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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

This study attempts to investigate factors influencing halal food consumption among
Muslims and their awareness on halal food. The research also aims to confirm whether the
identified variables are significant to the consumption and awareness of Muslim consumers
on halal food. This chapter shall begin with the elaboration of the background of the study,
highlight the problem statement, followed by the development of research questions and
indicates the objectives of the study. Then, the significance of the study is explained by the
researcher. In addition, the researcher also explains the meaning of variables identified in
this research.

1.2 Background of the study

The issue of halal always become hot topic among Muslims. When it comes to halal, most
Muslims are aware of the consequences of neglecting it. Some of them could not tolerant
about the halal issue, especially when it comes about food. This is due to the culture of
Muslim society in our country and also the teaching of Islam itself, which always
emphasizing on halal matters in our daily life. The halal term also can be interpreted
wrongly if the person does not have sufficient knowledge and understanding about it. Thus,
this study will investigate the understanding and awareness of halal among Muslims,
specifically in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

“Halal” is an Arabic word that means “permissible” and while it is commonly associated
with food, halal has a far wider embrace, with the potential, in fact, to become a major
global business brand. In Holy Quran, Allah said, “O ye who believe! Eat of the good things
that We have provided for you, and be grateful to God, if it is Him you worship.” (Al-
Quran. Al-Baqarah: 172). Allah also said in another verse, “O ye people! Eat of what is on
earth, lawful and good, and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one, for he is to you an
avowed enemy.” (Al-Quran. Al-Baqarah: 168). Reported from Bukhari, Muslim, Abu

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Daud, Ibnu Majah and Darimi, “What is Halal is clear. And what is Haram being also clear.
And in between those two is a dubious area in which many people do not know about. So,
whoever distanced himself from it, he has acquitted himself (from blame). And those who
fall into it, he has fallen into a state of Haram”.

Halal basically is something permissible based on Shari’ah in aspect of religious, faith and
spiritual while thoyyib is good or wholesome in terms of quality, safety, hygienic, clean,
nutritious, quality, and authenticity in aspect of scientific. According to Muslim Scholar,
thoyyiban also influence management style, human resource policies, business ethics, raw
materials selection and manufacturing methods. Halal in Islam is Halaalan Thoyyiban
which gives the literary, technical and practical meaning of halal, hygienic, clean, pure,
nutritious, high quality, and healthy.

Muslims have always been associated with Islam and Islam is directly link to Halalan and
Toyyiban (good quality). For Muslims, it is their religious obligation to consume halal food.
The question of understanding among Muslims about halal food is posed because food
market in Malaysia is managed by all ethnic groups. In Malaysia, the application of halal
certification and logo is based upon request by food producers. For those with halal
certification and logo have the advantages of capturing a bigger market because 60.4% of
Malaysian are Muslims.

As a Muslim, it is an obligation to pursue what is stated in the Holy Quran and Traditions
(Sunnah) of Prophet Muhammad. One of it is a set of dietary laws. In this law, Muslim
must consume halal foods and avoid haram foods. What is actually halal and haram? Halal
is an Arabic word which means ‘lawful, legal, licit, legitimate, permissible, allowable,
permitted, allowed, admissible, unprohibited’. The food consumed by Muslims are lawful
or permitted unless, the food being categorized in Holy Quran and Hadith as haram or
forbidden. Halal food and Muslim is inseparable because Muslim custom and religion is
governed by the guidelines and rule based on Islam. A set of dietary in food consumption
is one of the rules in ensuring good well-being. Islam places these rules clearly in Holy
Quran and Traditions (Sunnah) of Prophet Muhammad.

As an Islamic obligation to consume halal food, the availability of halal food in the market
is important for Muslim customers. Muslim customers will rely on halal logo in making

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food choices. Due to the lucrative of the halal market there are occasion where
manufacturers and retailers misuse of halal certification and logo. Some customers are
therefore becoming more cautious in making food choices. Halal food awareness is
important for customers because food products in Malaysia are ranging from various local
and imported food that produced and managed by all ethnic groups. Muslims make their
food choices by identifying halal logo and certification at the premises or food packaging.
In Malaysia, the application of halal certification and logo is based upon request by food
producers. For those with halal certification and logo have the advantages of capturing a
bigger market because 60.4% of Malaysian are Muslims.

Food is a basic necessity in human life. In that case, Islam is very concerned about the issue
of halal food. A food will be categorized as halal when the production of raw materials,
material components, additives and processing based on the guidelines set out by legislation
Therefore, it includes the preparation, processing, storage, packaging, handling and
transportation that meet Sharia. Generally, Islam requires consuming all the foods that are
fine and forbid eating the foods that are disgusting and dirty (khabaith). Standards of good
nutrition for Muslims expressed as halalan toyyiban. The food is fulfilling the concept of
halalan toyyiban if it is free from Islamic banned substances, free from the substances that
can cause harm, not filthy and also clean and safe. Cases like halal logo abuse, material
fraud or content used in a product and also the management of premises that do not comply
with halalan toyyiban standards commonly reported. The existence of such cases may raise
questions about the validity of halal.

In Asia in particular, business people from countries ranging from Indonesia, Malaysia and
Pakistan to the tiny nation of Brunei are talking up their nation’s aspirations to become a
“halal hub”. It is not hard to see why. About a quarter of the world’s population is Muslim.
Muslims are required by their faith to eat halal food, bringing the value of the global halal
food market close to US$700 billion. This figure increases by the week as halal food
producers use social media to extend their marketing to non-Muslims.

The halal industry is already worth an estimated US$3 trillion, and includes chemicals,
health care, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, leather products and Islamic banking. Due to this,
the halal product consumption is increasing and so does the demand for halal products.

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Halal and its related industries have become an important market and lucrative business,
not to mention its great potential of investment.

The key principle for Muslim diet is the food has to be halal and toyyiban. Meat products
(except pork which is not permissible for Muslim) for example, have to be sourced from
healthy animals that were slaughtered with a single cut. In general, all fruit and vegetable
products are considered halal, as long as they have not been contaminated through contact
with forbidden items, notably pork and alcohol. During the processing and transportation
of food, the cross-mixing of halal foods and non-permitted products is strictly forbidden.
In addition, clear sanitary regulations specific to halal food must be observed all the way
from the source to the users. While halal and non-halal food products can be displayed
side-by-side, halal food cannot be displayed with proscribed foods in supermarkets.

As a consequence, many Malaysian supermarkets have a ‘non-halal’ food section, a


designated area where non-permitted products (such as pork, wine and cigarettes) can be
displayed. Customers are also obliged to pay for these prescribed products at a separate
checkout counter.

Furthermore, recognition of Malaysia as Muslim country helps to claim as a global halal


hub. Muslims as the major customers of halal food, being also the majority population of
Malaysia. Thus, they have to show a higher understanding of halal compared to other ethnic
groups. Without any doubt, even though Muslims are majority, there is still much food not
serves according to the Muslim halal ruling and the issues of abuse of halal logo and
certification remain plentiful. In food sector, Muslims who are the major customers who
trusted the signage will patron the outlet. Basically, the awareness of halal food among
Muslim customers were influenced by their understanding of halal concepts.

In order to further strengthen Malaysia’s position as the leading global halal hub, the Halal
Industry Development Corporation (HDC) was established in 2006. It was created with a
remit to improve halal standards and to enhance commercial and industry development and
branding. The Malaysian government has also implemented Halal Industry Master Plan
(2008-2020), a blueprint for establishing the country as the global leader in innovation,
production and trade within several halal-related sectors, including speciality processed

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foods, cosmetics and personal care, pharmaceutical ingredients, livestock and the services
sector (particularly logistics, tourism and healthcare).

Both local and foreign companies can apply for Islamic Development Department of
Malaysia (JAKIM) halal certification, with fees payable to cover document handling and
site inspection. In the case of food and beverages companies utilising processing factories
located outside Malaysia, all applicants are also obliged to cover the auditors’ expenses,
including any required air tickets, accommodation and travel visas.

As well as its own halal certification, currently JAKIM also recognises 56


foreign halal certification bodies and authorities across 33 countries. This includes four
bodies on the Chinese mainland (Beijing, Henan, Shandong and Ningxia) and one in
Taiwan. The recognised list of foreign halal certification bodies is revised by JAKIM on
an annual basis.

Many of the local and foreign food manufacturing companies operating in Malaysia
produce halal products for both the domestic and overseas markets. According to JAKIM,
among all the major halal certified products in 2015, 77% were food products and 23%
were non-food products.

In 2015, the value of Malaysia’s halal exports was MYR39.4 billion, with food and
beverages accounting for almost half of that total, and keep increasing annually. Among
the other significant halal exports were palm oil derivatives, halal ingredients, cosmetics
and personal care items, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Overall, the level of
Malaysia’s halal exports grew at an average rate of 14% between 2011 and 2015, with
China being the number one destination for such products.

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Leading Destinations of Malaysian Halal Exports

Rank 2012 2013 2014 2015

1 China China China China

2 Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore

3 United States United States United States United States

4 Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia

5 Netherlands Japan Japan Japan

6 Thailand Thailand Netherlands Thailand

7 Japan Netherlands Thailand Australia

8 India India India Philippines

9 South Korea South Korea South Korea Netherlands

10 Philippines Australia Australia India

Source: Halal Industry Development Corporation

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According to current estimates, there are around two billion Muslims in the world with
62% of them living in the Asia Pacific region. Some 30 million Muslims live in China,
primarily in Xingjian, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Shandong and Shanxi.
Within China, as well as the demand for from Muslim consumers, there is a growing
appetite for halal food among many non-Muslims. Spurred by the continuing food safety
issues in China, a number of mainland consumers are switching to halal food, largely on
account of their guaranteed quality and their compliance with strict food hygiene protocols.
As a consequence, the non-Muslim halal food market is now being seen as a lucrative,
untapped market by many halal food manufacturers.

The success of the halal food business in Malaysia is impossible without the concerted
efforts, strategies and measures of the government to support the development of halal
industry as identified in the Second Industrial Master Plan, 1996 – 2005; the National
Agriculture Policy, 1998 – 2010; the Ninth Malaysia Plan (9MP), 2006 – 2010; and the
Third Industrial Master Plan (IMP3), 2006 - 2020.

The positive outlook on Malaysia’s competitive edge in the halal food industry is echoed
by subsequent measures taken by the government. Among these was the conception of a
Halal Master Plan addressing issues of certification, sectored development, Halal integrity,
implementation, timeframes and responsibilities. The Master Plan envisages three phases
of the roll-out from 2008 to 2020 (Figure 2). In similar vein, the Third Industrial Master
Plan (IMP3) of 2006 estimated the annual global market value for both food and non-food
halal products at USD2.1 trillion. In lieu of this market prospect Malaysia's food
manufacturers were encouraged to forge joint ventures with established food
manufacturers, particularly from Australia and New Zealand, to service the ASEAN,
Middle East, European and US markets which have sizeable Muslim populations. Local
halal food products can gain easy access into these halal markets as Malaysia's Halal
Certification is globally recognized.

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PHASE 1 : 2008-2010 PHASE 2 : 2011-2015 PHASE 3 : 2016-2020

Develop Malaysia as a Establish Malaysia as Broaden Geographic


global centre for halal one of the preferred footprint of home
integrity and prepare the locations for halal- grown companies
industry for growth related business

Figure 2. Phases of the Halal Master Plan for Malaysia

The worth of the entire halal industry which also includes Islamic finance is currently
estimated to be between USD200 billion to USD500 billion annually, with an annual
growth rate forecast of 12% to 15% for the next 10 years. Malaysia is also no stranger to
this industry. In fact, the Malaysian Halal Certificate is one of the most sought-after
certification by halal producers worldwide (Dagang Asia Net, 2011). In this regard the
country’s Halal Research Council (2007) has listed eleven strategic thrusts to further
develop and promote Malaysia as a global halal hub:
1. enhancing awareness about Malaysia as the centre for halal products and services;
2. managing the increasing competition from countries in the region;
3. leveraging upon outward investments to gain access to raw materials and enhance
competitiveness;
4. enhancing R&D in product and process developments and leveraging upon latest
technological developments to expand the product range;
5. developing halal-compliant services;
6. utilising and leveraging upon Malaysian Halal Standard to differentiate Malaysia’s halal
products;
7. ensuring product quality and food safety;
8. undertaking systemic development of halal parks;
9. harmonising the halal certification process;
10. enhancing the coordination among agencies involved in the development and
promotion of the industry; and
11. strengthening the institutional capacity of organisations involved in the development
and promotion of halal products and services.

Thus, we can see that awareness plays an important role in halal development in Malaysia.

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1.3 Objectives of the study

The general objective of the study is to examine awareness and perception of Muslim
consumers on halal food. The specific objectives include:

I. To examine the level of awareness among Muslim consumers on halal food

II. To discover other factors, beside halal, that influencing Muslim customers in consuming
food

III. To examine the relationship between halal understanding and food consumption among
Muslims

IV. To examine the understanding of halal concept among Muslim

Research Questions

The focal research question of this study is to investigate the awareness and perception of
Muslim consumers on halal food. Thus, it will consist of the following questions:

I. What is the level of understanding of halal term and awareness among Muslims?

II. What are the factors that influencing halal food consumption among Muslims?

III. What is the relationship between halal understanding and consumption of the food
among Muslims?

IV. What is the perception/hope towards halal food standard served in the area?

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1.4 Research / Conceptual Framework

This study proposed five hypotheses. The conceptual framework was developed to portray
the broad determinants that affect Muslims’ consumption of halal food. The consumption
of halal food served as the main dependent variable, while religious belief, halal logo and
certification, halal awareness, operators/supplier of food and food hygiene served as
independent variables for scrutinizing their effects on choosing food. Therefore, according
to the proposed conceptual framework (Figure 1), the following are the proposed
hypotheses for testing:

H1: Religious belief has a positive relationship with consumption of halal food

H2: Halal logo and certification has a positive relationship with consumption of halal
food

H3: Halal awareness has a positive relationship with consumption of halal food

H4: Brand has a positive relationship with consumption of halal food

H5: Food hygiene has a positive relationship with consumption of halal food

Religious
Halal Logo belief
and Certification H1

Halal
Price of logo
food and certification H2

Taste ofHalal
foodawareness H3 Consumption of halal food

Operator/Supplier
Brand of food H4

H5
Food hygiene

Figure 1: Proposed Conceptual Framework

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1.5 Significance of the study

Behaviour will impact halal food industry unless JAKIM play its role accordingly. There
are lots of works to be done to improve halal awareness among Muslim customers. The
author believes the goal to be halal-hub can be realized when halal concept is fully
understood by all Muslims, that is by increasing their awareness about religious obligation
to consume halal food.

In creating awareness, government should make halal logo compulsory for all food
producers/suppliers. This will directly educate Muslims to consume only halal food. The
supervision can prevent and reduce the tendency of misuse and abuse of halal certification
and logo. This study may be used by government agency specifically JAKIM to make some
improvement relating to the halal matters in order to increase awareness of halal food
among Muslim customers in Malaysia.

Halal food awareness among Muslim customers is influenced by the understanding of halal
concept through practice. However, in their eating habit many took halal for granted by
assuming all food produced and market in Malaysia as halal. Thus, when shopping they
look for price, taste and surrounding rather than halal logo. Usually, Muslims will patron
a restaurant for example mamak restaurants as long as they see calligraphic engravings of
Quranic verse or ‘Allah’ and ‘Muhammad’. In a real situation, the operator may exploit the
Quranic verses in order to attract Muslims’ customer to come to their premises.

Majority Muslims customers relying on halal logo, nevertheless, with many issues spread
about fraud and misuse of halal logo, has make people distrust the halal logo or label. A
food outlet with halal logo does not mean the foods are guaranteed halal. It is not an easy
way for consumer to identify whether the food is halal or not. The process of slaughtering
for example is not visible to the consumer. Muslims customers relying much on JAKIM,
thus, it is important for JAKIM to play their role in monitoring and supervising the misuse
of halal logo in our market.

The study of halal food awareness among Muslims brings about both theoretical and
managerial contribution to the country in term of realizing the target of Malaysia to be halal
hub in the region. Realizing the large potential of the halal business and the continuous

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unique position and strength, Malaysia has position itself to become the Global Halal Hub
(Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak).

Halal food (without any doubt on the status of halal) in Malaysia is still limited as compared
to our neighbouring countries like Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. This may be due to
the weaknesses of policy regarding halal certification and logo, the requirement of halal
certificate in Malaysia is on voluntary basis. It means that food producers are not required
to apply halal certification and logo because it is based on voluntary basis. Hence, it should
be made compulsory for every food producers to apply halal certification and logo, even
though the producers are non-Muslim. It is proven that halal certification and logo may not
bring any effect or turnover to the food producers, instead increase the profit. Then, there
will be sustainability of halal food dominance in Malaysia.

Muslim’s awareness is a great power in order to educate the manufacturer of halal food
products in the market. As a Muslim, understanding and alert of halal and haram concept
is essential, we cannot just simply depend on act and the authority. For example, Muslim
consumers should take note about the content and ingredient of their food or any products
when they shop. They also should be aware of the processing method whether it follows
shariah compliance or not. There are nine categories of halal and haram related to food
products. Mashbuh and makruh are in between halal and haram law. Mashbuh means
something that lead to curiosity, meanwhile, makruh means something that not encourages
being used. It is vital for all Muslim consumers to have knowledge about any products they
want to buy falls under which category.

Even though factor of awareness among Malaysian has been acknowledged to be increase,
yet their level of awareness is in low category compared to other countries such as
Indonesia and Thailand. The main reason that leads to this situation is the limited sources
of product information in the market. This kind of issues is at worst when media reported
about the misuse of halal logo by irresponsible person almost every day whether in print
media and electronic media. Thus, to overcome this issue, researcher wants to identify the
level of consumer awareness, next to suggest a suitable concept in promoting halal
products.

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I believe that there is a need for a strong commitment in increasing halal awareness and
support by public, food producers and government agencies especially those directly
responsible in halal food in Malaysia.

In terms of managerial significance, the study provides ideas on increasing awareness on


halal food among Muslims, thus relates to the role of the Authority and Malaysian
Government in term of public policy regarding halal matters in our country.

Among others, this study will show the level of awareness among Muslim consumers. In
order to be halal hub, all parties have to play their roles accordingly, whether as
users/consumers or policy makers.

1.6 Definitions of Terms

i. Halal Food

The word ‘halal’ literally means permissible- and in translation it is usually used as
lawful (halalfoodauthority.com). The halal food authority rules for halal are based
on Islamic Shari’ah. The antonym to halal is haram, which means unlawful or
forbidden (Anisah, 2009). For example, it is well known in the meat trade that
Muslims consume halal meat. However, at times questions are asked, what is halal?
In Arabic it simply means permissible or allowed. Opposite to it is haram, which
means forbidden or not allowed. Halal aspects in food consist of preparing,
processing, storaging, packaging and transporting (Zawanah,2008).

ii. Awareness

According to Dictionary.com (http://www.dictionary.com), awareness means


the state or condition of being aware; having knowledge; consciousness. In the
context of halal, awareness is about knowing the concept of halal, in all conditions.
As a Muslim, one has to make sure that all goods, including food taken are halal,
and this could not simply be measured by only the physical appearance, but have to
be prepared in good manner from the beginning.
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iii. Muslim

Basically, Muslim means a follower of the religion of Islam. A Muslim can be


identified whether through his/her daily practice and can easily found in Malaysia.
In this study, Muslim are meant specifically for only Muslim in Malaysia. The
difference between Muslim and non-Muslim easily can be differentiate through
belief and practice.

iv. Halal logo and certification

In Malaysia, the only authority body that can produce halal logo is State Religious
Department and Islamic Development Department of Malaysia (JAKIM).
Currently, JAKIM has standardize the halal logo for the whole country. In addition,
government also recognized some foreign halal certifications which have to go
under the thorough checking procedure and standards of JAKIM. Regular follow
up visit also conducted in order to monitor the abuse of halal certifications.
Malaysia Halal logo which currently produced and accepted by state religious
department and JAKIM shown below. It can be checked through halal website:
http://www.halal.gov.my/v4/

Picture 1: Malaysia halal logo

v. Food hygiene

Food hygiene in this context relates to the process, appearance, conditions,


preparation, transportation and also presentation of food whether at the food stalls,
restaurants, cafes and supermarket. Without any doubt, most people influenced by
this factor when they want to consume food.

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vi. Operator / Food supplier

Operator refers to those who run the food business or who supplies the food. In
Malaysia, due to halal aspect, most Muslim will consume their food from another
Muslim or from the people they trust or know most. However, there is also Muslim
who does not care much about the operator, as long as they trust and influenced by
the hygiene factor, and also by physical appearance of the food.

1.7 Organizations of project paper

This project paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction of the
research with a brief description of the halal concept and industry related issues. Then the
paper discusses the factors/variables that contribute to halal awareness.

The chapter also include objectives of the study, the research questions and the definitions
of major variables in this study. Second chapter will provide an in-depth review of existing
literature on the variables that are studied in this paper. Additionally, this chapter also
presents the hypotheses of this study. The third chapter explains the methodologies and
techniques that are used to collect and analyze the relevant and reliable information from
respondents. It includes how to construct the instruments to gather data for the study. It also
details the design and population of the study, sample size, sampling procedure,
measurement scales as well as data collection and analysis methods.

The fourth chapter describes the findings based on SPSS analysis results. The conceptual
framework as well as the hypotheses is examined to see whether they are supported by the
findings and whether the data collected is adequate to testify them. The last chapter is a
conclusion of the study. Discussion on major findings, theoretical and managerial
implications of the study is discussed by the researcher. The weaknesses as well as the
recommendations for future research are also presented.

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1.8 Conclusions

This chapter provides an overview of the overall research as a stepping stone for the
following next few chapters. From portraying the background of the study, stressing the
problem statement, to drawing the reader’s attention to the research objectives, and research
questions. Besides, readers are also given further explanation on the definition of major
variables in order to allow readers to have a better understanding.

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Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This study looks at factors that influencing halal food consumption among Muslims
customers in Malaysia. This chapter firstly will review the structure and framework for the
issues of halal awareness and factors influencing halal food consumption among Muslims,
followed by theory planned for behaviour by predicting behavioural intention. Theories,
models, and research approaches used in awareness studies are also discussed in this
chapter. This study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding on motivational
factors that influence Muslims’ consumption intention.

2.1 Halal Food

The word “Halal” means permissible or lawful by Islamic laws. It refers to foods or
products consumed by Muslim. According to Wahab (2004), halal, when used in relation
to food in any form whatsoever in the course of trade or business or as part of a trade
description, is applied to lawful products or foods or drinks. Halal can also take any other
expression indicating or likely to be understood as permission by Islamic religion to
consume certain things or utilize them. Such expression shall have an indication that
neither is such thing consists of or contains any part or matter of an animal that a Muslim
is prohibited by Shariah to consume.

In addition, if it is an animal, it would indicate that it has been slaughtered in accordance


with Hukum Shariah. In other words, it does not contain anything which is considered to
be impure according to Hukum Shariah. If it is food stuffs, it means that it has not been
prepared, processed or manufactured using instruments or ingredients that were not free
from anything impure according to Hukum Shariah. Moreover, it and has not in the course
of preparation, processing or storage been in contact with or close proximity to any things
that are considered to be impure according to Hukum Shariah.

Thus, in Islam, all foods are considered halal except the following, which are Haram:
swine/pork and its by-products; animals improperly slaughtered or dead before

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slaughtering; animals killed in the name of anyone other than ALLAH (God) and drinks
such as alcohol and intoxicants. Haram also covered carnivorous animals, birds of prey
and land animals without external ears; blood and blood by-products and foods
contaminated with any of the above-mentioned products as they are raised to eat or drink
halal, hygienic and safe foods or products (Riaz & Chaundry, 2004).

The Hadith of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) has addressed the concept of halal
related all forms of foods, products and drinks for human consumptions regardless of race,
colour and nationality. One of the Ahadith of the Prophet even teaches human beings the
perfect way of slaughtering animals to become lawful or halal for eating. The Hadith
related to this context was narrated on the authority of Abu Ya’la Shahddad ibn Aus,
saying:

The Messenger of Allah said: “Verily Allah has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus,
if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his
blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters” (Hadith No.17 of Imam
Nawawi by Sahih Muslim). It cannot be denied that, Islam provides clear guidelines on
the halal food process. As a Muslim, we must follow all the guidelines especially in terms
of slaughtering. On another occasion, it was narrated by Rafi’ bin Khadij that the Prophet
(SAW) told Muslims who wanted to slaughter some animals using reeds by saying: “Use
whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the Name of Allah has been
mentioned on slaughtering them...” (Sahih Bukhari, Vol.3, Book 44, No 668). In this
Hadith, it clearly shows that, Islam is very concern on the food processing in relations to
fulfilment of halal requirements.

The narrated Ahadith mentioned above have clearly clarified the rules and processes in
slaughtering animals to be lawful for eating by Muslims. Some of the Ahadith of the Holy
Prophet also addressed those unlawful or non-halal foods or products for human
consumptions. For example, it has been narrated by Az-Zuri that: “Allah’s Messenger
forbade the eating of the meat of beasts having fangs” (see: Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book
7, No 4350). According to this Hadith, we may have noted that as there are lots of foods,
drinks and products, which are permitted to eat, drinks and use, there are also a lot of drinks
and foods that are not permitted for human consumptions, such as alcohol, pork etc. we

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are sometimes get confused on whether certain foods or drinks or products are halal or
Haram.

In this situation, the Hadith of the Holy Prophet sheds light on this where he says: “Halal
(lawful) is clear and Haram is clear; in between these two are certain things that are
suspected (Shubha). Many people may not know whether those items are Halal or Haram.
Whosoever leaves them, he is innocent towards his religion and his conscience. He is,
therefore, safe. Anyone who gets involved in any of these suspected items, he may fall into
the unlawful and the prohibition. This case is similar to the one who wishes to raise his
animals next to a restricted area, he may step into it. Indeed for every landlord there is a
restricted area. Indeed the restrictions of Allah are the unlawful (Haram)” (see: Sahih
Muslim, No: 2996).

It can be understood that, unlawful (Haram) things are prohibited to everyone alike but
halal foods and drinks are the sources of energy for human beings as they can supply
nutrients for the body development and replace dead cells, for movements, work, exercise,
and for thinking. Thus, they are permitted by Quran and Sunnah for the benefits we can
obtain from them, otherwise they are prohibited if they are not prepared in the right
manner, condition and method for consumptions simply because of the harmful effects we
may encountered from eating, drinking and using them.

2.2 Religious Belief

Religion is a system, a system of beliefs and practices by which a group of people interprets
and responds to what they feel is supernatural and sacred (Johnstone, 1975). It is clearly
stated in Islam what foods, drinks and products are permissible and non-Halal product is
forbidden. For example, in the Quran, there are 20 verses that described what foods are
known as Halal and also Haram foods. Allah had commanded Muslims and all mankind
to eat and live on Halal and Tayyib, among the many verses that convey the message is:
O, ye men! Eat of what is in the earth, lawful and wholesome and follow not the footsteps
of Satan; for verily he is an open enemy to you (Al-Baqara 2:168)

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From Hadith: Halal (the Lawful & Permissible) is clear and Haram (the Unlawful &
Impermissible) is clear. Between halal and haram lays some doubtful things. Many people
do not know whether it is permissible or not. Whoever leaves out these doubtful things in
order to protect his religion and honour, then he is safe. Whoever indulges in these doubtful
things/matters, it is very possible that he will fall into Haram, similar to a person who
grazes his animals near the royal pasture it is very possible that one day he will graze in
the royal pasture. Behold! Every king has a royal pasture and the royal pasture of Allah is
those things which have been made impermissible. (Tirmidhi 1205) Precisely, Islam has
guided the Muslim consumers with regard to the Halal food consumption.

According to Mokhlis (2006), the highly religious person will evaluate the world through
religious schemas and integrate the religion into their lives. Religiosity commitment also
plays an important role in people’s lives through shaping their beliefs, knowledge, and
attitudes, regardless of their religious orientations (Muslims, Christians, Hinduism, and
others). As mentioned by Mukhtar and Butt (2011), it is important to investigate the role
of religiosity while investigating Muslim attitude towards Halal product because the
greater the intensity of one’s religious affiliation, the higher will be the chances that they
will strive to conform with the religious obligations in the consumption world.

Previous study shows that religious beliefs is potential source for Muslim awareness of
halal consumption (Ambali and Bakar, 2014). Other research also reveals that 75% of
Muslim migrants in the US follow their religious laws concerning food (Hussaini, 1993).
This shows that religious belief is source of awareness of consumer in dealing with their
choice over halal food

2.3 Conceptualizing awareness

According to Randolph (2003), the word “awareness” means the knowledge or


understanding of the particular subject or situation. Awareness in the context of Halal can
be conceptualized as the informing process for increasing the levels of consciousness to
what is permitted for Muslims to eat, drink and use. As stated by Ambali and Bakar (2014),
it means having special interest in or experience of something and/ or being well informed
of what is happening at the present time on Halal foods, drinks and products.

20
To understand the concept of awareness for this study, it is interesting to examine from
different sources where the consumers can be conscious of something such as the religious
belief and the role of Halal logo. The awareness among consumers could be a major
determinant factor in purchasing decision process (Mohamed et al, 2008). Due to that
reason, it is important for Muslims to have and understanding and knowledge on what is
Halal is all about in measuring Halal awareness. As mentioned by Muhamad Yunus, Wan
Rashid, Mohd Ariffin and Mohd Rashid (2014), Halal food is not only the ingredients of
the product, but also cover other aspects such as safety and quality, handling, processing
equipments, processing aids, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution and retailing.

Muslim’s awareness is a great power in order to educate the manufacturer of halal food
products in the market. As a Muslim, understanding and alert of halal and haram concept
is essential, we cannot just simply depend on act and the authority. For example, Muslim
consumers should take note about the content and ingredient of their food or any products
when they shop. They also should be aware of the processing method whether it follows
shariah compliance or not.

There are nine categories of halal and haram related to food products. Mashbuh and
makruh are in between halal and haram law . Mashbuh means something that lead to
curiosity, meanwhile, makruh means something that not encourages being used . It is vital
for all Muslim consumers to have knowledge about any products they want to buy falls
under which category. Even though factor of awareness among Malaysian has been
acknowledged to be increase, yet their level of awareness are in low category compared to
other countries such as Indonesia and Thailand. The main reason that leads to this situation
is the limited sources of product information in the market. This kind of issues is at worst
when media reported about the misuse of halal logo by irresponsible person almost every
day whether in print media and electronic media. Thus, to overcome this issue, researcher
wants to identify the level of consumer awareness, next to suggest a suitable concept in
promoting halal products.

Awareness in the context of halal food literally reflects to a condition in which consumers
have an interest, special attention, or have experience and good information about food
that is allowed by Islamic law (Ambali and Bakar, 2014). Awareness reflects first stage of
buying process, in which consumers who were initially not knowing the product start to

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know it. Without previous knowledge of the product, there is relatively high probability
that consumers will not buy the product or services (Kertajaya and Ridwansyah, 2014).

2.4 The Role of Halal Certification / Logo

The introduction of Halal logo and certification by JAKIM has created and generated more
awareness on the importance of consuming products or engaging in services that Shariah
compliant. Nowadays, the Halal logo becomes a signal or an important source before the
Muslim consumers want to consume the food or drink product, regardless of which
institution or country that issuing the Halal logo. However, based on Shafie and Othman
(2006) and Ambali and Bakar (2014) the Muslim consumers in Malaysia preferably or will
look for the authentic Halal logo or certification issued by JAKIM (the Halal Malaysia
logo), they react more positively to JAKIM’s Halal logo on food products.

However, the study by Mohamed et al (2008), Halal Malaysia logo certified by JAKIM is
still not enough, some consumers will refer to the list of ingredients. This happened due to
the fact that consumers do not fully confidence on JAKIM’s Halal logo. Once the Halal
logo does not conform, it will have a negative impact on consumers’ purchasing behaviour.
Therefore, the involvement of the government in the issue is very important, in ensuring
the authenticity of the Halal logo especially for food product produced by the non-Muslim
manufacturers. As stated by Zakaria (2008), the Halal logo is the label that the Muslims
can rely on in determining the Halal status of the product, and fit for consumption
according to Islam and most importantly Shariah compliance.

Quality food also plays an important role that can influence Muslims intention toward
consumption of the food. To the Muslims, there is an additional need for food quality
assurance in that only food deemed as halal is fit to be consumed.( Mohani, Hashanah,
Haslina and Juliana,2009). Quality is defined as the overall excellence or superiority that
consumers perceive from a product/service (Zeithaml, 1990). Quality can be define as
“fitness for use” or more appropriately for foodstuffs is; “fitness for consumption”, which
leads to what experts in ISO standard called customer or consumer satisfaction. Thus,
quality can be described as requirements necessary to satisfy the needs and expectations
of the consumers.

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Quality management practices such as adopting halal certification can boost customers’
confidence and hence can lead to their satisfaction (Mohani et al,2009). Halal certification
is known for its beneficial characteristics which are not only to be enjoyed by Muslim
consumers but also by non-Muslims. Additionally, implementing Halal requirements will
produce better quality products compared to those that only implement the conventional
standards (Talib and Ali, 2009). Halal certification in an Islamic kind of way emphasized
the importance of stringent rules, purity and ethics. Mohd Yusoff (2004) defined halal
certification as an examination of food processes in its preparation, slaughtering, cleaning,
processing, handling, disinfecting, storing, transportation and management practices.

Halal is not only limited to the food materials and ingredients used in a restaurant but
covers all aspects in the food supply chain as well as personal hygiene, clothing, utensils
and working area (MohdYusoff, 2004). The role of halal certification is to ensure that the
halal requirements of the goods are in place and signals that foods are permissible and
lawful for the Muslim to consume has met the criteria for food quality (Sharifah et al,2011)
and that the products must be good, safe and fit to consume. Halal requirements must be
complied to at all stages of the production and supply chain, including procurement of raw
materials and ingredients, logistics and transportation, packaging and labelling
(www.hdcglobal.com, 2013). The Halal requirements meet many of the conventional
quality standards, such as ISO, Codex Alimentarius, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Point and Good Hygienic Practice. Halal certification is important as it is the sole
identifying mark that the product meets the halal requirements.(Mohani et al,2009). In fact,
halal certification covers not only religious needs but are also commercially and
community based.(Sharifah et al,2011).

In Malaysia, JAKIM is responsible in the issuance of halal certificates and execution of


halal policy related to food and non food products (JAKIM, 2010). JAKIM would ensure
all requirements stipulated under the MS 1500:2004 halal standards to be fulfilled before
any halal product be awarded a halal certificate. The process therefore reiterates that, above
all else, every Muslim demands that a product complies fully with Islamic religious
standards. Therefore, halal certification offers such reassurance to Muslim consumers. The
Muslims trust that the halal certification issued by JAKIM is an indicator of halal quality.

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2.5 Safety and Hygienic Food in the Context of Halal

Hygiene has been given much emphasis in halal and it includes the various aspects of
personal body, clothing, equipment and the working premises for processing or
manufacture of foods, drinks and products. The objective is to ascertain that the food
(whatever kinds) produced is safe, hygienic and not hazardous to human health. In the
context of halal, hygienic food, drinks and products can be defined as free from najis or
contamination and harmful germs. So, it obviously shows that halal is very particular in
food matters especially in the practice of keeping ourselves and the things around us clean
in order to prevent diseases. Hence a safe food, drink or product is one that does not cause
harm to the consumers be Muslim or non-Muslim when it is prepared and/or eaten or in
accordance to its intended usage.

In order to assure we are safe the producers should take necessary steps to comply with
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP). Good
Manufacturing Practice is where the producers apply the combination of manufacturing
and quality control procedures to ensure the products are consistently manufactured to
their specifications and halal prescriptions given by Halal Certification Body. The Codex
General Principles of Food Hygiene and the Malaysian Standard MS1514 on General
Principles of Food Hygiene lay down a firm foundation in hygienic practices in ensuring
food hygiene (Sumali, 2009). This is no doubt in in line with the objectives of halal. In
other words, General Principles of food Hygiene laid down complements the aim of halal
when putting into vigorous enforcement. Therefore, these principles are internationally
recognized, and the guidelines can be used together with other specific and appropriate
codes of hygienic practice laid down in halal certification processes by JAKIM. At this
juncture, we shall turn to address the relationship or common line of agreement between
what foods or drinks or products Allah has permitted (Halal) for us and safety or hygienic
reasons.

Within this context, halal food emphasized that cleanliness and hygiene is related to food
safety. Food hygiene required steps and procedures that control the operational conditions
within a food establishment (Hashim, 2004) in order to produce safe and hygienic food for
human consumption. The Malaysian Standard on Halal Food (MS 1500:2004) complies
with the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Hygiene

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Practices and prescribes practical guidelines for the food industry on the preparation and
handling of Halal food (including nutrient supplements) based on quality, sanitary and
safety considerations and serves as a basic requirement for food products and food trade
or business in Malaysia.

The issues of food safety are becoming more complex in line with the advance of food
technology. Trading food without certification and providing false documentation are
among the contribution factors in the issue. Consumers ultimately must have confidence
in the value of certification if they want to pay more for the certified goods (Caskie and
Davis, 2001). The impact of food safety issue to the consumers is that they will lose their
trust when the food they eat is not actually what they expected. Therefore, halal
certification is a critical issue that must be addressed carefully by the food, hospitality and
restaurant industry players in consideration of the Islamic dietary laws (Bonne and
Verbeke, 2008; Mohamed Nasir and Pereira, 2008).

2.6 Brand

According to the American Marketing Association’s (AMA) brand is defined as a” name,


term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to signify the goods or
services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of
competitors”. Within this view, Keller(2003) referred that whenever a marketer creates a
new name, logo, or symbol for a new product, this means a brand is created.

In the book” Theoretical of branding” Kotler specifies that brands add dimension to
products and thereby enable differentiation/distinction from other products that are
designed to satisfy the same need. Brand attribute comprises functional and emotional
association to which assigned by its consumer. For that reason brand attribute can be either
negative or positive and can have different degrees of relevance and importance to
different customer segments, markets and cultures (Brand glossary ).

25
2.7 Theories and models used in awareness studies

As we know, this study aims to identify the factors that influence Muslims’ behavioural
intention to consume halal food in Malaysia. Therefore, one of the primary research
question of this study is: What are the factors that influence Muslim consumers to consume
halal food? To be specific, this study will examine the factors based on three variables of
Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB); attitude, subjective norms and behavioural control
and how they are related to the behavioural intention of Muslim consumers in choosing
halal food in Hulu Langat, Malaysia.
Generally, Muslim consumers’ intention and behaviour are influenced by their religion.
Religion was established as an important factor in deciding food purchasing and
developing food habits of individuals and societies. The influence of religion on food
consumption is closely related to the religious teaching and people’s interpretation of the
religion itself.

Food consumption is generally related to attitude, social pressure and behavioural control
of the individual. In addition, social structure such as people’s origin and generation
differences also play a part in predicting dietary preferences of consumers. Golnaz et al.
(2009) studied the concern of halal labelled food products among Muslim consumers by
considering the demographic factors; for example, religiosity, educational background and
the state of origin in Malaysia.

In this study, external variables were adapted to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in
determining the concerns of Muslims on consuming halal food. Without any doubt,
religiosity and education positively related to the awareness among Muslims to consume
food products with halal labelled products. From previous study, it was found that attitude
and perceived behavioural control strongly influenced Muslims’ behavioural intention to
choose halal food. However, social influence was not as strong as attitude and perceived
behaviour control of Muslim consumers.

In relation to the influence of education, formal and informal religious education were
found as to be essential in determining halal food consumption among Muslims. As such,
Muslims who acquired religious education formally in religious school were more
concerned about halal food consumption compared to those who did not receive formal

26
religious education. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was used in a number of
studies related to consumers’ behaviour and social psychology.

Several studies on halal food consumption used TPB as their theoretical framework in
determining consumers’ intention to purchase and consume halal food and products. For
example, a study conducted by Syed Shah Alam and Nazura (2011) demonstrated that
attitude, subjective norms and behavioural control have significant impact on intention to
purchase halal food. Zul Ariff Abdul Latiff et al. (2012) included labelling and halal logo
as determinants in predicting halal consumption in Malaysia. Using the TPB as a
conceptual framework, Liou and Contento (2001) reveal that a subjective norm was not
significant towards food behavioural intention in Chinese American Society.

In contrast Sudin Lada et al. (2009) and Arshia and Mohsin (2012), found that attitude and
subjective norms were positively related to the intention of choosing halal products among
consumers. In addition to that, Sudin Lada et al. (2009) argued that subjective norms
played the most important influences of halal food consumption in a multiracial society.
Data collected from the study by Abdul Raufu Ambali and Ahmad Naqiuddin Bakar
(2010) demonstrated that food labelling, including halal logo influenced their purchasing
behaviour.

Another study showed that religious belief, exposure, logo certification, and health reasons
were determinants in predicting halal awareness among Muslims. Interestingly, health
reason was the most significant factor that contributed to the awareness among Muslims
on halal food and products. In addition, halal branding was also used to attract Muslim
consumers. Wilson and Liu (2010) argued that the role of halal branding is substantial in
attracting Muslim consumers such as the use of terms like “Halal Insurance”, “Halal
Finance” in banking and finance industry. This can also be applied in the context of
Malaysia, where halal branding is very common in influencing Muslim consumers to
purchase products and services such as “halalan tayyiban food” and “halal tour.”

A number of frameworks were proposed to elucidate consumers’ behaviour towards food.


However, TPB and TRA were among the two prominent frameworks used in explaining
reasons why Muslim consumers choose halal food and products. TRA presented two
determinant variables; attitude and subjective norms. In addition to TRA’s variables, TPB

27
included behavioural control as another determinant in predicting consumers’ behavioural
intention. The main ideas of TPB and TRA theories are the individual behaviours as guided
by his/her behavioural intention. The importance of behavioural intention in engaging
behaviour was researched and discussed by many scholars. It was found that the stronger
the intention to perform a behaviour, the more likely the behaviour will be performed.

Therefore, TPB was adopted in this study not only because it was proven effective in
predicting consumers’ behaviour towards halal food, but also because it incorporated
behavioural control as one of the variables in determining consumers’ behavioural
intention, particularly Muslims in choosing halal food.

This view was supported by Armitage and Corner (2001) who mentioned that perceived
behavioural control was often found as a good predictor of behaviour. As highlighted by
Ajzen, many other social scientists stressed on the importance of behavioural intention in
predicting the behaviour of individuals and society. Indeed, the importance of behavioural
intention in predicting human behaviour was adopted in many research studies across the
academic fields. Ajzen (2006) stressed that determinants influencing behavioural intention
are belief of a human being about the possible consequences of the behaviour, beliefs about
the normative expectations of others, and beliefs about the presence of factors that may
encourage or obstruct the behaviour.

The importance of behavioural intention is likewise highlighted in the teaching of Islam.


In fact, every human action either ‘ibadah or daily activities should begin with a good niyat
(intention). Few ulama’ for example Ibnu Qayyim and Imam al-Ghazzali supported this
opinion. Islam as a way of life provides comprehensive guidelines in daily human actions
for example actions like eating, drinking, exercising and sleeping.

This view is closely related to food consumption, which is a daily life activity that could
be turned to good deeds if accompanied by a niyat (intention) for the sake of Allah SWT.
However, in the context of halal food consumption, choosing halal food is compulsory and
eating haram food is forbidden for Muslims. The importance of behavioural intention was
stressed many times in alQuran. It is noted that the behaviours of mankind are based on
their intentions. Allah SWT mentioned in the al-Quran in surah al-Zumar, verse 11: “Say

28
(O Muhammad): Verily, I am commanded to worship Allah (alone) by obeying Him and
doing religious deeds sincerely for His sake only.” (Surah al-Zumar, 39: 11)

Hence, it is observed that the role of behavioural intention in performing human behaviour
as discussed by current social scientist, particularly Ajzen the founder of TPB and TRA
theories is not something new in Islamic teaching. In fact, the concept and application of
behavioural intention is reflected in the main sources of Islam; the al-Quran and al-Sunnah.
The importance of behavioural intention indeed was highlighted in performing ‘ibadah and
daily activities.
In addition, the TPB is not contradicted with the Islamic teaching and it has supported the
concept of niyat (intention) as prescribed in Islam. In conceptualizing the factors
influencing halal food consumption in this research, attitude towards behaviour refers to
the respondents’ favourable or unfavourable evaluation to consume halal food.

Secondly, a subjective norm is a perceived social pressure for young consumers to


consume halal or non-halal food. The third determinant is perceived behavioural control
defined as a belief about individual control of the opportunities and availability of halal
food in Malaysia.

2.8 Research Model and Hypothesis Development

This study uses a structural model as shown in Figure 2. The purpose of the framework is
to examine the relationship between religious belief, halal logo and certification, halal
awareness, operator/supplier of the food and food hygiene with consumption of halal food.
Each component of the model was selected on the basis of the literature review.
Accordingly, five constructs were conceptualized to fit into the current study setting.

Religious belief and halal awareness is conceptualized to correlate with consumption of


halal food. It adds to the degree of the consumer’s knowledge on halal foods. Similarly,
halal certification is added to the model. Previous research on food hygiene (quality) and
purchase intention and behaviour relationship showed that there was a significant impact
of buying decision between products’ qualities. A better-quality product would lead to
stronger purchase intention for customers (De Cannie`re, Pelmacker, & Geuens, 2009).

29
Next, operator/supplier of food is included as it is important in terms of influencing
customers to purchase. The theoretical underpinning of the model is discussed in the
following section.

Religious belief

Halal Awareness

Consumption of Halal Food


Halal Logo and Certification

Operator/Supplier of food

Food Hygiene

Figure 2: Proposed structural model

2.8.1 Religious belief

Islam defines religion is not only related to spirituality and spirituality, but
religion is a set of beliefs, rules and regulations as well as moral guidelines for
every aspect of human life, including the rules in the consumption of food and
beverages according to the Islamic teachings. It is clearly stated that halal food
and beverages are allowed while illicit ones are banned for human consumption
(Team Writers of P3EI, 2013; Ambali and Bakar, 2014). Previous study shows
that religious beliefs is potential source for Muslim awareness of halal
consumption (Ambali and Bakar, 2014). Other research also reveals that 75%
of Muslim migrants in the US follow their religious laws concerning food
(Hussaini, 1993). This shows that religious belief is source of awareness of

30
consumer in dealing with their choice over halal food. Accordingly, the
following hypothesis is proposed:

H2: Religious belief is positively related to consumption of halal food

2.8.2 Halal Awareness

Awareness is the ability to perceive, to feel, and to be conscious of events and


objects. It is a concept about implying the understanding and perception toward
the events or subjects. Awareness has been hypothesized as an important role in
determining the intention to choose. Golnaz et al. (2010) found in their study
that the awareness of halal principles and halal food products is determined by
a positive attitude. Consonant with the TPB theory, consumers who have a
favorable attitude will perform the behavior (which in the context of the current
study is behavior to consume or purchase halal product).

Empirical evidence provided by Lada et al. (2009) in their study on halal


product confirmed that attitude is positively related to intention to choose halal
products. Alam and Sayuti (2011) also reported similar results for a sample of
marketing students in one of the universities in Malaysia. Hence, Lada et al.’s
findings have verified that decision to choose a halal product is determined by
a positive attitude. In the context of the current study, the positive attitude is the
favourable perception of halal concept and halal awareness. Accordingly, the
following hypothesis is proposed:

H2: Halal awareness is positively related to consumption of halal food

2.8.3 Halal Certification and Logo

Given the large number of certification systems in the food industry, it is


surprising that there are only a few research approaches to the economics of
certification. Halal certification refers to the official recognition of the orderly

31
process of preparation, slaughtering, cleaning, handling, and other relevant
management practices by the established body (such as JAKIM in Malaysia). In
order for food to be certified halal, the manufacturer must acquire the halal
symbol or halal qualifications as evidence that the products are religiously
lawful according to holy Quran (Guntalee & Unahannda, 2005). Certified halal
food is a requirement for the Muslim as part of religious obligation.
Interestingly, the concept of halal is more than what it used to be due to its wide
acceptance by both Muslims and the non-Muslims. Halal concept is deliberated
as the standard of choice for these two groups worldwide Determining Halal
Purchase Intention 7 Downloaded by [Universiti Putra Malaysia], [Yuhanis
Aziz] at 01:47 27 December 2012 (Golnaz et al., 2010). Accordingly, certified
halal food may also signal that the food adheres to stringent standards in hygiene
and sanitation (Lada et al., 2009).

There is empirical evidence to support the premise that non-Muslims are


concerned about food safety, which positively influences the probability of their
attitude on halal product (Golnaz et al., 2010). Moreover, the finding of their
study has suggested that attitude toward halal food and perceived control are
significant predictors of intention. Hence, in line with TPB theory (Ajzen, 1985,
1991), the perception of halal food in the context of halal certification by the
non-Muslim is determined by a positive personal attitude (Golnaz et al., 2010),
which in turn may influence their intention to purchase halal food. The argument
has led to the formation of the following hypothesis:

H3: Halal certification is positively related to consumption of halal food.

2.8.4 Brand

According to Dodds and Monroe (1985), brand name has extrinsic quality cues.
Han (1989) views brand name as a summary construct for quality because it has
inference quality based in brand name. Kotler and Amstrong (2006) have
acknowledged that a particular brand might not only be represented by a name
or symbols. It represents consumers’ perception and sentiment toward the

32
product and service, which means to the consumers’ point of view. Brand name
can affect consumers’ preferences and intention to purchase (Alreck & Settle,
1999; Ataman & Ulengin, 2003). Past research has suggested that customers’
intention to purchase a product or service can be influenced by positive attitude
toward brand itself (Laroche & Brisoux, 1989), Consumers would choose a
brand that is similar to its characteristics. In line with the TPB theory,
customer’s who have a positive attitude toward brand, for example, agree to
choose a particular food brand are able to act further by demonstrating positive
effect on halal purchase intention. Therefore, a hypothesis was conceptualized
as follows:

H5: Brand is positively related to consumption of halal food.

2.8.5 Food Hygiene

Food hygiene/quality refers to physical product attributes such as taste,


appearance, and other attributes. Quality is a desirable characteristic of a
product or service that is demanded by the customers (Canavari, Castellini, &
Spadoni, 2010). Food quality can be a source of product differentiation and is
considered a key parameter for the food industry as it is the basis for success in
today’s dynamic and highly competitive market (Du & Sun, 2006). Hence,
understanding the relationship between food quality and customer behaviour is
important so that the manufacturer can remain competitive in the market.

One of the critical areas that need’s further investigation is the impact of food
quality on customers’ consumption is consumption are commonly used as a
basis to forecast purchase behaviour. The knowledge of this relationship is
important to food manufacturers because it provides basic information on how
to meet the demands of the customers so that they can be satisfied.

In this study, food quality is perceived from two broad contexts. First, within
the halal context, the food is considered to possess quality if it meets several
requirements such as safe to consume, healthy, and hygienic. The second

33
perspective is within the general context of food quality, which covers areas
such as the food that is offered is superior to the competing product and the food
product matches the consumer’s ideal product. Food quality can be a source of
product differentiation to a food manufacturer. According to Newberry, Klemz,
and Boshoff (2003), food quality is regarded as one parameter in predicting
purchase behaviour. Therefore, based on this argument the following hypothesis
is constructed:

H5: Food quality is positively related to consumption of halal food.

2.9 Conclusion

Overall, this chapter has reviewed the big picture of factors influencing halal food
consumption among Muslims, as well as theory of planned behaviour. Therefore, the next
chapter will explain the methodologies that will be carried out in this study in order to test
the hypotheses that the researcher has proposed in this chapter.

34
References

Zawanah binti Muhammad (2008), “Halal : Antara Tuntutan Agama dan Strategi Ekonomi”,
Jurnal Penyelidikan Islam, 21(3), 33-58.

Dr. Mohamad Nasran (2009), “Audit Pengesahan Halal: Kajian di Jabatan Kemajuan Islam
Malaysia”, Jurnal Penyelidikan Islam, 22(2), 19-54.

Anisah Ab. Ghani (2008), “Kebersihan dan Keselamatan Makanan Dari Perspektif Halal”,
Jurnal Halal, 37-52.

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