Earthquake

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Earthquake

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Consider, for example, the two-storey structure model represented in Figure 1 (left). The cross

section of the beams is assumed to be much larger than that of the columns, so the beams may be

assumed to be rigid. The structure is to be designed for horizontal ground motion. In the model of

Figure 1 (right), the mass is lumped at the floor levels with mj denoting the mass at the jth floor.

The storey stiffness, damping and displacement are denoted by kj, cj and uj, respectively. The

model is considered to be subjected to a horizontal motion.

m2 u2

k2

c2

m1 u1

k1

c1

Figure 1 – Two-storey shear frame model (left) and lumped mass model (right).

Due to earthquake loading, assume each floor j is subjected to a horizontal force pj(t). The

equation of motion of the two storey building is obtained using Newton’s second law.

p1 − k1u1 − c1u&1 + k2 (u2 − u1 ) + c2 (u&2 − u&1 ) = m1u&&1 (1)

• For mass m2:

p 2 − k 2 (u 2 − u1 ) − c2 (u& 2 − u&1 ) = m 2 u&&2 (2)

0 m u&& + − c +

c2 u&2 − k 2

=

k 2 u2 p2

(3)

2 2 2

The above system of equations of motion could be written in a compact form as follows:

&& + Cu& + Ku = p

Mu (4)

1

Earthquake Engineering

The matrices M, C and K correspond to the mass, damping and stiffness, respectively, and u is

the displacement vector for which differentiation with respect to time gives the velocity and

acceleration vectors in the usual manner. Following the model used for SDOF, when the forcing

term is expressed in term of the ground acceleration, system (4) becomes

Mu (5)

where u&&g (t ) is the ground acceleration given as a function of time and finally I is a vector with all

elements equal to 1. First, let us study the free vibration of the undamped system.

The mass mj of floor j is determined in a straightforward way but its stiffness kj is computed

through the use of the flexural stiffness EI of each column and the floor height hj. It is given by

n

EI

k j = ∑ 12 3

(6)

hj

j =1

where n is the number of columns of floor j, E and I are the Young modulus and second moment

of area, respectively, of each column. In expression (6), the flexural rigidity EI is assumed to be

identical for all columns of floor j.

u = Ue iωt (7)

(K − ω M )u = 0

2

(8)

This equation has of course the trivial solution u = 0 . For a non trivial solution, the determinant

of the left hand side must be zero. That is

K − ω 2M = 0 (9)

This condition leads to a polynomial in terms of ω 2 . The polynomial has n roots, where n is the

size of matrices and vectors cited above. If K and M are symmetric, the roots are all real, though

they may not be distinct. These roots are the eigenvalues of the matrix of equation (8). Each

eigenvalue has a corresponding eigenvector, being a solution of equation (8).

For a given eigenvalue ω 2 , the eigenvector U i which satisfies equation (8) can be found, but it

has to be arbitrarily scaled, because the matrix is now singular, of rank n − 1 or less, and so U i is

2

Earthquake Engineering

not uniquely determined. The process of scaling, called normalisation, is usually carried out so

that the largest element of U i is 1. The eigenvectors U i , corresponding to the eigenvalues, are

orthogonal, which is to say

(M −1

K − λI )u = 0 (11)

determination of the eigenvalues of unsymmetrical matrices in fairly complicated. Therefore,

special procedures which retain symmetry are used.

Suppose now, all eigenvalues λi and corresponding eigenvectors U i are calculated for i=1,n

where n is the size of the matrix in equation (8). The displacement u is written as a linear

combination of eigenvectors U i multiplied by scalars ξi .

n

u = ∑ ξi U i (12)

i =1

Since the mode shapes are not function of time, it follows that

n n

u& = ∑ ξ&i U i and &u& = ∑ξ&&i Ui (13)

i =1 i=1

n n n

M∑ ξ&&i U i + C∑ ξ&i U i + K ∑ ξ i U i = −MIu&&g (t ) (14)

i =1 i =1 i =1

n n n

U Tj M ∑ ξ&&i U i + U Tj C∑ ξ&i U i + U Tj K ∑ ξ i U i = −U Tj MIu&&g (t ) (15)

i =1 i =1 i =1

3

Earthquake Engineering

n

ξ&&j U Tj MU j + U Tj C∑ ξ&i U i + ξ j U Tj KU j = −U Tj MIu&&g (t ) (16)

i =1

No further progress can be made in decoupling the equations of motion without more information

about the matrix C. If this matrix also has an orthogonality property, then the equations can be

uncoupled. Rayleigh notes that this will be true if C has the same form as M or K, or indeed is a

linear function of them. He goes on to remark ‘The case occurs frequently, in books at any rate

…’ as we do not usually know much about structural damping thus ‘Rayleigh damping’ is often

adopted. The usual procedure is to write the generalized damping in the jth mode as

c j = U Tj CU j = 2 ςω j U Tj MU j (17)

U Tj MI

ξ&&j + 2ς ω jξ& j + ω j 2ξ j = − u&&g (t ) (18)

U Tj MU j

This is the uncoupled equation of motion, valid for each mode. The true nature of structural

damping which is not usually viscous and the construction of a suitable damping matrix are

discussed in much more detail in reference [3].

From equation (18), it is shown that each mode ξ j , for j=1…n, is assumed to behave

independently in the earthquake response and it will respond to input acceleration which is αj

times the actual ground acceleration, with

U Tj MI

αj = (19)

U Tj MU j

It follows then the maximum displacement, velocity and acceleration read from the design

spectrum are multiplied by this factor to give the maximum values of ξ j , ξ& j and ξ&&j respectively.

Expression (19) is also called the participation factor corresponding to each mode.

References

[1] A.K. Chopra, Dynamics of Structures – Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering,

Prentice Hall, 2001.

[2] N. M. Newmark and E. Rosenblueth, Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall,

1971.

[3] R.W. Clough and J. Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, McGraw and Hill, 1983 – Second

Edition.

4

Earthquake Engineering

Exercises

1. For the example of a 2-storey structure model of Figure 1, the mass, stiffness and

damping matrices were determined.

a) Deduce the structure of these matrices for a 3-storey structure model.

b) Deduce the structure of these matrices for n-degrees of freedom.

2. For the 2-storey case of Figure 1, carry out the eigenvalue analysis to determine the

eigenfrequencies of the structure as functions of the mass and stiffness of each storey.

Then consider the masses and stiffnesses of both levels to be identical.

3. For a two-storey structure model, the mass and stiffness matrices are given in the

following form

M= kg K=

0 40000 − 4.2 × 10

6

4.2 × 106

N/m

b) Check the orthogonality of the eigenmodes

c) Determine the participation factor for each mode.

4. Consider a two-storey structure with the mass and stiffness matrices given by

M= kg K=

0 20000 − 3506 × 10

3

3506 × 103

N/m

b) Check the orthogonality of the eigenmodes.

c) Determine the participation factor for each mode.

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