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Chapter 1 – Fundamentals
Dr. Zifeng Yang
1.1 Introduction
a. Basic laws
- Law of conservation of mass
- Newton’s law
- Laws of thermodynamics
b. Divergence theorem – the way to convert certain types of surface integrals to volume
integrals
 = ∭ ∇ ∙ 
∬  ∙   .

(1.1.1)


c. Three laws can be expressed in the following descriptive form :

  ℎℎ  ! ℎ ℎ "!


+   ℎℎ   ℎ "!


−   ℎℎ  !" ℎ "!

0
=  &   "! .
 & ℎ  +  & '   "!
d. Tensor – The general term used to classify all fluid quantities.
- Tensors of order zero: Pressure, temperature, density
- Tensor of order one: Velocity
- Tensor of order two: Stress
- Tensor of order higher than two: Derivative or products of lower-order tensors
(Example: fourth-order Einstein curvature tensor of relativity theory)
e. Index notation
- Cartesian coordinates: First convention (x,y,z); second convention (x1,x2,x3)
- The convensitons used to represent the components of a vector are typically
("( , "* , "+ ), (", , "- , ". ), (, ", )
1.2 Velocity, Acceleration, and the Material Derivative
a. A fluid is defined as a material that will undergo sustained motion when shearing forces
are applied, the motion continuing as long as the shearing forces are maintained.
b. Lagrangian or Material Description
- Lagrangian description named after Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1836).

Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang
Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics

4) be the position at time t of a particle initially at the point (/1 . as the basic descriptor rather than displacement. " ∙ ∇≠ ∇ ∙ " 1. Eulerian or Spatial Description . 4 * . 4 ". 4 5 30/1 . 21 . 31 .+  7. 0/1 . 4 ". 4 = = 5 5 * 5". 21 . The convective acceleration term 0" ∙ ∇4" can be written as 1 0" ∙ ∇4" = ∇0" ∙ "4 + " × 0∇ × "4 2 ? 7 . 31 . 7  :- 7  :. 31 . 31 . 4 ". Surface. 21 . 31 . 0/1 . 31 ). + 79  7. 21 . 21 . 4 . 4 = 5 530/1 . 31 . 7  :9 7  7  7  7  7 . 4 5 * /0/1 . 4 = 5 520/1 . 21 . 0/1 .0/1 . Then the velocity and acceleration of that particle is given by 5/0/1 . 21 .:9 + 7. . 21 . 31 . 31 . + " 7. 31 fixed. 0/1 . 31 . 21 . 21 . 21 . and Volume Integrals . or substantial derivative and represents differentiation as a fluid particle is followed. 3 0/1 .3 Relations between Line.This description starts with velocity. :9 + 7. 31 . 21 . 21 . 0/1 . . 21 . c. 7. Let (/ 0/1 . 31 . 31 . 0/1 . where 6 refers to the position of a fixed point in space. 21 . 4 = = 5 5 * The partial derivatives signify that differentiation is performed holding /1 . 31 . 21 . 21 . 2 . written as " = "06. 4. 4. 4 5 20/1 . 31 .  = :9 = 7. 2 0/1 . 31 . ?9 = 79 + 0" ∙ ∇4 has been variously called the material. 21 . 21 .Eulerian description named after Leonard Euler (1707-1783).  = 7 6 + 7  + 7 8 + 7       7. 31 .  = + 0" ∙ ∇4" 79 - Temporal acceleration convective acceleration .0/1 . 31 . 4 * . 4. 4 = 5 And 5". 4 = = 5 5 * 5". 79 -  :  :. :9 + 79 :9 =  7. 31 . Stokes’ theorem Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . 7. 21 .0/1 .

3 A B ∙  = D 0∇ × A 4 ∙ dS C . Gradient theorem D K = H ∇K"  1.3 The local continuity Equation .The net rate of change of mass inside and entering the control volume is expressed 5L H  + D L" ∙  = 0  5 . Making the replacement and rearranging the integral 5L H M + ∇ ∙ 0L"4N  = 0  5 .According to Divergence Theorem (Green’s theorem) D L" ∙  = H ∇ ∙ 0L"4  . It can be expressed as QL =0 Q Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . Since the choice of the control volume was arbitrary and since the integral must vanish no matter what choice of control volume was made. the only way this integral can vanish is for the integrand to vanish. the above equation becomes ?9 Since QL + L∇ ∙ " = 0 Q . Divergence theorem D B ∙  = H I∇ ∙ BJ  . Incompressible flow is defined as one where the mass density of a fluid particle does not change as the particle is followed. Thus. 5L + ∇ ∙ 0L"4 = 0 5 An alternate expression of it can be obtained by expanding the divergence term to obtain 5L + " ∙ ∇ρ + L∇ ∙ " = 0 5 ? 7 ≡ 79 + " ∙ ∇.

Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics .The equation of a path line is given by / 2 3  = = = . on a streamline. A stream surface (or stream sheet) is a collection of adjacent streamlines.= − 56 Therefore. 5R 5R R = 6 +  = 0 56 5 It states that along a streamline R vanishes.4 Path Lines. Path line – is a line along which a fluid particle actually travels. b. In other words. . . 5"- + =0 56 5 Let 5R ". A stream tube is a tube made up of adjoining streamlines. . the continuity equation for an incompressible flow is ∇ ∙ " = 0 1. expressing the two velocity components in terms of R which guarantees that continuity is satisfied for an incompressible flow.For steady flows. Streamlines. R is a constant. continuity equation becomes 5". Lagranges’s Stream Function for Two-Dimensional Flows For two-dimensional flows. and they are of less use in practical applications. For unsteady flows. Streamline – is defined as a line drawn in the flow at a given instant of time such that the fluid velocity vector at any point on the streamline is tangent to the line at that point. pathlines and streamlines may differ. Generally path lines are more difficult to find analytically than are streamlines. = 5 Then the continuity equation becomes 5 * R 5"- + =0 565 5 Which can be integrated with respect to y to give 5R ". This is the motivation for the name stream function for R. path lines and streamlines coincide. 4 Thus.The requirement of tangency means that the streamlines are given by the equation 6  8 = = ". ". d. ". c.On a streamline. Stream function – are used principally in connection with incompressible flows. 21 and 31 held fixed. and Stream Functions a. . The integration of above being performed with /1 . . providing a surface though which there is no flow. .

. 5 .Thus. The net force is then D 0−K + [0\4 4  + H L   Equating this to the net change in momentum gives Q" H L  = D 0−K + [0\4 4  + H L   Q  Using the gradient theorem.The net rate of change of momentum is then 5 50L"4 H L" + D L" "  ∙  = H  + H ∇ ∙ 0L" " 4 5   5  5L 5" = H V" +L + "∇ ∙ 0L"4 + L0" ∙ ∇4"W   5 5 5L 5" Q" = H X" M + ∇ ∙ 0L"4N + L V + 0" ∙ ∇4"WY  = H L  .  5 5  Q the first bracket in the third line of equation vanishes by virture of equation.5 Newton’s Momentum Equation a. which is the acceleration. The second bracket represents the material derivative of the velocity. the continuity equation. two directions are associated with stress: the direction of the force and the direction of the area. In cylindrical polar coordinates.6 Stress – is defined as a force applied to an area divided by that area. D −K  = H −∇p   This reduces the momentum equation to Q" H L  = H 0−∇p + L4 + D [0\4   Q  1. . Integral Newton’s momentum equation . Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . The forces applied to the surface of the control volume are due to pressure and viscous forces on surface and gravitational force distributed thoughout the volume. 7T 7T "S = and "U = S7U 7S 1.

. 5[.. 5 + I[. In the limit as ∆ approaches zero the direction of the normal to ∆ is held fixed.. 5[-.  + [.4 = lim = [. f̂ + [. 'J + . For a force ∆c acting on a surface ∆. 5[. I[.k + [-..ĥ + [-.5[.. 5[-. f̂ + [-. ∆c [0-4 = lim = [-.k + [.k + [.. 6 .. Change the surface integral to a volume integral using divergence theorem.ĥ + [. with unit normal pointing in the x direction.5[-. write the stress on this face of our tetrahedron as ∆c [0..  + [.k + [.  + [.  + [.- = H V0 + + 4+km + + n  56 5 58 56 5 58 5[. 'i ∆de →1 ∆B.5[-.. 5[... 'J  56 5 -.. I[..I[-.. 'JN  58 5[. 5[. 5[-. 'Jl 5 5 =H M I[.5[. .. 'J + I[  + [-.4 = lim = [. The stress vector [0\4 is defined as ∆c [0\4 = lim ∆ →1 ∆ Where ∆ is the magnitude of the infinitesimal area. Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics .. D [0\4  = D j. 5[.ĥ + [. 5[.. +'m + + nW  56 5 58 The differential momentum equations becomes.. 'i ∆de →1 ∆B. +'m + + nW  56 5 58 Inserting this into the momentum equation gives.  + [-.... 'i ∆de →1 ∆B- ∆c [ 0.k + [-. f̂ + [. 5[-. Similarly...- + H V0 + + 4+km + + n  56 5 58 56 5 58 5[..... 'J + .. Q" H L  = H 0−∇p + L4  Q  5[.k + [.

7 Rates of Deformation The important geometric quantity that describes the fluids’ behavior under stress is the rate of deformation.-.= [-. . 1. [-.. . = [. Symmetric stress tensor [. 7  pq yz{{ yz|{ yz}{ yz{| yz|| yz}| o st = 0−uv + ow 4st + x m + + n + ~m + + n pr y{ y| y} y{ y| y} yz{} yz|} yz}} + m + + n y{ y| y} . Time rate of change of length ∂v€ M∆x + ‚v€ + ∆x… ∆tN − ‡∆x + v€ ∆tˆ ∂v ∂x € d€€ = = ∆x∆t ∂x ∂v‰ M∆y + ‹v‰ + ∆yŒ ∆tN − j∆y + v‰ ∆tl ∂v ∂y ‰ d‰‰ = = ∆y∆t ∂y Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . [.. = [..

experience and many experiments suggest the following: 1. ∆8∆4 − ∆6∆∆8 lim ∆.= m + n 2 ∂z ∂y 1 ∂v ∂v. Dilatational strain rate – the rate of change of volume per unit volume 0∆6 + . = 0. strain..= -. according to the original concepts of Newton. The fluid is isotropic. or extensional. ∂y ∆∆ ‹1 + ∆Œ 5 . . 2. = . tan”( ∆* ∆∆ ∂v€ * ≈ 5 ≈ ≈ ∆ 5"... .. .. ∆Œ 56 5".∆. such as water or air. 3... = ‹ + Œ 2 ∂x ∂z 1. 4. are the normal rates of deformation and can loosely be thought of as rate of normal. all shear stresses vanish.. Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics .∆9→1 ∆6∆∆8∆ = d€€ + d‰‰ + d = ∇ ∙ " .. Stress will depend explicitly only on pressure and the rate of deformation. That is.∆∆J0∆8 + . the material properties of a fluid at any given point are the same in all directions.8 Constitutive Relations Considering a fluid of simple molecular structure. The stress must depend on rate of deformation n a linear manner. . 8 ∂v M∆z + ‚v + ∆z… ∆tN − ‡∆z + v ∆tˆ ∂v ∂z  d = = ∆z∆t ∂z The . = .∆-. Rate of change of angles 5"- tan”( ∆( ∆6∆ ∂v‰ ( ≈ ≈ 56 ≈ ∆ 5" ∂x ∆6∆ ‹1 + . and the normal stresses are each equal to the negative of the pressure. -. Temperature can enter only implicitly through coefficients such as viscosity. -.. When the rate of deformation is identically zero.5I( + * J = m + n 2 ∂x ∂y 1 ∂v‰ ∂v. ∆6∆4I∆ + -. Rate of shear deformation 1 ∂v‰ ∂v€ ..

5". 50K − – — ∇ ∙ "4 5 5".. Up until now.. we can obtain Q". [. although the term Navier-Stokes fluid is also used.= [-.5". = [. 5"- L =− + L. = [. [-. The second *¨ law of thermodynamics can be used to show that – — + ≥ 0. pressure has deliberately been left undefined. = −K + – — ∇ ∙ " + 2–. .+ [. [. — [.. 9 The most general constitutive relation satisfying all of the above requirements is [. or volume viscosity. the term pressure is commonly used for the negative of mean normal stress.+ .. The definition of pressure varies in different instances.. we see that [. 5"... since it represents the amount of normal stress change needed to get a unit specific volume rate change.9 Equations for Newtonian Fluids From the momentum equation. = + + = ∇ ∙ " 56 5 58 Here. + M– ‹ + ŒN 58 58 56 Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . Summing our constitutive equation gives ˜™š ›œ 9ž 9›9Ÿ  \›SšŸ  ˜9Sž˜˜ ¡›š¢›\ž\9˜ £ee ¤£¥¥ ¤£¦¦ Mean normal stress = + = + From the above equation. Since for most flows the term is numerically much smaller than p. where we have used the abbreviation 5". 5 5". = −K + – ∇ ∙ " + 2–. . however. . For instance... 1. Stokes’s assumption is still widely used.. + [-.... . The fluid descried by equation is called a Newtonian fluid.. µ is the viscosity and – — is the second viscosity coefficient.= −K + – — ∇ ∙ v  + 2–-. in elementary thermodynamics texts. At one time Stokes suggested that this might in general be true but later wrote that he never put much faith in this relationship. = 2–. If we are to have the mean normal + stress equal to the negative of pressure. 2– = ‹– — + Œ ∇ ∙ " − K 3 3 *¨ The coefficient – — + + is called the bulk viscosity. Both of these viscosities can depend on temperature and even pressure. + -. [-.. . + M2– ‹ ŒN + V– m + nW Q 56 56 56 5 5 56 5 5". it follows that the bulk viscosity must be zero. = 2–.= 2–-..

The condtions that are most commonly encountered are the following: 1. 5K Lm + ". 5 5". 5".10 Boundary Conditions To obtain a solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations that suits a particular problem. 5". Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . n=− + L. + V– m + nW 58 58 5 Q". Equation above can be written in component notation as 5". fluid would pass through the boundary. If  is the unit normal to the boundary. and for incompressible flows. + –∇* ". + ".+ V– m + nW + V2– m nW Q 5 56 56 5 5 5 5 5". If this condition were not true. 5".5". it is necessary to add conditions that need to be satisfied on the boundaries of the region of interest.5". this simplifies greatly with the help of the continuity condition ∇ ∙ " = 0 to the vector form Q" L = −∇K + L + –∇* " Q Where 5* 5* 5* ∇ ≡ *+ *+ * * 56 5 58 is called the Laplace operator. Œ=− + L. L =− + L. This condition must hold true even in the case of vanishing viscosity (“inviscid flows”). The fluid velocity component normal to an impenetrable boundary is always equal to the normal velocity of the boundary. 5". 5". + ". 5 56 5 58 56 5". + ". + ". 10 Q". + ". Œ=− + L.J = 0 on the boundary. + ". 5". 5 5"- L =− + L. 5K L‹ + ". 5". 5 56 5 58 58 Either form is referred to as the Navier-Stokes equation 1.+ –∇* "- 5 56 5 58 5 5". 5". 50K − – — ∇ ∙ "4 5 5". 5K L‹ + ". 5". 5". 5 5". 5". + –∇* ". 50K − – — ∇ ∙ "4 5 5". then  ∙ I"œ ™ª: − "«›™\:ŸS. + M– ‹ + ŒN + V– m + nW + M2– ‹ ŒN Q 58 56 56 58 5 5 58 58 58 When ρ and µ are constant.

as in the case of a flow with a free surface or moving body.5". 5". a surface moving with the fluid that always contains the same fluid particles. from the constitutive equations. ….11 Vorticity and Circulation In considering the transformation of ABC into B′­′®′. the rate of rotation of the bisector is seen to be 1 5".. The molecular forces required to peel away fluid from boundary are quite large. it is seen that two thins have happened: The Angle has changed. Writing ( 7. due to molecular attraction of dissimilar molecules. 2. = ¯-. 5". If there were such changes. Stress must be continuous everywhere within the fluid. results in discontinuous stresses. or deformed. 5". in the interior of a fluid.= * ‚ 7-e − 7. with c06. Considering only this rotation. ! " = ∇ × " =  m − n+k‹ − Œ+'m − n 5 58 58 56 56 5 We therefore define the vorticity vector as being the curl of the velocity – that is ¯ = ! " = ∇ × " Vorticity also can be represented as a second-order tensor. = 0. 5". an infinitesimal layer of fluid with an infinitesimal mass would be acted upon by a finite force. it would give rise to discontinuous deformation gradients and. Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . 11 If the boundary is moving. 3. then.¥ ¯.. we have 5". Velocity must be continuous everywhere. by an amount of ( + * .= ¯. The velocity of most fluids at a solid boundary must have the same velocity tangential to the boundary as the boundary itself. 7. If stress were not continuous.50( − * 4. 4 = 0 as the equation of the boundary surface. That is. m − n 2 56 5 Writing the curl of " in Cartesian coordinates.. This is the “no-slip” condition that has been observed over and over experimentally. 1. ¯. and the bisector of the angle ABC has rotated an amount 0. the above equation is satisfied if Qc = 0  ℎ & c = 0 Q This condition is necessary to establish that c = 0 is a material surface – that is . giving rise to infinite acceleration of that layer. there can be no discrete changes in ".5".

± + 7.13 The Work-Energy Equation Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . Consequently.¦ ( 7. 7. The third term says that vorticity will be diffused by viscosity. Vortex lines can neither originate nor terminate in the interior of the flow.² ( 7.± ª° + ¯ª° = 7. from a well-known vector identity.g. there are three mechanisms by which its vorticity can change. 7.¥ 7.12 The Vorticity Equation Differential equations governing the change of vorticity can be formed from the Navier-Stokes equations. ¯ª° = * ‹7. there will be a contribution to the change of vorticity.¦ ¯.² . Either they are closed curves (e. the local vorticity will be changed by the density gradient. smoke rings) or they originate at the boundary. k + -. 'J. ² ± ² ± 7.. Dividing equation by the mass density and then taking the curl of the equation the result after some manipulation and use of the continuity equation is Q¯  1 – = 0¯  ∙ ∇4" − ∇ ‹ Œ × ∇K + ∇* ¯  Q L L The right-hand side of equation tells us that as we follow a fluid particle. if the velocity vector changes along the vortex line (thus “stretching” the vortex line). Thus the vector and the second-order tensor contain the same information. . + . 1. it follows that  = ∇ ∙ 0∇ × "4 = 0 "¯ 1. 7. flows without vorticity are said to be irrotational flows. The first term. The circulation taken over any cross-sectional area of a vortex tube is a constant.e 7. . Flows with vorticity are said to be rotational flows.. = ‚ − …. is vorticity change due to vortex line stretching. * 7.± − 7. The second term says that unless the pressure gradient and the density gradient are aligned so that they are parallel to one another. 12 ( 7. ¯-. * 7. 0¯  ∙ ∇4". Note for later use that. Œ = °ª . The operator ¯ ∙ ∇ is the magnitude of the vorticity times the derivative in the direction of the vortex line.² ª° = * ‹7. If we present the rate of deformation and voracity in index notation. Œ = −¯°ª . 7- Note that ∇ × " = 2I. = ‚ − …. we can summarize some of our findings as follows: ( 7..

. +'m + + nW 56 5 58 50". 5". 5".+ ".+ [.. 5".[.m + n 56 5 56 58 56 5 58 5 5". * Jl Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . Ф = [. J 56 5 . 5[. + [. m + n + [. [-...+ ". + [..+ ".5[. [. 5 + I"..[. 5".. + ".[. 5". [-. 5".. * + 2I. 5[-.... [. . 5". 5".. W 58 7 7 = 0K − – — ∇ ∙ "4∇" + L" ∙  + 7. + [.-. [-... 4 5I".. 5". [-.5". [-.. with the help of the product rule of calculus we have Q "∙" L ‚ … = L" ∙  + " Q 2 5[.[-. n − ‹[. I". 56 5 56 58 56 5 58 5 58 + 0K − – ∇ ∙ "4∇ ∙ " — = [..J 5I". [. + [-.. 5". + ". − m[.I".+ ". Œ 56 5 58 56 5 58 5".[. * + -- * + . J 58 5". .+ "... [.[-. * + .. If we take the dot product of the previous N-S equations with velocity. + [.... [.- ∙ V m + + n+km + + n 56 5 58 56 5 58 5[. + [. -.. + [.. 5".5[-. + [-..- * + -.. J − Ф . 13 Another useful equation derived from the Navier-Stokes equations is a work-energy statement..J 5I".5".. J 50". J + 7. + ".. 5". J + I" [ + ".m + n + [.. m + n + [. [.. + [.. + [-. 4 5". 5[.. [. J 50".J = L" ∙  + V + + W+V + + W 56 5 58 56 5 58 50". 5".[-... 5"... + "... 5".. [. ‹ + Œ + [-. + [-.[. 5". 5". [. Œ 56 5 58 56 5 58 5 5 = L" ∙  + I". -. 5".. Where 5". 5[. + [..J + 0K − – — ∇ ∙ "4∇ ∙ " = 2–j. [. + [-..+ ". ‹ + Œ + [-.. [. +V + + W − ‹[. . + ".[. 4 5I". + 2I[-. J + 7 7. 4 5I".. I". − V[. 5". 5[-. 5".. [. + [-..

and internal reactions plus the rate at which work is done on the system. write µ  = − D · ∙  + H   ˜ . 1. given by " ∙ " = + 2 With u being the specific internal energy. 5 Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . this becomes 50L4 H V + ∇ ∙ 0L"4W  = . the quantity Ф is positive definite. This law states that · = −'∇¸. Since the viscosity is always positive. that is ´ µ ¶ = +    For the rate of energy change we have ´ 50L4 =H  + D L" ∙   . 5 ˜ Where  is the specific energy (energy per unit mass). Fourier’s law of conductivity is used to relate the heat flux vector to the temperature. Also. The body term dr/dt represents heat generated either internally or transferred by radiation. ˜ Putting these expressions into the first equation in this section and with the help of divergence theorem. In equation form. The rate at which work is being done by the various forces can be written as ¶ = H L ∙ "  + D " ∙ [0\4   .  Where · is the heat flux vector represent heat transfer from the surroundings. radiation. 14 The function Ф represents the rate of dissipation of energy by viscosity and is called the dissipation function. T being the temperature and k the coefficient of thermal conduction.14 The First Law of Thermodynamics The conservation of energy principal in its rate from states that the rate of change of energy of the system is equal to the rate of heat addition to the system due to conduction from the surroundings.

JN  58 The differential equation can be obtained as 50L4 Q QL + ∇ ∙ 0L"4 = L + 5 Q Q  5 5 = −∇ ∙ · + + L ∙ " + I".[-. [. the equation can be written as Q  L = −∇ ∙ · + +Ф Q  The thermodynamic field quantities are thus seen to be coupled to the mechanical portion through the convective change of the internal energy. viscosity (third term). and compressibility effects (fourth term). .- 5 + I".[-.+ ". + ". named after Osborne Reynolds. 1.  56 5 . + ". + ". [.The Reynolds number. + ". The Froude number represents the ratio of the convective Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics ... heat generated internally (second term).. 15  5 5 H M−∇ ∙ · + + L ∙ " + I"... it is typically found in the form -The Froude number was named after William Froude. and applying continuity equation. this equation states that the internal energy of the fluid will be changed by t he addition of heat transfer from the surroundings (first term). and the pressure. [. we can obtain " ∙ " Q QL Q‹ 2 Œ  L + −L = −∇ ∙ · + − 0K − – — ∇ ∙ "4∇ ∙ " + Ф Q Q Q  Combining the first and the third term. we can obtain Q  L = −∇ ∙ · + + Ф + 0−K + L + – — ∇ ∙ "4∇ ∙ " Q  In words.. [. [.[-. [. J + I" [ + "... dimensional analysis was used extensively. J + I" [ + ".- 5 + I".J . + ". [. It is also extremely useful in analysis. [. [.. + ".15 Dimensionless Parameters To express data in the most useful form.[-. + ".[-. J 58 By using the work-energy equation. the viscous dissipation.+ ". + ".[-. . For incompressible flow. [.J  56 5 . a British mathematics professor who became interested in ship construction.. ¹? ¨ .

The Weber number was named after Moritz Weber. Richardson. R. toothpastes. 16 acceleration terms in the Navier-Stokes equation to the wave forces as represented by the gravity  º» terms.The drag coefficient Á is used for presenting the drag force (the force in the direction of ¹  d  motion). It is an important parameter in studying the À? œ? .16 Non-Newtonian Fluids Fluids such as large molecular weight polymers that do not obey the Newtonian constitutive equation are encountered frequently in the chemical and plastics industry. ∆¢ . ÃÅ . It is typically used in the form . and colloids all exhibit non-Newton behavior.The Strouhal number is named after C.The moment coefficient Á is convenient for measuring the moment on a wing or rubber. The most general form of constitutive equation we could propose for flows that are described by only stress and rate of deformation is given by [ª° = 0−K + – — ∇ ∙ "4ɪ° + –ª° + – —— ªÊ Ê° Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics . where &is the frequency and ¯ the circular   shedding of vortices and is written as or frequency.The pressure coefficient Á . including surface tension.The Richardson number ∆½¾¿ . . a professor of naval mechanics at the Polytechnic Institute of Berlin. named after Colonel A. 1. is a form suited for the ¹   presentation of pressure data. sometimes called the Euler coefficient. slurries. nylon. drilling mud. Æ . Paints. blood.The lift coefficient Á is similar to the drag force but perpendicular to the direction of ¹  d  motion. Strouhal. ¹  dÇ Â ¹  ? È . a German physicist who studied the Aeolian sounds generated by wind blowing through trees. It is used in studying ¼ ½ wave in flows with density stratification. He introduced the name similitude to describe model studies that were scaled both geometrically and using dimensionless parameter for forces. ÃÄ .  . although the square of this is also used. where A is the projected area. lubricants. and introduced a capillary parameter.

17 where – —— is an additional viscosity coefficient. clays and wood pulp solutions appear to behave as if they must have a certain level of stress applied before the fluid deforms. ¸ª° are components of the yield stress tensor and T is º*ÍÎÏ ÍÎÏ the yield stress according to the von Mises yield criterion. Suspensions such as paint. or * ª° °Ê ( [ª° = ¸ª° + 0−K + ∇ ∙ "4ɪ° + –ª° if ¸ ¸ > ¸* * š\ š\ *Í In the latter case. Here. Consider first a coordinate system rotating with an angular velocity Ω1 and whose origin translates with a velocity "1 . The constitutive equation that has been proposed for them is ( [ª° = ¸ª° if ¸ ¸ ≤ ¸ * . 1. it is necessary to use moving coordinate systems to understand a given flow. The last two terms on the right-hand side represent the centripetal and Coriolis acceleration. Note that its dimensions differ from the standard viscosity by an additional unit of time. after George Stokes.17 Moving Coordinate Systems Occasionally. This result for the acceleration can be put in a more useful form by a bit of rearranging. third and fourth represent the acceleration due to the coordinate system. and  is the position in the moving system. ¸ª° = ª° . Then the velocity is given by "Ÿ«˜ = "Sž  + "1 + Ω1 ×  Here "Ÿ«˜ is the velocity with respect to a nonmoving axes system "Sž  is the velocity measured in the moving system. This constitutive law describes what are called Stokesian fluids. or sometimes visco-plastic fluids. Such fluids have been referred to as Bingham fluids. or sometimes Reiner – Rivlin fluids. while the second. The acceleration is given by Q"Ÿ«˜ Q"Sž  "1 Ω1 = + + Ω1 × "1 + ×  + Ω1 × 0Ω1 × 4 + 2Ω1 × "Sž  Q Q   These follow from well-known results in dynamics. Consider the following: Q"Ÿ«˜ 5"Sž  "1 Ω1 = + 0"Sž  ∙ ∇4"Sž  + + Ω1 × "1 + ×  + Ω1 × 0Ω1 × 4 + 2Ω1 × "Sž  Q 5   5 = ‡" + "1 + Ω1 × ˆ + Ω1 × ‡"Sž  + "1 + Ω1 × ˆ + "Sž  ∙ ∇‡"Sž  + "1 + Ω1 × ˆ 5 Sž  Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics .

18 5 = ‹ + Ω1 × +"Sž  ∙ ∇Œ "Ÿ«˜ 5 Since 0"Sž  ∙ ∇4"1 = 0 and 0"Sž  ∙ ∇40Ω1 × 4 = Ω1 × "Sž  This can be also be written as Q"Ÿ«˜ 5"Ÿ«˜ = + Ω1 × "Ÿ«˜ + ‡0"Ÿ«˜ − "1 − Ω1 × 4 ∙ ∇ ˆ"Ÿ«˜ Q 5 Copyright 2013 by Zifeng yang Chapter 1 of Advanced Fluid Mechanics .