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The Sitaw (Vigna unguiculata, subspecies sesquipedalis) or popularly known in Engish as long bean, yard-long bean,or snake bean) is a common and popular vegetable usually planted by Filipino farmers. The vegetable belongs to the pinakbet and sinigang group of vegetables.. In the photo, women harvesting sitaw vegetable from their farm (left); sitaw tied with rubber bands in the market (right) and sample of sitaw seeds ready for planting. Basically there are two types of sitaw, one is the bush type and the other is the vine type. The bush type is relatively easy to grow, all you need is a good patch of fertile loamy soil, 5 gallon containers filled with rich potting soil would do. Sitaw seeds can be purhased from your local agricultural store and they can be directly planted to the soil at about 1in depth. They are fairly fast growers. If taken care of properly in about a month you will get your first homegrown sitaw! Sitaw grows well under lowland tropics, both in low and high areas. Can be grown in many kinds of soil and is more tolerant to acid soils, however, it is susceptible to water-logging and drought which reduce yield considerably. Seed production is best during dry season to avoid rotting of pods and germination of seeds while in the pod. In planting, choose an area which has not been planted to other varieties of pole sitaw for two seasons to avoid contamination of seeds from the previous crop
Prepare land thoroughly by mechanical means or with the use of animal drawn implements. Make sure to breakdown big clods. Space the furrows 75 cm apart. Pole sitaw is usually direct seeded but can be transplanted. It requires 10-12 kg seed per hectare. In the field with 0.75 m furrow rows, plant the first two rows leaving the third row vacant and again on the next two rows, leaving the next row unplanted. This is to provide space to perform other field operations more efficiently within the trellis. If furrows are 1 m wide, plant every row. Plant 2-3 seeds per hill spaced 30 cm apart and cover lightly with soil. 2-3 weeks after planting, thin out weak and diseased seedlings leaving behind one healthy plant per hill. Fertilize plants by applying 10 gm or 1 tbsp complete fertilizer (14-14-14) per hill before planting and cover with soil. Add a handful or two of well decomposed manure. At early vegetative stage or a month after sowing, sidedress about 15 g of a mixture of 2 parts Urea (46-0-0) and 1 part Muriate of Potash (0-060). Use rhizobium inoculants (a bio-fertilizer) to reduce fertilizer rate. The inoculant is mixed with the seed prior to planting. Irrigate immediately after planting to ensure uniform seed germination. During the dry months, furrow irrigate every 10 days. Irrigate only when necessary during wet season. Construct drainage canals at the end of rows to avoid flooding. Hand-weed thoroughly the planted rows. Underbrush or rotavate the large spacing in between rows. Build a trellis when vines are long enough, so they can climb. Lay-out 2.5 m long and 2-2.5 m diameter poles. 4-5 m apart along the planted rows. Connect the poles at the top along the rows with wire (#16) and tie the top wire to a posted stake at the end of the row to make the poles stable. Connect the poles along the rows in the middle and lower portion of the poles with wire. Cut abaca twine or synthetic twisted twine and tie them vertically from the top to the bottom wires in every hill. Intertwine the vine in a counterclockwise manner to the vertical strings. As substitute, one may use bamboo branches or “siit” where sitaw vines can climb. Sitaw is a host and a favorite of various insect pest like the Beanfly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tyron); Bean pyralid or beanfly borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer); Blackcutworm (Agrostis ipsilon); Leafhopper (Empoasca spp.); Aphids (Aphis craccivora Kock); and Leafminer (Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller). To control them: spray appropriate insecticides and keep the planting area clean. To control diseases, choose disease free (virus free) seeds and control insect population. fungicides is there is severe fungal (rotting) infestation. Apply
Harvest pods when physiologically mature or when pods have turned leathery brown. Harvest three times a week at peak harvest. For seed production, choose mature pods from selected plants. Dry pods under the sun 2-3 days or until brittle. Put dried pods in net bag and beat manually with stick, or by rubbing and splitting by hand in the absence of threshing machine. Remove trash by winnowing or by passing through an air screen cleaner. Sort out small and wrinkled seeds and seeds with holes. Dry under the sun for 4-5 days or until moisture content is 11% or less.
Squash or kalabasa is a viny, creeping and trailing crop producing fruits and considered to be one of the most delicious vegetables. It is the most commonly and regularly grown among the cucurbits due to its rich source of Vitamin A, phosphorous and calcium . The young and tender shoots make good vegetable salad. The fruit is excellent for ginataan especially in the Bicol region. Though this crop has long been known in the country, its cultivation is mostly confined in the backyard scale. Most of the areas devoted to squash production are generally the Ilocoas region, Cagayan Valley, Southern Tagalog and Bicol. However, the premier provinces producing this crop fro semi-commercial scale are Batangas, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Leyte and Davao. Squash is a rich of vitamin A in amount comparable to the degree of yellow color. The young shoots, flowers and fruits are used as vegetables, it is palatable when cooked alone or in combination with other vegetables, fish and meat. Matured can be made into pies and other delicacies. In addition, seeds of mature fruits can be boiled in slated water, dried like watermelon seeds, roasted and used as snack food.
Edible Squash Flowers
Squash can be grown in both wet and dry season. It has been reported that environment can have a marked effort development and quality of the fruit. Likewise, warm temperature and low relative humidity favor good fruit-setting development and quality of the fruit. It thrives on many types of soil but it grows well on organic-rich medium often found on compost or refuse heaps. A soil pH range of 5.6 to 6.5 is recommended. Squash can be grown with minimum tillage. Clear area and dig holes at appropriate distances. In open field, distance of 2-3 meters between hills is recommended. For field preparation for squash should be done by twice plowing and harrowing then furrow the field at 2 meters apart. Furrows are made with a native plow or machine tractor to a depth of 15 cm. To plant a hectare it needs about 2-4 kilos of good seeds. Squash are directly planted at the rate of 2-5 seeds per hill, spaced of 2-3 m between rows and 1 m between hills. One week after emergence, weak seedlings are thinned out and allow only 2 healthy seedlings to grow. Transplanting is also recommended especially for F1 varieties to saved seeds and insured seedlings establishment. Sown the seeds in the seedbed and prick individually in the potlet. Transplanting is done 3 weeks after sowing. Incorporate animal manure and other compost materials to the soil to improve soil structure. Vine crops like squash requires an abundant supply of moisture for their maximum plant and fruit development. Although it is tolerant to drought, but regular irrigation during dry season is highly recommended to obtain higher yield. Irrigate the field by furrow every 7-10 days interval especially during the critical stages such as at planting, vegetative, flowering and early productive stages. Do not irrigate when the fruits are already mature. Mulching can be made from rice straw, grass clippings and plastic to minimize weeds and to maintain adequate soil moisture. It is spread on surface of the ground around the plants. The rate of fertilizer depends on soil analysis. For general recommendation, fertilized at planting time, early vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting stages. Apply four (4) bags of complete fertilizer at planting time by band placement together with animal manure, it must be mixed will the soil at the rate of 1-2 kg per hill, respectively. As the runners are about 30 cms (approximately 2-3 weeks after planting), sidedress with 3 bags urea (45-0-0) at the rate of 1-2 tbsp/plant. When the vine of the plant reaches 90 cms (one month after planting), sidedress 1 bag muriate of potash (0-0-60) in 1-2 tbsp/plant. Additional urea and potash may be applied every 15 days whenever necessary.
Weed the plot by hand pulling and hoeing. For long patches, use an animal-drawn plow. Shallow cultivation is necessary before the vines cover the ground to keep the soil in good tilth, moist and free from weeds.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is one of the most popular vegetables in Southeast Asia. It is a member of the cucurbit family along with cucumber, squash, watermelon, and muskmelon. Native to China or India, the fast-growing vine is grown throughout Asia and is becoming popular worldwide. Depending on location, bitter gourd is also known as bitter melon, karella, or balsam pear. The immature fruits and tender vine tips are used in a variety of culinary preparations. The fruits and shoots are soaked in salt water to remove some of their bitterness and then boiled, fried or pickled. The fruit of bitter gourd fruit is similar in nutritional value compared to other cucurbits, with the notable exceptions that it is much higher in folate and vitamin C. The vine tips are an excellent source of vitamin A. The medicinal value of the gourd in the treatment of infectious diseases and diabetes is attracting the attention of scientists worldwide. The following suggested cultural practices were developed at AVRDC in the Taiwan lowlands. Growers may need to modify the practices to suit local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions. Climate and Requirements Soil
Bitter gourd grows well under the same conditions preferred by other cucurbits. It is normally grown as an annual crop, but can perform as a perennial in areas with mild, frost-free winters. The plant thrives in the tropics from lowland areas to altitudes of up to 1,000 m. Bitter gourd requires a minimum temperature of 18°C during early growth, but optimal temperatures are in the range of 24-27°C. It is more tolerant to low temperatures compared to other gourds, but cool temperatures will retard growth and frost will kill the plant. The plant is adapted to a wide variety of rainfall conditions, but regular irrigation is needed to ensure high yield. Bitter
gourd tolerates a wide range of soils but prefers a well-drained sandy loam soil that is rich in organic matter. The optimum soil pH is 6.0-6.7, but plants tolerate alkaline soils up to pH 8.0. Choosing a Variety Numerous hybrid and openpollinated varieties are available. Hybrids usually produce higher yields, but their seeds are relatively expensive and must be purchased for every planting. Open-pollinated varieties have the advantage that their seeds may be saved and used for future plantings. The choice of variety depends on market preference in a certain region, and is based on fruit shape and color. Generally, there are three types: 1. small, 10-20 cm long, 100-300 g, usually dark green, very bitter; 2. long, 30-60 cm long, 200-600 g, light green in color with medium size protuberances, and only slightly bitter; and 3.triangular fruit type, cone-shaped, 9-12 cm long, 300-600 g, light to dark green with prominent tubercles, moderately to strongly bitter. Select a variety that is well adapted to your growing conditions and preferred by consumers. Growers are encouraged to compare the performances of different varieties during different seasons to identify superior types. Preparing the Field Thorough land preparation and a well-prepared bed is required. Plow, harrow and rototill the field. Form 2O-cm-high beds during the dry season and 30 cm or higher during the wet season using a plow or mechanical bed shaper. The distance between centers of adjacent furrows is about 150 cm with a 90-cm bed top. Planting Option 1 - Direct seeding is the most common method of planting. In cooler climates, it may be necessary to start the seedlings in a greenhouse to ensure good germination. Optimum plant density differs with variety and usually ranges from 6,500 to 11,000 plants per ha. In some intensively managed plantings, a closer spacing of 50 x 50 cm is used resulting in 40,000 plants per ha. On raised beds, sow two or three seeds per hole at a depth of 2 cm. Space holes 40-60 cm apart in rows spaced 1.2-1.5 m apart. Plant density using this spacing will range from 13,600 to 17,300 plants per hectare. When planted in warm soil, seedlings will emerge in a week or less. Thin to one seedling when they have four true leaves. Option 2. Transplanting Sow seeds in small plastic pots or containers using a potting mix that has good water-holding capacity and good drainage such as peat moss, commercial potting soil, or a potting mix prepared from soil,
compost, rice hull, and vermiculite or sand. Plant two or three seeds per container and thin to a single seedling when they have four to six true leaves. Water the seedlings thoroughly every morning to maintain a moist but not wet soil. Seedlings are ready for transplanting 15-20 days after sowing or when they are 10-15 cm tall. Bare-root plants will not survive so pull seedlings with their root balls intact before transplanting.Transplant seedlings into the field at spacings similar to those used for the direct seeding method. Staking and Trellising (Balag) Bitter gourd grows very fast and vines elongate rapidly within two weeks after planting. Thereafter, the plant sends out lateral stems. Staking and trellising will increase fruit yield and size, reduce fruit rot, and make spraying and harvesting easier. There are several methods of trellising bitter gourd. At AVRDC, bamboo poles, wood stakes, PVC pipes or other sturdy material are used to provide support and keep the fruit and foliage off the ground. The trellis is arranged either in a lean-to or tunnel structure. The trellis should be 1.8–2.0 m high, constructed from stakes 1.2–1.8 m apart, which is almost similar to the plant row spacing. An Ampalaya flower For the lean-to type, the stakes are joined between two adjoining beds forming an A-shape structure (Figs. 4, 5). Horizontal stakes are installed at the top joining all other beds. The stakes support the climbing vines and lateral stems. Strings are used to secure adjoining stakes. Plantings are easier to manage and more productive when 2-m-high rather than 1-m-high string trellises are used. For the tunnel type, plants are grown inside an arch-shape structure made of either PVC or galvanized iron pipe (Fig. 6). Plants are supported by bamboo stakes where vines freely climb and reach the top. The vines and lateral stems will then grow along the structure. Another type of trellising consists of a system of vertical strings running between top and bottom of horizontal wires, or horizontal wires running across all directions on top as shown in Fig. 7. Pruning Bitter gourd develops many side branches that are not productive. To improve yield, remove lateral branches until the runner reaches the top of the trellis. Leave 4-6 laterals and cut the tip of the main runner to induce early cropping. Removal of lateral branches in the first 10 nodes has a positive effect on total yield. Without pruning, most of the female flowers occur between the loth and 40* nodes, or at a height of 0.5-2.0 m. Fertilizing Bitter gourd requires a balance of nutrients from organic and chemical fertilizers. Fertilizer application rates depend on soil type, fertility level, and soil organic matter. In sandy soils at AVRDC, fertilizer application consists of a basal application followed by four sidedressings, providing a total of 184 kg N, 112 kg P2O5 and 124 kg K2O per ha (Table 1). In clay or heavy texture soils, the entire amount of P, and one-third of N and K is applied before planting, either by broadcasting and tilling or by banding a few cm
deep and to the side of the plant row in the bed. The balance of N and K is applied in two or more sidedressings. No matter the soil type, the first sidedressing is applied when plants have four to six true leaves. Subsequent sidedressings are applied at two-week intervals. Compost or manure can be used to satisfy the basal application of organic fertilizer. Harvesting and Handling Bitter gourd requires close attention at harvest time. The fruits develop rapidly and must be harvested frequently to keep them from becoming too large or too bitter. Normally it takes 15–20 days after fruit set or 90 days from planting for fruit to reach marketable age, however, bitter gourd can be harvested at earlier stages depending on the purpose for which it will be used. Fruit should be light green, thick and juicy, and the seeds should be soft and white. Harvest every 2–3 days using a pair of scissors or a sharp knife to cut the fruit stalk. If a fruit remains too long on the vine, it will turn spongy, sour, yellow or orange, and split open (Fig. 11). Bitter gourd yield can vary depending on variety and crop management. Average marketable yields are 8–10 t/ha. A yield of 20–30 t/ha is excellent and some F1 hybrids yield up to 40 t/ha. Fruits of bitter gourd do not keep long and should be sold in the market immediately. Remove damaged and deformed fruits. Carefully arrange fruits in bamboo baskets or boxes (Fig. 12) and store in a cool place at 12–13°C with 85–90% relative humidity. Under this condition, fruit storage life can be extended 2–3 weeks. Bitter gourd is chilling sensitive and damage may occur if kept below 10°C. Do not store fruits at temperatures above 13°C, as this will result in fruits turning yellow and splitting open. Keep harvested fruits away from other fruits (such as banana, pineapple and apple) that release large amounts of ethylene, a ripening hormone.
People have been using mustard as greens, and to spice up their food for thousands of years. Its known as the "King of the Condiments". Mustard is a fast growing crop. The leaves are great raw, in salads, or as a cooked greens, usually in fish-sinigang. They are nutritious, and healthy. The seeds are harvested to make the condiment that you use on hotdogs, sandwiches, and more. Its low in calories and carbohydrates, yet high in vitamins. It is high in Vitamin A and C, contains calcium and iron. It has cancer fighting beta carotene, anti-oxidants. Sow mustard seeds 1/4 to 1/3
inch deep, and 3" apart. Thin seedlings to 5" - 9" apart. Separate the rows, 1 foot apart. Sow seeds early in the morning usually during summer time and another during after rainy season. Plants usually matures in 45-50 days, however, plants are usually harvested for home cooking at 25 days. Mustard plants grow well in most good garden soils. They prefer full sun and moderate to cool weather. Planting successive small crops, separated about a week apart, so that it will result in a continuous supply of greens. Mustard plants should be grown quickly. Use plenty of water, and ample amounts of fertilizer, to promote fast growth of tender, green leaves. Water plants during dry periods. Keep the plants well weeded, so weeds do not compete for water and nutrients. It makes harvesting easier, too. To protect against leaf eating insects, you may place a fine meshed-plastic net (similar to a mosquito net over the plant. Mustard greens are eaten raw, or cooked. Harvest leaves while young and tender. Pick individual leaves, or the entire plant. Leaves get tough and have a strong flavor during hot, dry weather. Mustard seeds should be harvested when the plants begin to yellow. You want to leave them on the plants as long as possible, but before the pods burst open and spill their seeds. Mustards are relatively easy to grow. Mustards are easily attacked by aphids and cabbage worms are common problems. It is recommended that organic pesticides be used on Mustard plants and other greens. Mildews can affect the plant. Promote fast growing, healthy plants, so they will be less susceptible to disease. Allow proper spacing to increase air circulation. Avoid watering towards evening.
THE LEAFY KANGKONG
Kangkong (Ipomoea spp.) is one of the most popular leafy vegetables in South and Southeast Asia. It is known by many names including swamp cabbage, water convolvulus, and water spinach. The plant has flowers that range in color from white to pink, and its stems come in shades of green and purple. The leaves are a good source of protein, vitamin A, iron, and calcium. Kangkong is adapted to a wide range of climate and soil conditions but requires a relatively high soil moisture for optimum growth. Soils with high levels of organic matter are preferable. The plant produces optimum yields in the lowland humid tropics under stable high temperatures and short daylengths. Temperatures averaging between
25–30°C are ideal. Plants are damaged at temperatures of 10°C or less. Choosing a variety There are two common types. Upland kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) has narrow leaves (Fig. 1). It is adapted to moist soils and is harvested once. Lowland or aquatic kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica) has broader, arrow-shaped leaves (Fig. 2). It is adapted to flooded conditions and is harvested several times. Regardless of type, the choice of variety can be influenced by local growing conditions, seasons, and consumer preferences. Local testing is recommended to identify superior varieties. Field preparation Kangkong requires a well-prepared seed bed for good seedling growth. Form 20-cmhigh beds using a plow or mechanical bed shaper. The distance between centers of two adjacent furrows is about 150 cm with a 90cm bed top. Kangkong can tolerate flooding since it is a semiaquatic plant, thus, there is no need for a raised bed that is high. Planting methods Kangkong is planted either by direct seeding, transplanting, or using stem cuttings. The choice of planting method depends on the availability of seed and labor, growing season, and type of kangkong. Direct seeding is used when plenty of seed is available, labor is limited, and during the dry season when frequency of flooding is less. Transplanting or using cuttings are preferred when there is limited amount of seed, plenty of labor, and during the wet season when heavy rains and flooding may wash seeds away. Stem cuttings are used for lowland Kangkong. Option 1. Direct seeding Direct seeding is done either by line-sowing or broadcasting. When line-sown, seeds are sown in rows on well-prepared seedbeds. Make furrows 1.0–1.5 cm deep and space them 15–20 cm apart. Sow seeds 5 cm apart in rows. Cover seeds with a layer of compost. After developing two to three true leaves, thin seedlings to stand 10–15 cm apart. On a commercial scale, with a density of 50,000 plants/ ha, 5 kg/ha of seed is required. Broadcast sowing is used in large intensive production systems Broadcast seeds uniformly at a rate of 5–10 kg/ha on well-prepared seedbed. Thinning is not necessary. Option 2. Transplanting There are two steps to transplanting: seedling production and setting plants into the field. Seedling production. Seedlings can be grown in divided trays or in seedbeds. The first method is preferred since there is less damage to the seedlings when they are pulled for transplanting. Use plastic seedling trays for growing containerized transplants. Seedling trays may vary in sizes. For kangkong, size 50–100 cell trays with cells approximately 4 cm wide and deep are suitable Fill the tray with a potting mix that has good water-holding capacity and good drainage. Use peat moss,
commercial potting soil, or a potting mix prepared from soil, compost or rice hulls, vermiculite, and/or sand. AVRDC uses a mixture of 66% peat moss and 34% coarse vermiculite.
If you use non-sterile components , sterilize the mix by autoclaving or baking at 150°C for 2 hours. Sow two or three seeds per cell at 1.0–1.5 cm depth; thin to one seedling after they develop two or three true leaves. If seedlings are started in a raised seedbed, the soil should be partially sterilized by burning a 3–5 cm thick layer of rice straw or other dry organic matter on the bed. The burned ash also adds minor amounts of P and K to the soil, which helps establish the seedlings. Sow seeds in furrows 0.5–1.0 cm deep, spacing seeds 3–5 cm apart in furrows spaced 5 cm apart. Cover with soil. Cover the seedbeds with an insect-proof net or sow them inside a screenhouse. This provides shade and protects seedlings from heavy rain and pests. Water the seedlings thoroughly every morning or as needed (moist, but not wet), using a fine mist sprinkler to avoid soil splash and plant damage. If seedlings have been grown in shade, harden them off by gradually exposing them to direct sunlight during the 4–5 days just prior to
transplanting. On the first day, expose them to 3–4 hours of direct sunlight. Increase the duration until they receive full sun on the fourth day. Seedlings are ready for transplanting about three weeks after sowing or when transplants have five to six leaves. Line-sown and broadcasted plantings Option 3. Using stem cuttings Stem cuttings from an existing kangkong crop can also be used for planting when seeds are not available or insufficient. This method is commonly used when planting the broadleaf, lowland type of kangkong Stem cuttings 15–25 cm in length with three to four internodes are normally saved during the first harvest and soaked in water overnight before transplanting. In some cases stem cuttings are soaked in water for 1–3 days to develop roots before transplanting in the field. Dig holes 5–10 cm deep and plant two to three stem cuttings per hole. Spacing between rows is 20–30 cm and plants within rows are spaced 15–20 cm apart. Irrigate immediately after planting. Fertilizing Kangkong can thrive under conditions of moderate soil fertility, yet is quite responsive to nitrogen fertilizer. It also responds to application of organic manure. A combination of inorganic and organic fertilizers improves yield and maintains soil fertility.Setting plants into the field. Recommended For once-over harvesting, AVRDC uses raised beds that are 20 cm high with bed tops 90 cm wide. Rows are spaced 10 cm apart with 15 cm between plants within rows (Fig. 6). For multiple-harvesting, rows are spaced 20 cm apart with 30 cm between plants within rows. Transplant in the late afternoon or on a cloudy day to minimize transplant shock. Place transplants in holes that are 10 cm deep, cover the roots with soil, and lightly firm. Irrigate immediately after transplanting to establish good root-to-soil contact. Transplanting can be done manually or by machine. The amount of fertilizer to apply depends on soil fertility, soil type, fertilizer recovery rate, and soil organic matter. A soil test is highly recommended to determine the available N, P, and K. The amount of applied fertilizer can then be calculated based on your target yield and adjusted for residual nutrients. Fertilizer recommendations for kangkong at AVRDC are shown in Table 1. Fertilizer recommendations depend on local conditions, so consult your local fertility management specialist. As much as possible, control weeds. Kangkong is ready for harvest in 30–45 days after sowing or transplanting depending on variety and plant type. Plants may be harvested once or several times. For once-over harvesting, plants are uprooted (Fig. 10). For multiple harvesting, stems or shoots 15–25 cm in length are cut close to the ground, gerally on a weekly basis. Frequent harvesting delays flowering and stimulates growth of side shoots. When plants are not harvested, side shoots develop into longer vines. The harvest is washed and tied in bundles Leafy vegetables like kangkong have large surface-to-volume ratio and lose water easily. To reduce excessive water loss, harvest during the cooler time of day, such as early morning or late afternoon. Keep the harvested produce in a cool shaded place. Mulching is recommended in upland plantings to reduce weed competition, soil compaction and erosion, as well as to conserve soil moisture. Be sure the organic mulching materials are free of weed seeds. Organic mulches can be laid down before or after transplanting and after sowing.Apply a layer of mulch above ground level. Mulching is easier to apply if the kangkong is transplanted, but can be used for rowseeded crops after the seedlings reach a height of 10–15 cm.
Bunching onions, sometimes called green onions, are frequently used in salads for their light, tangy flavor. Bunching onions are actually an immature version of a normal onion, picked before it has a chance to grow to full size. Unlike scallions, bunching onions have a slight bulb at the end. The plant doesn't require a lot of room to grow, so it's possible to cultivate bunching onions indoors. Fill two pots with planting compost or soil. Choose neutral pH or slightly acidic soil. Make sure the pots are at least 6 inches deep and around 8 inches wide, with large drainage holes in the bottom. Push holes 1/3 inch deep into the soil with your finger. Space the holes approximately 1/2 inch apart. Insert a seed into each hole in one of the pots and cover with a light sprinkling of soil. Leave the other pot as it is for now. Water the pot containing seeds using a spray mister. Keep the soil damp over the next two weeks. Plant germinated seeds in the second pot the same way as you planted the seeds. The seeds should germinate around ten days after planting. Harvest your bunching onions four to six weeks after shoots first appear, or when they are around 10 inches tall.
“To plant a garden is to believe in the future”
The Urban Gardener is an official electronic publication (in PDF Format) of the Plant Biotechnology Project, Research & Development Center, Rizal Technological University, Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. It is published monthly. For more information, please inquire thru email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org and landline (+632) 534-8267 Local 135 or Fax (+632) 534-9710. Edited by N.R. Bautista © September 2010 The Plant Biotechnology Project Committee is composed of: Alexander B. Quilang, Norberto R. Bautista, & Jovita A. Anit.
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