTTP. (b) The optimistic time estimate = to The pessimistic time estimate = tp The activity time estimate = te =3 = 21 = = = 12 The most likely time estimate = tm = 12 Q. 3. The above problem is wrong. An intranet is an information portal designed specifically for the internal communications of small.5:. Users of intranets consist mainly of: 1. governments. Intranet uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with its employees. 520930668 Page 26 .Explain the difference between Intranet and Extranet Intranet: is a private computer network. FTP and other Internet protocols are used in intranet. Managers and directors. No. Mr. Mithesh Kumar Reg.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Since in this above problem activity “A” as E & B and “B” as E&A as Immediate Predecessors to activity. 4. industries or financial institutions of any size or complexity. Intranets can be customdesigned to fit the exact needs of businesses no matter where they are situated. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new interfaces with corporate “legacy” data and information systems. enterprises.

No.  Improved Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization. and who to speak to for more information. and with confidence that they have the right information. anytime and – subject to security provisions – from anywhere within the company workstations.  Mr. vertically and horizontally. Advantages of intranets  Increased Productivity: Intranets can help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities.  Web Publishing: Web publishing allows ‘cumbersome’ corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies. organizations can make more information available to employees in less time. increasing employees’ ability to perform their jobs faster.ASSIGNMENTS. intranets are useful to communicate strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. more accurately. help desk. The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve. From a communications standpoint. 520930668 Page 27 . By providing this information on the intranet. With the help of a web browser interface. who is driving the initiative. staff has the opportunity to keep up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization. Customer service. Mithesh Kumar Reg.  Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the inter-networked enterprise. users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users. Reduced Time: With intranets. etc.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 5. results achieved to date.

or other businesses. and your identity determines which parts of the extranet you can view. An extranet requires security and privacy. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. partners. vendors. 520930668 Page 28 . limited access to certain files of your computer systems to:  Certain large or privileged customers.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Cost-effective: Users can view information and data via web-browser rather than maintaining physical documents such as procedure manuals.ASSIGNMENTS. teamwork is enabled. Advantages of Extranet     Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. A new buzzword that refers to an intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts.  Enhance Collaboration: With information easily accessible by all authorized users. internal phone list and requisition forms. Mithesh Kumar Reg..  Suppliers and subcontractors. Extranets are designed specifically to give external. customers. You can access an extranet only if you have a valid username and password.. Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies. etc. Mr. Whereas an intranet resides behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization. Share product catalogs exclusively with wholesalers or those “in the trade”. Extranet: An extranet is a private network that uses the Internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers. An extranet is somewhat very similar to an intranet.  Selected industry partners. No.

MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies. employee training costs) — if hosted internally instead of via an ASP.  Security of extranets can be a big concern when dealing with valuable information. and the new nexus of the relationship between a company and its customers and partners.  Disadvantages  Extranets can be expensive to implement and maintain within an organization (e. This could cause a lack of connections made between people and a company.6:. Both need a user ID & password to control access to the whole system. which hurts the business when it comes to loyalty of its business partners and customers. Mr. Both can drastically save your company or organization a lot of money. No. Intranets and extranets all have three things in common: • • • They both use secured Internet access to the outside world.Explain the control issues in management information systems. System access needs to be carefully controlled to avoid sensitive information falling into the wrong hands.  Extranets can reduce personal contact (face-to-face meetings) with customers and business partners. the extranet. 520930668 Page 29 . Mithesh Kumar Reg. The difference among the three can be summarized as below: Access Users Informatio n Internet Public Everyone Fragmente d Intranet Private Member of a specific firm Proprietary Extranet Semi –Private Groups if closely related firms Shared in closely trusted held circles Q. Share news of common interest exclusively with partner companies.: hardware.ASSIGNMENTS. such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks. The evolution of the Internet and intranet systems leads to a natural integration point. software.g.

Some of the points are memory. Mr. software. achieving of common goals and detects the deviations if any in time and takes corrective action before things go beyond control. and data. Control Process Information systems operate in real world situations which are always changing and there are lots of problems. Security Control The resources of information systems like hardware. No.ASSIGNMENTS. communications links.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Control is the process through which manager assures that actual activities are according to standards leading to achieving of common goals. The control process consists of measurement of progress. 520930668 Page 30 . telephone lines etc. need to be protected preferably by build in control to assure their quality and security. microwave signal. Information systems are vulnerable to various threats and abuses. The basic steps in control process are shown in the following figure. Mithesh Kumar Reg.

security of the input process. Input Control As we know whatever we give to computer the computer processes that and returns the result to us.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Types of Security Control: 1. This aids in its authorization. Top executives provide leadership in setting the control policy. Control must be there to ensure proper data entry processing techniques. Accordingly management information system controls are designed to see or monitor and maintain quality. output and storage activities of an information system. the control system cannot achieve its goal. Without their full support. a specific code should be assigned to it. setting standards. there is a need to control the data entry process. Mithesh Kumar Reg. managers must be involved in functions such as effecting a control policy. Information system control Information system control assures the accuracy. validity and proprietary of information system activities. 520930668 Page 31 . procedural control 4. physical facility control Administrative control Systems analysts are actually responsible for designing and implementing but these people need the help of the top management in executing the control measure. storage methods and information output.ASSIGNMENTS. Because of this very fact. preparing a strategic information plan and acquiring adequate insurance. The types of input – control are – o Transaction Codes: Before any transaction can be input into the system. selecting and assigning personnel. information systems control 3. o Forms: a source document or screen forms should be used to input data and such forms must adhere to certain rules Mr. In addition to this . fixing responsibilities. preparing job description. Administrative control 2. No.

Processing Control Input and processing data are so interrelated that we can take them as first line of defense. They also help to build an audit trial. They are also used to ensure that data are not lost or do not go unprocessed. o Labels: It contains data such as file name. Mr. Processing – controls are included to check arithmetic calculations and logical operations. and date of creation so that a check can be made that correct file is used for processing. controls are embedded in various computer programs to help. record count is a control-total that consist of counting the total number of source documents or other input records and compare them at other stage of data entry. They are like operating systems or other software checks. If totals do not match. alphabetic. then a mistake is indicated. Checking internal file labels at the beginning and at the end of the magnetic tape and disk files is an example of software control. Processing control is further divided into hardware and software control. • Software control – they are designed to assure that right data is being processed.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS o Verification: Source document prepared by one clerk can be verified by another clerk to improve accuracy. No. alphanumeric fields – to see if they are filled in properly. Yet another software control is the establishment of check points during the processing of the program. Mithesh Kumar Reg. 520930668 Page 32 . o Check digit: These are used for checking important codes such as customer number to verify the correctness. Once data is fed into the computer. o Control-totals:Data entry and other system activities are frequently monitored by the use of control-total. detect not only input errors but also processing errors.ASSIGNMENTS.  Hardware Control – They are built in the hardware itself to verify the accuracy of processing. o Character and field checking: Characters are checked for proper mode – numeric. For example.

MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Output Control These are developed to ensure that processed information is correct. A three level password system is also used in which firstly the user has to give his or her unique ID. They are responsible for maintaining and controlling access to the information. complete and is transmitted to authorize user in a timely manner. A hard copy of listing is maintained for evidence. Files are also protected by file retention measures which involves copies of files from previous periods.ASSIGNMENTS. many firms also use backup files which are the duplicate files of data or programs. Mithesh Kumar Reg. password and other identification codes. Control total at output stage are compared with control total at both input and processing level. Lastly. a unique file name is to be entered. Output documents and reports are thoroughly and visually verified by computer personnel and they are properly logged and identified with rout slips. The method includes assigning the account code. Usually several generations of files are kept for controlling. 520930668 Page 33 . No. Then he is asked for his password in order to get access to the information. The end user is contracted for feedback about the quality of information. Procedural Control These methods provide maximum security to operation of the information system. A list of authorized users is provided to computer system with details such as type of information they are authorized to retrieve or receive from it. computer operation and control of data and program files. Sometimes for writing purpose a different name is given to file and this is another way to control the error.This can be achieved with the help of security monitor. Some of the examples are – Separation of duties: Each activity related to computerized information system like systems development. The output controls are mostly of same kind as input control e. is Mr. If current file is corrupted then they are used to reconstruct a new file.g. Storage Control Control responsibility of files of computer programs and databases is given to librarian or database administrator. The databases and files are protected from unauthorized users are accidental users . Finally to access an individual file. possible store somewhere else.

personnel’s . Computer centers are prone to many hazards such as accidents. It promotes uniformity software help display so that everyone knows what to do.. installation of newly developed information system. sabotage. closed circuit TV and other detection systems fire detection and extinguishing system. fire. It promotes uniformity and minimizes the chance of error and fraud. if program change is done by maintenance programmer. Standard procedures are developed and maintained in manual and built in software help display so that everyone knows what to do. or change to existing program is subject to a formal notification so that accuracy and integrity of information processing operation can be maintained. No. software and vital data resources of computer using organization. destructions etc.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS assigned to different groups of persons. Such techniques include identification badges of information services. For example. fire proof storage vaults for the protection of Mr. It should be kept up-to-date so that correct processing of each activity is made possible. Finally. unauthorized used. industrial espionage.ASSIGNMENTS. Therefore physical safeguards and various control procedures are required to protect the hardware. data entry and the quality of input data. thefts. vandalization. it should be approved by the affected departments manger as well as form the manager of programming and manager of computer operation. Authorization requirements – the formal review must take place before authorization is given on getting a request for some system development. electronic door locks. security policy. Physical Facility Control Physical facility control is methods that protect physical facilities and their contents from loss and destruction. security alarm. changes or system conversion. Physical protection control Many type of controlling techniques such as one in which only authorized personnel are allowed to access to the computer centre exist today. a production control system may monitor the progress of information processing. 520930668 Page 34 . natural disasters.. System analysts and programmers are not allowed to files are maintained in the library and the responsibility is given to DBA. Thus conversion to new hardware and software. Mithesh Kumar Reg.

ASSIGNMENTS. Data can be transmitted in coded from and it is decoded in the computer centre itself. humidity temperature and dust control etc. are installed to protect the computer centre. Fault tolerant computer systems may be installed to ensure against computer failure. mechanical malfunctions of peripheral equipment and hidden programming errors. Computer operators must be trained and supervised carefully. Many insurance companies offer special computer security policies. air conditioning and fire prevention standards must also be set. The process is called as encryption. Adequate electrical supply. Telecommunication Controls The telecommunication processor and control software play a vital role in control of data communication activity. No. emergency power systems. Mr. Mithesh Kumar Reg. The amount of such insurance should be enough so as to replace affected computer equipment and facilities. 520930668 Page 35 . natural disasters. These include insurance against fire. electronic circuitry malfunctions.. To protect from these. humidity control. Computer Failure Controls Computers can fail for several reasons like power failures. Insurance for data process error or omissions. Insurance is also available to cover the cost of reconstructing data and program files. Financial losses are very huge in amount.MBA Sem-II MB0031 – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS files. vandalism and theft etc. failure precaution any measure with automatic and remote maintenance capabilities may be required. Insurance – Adequate insurance coverage should be secured to protect the computerized information system using business firms. and insurance for the bonding of information services personnel as a protection against fraud.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful