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# Chapter 16

## Fasteners and Power Screws

Section 16.3
16.1 An Acme-threaded power screw with a crest diameter of 1.125 in. and single thread is used to raise a
load of 25,000 lb. The collar mean diameter is 1.5 in. The coefficient of friction is 0.12 for both the
thread and the collar. Determine the following:
(a) Pitch diameter of the screw
(b) Screw torque required to raise the load Ans. Tr = 4637 in.-lb.
(c) Maximum thread coefficient of friction allowed to prevent the screw from self-locking if collar
friction is eliminated
Notes: Recognizing that this is an Acme screw, some data is obtained from Table 16.2. In addition,
Eqs. (16.4), (16.8) and (16.10) are used in the solution of this problem.
Solution: This is an Acme screw, so referring to Table 16.2 with a crest diameter of 1 1/8 in., n = 5
per inch. Therefore, from Eq. (16.1), p = 1/n = 0.2 in. The pitch diameter is calculated from Eq.
(16.4):
dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 in. = 1.125 in. − 0.5(0.2 in.) − 0.01 = 1.015 in.
If this is a single thread then the lead, l, equals the pitch, or l = 0.2 in. From Eq. (16.5), α is given by
   
−1 l −1 0.2 in.
α = tan = tan = 3.589◦
πdp π(1.015 in.)
From Fig. 16.5, it can be seen that β = 29◦ , so from Eq. (16.8), θn is
29◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 3.589 tan = 14.47◦
2 2
The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):
 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(1.015 in./2)(cos 14.47◦ tan 3.589◦ + 0.12
   
1.5 in.
= (25 kip) + (0.12)
cos 14.47◦ − 0.12 tan 3.589◦ 2
= 4637 in.-lb

If collar friction is eliminated, then the load will lower if the numerator of Eq. (16.12) is zero, or

## µ = cos θn tan α = cos(14.47◦ ) tan(3.589◦ ) = 0.0607

383
384 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

16.2 A car jack consists of a screw and a nut, so that the car is lifted by turning the screw. Calculate
the torque needed to lift a load with a mass of 1000 kg if the lead of the thread l = 9 mm, its pitch
diameter is 22 mm, and its thread angle is 30◦ . The coefficient of friction is 0.09 in the threads and
zero elsewhere. Ans. Tr = 24.40 Nm.
Notes: The torque is calculated from Eq. (16.10), which requires calculation of α and θ from Eqs.
(16.5) and (16.8), respectively.
Solution: From Eq. (16.5), α is given by
   
−1 l −1 9 mm
α = tan = tan = 7.42◦
πdp π(22 mm)

## From Eq. (16.8), θn is

30◦
   
β
θn = tan−1 cos α tan = tan−1 cos 7.42◦ tan = 14.9◦
2 2

## The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):

 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(0.022 m/2)(cos 14.9◦ tan 7.42◦ + 0.09
 
2
= (1000 kg)(9.81 m/s ) +0
cos 14.9◦ − 0.09 tan 7.42◦
= 24.40 Nm

16.3 A power screw gives the axial tool motions in a numerically controlled lathe. To get high accuracy in
the motions, the heating and power loss in the screw have to be low. Determine the power efficiency of
the screw if the coefficient of friction is 0.12, pitch diameter is 30 mm, lead is 6 mm, and thread angle
is 25◦ . Ans. η = 33.8%.
Notes: The efficiency is the output work divided by the input work. If this is evaluated over a given
distance, such as one screw revolution, then the torque equation can be used. In this regards, the
analysis is similar to Problem 16.2. Note however, that we’re worried about the efficiency of the screw,
not the collar, so we’ll ignore the collar losses, that is, we’ll take µc = 0.
Solution: The input work is the product of the torque and the rotation. Any reference rotation can
be used, so use one revolution or 2π radians as the reference. The torque is given by Eq. (16.10), but
first, from Eq. (16.5), α is given by
   
−1 l −1 6 mm
α = tan = tan = 3.65◦
πdp π(30 mm)

## From Eq. (16.8), θn is

25◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 3.65 tan = 12.47◦
2 2

## The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):

 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(0.030 m/2)(cos 12.47◦ tan 3.65◦ + 0.12
 
= W + 0
cos 12.47◦ − 0.12 tan 3.65◦
= (0.00282 Nm
385

If the lead is 6 mm, this is the distance the load will be moved in one revolution. The output work is
the product of the load and the distance. Therefore, the ratio of the output work to the input work is:

Wl W (0.006 m)
e= = = 0.338 = 33.8%
Tθ W (0.00282 m)(2π)

16.4 Sketch a shows a stretching device for steel wires used to stabilize the mast of a sailing boat. Both
front and side views are shown and all dimensions are in millimeters. A screw with square threads (β
= 0), a lead and pitch of 4 mm, and an outer diameter of 20 mm is used. The screw can move axially
but is prevented from rotating by flat guiding pins (side view in sketch a). Derive an expression for
the tightening torque as a function of the stretching force P when coefficient of friction of all surface
contacts is 0.20. Also, calculate the torque needed when the tightening force is 1000 N.

40
20

20 20 5

10

## Sketch a, for Problem 16.4

Notes: This problem requires a derivation similar to that on in the text for the particular circumstances
of this problem.
Solution: From Eq. (16.5),

l 4 mm
tan α = = = 0.07074
2πrm 2π(9 mm)

## Equilibrium in the vertical direction of the free body diagram gives:

X
Fy = 0 = −Pax + Pn cos α − µPn sin α → Pax = Pn cos α − µPn sin α
386 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## and in the horizontal direction,

X
Fx = 0 = Pt − Pn sin α − µPn cos α → Pt = Pn sin α + µPn cos α

## Therefore we can write

Pt sin α + µ cos α tan α + µ
= =
Pax cos α − µ sin α 1 − µ tan α
Vertical equilibrium of the screw gives
X µPt rm µPt rm
Fy = 0 = Pax − P − → Pax = P +
L L
Torque equilibrium of the nut gives
X
T = 0 = T − µPax rm − Pt rm → T = µPax rm + Pt rm

## Eliminating Pax and Pt gives  

rm (µ + tan α)

 + µrm 

1 − µ tan α
 
T =P
 1 − µrm (tan α + µ) 

 

L(1 − µ tan α)
If P = 1000 N, then substituting µ = 0.2, rm = 9 mm, rm = 15 mm, L = 20 mm and tan α = 0.0707,
this expression yields T = 5.61 Nm.
16.5 A flywheel of a motorcycle is fastened by a thread manufactured directly in the center of the flywheel
as shown in sketch b. The flywheel is mounted by applying a torque T . The cone angle is γ. Calculate
the tensile force W in the shaft between the contact line at N and the thread as a function of D1 , D2 ,
γ, and T . The lead angle is α at the mean diameter D1 . The shaft is assumed to be rigid.

γ
N

T
D1

D2

## Sketch b, for Problem 16.5

Notes: This problem is solved by performing torque equilibrium on the flywheel and then using Eq.
(16.10) for the screw torque.
Solution: The forces acting on the shaft are shown above right. Note that when the flywheel is
mounted, the contact slides in the circumferential and the axial direction. Torque equilibrium on the
flywheel gives  
X D2
T = 0 = T − µN cos φ − Tt
2
387

## where Tt is the thread torque and φ is the angle as shown defined by

D1 tan α
tan φ =
D2 cos γ
Horizontal force equilibrium gives
X
Fx = 0 = W − N sin γ − µN sin φ cos γ → W = N (sin γ + µ sin φ cos γ)

Substituting this into Eq. (16.10) and then the resulting expression into the torque equation given
above yields
µD2 W cos φ/2 W Dt (cos θn tan α + µ) /2
T− − =0
sin γ + µ sin φ cos γ cos θn − µ tan α
This could be solved for W if desired.
16.6 To change its oil, a 20,000 lb truck is lifted a height of 5 feet by a screw jack. The power screw has
Acme threads and a crest diameter of 5 in. with two threads per inch, and the lead equals the pitch.
Calculate how much energy has been used to lift and lower the truck if the only friction is in the
threads, where the coefficient of friction is 0.10. Ans. Er = 409 kip-ft.
Notes: The approach is similar to Problems (16.1) to (16.3), but one must also use Eq. (16.12) to
calculate the torque needed to lower the load.
Solution: For a crest diameter of 5 in., Table 16.2 gives the number of threads per inch as 2, so that
the pitch is 0.5 in. From Eq. (16.4), the pitch diameter is
dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 in. = 5 in. − 0.5(0.5 in.) − 0.01 = 4.74 in.
Since the lead, l, equals the pitch, l = 0.5 in. From Eq. (16.5), α is given by
l 0.5 in.
tan α = = = 1.923◦
2πrm π(4.74 in.)
From Figure 16.5, it can be seen that β = 29◦ , so from Eq. (16.8), θn is
29◦
   
β
θn = tan−1 cos α tan = tan−1 cos 1.923◦ tan = 14.49◦
2 2
The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10) (note that ?c = 0):
 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(4.74 in./2)(cos 14.49◦ tan 1.923◦ + 0.10
 
= (20 kip) +0
cos 14.49◦ − 0.10 tan 1.923◦
= 6510 in.-lb
The energy is the product of the torque and the rotation. To travel 5 feet = 60 in., the screw needs to
rotate 60/l = 60/0.5 = 120 rev = 754.0 rad. The energy needed to raise the load is then
Er = (754 rad)(6510 in-lb) = 4908 kip-in. or 409 kip-ft
The torque to lower the load is obtained from Eq. (16.12):
 
(dp /2)(µ − cos θn tan α)
Tl = −W + rc µc
cos θn + µ tan α
(4.74 in./2)(0.10 − cos 14.49◦ tan 1.923◦ )
 
= −(20 kip)
cos 14.49◦ + 0.10 tan 1.923◦
= −3293 in.-lb
388 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## El = (754 rad)(3293 in.-lb) = 2483 kip-in. = 207 kip-ft

16.7 A single-threaded M32×3.5 power screw is used to raise a 12-kN load at a speed of 25 mm/s. The
coefficients of friction are 0.08 for the thread and 0.12 for the collar. The collar mean diameter is 55
mm. Determine the power required. Also determine how much power is needed for lowering the load
at 40 mm/s.
Notes: The power is calculated from the torque needed to raise the load or lower the load, obtained
from Eqs. (16.10) and (16.12), respectively.
Solution: The bolt designation gives dc = 32 mm and p = 3.5 mm. From Eq. (16.4) for metric
dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.25 = 32 mm − (0.5)(3.5 mm) − 0.25 mm = 30 mm
Since there is a single thread, the lead is the same as the pitch, or l = 3.5 mm. The torque is given by
Eq. (16.10), but first, from Eq. (16.5), α is given by
l 3.5 mm
tan α = = = 2.13◦
2πrm π(30 mm)

## Note from Fig. 16.5 that β = 29◦ . From Eq. (16.8), θn is

29◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 2.13 tan = 14.49◦
2 2

## The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):

 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(0.030 m/2)(cos 14.49◦ tan 2.13◦ + 0.08 (0.055 m)(0.12)
 
= (12 kN) +
cos 14.49◦ − 0.08 tan 2.13◦ 2
= 61.23 Nm

Since the lead is l = 3.5 mm, and the load is raised at 25 mm/s, the screw must be rotating at a speed
of ωr = 25/3.5 = 7.14 rev/s = 44.88 rad/s. Therefore the power is the product of torque and angular
velocity, or
hpr = Tr ωr = (61.23 Nm)(44.88 rad/s) = 2748 W
The torque to lower the load is given by Eq. (16.12) as
 
(dp /2)(µ − cos θn tan α)
Tl = −W + rc µc
cos θn + µ tan α
(0.030 m/2)(0.08 − cos 14.49◦ tan 2.13◦ ) (0.055 m)(0.12)
 
= −(12 kN) +
cos 14.49◦ + 0.08 tan 2.13◦ 2
= −47.75 Nm

The lowering speed is ωl = 40/3.5 = 11.43 rev/s = 71.81 rad/s, so the power needed is

## hpl = Tl ωl = (47.75 Nm)(71.81 rad/s) = 3429 W

16.8 A double-threaded Acme power screw is used to raise a 1350-lb load. The outer diameter of the screw
is 1.25 in. and the mean collar diameter is 2.0 in. The coefficients of friction are 0.13 for the thread
and 0.16 for the collar. Determine the following:
389

## (a) Required torque for raising and lowering the load

(b) Geometrical dimensions of the screw
(c) Efficiency in raising the load
(d) Load corresponding to the efficiency if the efficiency in raising the load is 18%
Notes: This problem is similar to the previous problems, especially Problem 16.2 and 16.7. The new
concepts introduced are the use of a double thread and more in-depth use of the equation for efficiency
[Eq. (16.13)].
Solution: From Table 16.2, for a crest diameter of 1.25 in., there are n = 5 threads per inch, so that
p = 1/n = 0.2 in., Since this is a double thread, the lead is twice the pitch, or l = 0.4 in. The pitch
diameter is obtained from Eq. (16.4) as

dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 = 1.25 in. − 0.5(0.2 in.) − 0.01 in. = 1.14 in.

The torque is given by Eq. (16.10), but first, from Eq. (16.5), α is given by

l 0.4 in.
tan α = = = 6.376◦
2πrm π(1.14 in.)

## Note from Fig. 16.5 that β = 29◦ . From Eq. (16.8), θn is

29◦
   
β
θn = tan−1 cos α tan = tan−1 cos 6.376◦ tan = 14.4◦
2 2

## The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):

 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(1.14 in./2)(cos 14.4◦ tan 6.376◦ + 0.13
 
= (1350 lb) + (1.0 in.)(0.16)
cos 14.4◦ − 0.13 tan 6.376◦
= 408.1 in.-lb

## The torque to lower the load is given by Eq. (16.12) as

 
(dp /2)(µ − cos θn tan α)
Tl = −W + rc µc = −233 in.-lb
cos θn + µ tan α

## 100W l (100)(1350 lb)(0.4 in.)

e= = = 21.06%
2πT 2π(408 in.-lb)

If the efficiency is 18% at the same torque, the load is obtained from Eq. (16.13) as

## 100W l 2πeT 2π(408 in.-lb)

e= → W = = = 1154 lb
2πT 100l 100(0.4 in.)

16.9 A 25-kN load is raised by two Acme-threaded power screws with a minimum speed of 35 mm/s and
a maximum power of 1750 W per screw. Because of space limitations the screw diameter should not
be larger than 45 mm. The coefficient of friction for both the thread and the collar is 0.09. The collar
mean diameter is 65 mm. Assuming that the loads are distributed evenly on both sides, select the size
of the screw to be used and calculate its efficiency.
390 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

Notes: This problem requires selection of a screw from Table 16.2, then analysis of this screw.
Solution: For a thread diameter of 45 mm=1.77 in., the largest screw which can be used is, from
Table 16.2, a 1.75 in. crest diameter screw with 4 threads per inch. Therefore, the pitch is 0.25 in. =
6.35 mm. The pitch diameter is calculated from Eq. (16.4) as

dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 in. = 1.75 in − 0.5(0.25) − 0.01 in. = 1.615 in. = 41.02 mm

At first, use a single thread so that l = p = 6.35 mm. The torque is given by Eq. (16.10), but first,
from Eq. (16.5), α is given by
l 6.35 mm
tan α = = = 2.82◦
2πrm π(41.02 mm)

## Note from Figure 16.5 that β = 29◦ . From Eq. (16.8), θ is

29◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 2.82 tan = 14.48◦
2 2

The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10), using W = 12, 500 N since there are two screws:
 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(0.04102 m/2)(cos 14.48◦ tan 2.82◦ + 0.09
 
= (12.5 kN) + (0.0325 m)(0.09)
cos 14.48◦ − 0.09 tan 2.82◦
= 73.2 Nm

To raise the load at 35 mm/s, the angular velocity ω = 35/6.35 = 5.51 rev/s = 34.63 rad/s. Therefore
the power is
hp = T ω = (73.2 Nm)(34.63 rad/s) = 2540 W
This horsepower is too high. Using double threads, the lead is l = 2p = 12.70 mm. Using the same
equations, one obtains α = 5.6◦ , θn = 14.4◦ , Tr = 86.24 Nm, ω = 17.31 rad/s, hp = 1490 W. Therefore,
a double thread screw satisfies the power requirement.
screw has to exert a force on the lathe carriage for a number of operations, and it is powered by a belt
drive from the motor. If a force of 500 lb is desired, what is the torque required if the collar is twice
the pitch diameter of the screw? Use µ = µc = 0.25. With what velocity does the lead screw move the
Notes: This is a straightforward problem, requiring Eq. (16.10) for its solution.
Solution: From the stated crest diameter, the pitch diameter can be obtained from Eq. (16.4), since
from Table 16.2, n=10 threads/in so p=0.1:

## dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 = 0.5 − 0.5(0.1) − 0.01 = 0.44 in.

Also, since the collar diameter is twice the pitch diameter, then the collar radius is rc = dp = 0.44 in.
From Eq. (16.5),    
−1 l −1 (1)(0.1 in.)
α = tan = tan = 4.13◦
πdp π(0.44 in.)
And for an Acme thread, β = 29◦ (see Figure 15.5). Therefore θn is given by Eq. (16.8) as
 
β
θn = tan−1 cos α tan = tan−1 (cos 4.14◦ tan 14.5◦ ) = 14.46◦
2
391

The torque needed to raise the load (move the crosshead) is given by Eq. 16.10 as
 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ
T =W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α

## (0.22 in.)(cos 14.46◦ tan 4.13◦ + 0.25)

 
= (500 lb) + 0.44(0.25) = 92 in-lb
cos 14.46◦ − 0.25 tan 4.13◦
With every revolution of the lead screw, the cross head moves (0.1in.)(p). If the lead screw moves at
500 rpm, the cross head moves at 50 in./min, or 0.833 in./s.

Section 16.4
16.11 A screw with Acme thread can have more than one entrance to the thread per screw revolution. A
larger than the pitch. Determine the relationship between the number of threads per inch n, the pitch
Notes: If a student has difficulty visualizing this problem, the concept can be illustrated by wrapping
a single string around a pencil, a double thread by wrapping two strings (preferably of different colors)
and a triple thread by wrapping three strings around a pencil.
Solution: If there are m threads, then the lead is related to the pitch and the threads per inch by
m
l = mp =
n

16.12 A section of a bolt circle on a large coupling is shown in sketch c. Each bolt is loaded by a repeated
force P =6000 lb. The members are steel, and all bolts have been carefully preloaded to Pi =25,000 lb
each. The bolt is to be an SAE Grade 5, 0.75 inch crest diameter with fine threads, (so that dr =0.674
in) and the nut which fits on this bolt has a thickness of 0.50 in. The threads have been manufactured
through rolling, and use a survival probability of 90%.

(a) If hardened steel washers 0.134 in thick are to be used under the bolt and nut, what length of
bolts should be used?
(b) Find the stiffness of the bolt, the members and the joint constant.
(c) What is the factor of safety guarding against a fatigue failure?

1.5 in.

## Sketch c, for Problem 16.12

Solution:

(a) The length of the members, washers and nut are 1.5 in.+2(0.134 in.)+0.5 in.=2.268 in. To use a
standard sized bolt, specify a 2.5 in. long bolt.
392 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

(b) Note that E = 30 Mpsi. From Eq. (16.23), the length of the threaded section on the bolt is

## Lt = 2dc + 0.25 in. = 1.75 in.

Therefore, the crest is 0.75 in. long. Therefore, the length of the threads inside the connection is
1 in. From Table 16.9, for dc = 0.75 in., n = 16 threads/in. and At = 0.373 in2 for fine threads.
Therefore, p = 1/n = 0.0625 in. Equation (16.2) gives ht = 0.8660p = 0.05412 in. From Eq.
(16.4),
dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 = 0.75 in. − 0.5(0.0625 in.) − 0.01 in. = 0.70785 in.
From Fig 16.4,

## Equation (15.21) gives the bolt stiffness as:

   
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr 4 0.75 in. + 0.4(0.75 in.) 0.75 in. + 0.4(0.674 in.)
= + = +
kb πE d2c d2r π(30 Mpsi) ( in.)2 (0.674 in.)2

or kb = 5.798 Mlb/in. The stiffness of the joint is obtained from the Wileman method, although the
conical fustrums give the same answer. For steel, Table 16.6 gives Ai = 0.78715 and Bi = 0.62873,
so that the stiffness of each member is given by Eq. (15.26) as:

## Therefore, the total joint stiffness is, from Eq. (15.25),

1 1 1 1 1
= + = + → kj = 16.6 Mlb/in.
kj k1 k2 33.2 Mlb/in. 33.2 Mlb/in

## From Eq. (15.17), the joint constant is

kb 5.798 Mlb/in.
Ck = = = 0.26
kb + kj 5.798 Mlb/in. + 16.6 Mlb/in.

(c) If the load is a repeated force of 6 kip, then Pa = Pm = 3 kip. From Table 16.7, Su = 120 ksi.
From Table 16.11, Kf = 3.0 (rolled threads). From Eq. (7.7), Se0 = 0.45Su = 54 ksi. kr = 0.9, so
Se = 0.9(54 ksi) = 48.6 ksi. from Eq. (16.16). The prestress is
Pi 25, 000 lb
σi = = = 67.0 ksi
At 0.373 in.2
The mean and alternating stresses are:
3 kip
σa = σm = = 8.04 ksi
0.373 in.2
Note that Ck is not used, since it is used in Eq. (16.40), which gives:
Sut − σi 120 ksi − 67.0 ksi
ns = h   i=  120
  = 3.14
Ck Sut
Kf σ a S e + σ m 0.26 (3.0)(8.04 ksi) 48.6 + 8.04 ksi

16.13 An M12, coarse-pitch, class-5.8 bolt with a hexagonal nut assembly is used to keep two machine parts
together as shown in sketch d. Determine the following:
(a) Bolt stiffness and clamped member stiffness.
393

(b) Maximum external load that the assembly can support for a load safety factor of 2.5
(c) Safety factor guarding against separation of the members
(d) Safety factor guarding against fatigue if a repeated external load of 10 kN is applied to the
assembly

MI2 coarse-pitch,
class-5.8 bolt

35
Aluminum

25
Aluminum

## Sketch d, for Problem 16.13

Notes: This problem is long only because of the many parts; each part is very straightforward. The
equations used are for part (a), (16.21), (16.25) and (16.26). For part (b), (16.17) and (16.31), for part
(c), (16.32), and for part (d), (16.40).
Solution:
(a) Bolt and Member Stiffness. Note from the inside front cover that for steel, Es = 207 GPa
and for aluminum Eal = 72 GPa. From the sketch we see that Lt = 20 mm and Ls = 40 mm.
From Table 16.10, for a crest diameter of 12 mm and coarse threads, p = 1.75 mm, At = 84.3
mm2 . From Eq. (16.2), ht is
0.5p 0.5(1.75 mm)
ht = ◦
= = 1.516 mm
tan 30 tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## Therefore, the bolt stiffness is, from Eq. (16.21),

 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.04 m + 0.4(0.012 m) 0.02 m + 0.4(0.010105 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.012 m)2 (0.010105 m)2
or kb = 297.5 MN/m. For the members, we can use the Wileman method given by Eq. (16.26):

## kj = Ei dc Ai exp(Bi dc /Li ) = (71.0 GPa)(0.012 m)(0.79670) exp[(0.62873)(0.012)(0.060)] = 769.7×106 N/m

394 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## The stiffness parameter Ck is

kb 297.5 MN/m
Ck = = = 0.279
kb + km 297.5 MN/m + 769.7 MN/m

(b) Maximum Load. From Table 16.8, for a 5.8 grade bolt, the proof strength is Sp = 380 MPa,
Sut = 520 MPa and Sy = 415 MPa. If we assume this is a reused connection, then from Eq.
(16.33),

## At Sp − Pi At Sp − Pi (84.3 mm2 )(380 MPa) − 24 kN

nsb = → Pmax,b = = = 11.5 kN
Pmax,b Ck nsb Ck 2.5(0.279)

(c) Joint Separation The safety factor against joint separation is given by Eq. (16.32) as

Pi 24 kN
nsj = = = 2.89
Pmax,j (1 − Ck ) (11.5 kN)(1 − 0.279)

(d) Fatigue Analysis. Assuming the threads are rolled, then Kf = 2.2 from Table 16.11. We don’t
know how the load is applied, but if we assume the loading is axial, then from Eq. (7.7) the
endurance limit is Se = 0.45Su = 0.45(520 MPa) = 234 MPa. The prestress is σi = Pi /At =
(24 kN)/(84.3 mm2 ) = 285 MPa. The alternating stress is given by Eq. (16.36) as

Ck Pa 0.279(5000 N)
σa = = = 16.54 MPa
At 84.3 mm2

## and the mean stress is calculated from Eq. (16.37) as

Pi + Ck Pm 24 kN + (0.279)(5000 N)
σm = = = 301.2 MPa
At 84.3 mm2

Therefore, the safety factor against fatigue failure is given by Eq. (16.40) as

## Sut − σi 520 MPa − 285 MPa

ns =    =     = 2.20
Pa Sut Pm 520
Ck Kf + (0.279) 2.2(16.54 MPa) + 301.2 MPa
At Se At 234

## 16.14 Repeat Problem 16.13 if the 25-mm-thick member is made of steel.

395

MI2 coarse-pitch,
class-5.8 bolt

Region 1
35
Aluminum

Region 2
5

25 Region 3

Steel

Notes: This is complicated since the two materials are different, and the Wileman method cannot be
used.
Solution:

(a) Bolt and Member Stiffness. Note from the inside front cover that for steel, Es = 207 GPa
and for aluminum Eal = 72 GPa. From the sketch we see that Lt = 20 mm and Ls = 40 mm.
From Table 16.10, for a crest diameter of 12 mm and coarse threads, p = 1.75 mm, At = 84.3
mm2 . From Eq. (16.2), ht is

## 0.5p 0.5(1.75 mm)

ht = = = 1.516 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## Therefore, the bolt stiffness is, from Eq. (16.21),

 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.04 m + 0.4(0.012 m) 0.02 m + 0.4(0.010105 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.012 m)2 (0.010105 m)2

or kb = 297.5 MN/m. For the member, we need to use the regions defined in the modified sketch.
Note that dc = 0.012 m, and also note the following:

Region Material di Li
I Aluminum 1.5(0.012 m) = 0.018 m 0.030 m
II Aluminum 0.018 + 2(0.025m) tan 30◦ 0.005 m
= 0.04087 m
III Steel 0.018 m 0.025 m
396 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(72 GPa)(0.012 m)

kj1 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.030) + 0.018 − 0.012](0.018 + 0.012)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.030) + 0.018 + 0.012](0.018 − 0.012)
= 1.350 × 109 N/m

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(72 GPa)(0.012 m)

kj2 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.005) + 0.04087 − 0.012](0.04087 + 0.012)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.005) + 0.04087 + 0.012](0.04087 − 0.012)
= 10.7053 × 109 N/m

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(207 GPa)(0.012 m)

kj3 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.018 − 0.012](0.018 + 0.012)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.018 + 0.012](0.018 − 0.012)
= 1.4245 × 109 N/m

## Therefore, the joint stiffness, from Eq. (16.25) is

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + = 9
+ 9
+ → kj = 669.6 MN/m
kj kj1 kj2 kj3 1.350 × 10 10.7053 × 10 1.4245 × 109

## The stiffness parameter Ck is

kb 297.5 MN/m
Ck = = = 0.3076
kb + km 297.5 MN/m + 669.6 MN/m

(b) Maximum Load. From Table 16.8, for a 5.8 grade bolt, the proof strength is Sp = 380 MPa,
Sut = 520 MPa and Sy = 415 MPa. If we assume this is a reused connection, then from Eq.
(16.33),

## At Sp − Pi At Sp − Pi (84.3 mm2 )(380 MPa) − 24 kN

nsb = → Pmax,b = = = 10.4 kN
Pmax,b Ck nsb Ck 2.5(0.3076)

(c) Joint Separation The safety factor against joint separation is given by Eq. (16.32) as

Pi 24 kN
nsj = = = 3.41
Pmax,j (1 − Ck ) (10.4hboxkN )(1 − 0.3076)

(d) Fatigue Analysis. Assuming the threads are rolled, then Kf = 2.2 from Table 16.11. We don’t
know how the load is applied, but if we assume the loading is axial, then from Eq. (7.7) the
endurance limit is Se = 0.45Su = 0.45(520 MPa) = 234 MPa. The prestress is σi = Pi /At =
(24 kN)/(84.3 mm2 ) = 285 MPa. The alternating stress is given by Eq. (16.36) as

Ck Pa 0.3076(5000 N)
σa = = = 18.24 MPa
At 84.3 mm2
397

## and the mean stress is calculated from Eq. (16.37) as

Pi + Ck Pm 24 kN + (0.3076)(5000 N)
σm = = = 302.9 MPa
At 84.3 mm2
Therefore, the safety factor against fatigue failure is given by Eq. (16.40) as
Sut − σi 520 MPa − 285 MPa
ns =    =     = 1.95
Pa Sut Pm 520
Ck Kf + (0.3076) 2.2(18.24 MPa) + 302.9 MPa
At Se At 234

16.15 Find the total shear load on each of the three bolts for the connection shown in sketch e. Also, compute
the shear stress and the bearing stress. Find the area moment of inertia for the 8-mm-thick plate on
a section through the three bolt holes.

8 mm thick
12 kN
36

32
64

36

200
Column

## Sketch e, for Problem 16.15

Notes: An assumption must be made that manufacturing tolerances are such that bolts are loaded
evenly in the vertical direction and that the moment reactions are equally shared by the top and bottom
bolts. Also, the bolts can be taken as points so that the shear stress is uniform over the cross section.
Solution: The vertical component of load is 4 kN for each bolt if it is shared equally. The moment
of (12 kN)(0.2 m)=2400 Nm is shared by the top and bottom bolts, requiring each to generate a
horizontal force of 2400 Nm/((2)(0.032 m))=37.5 kN. The direction of the force is opposite for the top
and bottom bolts, but this does not matter in terms of the maximum stress. The shear load on the
center bolt is simply 4 kN. The top and bottom bolts see a shear of
p
P = (4 kN)2 + (37.5 kN)2 = 37.7 kN

The bolts should be loaded on the shank, not on the threads for such an application, so that the loaded
area is
πd2c π(0.012 m)2
A= = = 1.13 × 10−4 m2
4 4
The central bolt sees a shear stress of
4 kN
τc = = 35.4 MPa
1.13 × 10−4 m2
while the outer bolts see a stress of
37.7 kN
τo = = 334 MPa
1.13 × 10−4 m2
398 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

The bearing stress (see Eq. (16.47)) for the outer bolts is

P 37.7 kN
σ= =− = −393 MPa
td (0.008 m)(0.012 m)

where the negative sign indicates a compressive stress. The moment of inertia of the cross section is
easily calculated using the parallel-axis theorem:

th3 td3
 3 
td 2
I = − −2 + a td
12 12 12
(0.008 m)(0.136 m)3 (0.008 m)(0.012 m)3
= −
12 12
(0.008 m)(0.012 m)3
 
−2 − 2(0.032 m)2 (0.008 m)(0.012 m)
12
= 1.48 × 10−6 m4

## The bending stress of the plate is

Mc (2400)(0.068)
σ= = = 110.3 MPa
I 1.48 × 10−6

16.16 A coarse-pitch, SAE grade-5 bolt with a hexagonal nut assembly is used to keep two machine parts
together as shown in sketch f . The major diameter of the bolt is 0.5 in. The bolt and the bottom
member are made of carbon steel. Assume that the connection is to be reused. Length dimension is
in inches. Determine the following:

## (a) Length of the bolt

(b) Stiffnesses of the bolt and the member, assuming a washer ensures di = 1.5dc under the bolt and
the washer.
(c) Safety factor guarding against separation of the members when the maximum external load is
5000 lb
(d) Safety factor guarding against fatigue if the repeated maximum external load is 2500 lb in a

Region 1
1.2 Aluminum

Region 2

## Sketch f , for Problem 16.16

399

Notes: This problem uses the information in previous problems regarding calculation of bolt and joint
stiffness and introduces safety factor calculations from Eqs. (16.32) and (16.40).
Solution: The members require 2.2 in of bolt length. Note that we must also allow for the nut and a
few threads beyond the nut. Allowing an extra half-inch of length would lead to a length of 2.7 inches,
so we specify a 2.75 in. length to use a standard bolt size. Therefore, the threaded length is given by
Eq. (16.23) as
Lttot = 2dc + 0.25 in. = 2(0.5 in.) + 0.25 = 1.25 in.
Therefore, Ls = L − Lt = 2.75 in. − 1.25 in. = 1.50 in. Since the members are a total of 2.2 inches
in thickness, there is only 0.7 in. of thread length in the members, so referring to Fig. 16.12, we take
Lt = 0.7 in. From the inside front cover that for steel, Es = 30 Mpsi and for aluminum Eal = 10.5
Mpsi. From Table 16.9, for a crest diameter of 0.50 in. and coarse threads, n = 13 threads/in, so
p = 1/13 in. = 0.0769 in, At = 0.1419 in.2 From Eq. (16.2), ht is
0.5p 0.5(0.0769 in.)
ht = ◦
= = 0.0666 in.
tan 30 tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:
dr = dc − 2(0.625ht ) = 0.5 in. − 2(0.625)(0.0666 in.) = 0.4167
Therefore, the bolt stiffness is, from Eq. (16.21),
 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 1.5 in. + 0.4(0.5 in.) 0.7 in. + 0.4(0.4167 in.)
= +
π(30 Mpsi) (0.5 in.)2 (0.4167 in.)2
or kb = 2.00 Mlb/in. For the member, we need to use the regions defined in the modified sketch. Note
that dc = 0.50 in., and also note the following:

Region Material di Li
1 Aluminum 1.5(0.50 in.) = 0.75 in. 1.1 in.
2 Aluminum 1.6547 in. 0.1 in.
3 Carbon Steel 0.75 in. 1.0 in.

## The stiffness of member 1 is then, from Table 16.8 with α = 30◦ ,

1.813Ej dc 1.813(10.5 Mpsi)(0.50 in.)
kj1 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(1.1) + 0.75 − 0.5](0.75 + 0.50)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(1.1) + 0.75 + 0.50](0.75 − 0.50)
= 8.633 × 106 lb/in.
Similarly, for the other members,
1.813Ej dc 1.813(10.5 Mpsi)(0.50 in.)
kj2 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.1) + 1.6547 − 0.50](1.6547 + 0.50)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.1) + 1.6547 + 0.50](1.6547 − 0.50)
= 221.6 × 106 lb/in.

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(30 Mpsi)(0.50 in.)

kj3 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(1.0) + 0.75 − 0.50](0.75 + 0.50)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(1.0) + 0.75 + 0.50](0.75 − 0.50)
= 25.41 × 106 lb/in.
400 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## Therefore, the joint stiffness, from Eq. (16.25) is

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + = + + → kj = 6.26 × 106 lb/in.
kj kj1 kj2 kj3 8.6327 × 106 221.6 × 106 25.41 × 106

## The stiffness parameter Ck is

kb 2.0 MN/m
Ck = = = 0.2421
kb + km 2.0 + 6.26

For an SAE grade 5 bolt, Table 16.7 gives Su = 120 ksi, Sy = 92 ksi and Sp = 85 ksi. Since the
connection is to be reused, Eq. (16.33) gives

## Therefore, from Eq. (16.32), the safety factor against separation is

Pi 9.046 kip
nsj = = = 2.39
Pmax,j (1 − Ck ) (5 kip)(1 − 0.2421)

If the repeated maximum external load is 2500 lb, in a released-tension cycle, then Pa = Pm = 1250
lb. Referring to Table 16.11, we use Kf = 3.0 since we are using a standard size where the threads can
be rolled. (A specialty bolt is more likely to be cut.) Therefore, from Eq. (7.7), and using this factor,

 
1 1
Se = 0.45Su = (0.45)(120) = 18.0 ksi
Kf 3

## Sut − σi 120 ksi − (9.046 kip/0.1419 in.2 )

ns =    =    
Pa Sut Pm 1.250 kip 120 1.250 kip
Ck Kf + 0.2421 +
At Se At 0.1419 in.2 18 0.1419 in.2

or ns = 3.44.

16.17 An electric-motor-driven press (sketch g) has the total press force P = 5000 lb. The screws are Acme
type with β = 29◦ , dp = 3 in., p = l = 0.5 in., and µ = 0.05. The thrust bearings for the screws
have dc = 5 in. and µc = 0.06. The motor speed is 1720 rpm, the total speed ratio is 75:1, and the
mechanical efficiency e = 0.95. Calculate

401

Motor

Bearings

Worm

Spur gears

Bronze
bushings

B
C Collar
bearing

Foot
A

## Notes: This problem builds on the approach in Problems 16.1 to 16.8.

Solution: The speed of the power screw is
Na = 1720/75 = 22.93 rpm = 144.1 rad/s
Therefore the speed of the press head is
v = Na l = (22.93 rev/min)(0.5 in.) = 11.47 in./min
The load per screw is W = 5000 lb/2 = 2500 lb. The pitch diameter is obtained from Eq. (16.4):
dp = dc − 0.5p − 0.01 = 3 in. − 0.5(0.5 in.) − 0.01 in. = 2.74 in.
The torque is given by Eq. (16.10), but first, from Eq. (16.5), α is given by
l 0.5 in.
tan α = = = 3.32◦
2πrm π(2.74 in.)
Note from Figure 16.5 that β = 29◦ . From Eq. (16.8), θ is
29◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 3.32 tan = 14.47◦
2 2
The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):
 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(2.74 in./2)(cos 14.47◦ tan 3.32◦ + 0.05
 
= (2500 lb) + (2.5 in.)(0.06)
cos 14.47◦ − 0.05 tan 3.32◦
= 752 in.-lb
The motor torque is, including the inefficiency in the power transmission,
(752 in.-lb/screw)(2 screws) 1
Tmotor = = 21.10 in.-lb
75 0.95
402 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## The power required is

Tmotor Na
hp = = 0.577 hp
63, 000
16.18 A valve for high-pressure air is shown in sketch h. The spindle has thread M12 with a pitch diameter
of 10.9 mm, lead l = 1.75 mm, and a thread angle of 60◦ . Derive the relationship between torque and
axial thrust force, and calculate the axial force against the seating when the applied torque is 10 N-m
during tightening. The coefficient of friction is 0.12.

Tr

Airflow

Seating

## Sketch g, for Problem 16.18

Notes: This bolt will prevent flow unless an inlet pressure develops a force on the bolt larger than the
axial force during tightening. The analysis requires the use of Eqs. (16.5), (16.8) and (16.10).
Solution: The torque is given by Eq. (16.10), but first, from Eq. (16.5), α? is given by
l 1.75 mm
tan α = = = 2.92◦
2πrm π(10.9 mm)

## From Eq. (16.8), θn is

60◦
   
−1 β −1 ◦
θn = tan cos α tan = tan cos 2.92 tan = 29.97◦
2 2

## The torque to raise the load is given by Eq. (16.10):

 
(dp /2)(cos θn tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
cos θn − µ tan α
(0.0109 m/2)(cos 29.97◦ tan 2.92◦ + 0.12
 
= W
cos 29.97◦ − 0.12 tan 2.92◦
= 0.00104 mW

## And if T = 10 Nm, then W = 9.61 kN

16.19 Derive the expression for the power efficiency of a lead screw with a flat thread (thread angle β = 0◦ )
and find the lead angle α that gives maximum efficiency in terms of the coefficient of friction. Also
give results if µ = 0.1.
403

Notes: This problem uses Eqs. (16.5), (16.10) and (16.13) to obtain an expression of e in terms of
α. The maximum efficiency is found by taking the derivative of this expression, setting the derivative
equal to zero and solving for α.
Solution: Note from Eq. (16.8) that θn = 0. Therefore, from Eq. (16.10),
 
(dp /2)(tan α + µ)
Tr = W + rc µc
1 − µ tan α
The collar’s contribution to the lead screw efficiency has noting to do with the thread, and we will
neglect the second term in the parentheses. Therefore, the efficiency is, from Eq. (16.13),
   
Wl l 1 − µ tan α l 1 − µ tan α
e= = =
2πTr 2π (dp /2)(tan α + µ) πdp tan α 1 + µ cot α

## But note from Eq. (16.5) that tan α = l/πdp , so that

 
1 − µ tan α
e=
1 + µ cot α
To find the optimum efficiency, take the derivative with respect to α, set to zero and solve for α:
 µ   
µ
 −(1 + µ cot α) − (1 − µ tan α) −
sin2 α

∂e ∂ 1 − µ tan α cos2 α
= = =0
∂α ∂α 1 + µ cot α (1 + µ cot α)2
Therefore the numerator must be zero, so

 

## cos2 α − sin2 α = 2µ sin α cos α

cos 2α = µ sin 2α
1
∴ tan 2α =
µ
For µ = 0.1, then α = 42◦ .
16.20 A car manufacturer has problems with the cylinder head studs in a new high-power motor. After a
relatively short time the studs crack just under the nuts, the soft cylinder head gasket blows out, and
the motor stops. To be able to analyze the problem, the car manufacturer experimentally measures
the stiffnesses of the various components. The stiffness for all bolts together is 400 N/µm, the stiffness
of the gasket is 600 N/µm, and the stiffness of the cylinder head that compresses the gasket is 10,000
N/µm. By comparing the life-stress relationships with those for rolling-element bearings, the car
manufacturer estimates that the stress amplitude in the screws needs to be halved to get sufficient life.
How can that be done?
Notes: This problem can be solved with a good understanding of the concepts of bolt and joint
stiffnesses and the dimensionless joint parameter.
Solution: When an extra load ∆P is applied to the cylinder head, the force in the stud increases to
∆Pb and the compression of the gasket and head decrease to ∆P − ∆Pb . The extra force in the studs
is ∆Pb = kb δ and the force decrease in the gasket is
δ
∆PG = ∆P − ∆Pb =  
1 1
+
kg kb
404 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

For a given ∆P and δ, ∆Pb has to be halved by changing the stiffness. From this equation, we can
write  
 1 
∆P = ∆PG + ∆Pb = δ 
 1 + kb 
1 
+
kg kb

∆Pb kb δ 400
= = = 0.4141
1

∆P 1
δ + kb + 400
1/kg + 1/kb 1/600 + 1/10, 000

To decrease this to one-half, or 0.2070, the gasket stiffness has to increase. Using the same equation,
 
1
+ 400 (0.2070) = 400 → x = 1809 N/m
1/x + 1/10, 000

16.21 A pressure vessel of compressed air is used as an accumulator to make it possible to use a small
compressor that works continuously. The stiffness parameter for the lid around each of the 10-mm bolt
diameters is 900 MN/m. The shank length is 20 mm. Because the air consumption is uneven, the air
pressure in the container varies between 0.2 and 0.8 MPa many times during a week. After 5 years of
use one of the bolts holding down the top lid of the pressure vessel cracks off. A redesign is then made,
decreasing the stress variation amplitude by 25%, to increase the life of the bolts to at least 50 years.
The stress variation amplitude is decreased by lengthening the bolts and using circular tubes with the
same cross-sectional area as the solid circular cross section of the bolt to transfer the compressive force
from the bolt head to the lid. Calculate how long the tubes should be.
Notes: The solution of this problem requires the use of Eqs. (16.12), (16.16), and (16.21).
Solution: From Eq. (16.12),
 
1 4 0.02 + 0.4(0.01) 0.4
= + → kb = 664.5 × 106 N/m
kb π(207) (109 ) 0.012 0.0859

## From Eq. (16.16),

kb
∆Pb = Pb,max − Pb,min = (Pmax − Pmin )
kb + kj
∆Pb is decreased by 25%, so the new bolt stiffness, kbn , is

kbn kb (664.5)(106 )
= 0.75 = 0.75 = 0.3186
kbn + kj kb + kj (664.5 + 900)106

Solving for kbn yields kbn = 420.7 × 106 N/m. Equation (16.21) then gives
 
1 4 Ls + 2L + 0.4dc 0.4
= +
kbn πE d2c dr

where L is the length of the tube and the extra screw length. Therefore,
 
1 4 0.02 + 2L + 0.4(0.01) 0.4
= + → L = 7.089 × 10−3 m
420.7 × 106 π(207 × 109 ) (0.01)2 0.0859

The tube should be 7.089 mm long and have a cross sectional area of 78.54 mm2 .
405

16.22 A loading hook of a crane is fastened to a block hanging in six steel wires. The hook and block are
bolted together with four 10-mm-diameter screws prestressed to 20 000 N each. The shank length is 80
mm and the thread length is 5 mm. The stiffness of the material around each screw is 1 GN/m. One
of the screws of the crane cracks due to fatigue after a couple of years of use. Will it help to change
the screws to 12-mm diameter while other dimensions are unchanged if the stress variation needs to
be decreased by at least 20%?
Notes: This problem uses Eq. (16.21) to calculate the bolt stiffness and Eq. (16.16) to calculate the
force variation in the bolt.
Solution: From Table 16.10, the tensile stress area for a 10 mm crest diameter screw is 58.0 mm2 and
the pitch is p = 1.5 mm. Therefore, from Eq. (16.2), ht is
0.5p 0.5(1.5 mm)
ht = = = 1.299 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## dr = dc − 2(0.625ht ) = 10 mm − 2(0.625)(1.299 mm) = 8.376 mm

For a 12-mm crest diameter, At = 84.3 mm2 , p = 1.75 mm and dr = 10.11 mm. From Eq. (16.21)
 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
k10 πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.08 m + 0.4(0.01 m) 0.005 m + 0.4(0.008376 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.01 m)2 (0.008376 m)2
= 169.5 MN/m

## Similarly for the 12 mm bolt,

 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
k12 πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.08 m + 0.4(0.012 m) 0.005 m + 0.4(0.01011 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.012 m)2 (0.01011 m)2
= 240.0 MN/m

## The bolt force variation is given by Eq. (16.16):

kb ∆P 169.5 MN/m
∆Pb10 = = ∆P = 0.145∆P
kb + kj 169.5 MN/m + 1000 MN/m
For the 12 mm bolt:
kb ∆P 240.0 MN/m
∆Pb12 = = ∆P = 0.194∆P
kb + kj 240.0 MN/m + 1000 MN/m
The stress variation is the force variation divided by the stress area:
 2
∆Pb10 0.145∆P 1000 mm
= 2500 m−2 ∆P

∆σ10 = =
At 58.0 mm2 1m
 2
∆Pb12 0.194∆P 1000 mm
= 2300 m−2 ∆P

∆σ12 = =
At 84.3 mm2 1m
However, if the stress variation is supposed to be reduced 20%, then the stress variation should be
(0.8)(2500)∆P = (2000 m−2 )∆P . The twelve millimeter bolts are still insufficient.
406 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

16.23 Depending on the roughness of the contacting surfaces of a bolted joint, some plastic deformation takes
place on the tops of the roughness peaks when the joint is loaded. The rougher the surfaces are, the
more pressure in the bolted joint is lost by plastic deformation. For a roughness profile depth of 20 µm
on each of the surfaces a plastic deformation of 6.5 µm can be expected for the two surfaces in contact.
For a bolt-and-nut assembly as shown in Fig. 16.13 three sets of two surfaces are in contact. The
stiffness of the two steel plates together is 700 MN/m when each is 40 mm thick. The bolt diameter is
16 mm with metric thread. The shank length is 70 mm. The bolt is prestressed to 25 kN before plastic
deformation sets in. Calculate how much of the prestress is left after the asperities have deformed.
Notes: To solve this problem, one must assume that the bolt is prestressed very quickly, and that
plastic deformation in the joint surface asperities takes place much more slowly. Then one can calculate
the stress in the bolt after plastic deformation has relaxed the stress from the initial state.
Solution: From Table 16.10, for a 16 mm bolt, the tensile stress area is At = 157 mm2 , p = 2 mm.
Therefore, from Eq. (16.2), ht is

## 0.5p 0.5(2 mm)

ht = = = 1.732 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## Therefore the bolt stiffness is, from Eq. (16.21),

 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.07 m + 0.4(0.016 m) 0.01 m + 0.4(0.01383 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.016 m)2 (0.01383 m)2
= 428.3 MN/m

## The deformation of the joint before plastic deformation occurs is:

   
1 1 1 1
δ e = Fe + = (25 kN) + = 94.1 µm
kb kj 428.3 MN/m 700 MN/m

The plastic deformation reduces this deformation in the bolt. The remaining deformation is (note that
there are three surfaces involved):

## Therefore the remaining force is

 
1 1 δp 74.6 µm
δp = Fp + → Fp = = = 19.8 kN
kb kj (1/kb + 1/kj ) (1/428.3 MN/m + 1/700 MN/m)

16.24 An ISO M12 × 1.75 class = 12.9 bolt is used to fasten three members as shown in sketch i. The first
member is made of cast iron, the second is low-carbon steel, and the third is aluminum. The static
(b) Bolt-and-joint stiffness using a 30◦ cone
(d) Maximum static load that the bolt can support
407

1 I 25

2 II 10
III

IV
3 30

## Sketch i, for Problem 16.24

Notes: The student has to determine a reasonable bolt length, and there can be some difference in
the bolt length assumed. This solution uses a bolt length of 80 mm. Calculating the bolt stiffness is
as done in previous problems. The joint stiffness is calculated using Eq. (16.24) instead of Eq. (16.26)
as was done previously.
Solution: The cone has been sketched in the figure with the sections labeled. The bolt length must
be 65 mm plus the length of the nut and space for a few threads beyond the nut. Therefore, we take
L = 80 mm. From Table 16.10, At = 84.3 mm2 and p = 1.75 mm. Therefore, from Eq. (16.2), ht is
0.5p 0.5(1.75 mm)
ht = = = 1.516 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## Therefore the shank length is Ls = L − Lt = 80 mm − 30 mm = 50 mm. Therefore the bolt stiffness

is, from Eq. (16.21),
 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.05 m + 0.4(0.012 m) 0.015 m + 0.4(0.01011 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.012 m)2 (0.01011 m)2
= 286.8 MN/m

For the joint stiffness, we apply Eq. (16.24) for each joint section:
πEi dc tan αf
kji =  
(2Li tan αf + di − dc )(di + dc )
ln
(2Li tan αf + di + dc )(di − dc )

For section I: cast iron, use Nodular cast iron, E = 172 GPa (inside front cover), dc = 0.012 m,
di = 1.5dc = 0.018 m (see text explaining the member closest to the nut always has di = 1.5dc ), Li =
408 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

0.025 m. Inserting these values and evaluating, kjI = 3.448 GN/m. For section II, low carbon steel,
E = 207 GPa, dc = 0.012 m, di = 0.018m + 2(0.025 m) tan 30◦ = 0.0469 m, Li = 0.0075 m. Therefore,
kjII = 53.3 GN/m. For section IV, aluminum, E = 69 GPa, dc = 0.012 m, di = 1.5dc = 0.018 m,
Li = 0.030 m. Therefore, kjIV = 1.311 GN/m. For section III, low carbon steel, E = 207 GPa,
dc = 0.012, di = 0.018 m + 2(0.030 m) tan 30◦ = 0.0526 m, Li = 0.0025 m. Therefore, kjIII = 180.4
GN/m. Therefore, the joint stiffness is, from Eq. (16.25),

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + + = + + +
kj kjI kjII kjIII kjIV 3.448 GN/m 53.3 GN/m 1.311 GN/m 180.4 GN/m

## or kj = 0.928 GN/m. Therefore, from Eq. (16.17),

kb 286.8 MN/m
Ck = = = 0.236
kb + kj 286.8 MN/m + 0.928 GN/m

The proof load is Pp = At Sp = (84.3 mm2 )(970 MPa) = 81.8 kN. For a permanent connection, Eq.
(16.33) gives Pi = 0.90Pp = 73.6 kN. Therefore, from Eq. (16.31),

## At Sp − Pi At Sp − Pi (84.3 mm2 )(970 MPa) − 73.6 kN

ns = → Pmax,b = = = 13.8 kN
Pmax,b Ck ns Ck 2.5(0.236)

16.25 A pressurized cast iron cylinder shown in sketch j is used to hold pressurized gas at a static pressure
of 8 MPa. The cylinder is joined to a low-carbon-steel cylinder head by bolted joints. The bolt to
be used is metric grade 12.9 with a safety factor of 3. Dimensions are in millimeters. Determine the
bolt dimensions and the required number of bolts. Use grade 12.9 bolts, with M36 × 100 mm coarse

850

25
30

## Sketch j, for Problem 16.25

Notes: The bolt stiffness is determined from Eq. 16.21 after the bolt geometry is determined. The
joint stiffness is found from Eq. (16.26), although Eq. (16.24) could be used.
Solution: Using M36 × 100 mm grade 12.9 bolts, from Table 16.8, Su = 1220 MPa, Sy = 1100 MPa,
Sp = 970 MPa, and from Table 16.10, At = 817 mm2 and p = 4 mm. Therefore, from Eq. (16.2),ht is

## 0.5p 0.5(4 mm)

ht = = = 3.464 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## dr = dc − 2(0.625ht ) = 36 mm − 2(0.625)(3.464 mm) = 31.67 mm

For the 100 mm bolt, the thread length is, from Eq. 16.22,

Lt = 2dc + 6 = 78 mm
409

Therefore the shank length is 22 mm. From the figure, 33 mm of the thread is exposed in the member.
The bolt stiffness is obtained from Eq. (16.21):
 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.022 m + 0.4(0.036 m) 0.033 m + 0.4(0.03167 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.036 m)2 (0.03167 m)2
= 2.208 GN/m
For the member, we need to use the regions defined in the sketch below which shows a detail of a single
bolt and the joint.

Region 1 25 mm
Carbon steel

Region 2

30 mm
Region 3
Cast iron

## Note that dc = 0.036 m, and also note the following:

Region Material di Li
1 Carbon steel 1.5(0.036 m) = 0.054 m 0.025 m
2 Cast iron 0.08575 0.0025 m
3 Cast iron 0.054 m 0.0275 m

## The stiffness of member 1 is then, from Table 16.8 with α = 30◦ ,

1.813Ej dc 1.813(206.8 GPa)(0.036 m)
kj1 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.054 − 0.036](0.054 + 0.036)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.054 + 0.036](0.054 − 0.036)
= 19.95 × 109 N/m
Similarly, for the other members,
1.813Ej dc 1.813(100 GPa)(0.036 m)
kj2 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.0025) + 0.08575 − 0.036](0.08575 + 0.036)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.005) + 0.08575 + 0.036](0.08575 − 0.036)
= 198.7 × 109 N/m

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(100 GPa)(0.036 m)

kj3 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.0275) + 0.054 − 0.036](0.054 + 0.036)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.0275) + 0.054 + 0.036](0.054 − 0.036)
= 9.154 × 109 N/m
410 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## Therefore, the joint stiffness, from Eq. (16.25) is

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + = 9
+ 9
+ → kj = 6.083 × 109 N/m
kj kj1 kj2 kj3 19.95 × 10 198.7 × 10 9.154 × 109

## The stiffness parameter Ck is

kb 2.28 GN/m
Ck = = = 0.2726
kb + km 2.28 GN/m + 6.083 GN/m

Assuming the connection is permanent, which is usually the case for pressure vessels caps, Eq. (16.33)
gives
Pi = 0.9Pp = 0.9Sp At = 713 kN
hπ i
P = pA = 8 MPa (0.85 m)2 = 4.54 MN
4
The maximum load that can be taken by a bolt is given by Eq. (16.31):

## At Sp − Pi At Sp − Pi (817 mm2 )(970 MPa) − 713 kN

nsb = → Pmax = = = 97.23
Pmax Ck nsb Ck 3(0.2726)

Note that P/Pmax = 4.54 MN/97.23 kN = 46.7; use 47 bolts. Equation 16.32 then gives

Pi 713 kN
nsj = 3 = = → n = 13.9
Pmax,j 4.54 MN
(1 − Ck ) (1 − 0.2726)
n n
Therefore, use 47 bolts.

16.26 In the bolted joint shown in sketch k the first member is made of low-carbon steel, the second member
is aluminum, and the third member is cast iron. Assuming that the members can be rearranged and
the frustum cone angle is 45◦ , find the arrangement that can support the maximum load. Dimensions
are in millimeters.

1 35

2 60

3 40

## Sketch k, for Problem 16.26

411

Notes: The maximum load can be achieved by minimizing Ck (see Eq. (16.31)), and therefore
maximizing kj . One can solve this problem by considering all alternatives and calculating the joint
stiffness, or one can recognize that symmetry reduces the number of alternatives by one-half.
Solution: The maximum load occurs from the smallest value of Ck [see Eq. (16.31)]. From Eq.
(16.17),
kb
Ck =
kb + kj
So to minimize Ck we want to maximize kj . The stiffness of a joint member is

πEi dc tan αf
kji =  
(2Li tan αf + di − dc )(di + dc )
ln
(2Li tan αf + di + dc )(di − dc )

We can take any value of dc if our goal is to investigate trends; we take dc = 0.020 m.

## (a) Steel-Al-Iron. For this case, we have four frustums:

1. low carbon steel, E = 207 GPa, dc = 0.020 m, di = 1.5dc = 0.030 m, Li = 0.035 m, so that
k1 = 15.8 GN/m.
2. aluminum, E = 69 GPa, dc = 0.020 m, di = 0.03 + 0.035 sin 45◦ = 0.0547, Li = 0.0325, so
that k2 = 13.6 GN/m.
3. aluminum, E = 69 GPa, dc = 0.020, di = 0.03 + 0.04 sin 45◦ = 0.0583 m, Li = 0.0275 m, so
that k3 = 15.88 GN/m
4. cast iron, E = 172 GPa, dc = 0.020 m, di = 1.5dc = 0.030 m, Li = 0.040 m, so that k4 = 12.89
GN/m
Therefore, the stiffness of the member is
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + + = + + +
kj k1 k2 k3 k4 15.8 GN/m 13.6 GN/m 15.88 GN/m 12.89 GN/m

or kj = 3.61 GN/m
(b) Steel-Iron-Al.
1. same as above, k1 = 15.8 GN/m.
2. cast iron, E = 172 GPa, dc = 0.020 m, di = 0.0547 m, Li = 0.0325 m, k2 = 34.0 GN/m
3. cast iron, E = 172 GPa, dc = 0.020 m, di = 0.03 + 0.06 sin 45◦ = 0.0724 m, Li = 0.0075 m,
k3 = 118.8 GN/m
4. aluminum, E = 69 GPa, dc = 0.020, di = 0.03, Li = 0.06, k4 = 4.9 GN/m
so that k = 3.28 GN/m.
(c) Al-Steel-Iron.
1. aluminum, E = 69 GPa, dc = 0.020, di = 0.03, Li = 0.06, k1 = 4.9 GN/m.
2. steel, E = 207 GPa, dc = 0.02, di = 0.03 + 0.06 sin 45◦ = 0.0724 m, L = 0.0075 m, k2 = 143
GN/m
3. steel, E = 207 GPa, dc = 0.02, di = 0.03 + 0.04 sin 45◦ = 0.0583 m, L = 0.00275 m, k3 = 208
GN/m
4. cast iron, E = 172 GPa, dc = 0.02, di = 0.03 m, Li = 0.04 m, k4 = 12.9 GN/m so that
kj = 3.41 GN/m.
Note that all other combinations are the same as one of these. The stiffest member occurs with
aluminum in the center.
412 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

16.27 The cylinder shown in sketch l is pressurized up to 2 MPa and is connected to the cylinder head by
sixteen M24 × 3 metric-grade-8.8 bolts. The bolts are evenly spaced around the perimeters of the two
circles with diameters of 1.2 and 1.5 m, respectively. The cylinder is made of cast iron and its head is
made of high-carbon steel. Assume that the force in each bolt is inversely related to its radial distance
from the center of the cylinder head. Calculate the safety factor guarding against failure due to static

1.5 m
1.2 m

25 mm
1m 30 mm

## Sketch l, for Problem 16.27

Notes: This problem is similar to Problem 16.22 in the approach of determining the bolt and joint
stiffness. The maximum load can be calculated using the assumption given in the problem statement.
This problem is open ended in that the student must choose a bolt length, so answers may vary slightly.
This solution uses a bolt length of 80 mm.
Solution:
(a) Bolt and Joint Analysis. From Table 16.8, for a grade 8.8 bolt, Sp = 600 MPa. From Table
16.10, for dc = 24 mm, At = 353 mm2 and p = 3 mm. Therefore from Eq. (16.2), ht is

## 0.5p 0.5(3 mm)

ht = = = 2.598 mm
tan 30◦ tan 30◦
From Fig. 16.4, the root diameter is:

## dr = dc − 2(0.625ht ) = 24 mm − 2(0.625)(2.598 mm) = 20.75 mm

A reasonable bolt length for the joint and with clearance for the nut is 80 mm. From Eq. (16.22),

## Lt = 2dc + 6 mm = 2(24 mm) + 6 mm = 54 mm

413

Therefore Ls = 80 − 54 = 26 mm. Since the combined joint thickness is 55 mm, the threaded
length in the members is 55 − 26 = 29 mm. The bolt stiffness is calculated from Eq. (16.21):
 
1 4 Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr
= +
kb πE d2c d2r
 
4 0.026 m + 0.4(0.024 m) 0.029 m + 0.4(0.02075 m)
= +
π(207 GPa) (0.024 m)2 (0.02075 m)2
= 1.095 GN/m

For the member, see the sketch below to identify the regimes.

Region 1 25 mm
Carbon steel

Region 2

30 mm
Region 3
Cast iron

## Note that dc = 0.024 m, and also note the following:

Region Material di Li
1 Carbon steel 1.5(0.024 m) = 0.036 m 0.025 m
2 Cast iron 0.06775 0.0025 m
3 Cast iron 0.036 m 0.0275 m
The stiffness of member 1 is then, from Table 16.8 with α = 30◦ ,
1.813Ej dc 1.813(206.8 GPa)(0.024 m)
kj1 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.036 − 0.024](0.036 + 0.024)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.025) + 0.036 + 0.024](0.036 − 0.024)
= 10.84 × 109 N/m

## Similarly, for the other members,

1.813Ej dc 1.813(100 GPa)(0.024 m)
kj2 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.0025) + 0.06775 − 0.024](0.06775 + 0.024)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.005) + 0.06775 + 0.024](0.06775 − 0.024)
= 132.7 × 109 N/m

## 1.813Ej dc 1.813(100 GPa)(0.024 m)

kj3 =  =  
(1.15Li + di − dc )(di + dc ) [1.15(0.0275) + 0.036 − 0.024](0.036 + 0.024)
ln ln
1.15Li + di + dc )(di − dc ) [1.15(0.0275) + 0.036 + 0.024](0.036 − 0.024)
= 5.236 × 109 N/m
414 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## Therefore, the joint stiffness, from Eq. (16.25) is

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + = + + → kj = 3.439 × 109 N/m
kj kj1 kj2 kj3 10.84 × 109 132.7 × 109 5.236 × 109

## The stiffness parameter Ck is

kb 1.095 GN/m
Ck = = = 0.2415
kb + km 1.095 GN/m + 3.439 GN/m

(b) Forces and Safety Factor. The preload for reused connections is obtained from Eq. (16.33),

## Pi = 0.75Sp At = (0.75)(600 MPa)(353 mm2 ) = 158.9 kN

The bolts are placed over two diameters, with eight bolts per circle. The load due to the pressure
is
P = π(1 m)2 (7 MPa)/4 = 5495 kN
Refer to the inner bolt force as P1 , the outer as P2 . From equilibrium,

## Also, from the assumption given,

P1 D2 1.5
= = = 1.25
P2 D1 1.2
Substituting this into the equilibrium equation, P1 = 381.6 kN, P2 = 305.3 kN. The inner bolts
are therefore critical. Using Eq. (16.31),

## At Sp − Pi (353 mm2 )(600 MPa) − 158.9 kN

ns = = = 0.574
Pmax,b Ck (381.6 kN)(0.2415)

Section 16.5
16.28 A steel plate (sketch m) is riveted to a vertical pillar. The three rivets have a 5/8-in. diameter and
carry the load and moment resulting from the external load of 1950 lb. All length dimensions are in
inches. The yield strengths of the materials are Sy,rivet = 85, 000 psi and Sy,plate = 50, 000 psi.
y 1950 lb

5/8-in.-diam bolts
2.5 5/8
1 1_4
B D
2 1_2 x 5
0
1 1_4 C

5 16

## Sketch m, for Problem 16.28

Calculate the safety factors for
(a) Shear of rivet when Ssy = 0.57Sy
(b) Bearing of rivet
(c) Bearing of plate
415

## (d) Bending of plate

State how failure should first occur.
Notes: The most time consuming portion of this problem is the statics in order to get the shear
stresses on each rivet. Once the statics is finished, the safety factors are calculated from Eqs. (16.46),
(16.47), (16.48) and (16.49).
Solution:
(a) Statics. The area of each rivet is A = π(5/8 in.)2 /4 = 0.3068 in.2 . The figure shows a coordinate
system relative to which lengths are measured. This coordinate system is arbitrary and a different
location can be used without affecting results. The x coordinate of the centroid is:
P
xi Ai A(2.5 in. − 2.5 in. − 2.5 in.)
x̄ = P = = −0.833 in.
Ai 3A
The y coordinate is found to be 0. The distance from the force to the centroid is 16 in. + 2.5 in.
+ 0.833 in. = 19.33 in. The applied torque is

## The distances from the centroid to the bolts are as follows:

p
rb = rc = (2.5 in. − 0.833 in.)2 + (1.25 in.)2 = 2.084 in.

## ro = 2.5 in. + 0.833 in. = 3.333 in.

Since the radius to O is the greatest, this will have the largest shear stress and is the rivet that
will be analyzed. If we assume that the area of the rivets is insignificant, the polar moment of
inertia of the rivets is due to the parallel axis theorem, and is
X
Ari2 = 0.3068 in.2 (3.333 in.)2 + 2(2.084 in.)2 = 6.073 in.4
 
J=

(b) Stress Analysis. The shear stress due to the torque at O is given by Eq. (4.33) as

## rT (3.333 in.)(37.7 kip-in.)

τt = = = 20.69 ksi
J 6.073 in.4 )
The shear stress due to the force is assumed to be shared equally by the three rivets so that
P 1950 lb
τp = = = 2.119 ksi
3A 3(0.3068 in.2 )
The shear stress at a due to torsion and due to the force are in the same direction, so that the
total shear stress at O is τo = 20.69 ksi + 2.119 ksi = 22.810 ksi. The shear force at O is then

## Po = τo A = (22.81 ksi)(0.3068 in.2 ) = 7000 lb

(c) Failure Analysis. For shear of rivet, the safety factor is given by Eq. (16.47) as:

## Ssy 0.4Sy,rivet 0.4(85, 000 psi)

ns = = = = 1.49
τo τo 22, 810 psi
For bearing of the rivet, the normal stress is
Po 7000 lb
σ= = = 17.92 ksi
td (5/8 in.)(5/8 in.)
416 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## 0.9Sy 0.9(85, 000 psi)

ns = = = 4.269
σ 17.92 ksi

For bearing of the plate, note that the stress is the same (same force, same area) as bearing on
the rivet, but the strength is different, so that the safety factor is

ns = = = 2.511
σ 17.92 ksi

## (5/8 in.)(5 in.)3 − (5/8 in.)(5/8 in.)3

I= = 6.498 in.4
12

The moment at O is (1950 lb)(16 in.) = 31, 200 in.-lb. Therefore, the maximum bending stress at
O is
Mc (31, 200 in.-lb)(2.5 in.)
σ= = = 12 ksi
I 6.498 in.4
From Eq. (16.44), the safety factor against bending is

## 0.6Sy 0.6(50, 000 psi)

ns = = = 2.5
σ 12, 000 psi

The lowest safety factor is shear of rivet, so this is the failure mode which will occur first.

16.29 The flange of a ship’s propeller shaft is riveted in the radial direction against the hollow shaft. The
outside diameter is 1 m and there are 180 rivets around the circumference, each with a diameter of
25 mm. The rivets are made of AISI 1020 steel and placed in three rows. Calculate the maximum
allowable propeller torque transmitted through the rivets for a safety factor of 3.
Notes: The only failure mode which can be analyzed is shear of rivets, since the thickness of the shaft
hasn’t been specified. Equation (16.47) is used for this case.
Solution: From the inside front cover for 1020 steel, Sy = 295 MPa. From Eq. (16.47),

## 4P 0.4Sy 0.4πSy d2c 0.4π(295 MPa)(0.025 m)2

τ= 2
= → P = = = 19.3 kN
πdc ns 4ns 4(3)

Since there are 180 bolts, the maximum shear force that can be supported is

## Tmax = Ptot (r) = (3474 kN)(0.5 m) = 1.738 MNm

16.30 A rectangular steel plate is connected with rivets to a steel beam as shown in sketch n. Assume the
steel to be low-carbon steel. The rivets have a yield strength of 600 MPa. A load of 24 kN is applied.
For a safety factor of 3 calculate the diameter of the rivets. Length dimensions are in millimeters.
417

A
τpa
τp
120
B

120
C

320
60 120 120 60
360

15
20

## Notes: The problem involves the following steps:

(a) Determine the centroid and polar moment of inertia for the rivet pattern as a function of rivet
diameter.
(b) Find the rivet with maximum shear and solve for the shear stress.
(c) Calculate the shear stress for the critical bolt.

Solution: Note the labels added to the figure. The centroid is clearly at the center of the central
rivet. The rivets on the corners have a radius of 120(2)1/2 = 169.7 mm. The rivets on the center of a
side have a radius of 120 mm. Assuming the rivets are small, the polar moment of inertia is

πd2 πd2
X    
ri2 Ai 2 2
= 0.1357 m2 d2

J= = 4(0.1697 m) + 4(0.12 m)
4 4

## Assuming the shear due to the shear force is distributed evenly,

P P 24 kN 3395 N
τp = = 2
= 2
=
9A p (πd /4) 9 (πd /4) d2

## T = P e = (24 kN)(0.32 m + 0.06 m + 0.12 m) = 12 kNm

From Eq. (4.33), the shear stress is directly proportional to the distance from the centroid. Therefore,
the corner rivets are critical. The shear stress is given by Eq. (4.33) as

## rT (0.1697 m)(12, 000) 15, 000 N

τt = = 2 2
=
J 0.1358 m d d2
418 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

The components in the x- and y- directions is 10, 604 N/d2 . The shear in the rivet in a corner is then
s 2  2
q
2 2 3395 N 10, 604 N 10, 604 N 17, 560 N
τ = τp + τt = + + =
d2 d2 d2 d2
If the yield stress is 600 MPa, then the allowable shear stress is 240 MPa according to Eq. (3.14).
Therefore,
τall 240 MPa
ns = = = 3 → d = 14.8 mm
τ 17, 560 N/d2
This is the minimum rivet dimension; a rivet of 15 mm would be the proper designation to ensure the
safety factor while utilizing a standard sized rivet.
16.31 Repeat Problem 16.30 but with the plate and beam shown in sketch o.

250

20
60

60
20 60 P
60

## Sketch o, for Problem 16.31

Notes: The problem is actually very different from Problem 16.27, since the rivets have an axial load
and a shear. This can be solved only if the heads are not the critical part of the rivet, that is, the head
must be able to develop the full rivet strength.
Solution: The shear stress in each rivet is
P/4 P 24, 000 N
τ= 2
= 2
= = (7639 N)/d2
πd /4 πd πd2
If the plate pivots, then the strain, and therefore the stress, is proportional to the distance from the
bottom edge. Therefore, if the A rivets are the top two rivets and the B rivets are the bottom,
PA = 7PB . From moment equilibrium,
2PA (0.14 m) + 2PB (0.02 m) = 24, 000 N(0.25 m)
Therefore, PA = 21, 000 N, PB = 3000 N. Therefore the axial stress in rivet A is
PA 21 kN
σA = = = 26.7 kN/d2
A πd2 /4
From Eq. (2.16),
 s 
r 2
σA σ A 2 1 26.7 kN 26.7 kN
σ1,2 = ± + τA2 = 2  ± + (7.64 kN)2 
2 2 d 2 2
419

or σ1 = 28.8 kN/d2 and σ2 = −2.0 kN/d2 . The effective stress is, from Eq. (6.10),
29.8 kN
q
σe = σ12 − σ1 σ2 + σ22 =
d2
Since the safety factor is 3,
s r
Sy Sy d 2 (29.8 kN)ns (29.8 kN)(3)
ns = = → d= = = 0.0122 m
σe 29.8 kN Sy 600 MPa

## To use a standard size, use rivets with a diameter of thirteen millimeters.

Section 16.6

16.32 The steel plate shown in sketch p is welded against a wall. Length dimensions are in inches. The
vertical load W = 4000 lb acts 6.8 in. from the left weld. Both welds are made by AWS electrode
number E8000. The allowable shear stress in the weld should be calculated with safety factor ns =
3.0.

6.8
4

A B
y
W

x G
ek

3/8-in. plate

C
Column

## Sketch p, for Problem 16.32

Notes: The approach in this problem is to first find the centroid location and distance to the force
from the centroid, then calculate the stresses at the extreme points on the weld. Equation (16.51) then
gives an equation for the weld throat depth. This problem is also very similar to Example 16.11.
Solution: First of all, from Table 16.13, Sy = 67 ksi. Therefore, from Eq. (3.14), Ssy = 0.4Sy = 26.8
ksi.
(a) Statics. The centroid of the weld is:
P
xi Ai te (x1 L1 + x2 L − 2) (2 in.)(4 in.) + 0
x̄ = P = = = 0.8 in.
Ai te (La + L2 ) 4 in. + 6 in.
420 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

P
yi Ai te (y1 L1 + y2 L2 ) 0 + (3 in.)(6 in.)
ȳ = P = = = 1.8 in.
Ai te (L1 + L2 ) 4 in. + 6 in.
e = 6.8 in. − 0.8 in. = 6.0 in. From Table 16.12, the unit polar moment is
(b + d)4 − 6b2 d2 (4 in. + 6 in.)4 − 6(4 in.)2 (6 in.)2
Ju = = = 54.53 in.3
12(b + d) 12(4 in. + 6 in.)
Therefore from Eq. (16.55),

## The total area is X

Ai = 0.707he (6 in. + 4 in.) = (7.07 in.)he
The applied torque is T = (4000 lb)(6 in.) = 24 kip-in.
(b) Stress Analysis. The shear stress due to W is
V 4000 lb 565.8 lb/in.
τW = = =
A (7.07 in.)he he
The shear stress components due to the torque at point B are:
Tr (24 kip-in.)(1.8 in.)
τBT x = = = (1120 lb/in.)/he
J (38.56 in.3 )he
Tr (24 kip-in.)(3.2 in.)
τBT y = = = (1992 lb/in.)/he
J (38.56 in.3 )he
Therefore, the shear stress at B is:
s 2  2
1120 lb/in. 1992 lb/in. 565.8 lb/in. 2790 lb/in.
τB = + + =
he he he he

## The stress components due to the torque at point C are:

Tr (24 kip-in.)(4.2 in.)
τCT x = = = (2614 lb/in.)/he
J (38.56 in.3 )he
Tr (24 kip-in.)(0.8 in.)
τCT y = = = (497.9 lb/in.)/he
J (38.56 in.3 )he
Therefore, the stress at C is:
s 2  2
2614 lb/in. 497.9 lb/in. 565.8 lb/in. 2615 lb/in.
τC = + − + =
he he he he

## The higher stress is at point B. Therefore,

Ssy Ssy he 3(2790 lb/in.)
ns = = =3 → he = = 0.3125
τB 2790 lb/in. Ssy

## Which is exactly a 5/16 inch weld.

16.33 Two medium-carbon steel (AISI 1040) plates are attached by parallel-loaded fillet welds as shown in
sketch q. E60 series welding rods are used. Each of the welds is 3 in. long. What minimum leg length
must be used if a load of 16.0 kN is to be applied with a safety factor of 3.5?
421

A
D
B
C

## Notes: The key equation is Eq. (16.49).

Solution: The safety factor for a weld is given by Eq. (16.49) as:

## Ssy Ssy (he Lw )

ns = = = 3.5
τ 1.414P
From Eq. (3.14), Ssy = 0.40Sy = 0.40(50 ksi) = 20 ksi. Using Lw = 6 in. and P = 16 kN = 3.59 kip,

3.5(1.414)(3.59 kip)
he = = 0.148 in.
(20 ksi)(6 in.)
However, it is very difficult to lay a bead this small. While this is the minimum bead size for the
required conditions, it is better design practice to specify a 3/16 or 1/4 inch weld, as these are easier
to produce and would give a larger safety factor.
16.34 Determine the weld size required if only the top (AB) portion is welded in Problem 16.33.
Notes: Normally, this would suggest that the weld is loaded in shear due to the force P as well as a
torque T = P e, where e is half of the width of the plate. It is reasonable for a student to take this into
account, but no dimensions are given for such an analysis. This solution considers only a shear stress
due to the force P , but would have to consider a torque for critical applications. Therefore, it uses the
same approach as Problem (16.33).
Solution: The safety factor for a weld is given by Eq. (16.51) as:

## Ssy Ssy (he Lw )

ns = = = 3.5
τ 1.414P
From Eq. (3.14), Ssy = 0.40Sy = 0.40(50 ksi) = 20 ksi. Using Lw = 3 in. and P = 16 kN = 3.59 kip,

3.5(1.414)(3.59 kip)
he = = 0.296 in.
(20 ksi)(3 in.)

## A 3/8 inch weld would be sufficient

16.35 The universal joint on a car axle is welded to the 60-mm-outside-diameter tube and should be able to
transfer 1500 N-m of torque from the gearbox to the rear axle. Calculate how large the weld leg should
be to give a safety factor of 10 if the weld metal is of class E70.
Notes: The weld leg is calculated from the transmitted torque and resulting shear stress from Equation
(16.52), and the polar moment of the fillet weld using Eq. (16.53) and Table 16.12.
Solution: From Table 16.13, for a class E70 weld electrode, the yield strength is 57 ksi = 393 MPa.
Therefore, from Eq. (3.14),

## τall = 0.40Sy = 0.40(393 MPa) = 157 MPa

422 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## Therefore, from Eq. (16.52),

Tr (1500 Nm)(0.06 m/2)
τt = = = 157 MPa
J (1.20 × 10−4 m3 )he
Therefore, he = 0.002389 m or 2.4 mm. A 3 or 5 mm weld leg would be a good design designation.
16.36 The steel bar shown in sketch r is welded by an E60XX electrode to the wall. A 3.5-kN load is applied
in the y direction at the end of the bar. Calculate the safety factor against yielding. Also, would
the safety factor change if the direction of load P is changed to the z direction? Dimensions are in
millimeters.

7
z

x
7 50 P

250 20

## Sketch r, for Problem 16.36

Notes: One must use Table 16.12 for the unit moment of inertia. When the load changes direction, d
and b must be switched in the expression for moment of inertia. Note also that the drawing designates
he = 7 mm.
Solution: The leg length is given as 7 mm, with weld length of 50 + 20 = 70 mm. The geometry
gives (from Table 16.12):
4bd + d2 4(20)(50) + 202
Iu = = = 733 mm2
6 6
b2 202
ȳ = = = 2.86 mm
2(b + d) 2(20 + 50)
d2 502
z̄ = = = 17.86 mm
2(b + d) 2(20 + 50)
The moment of inertia is obtained from Eq. 16.55:

## The normal stress is given by Eq. (16.57) as

Mc (3.5 kN)(0.25 m)(0.01714 m)
σ= = = 59.0 MPa
I 2.54 × 10−7 m4
423

At the same time, the weld sees a shear due to transverse loading, given by Eq. (16.49) as:

## 1.414P 1.414(3.5 kN)

τ= = = 10.1 MPa
he Lw (0.007 m)(0.070 m)

Performing a Mohr’s circle analysis, the principal stresses are 60.7 MPa and -1.68 MPa. For an E60XX
electrode, Table 16.13 gives the electrode yield strength as 50 ksi which equals 345 MPa. The safety
factor is then
Sy 345 MPa
ns = = = 5.53
(σ1 − σ3 ) (60.7 MPa + 1.68 MPa)
If the force direction was changed to the z-direction (i.e., acting upwards), then Iu can be calculated
as 601.9 mm2 , I = 2.085 × 10−7 m4 and σ = 135 MPa. The shear stress is unchanged. The resultant
safety factor is 2.56, which is a large reduction in the safety factor.

16.37 The bar shown in sketch s is welded to the wall by AWS electrodes. A 40-kN load is applied at the
top of the bar. Dimensions are in millimeters. For a safety factor of 2.5 against yielding, determine
the electrode number that must be used and the weld throat length, which should not exceed 10 mm.

P
350

35

60

35

## Sketch s, for Problem 16.37

Notes: Note that there is a normal stress due to a bending moment and a shear stress due to the
shear force. Therefore, a combined state of stress exists, and the effective stress must be calculated.
The unit moment of inertia is obtained from Table 16.12.
Solution: Note that the length of the weld is Lw = 130 mm = 0.13 m. The shear stress is then
obtained from Eq. (16.49):

## 1.414P 1.414(5, 000 N) 54.4 kN/m

τ= = =
he Lw he (0.13 m) he

## The normal stress is then

Mc (5, 000 N)(0.350 m)(0.030 m) 212 kN/m
σ= = =
I 0.000248 m3 he he
424 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## From Eq. (2.16),

r  s 2  2
σ σ 2 212 kN/m 212 kN/m 54.4 kN/m
σ1,2 = ± + τ2 = ± +
2 2 2he 2he he
or σ1 = (225 kN/m)/he and σ2 = (−13.1 kN/m)/he . The effective stress is , From Eq. (2.31)
1/2
σe = σ12 + σ22 − σ1 σ2
" 2  2   #1/2
225 kN/m −104.8 kN/m 225 kN/m −13.1 kN/m
= + −
he he he he
232 kN/m
=
he
A relationship can be obtained for the required yield stress from the equation for safety factor as
 
Sall 232 kN/m 580 kN/m
ns = → Sy = ns σe = (2.5) =
σe he he
Note that if he = 0.010 m, then Sy must be 58 MPa = 8.3 ksi. From Table 16.13, this is met by all
electrodes higher than the E80xx series. Therefore, the following can be stated:

## Electrode Number Yield stress, ksi Yield stress, MPa Required he , mm

E60XX 50 345 1.68
E70XX 57 393 1.48
E80XX 67 462 1.26
E90XX 77 531 1.09
E100XX 87 600 0.97
E120XX 107 738 0.79

16.38 AWS electrode number E100XX is used to weld a bar, shown in sketch t, to the wall. For a safety
factor of 3 against yielding, find the maximum load that can be supported. What is the maximum
stress in the weld and where does it occur? Dimensions are in millimeters.

P
10

50

40
6
200

## Sketch t, for Problem 16.38

Notes: This problem has two different weld thicknesses. For that reason, one must obtain the moment
of inertia by analyzing each weld thickness and its geometry separately.
Solution: From Table 16.13, an E100XX electrode has a yield strength of Sy = 87 ksi = 600 MPa.
With a safety factor of 3, the allowable stress is 200 MPa. Refer to the 10 mm leg as weld 1, the 6 mm
leg as weld 2. The shear stress from the shear force is, from Eq. (16.49),
1.414P 1.414P
= 955.4 m−2 P

τ= =
he1 Lw1 + he2 Lw2 (0.01 m)(0.1 m) + (0.006 m)(0.08 m)
425

## I = 0.707(he1 Iu1 Lw1 + he2 Iu2 Lw2 )

(0.05 m)2
   
= 0.707 (0.01 m) (0.1 m) + (0.006 m)(0.04 m)(0.05 m)(0.08 m)
3
= 1.268 × 10−6 m4

## The normal stress, from Eq. (16.57) is

Mc P (0.2 m)(0.025 m)
= 3943 m−2 P

σ= = −6 4
I 1.268 × 10 m
From Eq. (2.16),
r  s 2
−2
σ σ 2 (3943 m )P (3943 m−2 )P 2
σ1,2 = ± + τ2 = ± + [(955.4 m−2 )P ]
2 2 2 2

or σ1 = (4162 m−2 )P and σ2 = (−219 m−2 )P . The effective stress, from Eq. (2.31),
1/2 h 2 2 i1/2
σe = σ12 + σ22 − σ1 σ2 = P 4162 m−2 + 219 m−2 − 4162 m−2 −219 m−2


or σe = (4275 m−2 )P . If the maximum allowable stress is 200 MPa, then P = 46.8 kN.
16.39 A cam is to be attached to an extruded channel using arc welds. Three designs are proposed as shown
below. If E60 electrodes are used, find the factor of safety of the welded joint if P =2000 pounds for
each case. Use a=15 inches. You can assume that the extrusion fits tightly with the mating hole in
the cam so that the loading is pure torsion. Design based on yielding of the weld.

P
3 in. diameter a
P P
3 in. × 3 in.
a a

5/16 in.
1/4 in.
1/8 in.

3 in. × 3 in.
butt welded

Notes: This is straightforward, however, the middle case is deceptively simple - the weld sees no stress
since the torque is transmitted by the geometry of the channel.
Solution: Note from Table 16.13 that for this electrode, Sy = 50 ksi.
(a) For the case on the left with the solid round shaft, we have from Table 16.12 that the unit polar
moment of inertia is
(3 in.)3
 
3
Ju = π(d /4) = π = 21.20 in.3
4
Since te = 0.25, the polar moment of inertia is

## J = te Ju = (0.25 in.)(21.20 in.3 ) = 5.301 in.4

426 CHAPTER 16. FASTENERS AND POWER SCREWS

## Therefore the shear stress is

Tρ (2000 lb)(15 in.)(1.5 in.)
τ= = = 8.49 ksi
J 5.301 in.4
The factor of safety is, using Eq. (3.14) for shear stress,

## τall 0.4Sy (0.4)(50 ksi)

ns = = = = 2.36
τ τ 8.49 ksi

(b) For the middle case, the weld sees no load. Notice that a torque is transmitted even if there is
not a weld present. In this case, ns = ∞.
(c) For the case on the right, we have from Table 16.12,

## (b + d)3 3 in. + 3 in.)3

Ju = = = 36 in.3
6 6
Therefore,
J = te Ju = (0.3125 in.)(36 in.3 ) = 11.25 in.4
The extreme location from the centroid on this geometry is 4.24 in. The shear stress is

## (2000 lb)(4.24 in.)(15 in.)

τ= = 11.31 ksi
11.25 in.4
So that the safety factor is
0.4(50 ksi
ns = = 1.77
11.31 ksi
Section 16.7
16.40 When manufacturing the fuselage of a commuter airplane, aluminum plates are glued together with
lap joints. Because the elastic deformation for a single plate differs from the deformation for two plates
glued together in a lap joint, the maximum shear stress in the glue is twice as high as the average
shear stress. The shear strength of the glue is 20 MPa, the tensile strength of the aluminum plates
is 95 MPa, and their thickness is 4.0 mm. Calculate the overlapping length needed to make the glue
joint twice as strong as the aluminum plate.
Notes: This problem requires the use of Eq. (16.50).
Solution:The tensile force per width is obtained from:

P P P
σ= = → = σt = (95 MPa)(0.004 m) = 380 kN/m
A tw w
The glue joint should be twice as strong as the aluminum, or for the glue:

P
= 2(380 kN/m) = 760 kN/m
b
From Eq. (16.59) and recalling the maximum stress is twice the average stress,
 
2P 2P 2 P 2
τmax = 2τave = → L= = = (760 kN/m) = 0.076 m
bL bτmax τmax b 20 MPa

## or the overlap should be at least 76 mm.

427

16.41 The ropes holding a children’s swing are glued into two plastic tubes with an inner diameter of 10 mm
and a length of 100 mm. The difference in elasticity between the rope and the rope plus the plastic
tube gives a maximum shear stress 2.5 times as high as the mean shear stress in the glue. The glue is
an epoxy type with an ultimate shear strength of 12 MPa. How heavy can the person on the swing be
without overstressing the glue if the speed of the swing at its lowest point is 6.5 m/s and the distance
from the center of gravity of the person to the fastening points of the ropes is 2 m? The safety factor
is 10.
Notes: The load is obtained from the produce of the person’s mass and the total accelleration (gravity
Solution: The total load on the two ropes is
v2 (6.5 m/s)2
   
2 2
P = ma g + ma = ma 9.81 m/s + = 30.93 m/s ma
r 2.0 m
The load per rope is then (16.47 m/s2 )ma . The ultimate shear strength of the glue is 12 MPa, so the
maximum mean shear stress is 12/2.5 = 4.8 MPa. The force which the glue can support is then:
Pg = τ A = τ (πdL) = (4.8 MPa)π(0.01 m)(0.1 m) = 15 kN
Since the safety factor is 10, the maximum weight of the person is
10P = Pg → 154.7ma = 15 kN
15 kN
∴ ma = 2 = 97 kg
154.7 m/s
16.42 A fishing rod is made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic tube. To get optimum elastic properties along
the length of the rod, and to therefore be able to make long and accurate casts, the concentrations
of the fibers in the various parts of the rod have to be different. It is necessary to scarf joint the rod
parts. The tensile strength of the epoxy glue joint is 10 MPa and its shear strength is 12.5 MPa. These
strengths are independent of each other. Find the optimum scarf angle to make the rod as strong as
possible in bending.
Notes: This requires Eqs. (2.13) and (2.14) to find the optimum scarf angle.
Solution: The largest stress is at the outer fibers of the fishing rod, and is σ = M c/I. There are no
other stress components. The normal stress at some angle θ to the surface is given by Eq. (2.13) and
the shear stress by Eq. (2.14):
Mc
σθ = σy sin2 θ = sin2 θ
I
σy Mc Mc
τθ = sin 2θ = sin 2θ = sin θ cos θ
2 2I I
Since the allowable normal stress is 10 MPa, and the allowable shear stress is 12 MPa, and these are
independent of each other, the best design will simultaneously achieve the allowable normal and tensile
stress. Therefore,
Mc
sin2 θ = 10 MPa
I
Mc
sin θ cos θ = 12 MPa
I
The first equation divided by the second yields:
Mc
sin2 θ sin θ 10 MPa
I = = tan θ = → θ = 39.8◦
Mc cos θ 12 MPa
sin θ cos θ
I