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Conclusion As with all interventions in the practice of conserva­

tion, thorough diagnosis of the causes of deterioration is


NEVILLE AGNEW
necessary prior to making decisions about the design of

treatment. In the case of the tomb of Nefertari, observers

realized early on that the deterioration was due to the salt­

laden nature of the limestone bedrock into which the tomb

was cut. The seeds of destruction were sown in antiquity

when the pharaoh's artisans applied wet mud-plaster to

the rough-hewn walls of the newly excavated tomb in prep­

aration for the painters. The moisture acted on the tomb

walls by sucking salt from the rock into the plaster where it

recrystallized on and below the plaster, obscuring and

physically disrupting the painted surfaces. Over the next

thirty-two centuries and more, the slow, inexorable process

of salt crystallization continued whenever humidity within

The conservation work in the six-year joint project of the the tomb increased -as it surely did following the rare,

though often torrential, desert storms. On these occasions,


Getty Conservation Institute and the Egyptian Antiquities moisture from the rainwater above ground percolated

through the salt-laden fissures in the limestone bedrock to


Organization in the tomb of Nefertari is now complete,
evaporate inside the tomb, leaving ever larger deposits of

salt on the fragile, painted plaster. In darkness, for millen·


though microclimatic monitoring continues. It was an
nia the destruction continued unabated. Now that the con­

ambitious, multidisciplinary, international collaboration servation of the paintings is complete, it is clear that the

future survival of these sublime artworks, which express


that involved examination, scientific analysis, documenta- the serenity of the transition of life through death, is, in

fact, linked to the earth itself and thus to the control of


tion, and monitoring of an extraordinary site. In terms of
moisture within the chambers of the tomb.

The wonders of ancient Egypt have long drawn the


conservation science, the project was definitive in its suc-
scholar, the collector, the traveler, and the tourist to the

cess: The authenticity of the wall paintings was not com- deserts of the Nile. Today, as never before, mass tourism

brings visitors to the ancient monuments of Egypt in ever


promised in any way by restoration or inpainting. Nor were increasing numbers. This phenomenon, a product of the

age of air travel, has burgeoned in recent decades. Every­


any non-reversible materials applied to the painted sur·
where the fabric of the world's cultural heritage is under

siege. In previous times the weather and natural cata­


face. The field campaigns, totaling nearly 500 days in the
clysms wrought their slow and sudden disasters. Now the

tomb, were supported by countless hours of laboratory deterioration is accelerating as uncontrolled tourism, pollu­

tion, vandalism, and often theft are tipping the scales fur·
analysis, photographic documentation, materials testing, ther against the long-term survival of artworks,

monuments, and the ancient legacy of cultures. When visi·


intensive discussions, training of conservators, coordina-
tors to monuments and sites tramp on ancient walls and

finger carvings in stone, little do they think that their


tion, and logistical planning. We believe this project to be
actions, repeated perhaps a million times a year, abrade

exemplary in its collaborative efforts as well as its results and wear away the very substance that has drawn them to

that place. In the confines of a rock·cut tomb there is, in


and hope it will help set a standard for the future. addition to the physical attrition of feet on floors and

123
hands on fragile paint, the moisture that each exhalation

brings-between 100 and 400 milliliters, or one half to two

cups of water, per person per hour. Moisture, which pro­

motes the growth of mold and bacteria, also may reacti­

vate dormant salt to start afresh the destructive action

of recrystallization-works of art and cultural treasures

notwithstanding.

The exact extent of response of sodium chloride in

the plaster and rock to high levels of humidity is not yet

known. It is certain that some recrystallization of salt will

occur, as well as biological growth, at elevated humidity.

There may well be other untoward effects, especially if

cyclical changes occur in humidity. Hence the importance of

continued microclimatic monitoring.

For the present, the tomb will remain closed for moni­

toring of the microclimate in an undisturbed state, as dis­

cussed in the chapter by Maekawa. What has yet to be

developed for the future is a comprehensive management

plan that will take into account these results and findings.

The tomb of Nefertari was intended to endure, not just

for nearly three-and-a-half millennia, but for eternity.

Although it has survived to the present time, its existence

has not gone unscathed. Robbed in antiquity, corroded by

salt, damaged (albeit inadvertently) since Schiaparelli's dis­

covery-it has suffered many indignities. Nevertheless, the

tomb has endured with the essence of its haunting beauty

intact. Surely now it is a solemn duty, a test of our will,

expertise, and common responsibility, to ensure, by all

means possible, that no further damage shall occur. This

has been the far-reaching goal of the past six years of

meticulous and dedicated work in which the finest skills

and experience in the world have been focused single­

mindedly on the conservation of the extraordinary wall

paintings of the tomb of Nefertari. And it remains for all of

us to keep the promise of Nefertari's "house of eternity"

alive for future generations.

124 AGNEW
Source Materials for the Study
of the Nefertari Wall Paintings

MAHASTI AFSHAR

This bibliography has been designed as a research aid for


studying the wall paintings of the tomb of Nefertari, tomb

No. 66 in the Valley of the Queens, western Thebes, Egypt.


The sources are divided into three major categories: (1)
general studies on ancient Egyptian history, art, and

archaeology, with a particular emphasis on the Nineteenth

Dynasty; (2) a selective list of studies on the small rock


temple at Abu Simbel dedicated by Rameses II to the god­

dess Hathor and the deified Nefertari; and (3) scientific


and paintings conservation studies directly or generally

related to the subject. Major sources in the three catego­

ries are indicated separately before each section.

I. The History, Art, and Archaeology of the


Nineteenth Dynasty

The primary bibliographic source on the subject remains

Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. B. Moss, Topographical Bib­

liography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs

and Paintings, I. The Theban Necropolis, Part 2. Royal

Tombs and Smaller Cemeteries, Oxford, 1927-. Revised


edition, Oxford University Press, 1964; reissued by the Grif­
fith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, 1973: 729, 740, 762-
65. Among the many surveys on ancient Egyptian paint­
ings in the past, the following may be the most helpful:

Nina M. Davies, Ancient Egyptian Paintings, Vots. 1-2,


Plates; Vol. 3, Descriptive Text, published by The Oriental
Institute, The University of Chicago in 1936; Arpag Mekhi­
tarian's La Peinture egyptienne, published by SKIRA in

Geneva in 1954, which appeared simultaneously in an


English version as well, and is illustrated with ninety-four

color plates; and Andre Lhote's Les Chefs-d'oeuvre de la

SOURCE MATERIALS 125


peinture egyptienne, published by Hachette in Paris in are amply illustrated with fine reproductions of the sub­

1954, with twenty color plates illustrating the introductory jects surveyed.

text, and 170 plates in black and white and color in a sep­ Also of interest are the approximately 350 facsimiles

arate chapter. For purposes of comparison with other The­ of Egyptian wall paintings copied by the Graphic Section

ban tombs, the reader may consult Norman de Garis of The Metropolitan Museum of Art's (MET) Egyptian Expe­
Davies' voluminous output done under the aegis of The dition from 1907 to 1937, which are on permanent display

Metropolitan Museum of Art in New Y ork, and the publica­ at the MET. Three paintings of the tomb of Nefertari by
tions of the Egypt Exploration Society in London during the Nina de Garis Davies dated 1921-22, and one by Charles K.

period ca. 1913-48. Wilkinson dated 1923-24 are reproduced in Egyptian Wall

A concise introduction to the subject aimed at the Paintings: The Metropolitan Museum of Art's Collection of

general reader and students alike is Egyptian Painting and Facsimiles, which was published by the MET in New York in
Relief by Gay Robins, who was at the time of publication 1983. The text, written by Wilkinson, contains biographical

a member of the Oriental Faculty at Cambridge University. information on the principal participants during the three

Published in 1986 by Shire Publications Ltd. in England, decades of the MET expedition. The catalogue is compiled
the book elucidates the principles, materials, and methods by Marsha Hill and is informative and methodical in the

of ancient Egyptian art in both religious and domestic con­ presentation of the facsimiles.

texts, with a separate section devoted to Amarna art. Of The most recent publication on the Nefertari wall

particular interest are discussions of the varied conven­ paintings is the exhibition catalogue In the Tomb of Nefer­

tions for representing the parts of the human figure in for­ tari: Conservation of the Wall Paintings. This was pub­

mal and mundane scenes, the horizontal registers and the lished on the occasion of an exhibition jointly organized

scale system used to organize the material and to under­ by the j. Paul Getty Museum UPGM) and the Getty Conser­
score the relative importance of the figures depicted, and vation Institute that was held at the JPGM from November
the grid system used for drawing proportional outlines of 12, 1992 to February 21, 1993. The catalogue includes an

the subject. essay by john K. McDonald, associate director of the Yale

james F. Romano's Death, Burial, and Afterlife in University Art Gallery, on the Getty Conservation Institute's

Ancient Egypt, published in 1990 by the Carnegie Museum work in the tomb from 1986 to 1992. It also includes con­

of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a concise tributions by Robert S. Bianchi, j. Clawson Mills Fellow at

survey of the broader context of ancient Egyptian funerary the MET, on the life and times of Nefertari and on Egyptian
customs, art, and architecture. A more detailed survey is wall paintings. Bianchi proposes a new reading of the data

provided in a 1988 publication, Egyptian Civilization: Reli­ related to Nefertari and suggests that she was of royal

gious Beliefs, edited by Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri, parentage.

director of Turin's Museo Egizio. This is an informative pub­ The publications cited below comprise the most

lication on matters related to the religious traditions of important sources related to Nineteenth Dynasty history

ancient Egypt, including funerary structures and paintings. and art. A number of books that carry illustrations of the

It is of interest to the general reader as well as to the spe­ Nefertari wall paintings have been included regardless of

cialist, with a well-selected bibliography classified accord­ their literary significance. Plate numbers, figures, or pages

ing to archaeological sites, historical periods, mummifi­ on which illustrations appear are shown in parentheses

cation materials and rites, and funerary objects and cus­ following citations. For a survey of photographic records

toms. A companion volume titled, Egyptian Civilization: the reader should consult the article on photodocumenta­

Daily Life, was published simultaneously and provides tion in this volume.

equally interesting reading and bibliographic references on

a variety of subjects dealing with Egyptian civilization such

as the art and technique of writing, food production and

vessels, weaving, woodworking, tools and weapons, pre­

cious ornaments, music, dance, and games. Both volumes

126 AFSHAR
FIGURE 1. ENTRANCE TO THE TOMB Basch, M. A., et al. La Tumba de Nefertari. Photographic
OF NEFERTARI, CONSTRUCTED BY
Reconstruction: Kodak, S.A. Museo Arqueol6gico Nacio­
SCHIAPARELLI, CA. 1905.
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Its Decoration. Photo: E. Ritter. Graz, Austria, 1971. tional honor bestowed by the pharaoh on his favorite wife
(Pis. 1-155) who probably died before the temple decorations were

completed.1 The dedicatory inscription over the temple


Thomas, E. The Royal Necropolis of Thebes. Princeton,
reads: "Rameses II has made a temple . . . for the Chief
N. J.: T. W. Moorman, 1966. (Figs. 214, 215, plan and cross
Queen Nefertari Beloved of Mut . . . Nefertari . . . For Whom
section of the tomb)
the Sun Shines." Oriented toward a southeasterly direc­

Valbelle, D. Les Ouvriers de la Tombe: Deir E/-Medineh tion, her thirty-three-foot-high colossi stand one on either

a /'epoque ramesside. Chap. 2: Ramses II. Cairo, 1985. side of the central entrance in niche-like recesses, each

(167-74; tomb of Nefertari: 171) flanked in equal proportion by those of the pharaoh.

Nefertari is depicted here wearing Hathor's emblematic


Vandier, J. Egypt: Paintings from Tombs and Temples.
cow horns and solar disk as part of her headdress. Else­
Greenwich, Conn., ca. 1956. (Pis. xv, xvi, xiii, xiv)
where, in the far side of the vestibule, Hathor and Isis are

Weigall, A. Ancient Egyptian Works of Art. London, 1924. shown in relief performing the queen's coronation cere­

mony. The walls and three sides of the pillars in the hypo­
(Pis. 275, 276)
style "Hall of Appearance" show Rameses II and Nefertari
Wildung, D. Die Kunst des alten Agypten. Freiburg im
before different divinities in low relief. In the rear central
Breisgau, 1988. (Pis. 6, 67, 80) sanctuary, a statuary group believed to represent the royal

couple appears next to Hathor. A relief on its northern wall


Wilkinson, C. K. Egyptian Wall Paintings: The Metropoli­
depicts the seated couple receiving offerings, and on the
tan Museum of Art's Collection of Facsimiles. Catalogue
south wall Nefertari is shown in adoration before the divin­
compiled by M. Hill. New York, 1983. (Figs. 30.4.142-45)
ities Mut and Hathor.
Wimmer, H., and Riesterer, P. P. L'Egypte. 1963. (PI. 84) The temple is situated on the west bank of the Nile,

about 40 km north of the actual frontier with Sudan in


Winkler, H. A. Rock-drawings of Southern Upper Egypt:
Lower Nubia. It forms part of a complex that was to be
Sir Robert Mond Desert Expedition. Preliminary Report.
Rameses II's fourth and last monumental building project
London, 1938-39.
in his sixty-seven-year-long reign and includes the Great

Winlock, H. E. "Excavations at Thebes" [The Egyptian Temple dedicated by the pharaoh to Amon-Re of Thebes

Expedition: 1921-22j. Bulletin of The Metropolitan and Re-Herakhty of Heliopolis. Among other representa­

Museum of Art 17, No. 12, Pt. ii (Dec. 1922): 19-48. tions, the fa�ade of this imposing construction bears

colossi of Rameses II together with statues of his chil­


Wolf, W. Die Kunst Agyptens: Gestalt und Geschichte.
dren, of Nefertari, and of his mother in smaller scale.
Zurich, 1957. (Pis. 550, 552)
Hewn out of the cliff, the twin rock temples were rescued

__ . Die Welt der Agypter. Zurich, 1955. (PI. 105) from the rising waters of the Aswan High Dam as part of

a UNESCO project that removed and reassembled them on


Wood, R., and Drawer, S. Egypt in Colour. London, 1964.
high ground.2
(PI. 58)
The essential bibliographic source on Nefertari's tem­

ple at Abu Simbel is Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. B.

SOURCE MATERIALS 131


Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian temples; 22, far;:ade of the Small Temple; 23, Nefertari

Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. VII. Nubia, the between Hathor and Isis)
Desert and Outside Egypt, first published in Oxford, 1952;
Blackman, A. M. Luxor and Its Temples. Illustrated by
reissued by the Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum,
Major Benton Fletcher. London, 1923. (65, 67; pis. x, XIV)
1975: 111-17· A subsequent source is Christianne

Desroches-Noblecourt and Charles Kuentz's Le Petit Bonneval, H. Rapport sur les missions photogram­
Temple d'Abou Simbel: "Nofretari pour qui se leve Ie metriques de I'I.G.N. en Nubie egyptienne. Missions
Dieu-Soleil." The dedication of this valuable publication to d'octobre-novembre 1956, d'aoOt-septembre 1960, de
Rameses II, Champollion, and UNESCO sums up its scope
septembre-novembre 1961. Paris, 1961.
and intention. The study was published in two volumes by

the Ministry of Culture, Centre de Documentation et ___ . "Utilisation de la photogrammetrie pour les leves

d'Etude sur l'Ancienne Egypte (CEDEA) , in collaboration architecturaux: application au temple d'Abou Simbel."

with UNESCO in Cairo in 1968. Bulletin de la Section de Geographie du Comite des

The first volume of this work includes thirty-three Travaux historiques et scientifiques 71 (1958-59): 1-12.

plans and drawings with an archaeological and epigraphic


Breasted, J. H. "The Age of Ramses II." In The Cambridge
study of the pylon-shaped fa�ade, the entrance, the court,
Ancient History. J. B. Bury et aI., eds. Vol. 2. The Egyptian
vestibule, and sanctuary, followed by an interpretation of
and Hittite Empires to c. 1000 B.C. Cambridge, 1940.
the role of the temple, notes, and bibliographic references.
(150, 159)
Illustrated with fine drawings throughout, the text in hiero­

glyphics and translation is accompanied by exhaustive his­ Carbon nell, M. "L'lmportance de la photographie dans la
torical and epigraphic documentation. The second volume
campagne de sauvegarde des monuments de la Nubie."
reproduces 127 plates and photogrammetric reconstruc­
Terre d'images, NO. 2 (March-April 1964): 168-83.
tions, plans, cross sections, and elevations of the temple.

It also includes photographs taken at the beginning of this ___ . Mission photogrammetrique en Nubie (Septem­

century before the construction of the Aswan High Dam ber-November 1963). Paris, 1964.
as well as an aerial view of the temple dated 1959 (PI. I).
___ . "Le Releve photogrammetrique des ensembles
A 1:750 photogrammetric map of the respective positions
architecturaux." Bulletin de la Societe Fran(aise de
of the two temples, the stela, and the rock drawings pre­
Photogrammetrie, No. 19 Ouly 1965): 91-120.
pared by I'lnstitut Geographique National (IGN) , Paris,

appears at the end of the second volume. A number of the ___ . "Les Releves photogrammetriques des monu­

photogrammetric records of this volume have appeared in ments de Nubie." Archeologia, NO. 3 (March-April 1965):
small scale in the various articles of Maurice Carbonnell 66-72.
and are cited below.
Christophe, L.·A. Abou-Simbel et /'epopee de sa decou­

verte. Brussels, 1965. (Frontispiece, in color, view of the


Notes
site and the two temples)

1. See Thausing and Goedicke (1971:31). __ . "Les Temples d'Abou-Simbel et la famille de


2. Other major sources of imagery for Nefertari are the Ramses II." Bulletin de i'lnstitut d'Egypte 38 (1965):
Great Temple at Abu Simbel, the stela at Gebel el-Silseleh,
107-30. (PI. II, far;:ade, the northern colossus of Nefertari)
and the Luxor and Karnak temples.
Le Courrier (UNESCO) . February 1960. 0, Nefertari between

Hathor and Isis; 18, top of a Hathoric column; Nefertari


Sources
offering flowers and sistrum; 19, far;:ade; Ramses II offering

A Common Trust: The Preservation of the Ancient Monu­ flowers; 20-21, general views of the two temples; 27,

ments of Nubia. UNESCO, 1960. French edition: Un devoir northern half of the fa�ade)

de solidarite internationale. (19, general view of the two

132 AFSHAR
Curto,S. Nubia, storia di una civilta favolosa. Novara, Lalouette,C. L'Empire des Ramses. Paris,1985: 421-23.
1965. (Figs. 241-56)
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Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch. "Le Petit Temple d'Abou Sim­ between Hattushili,king of the Hittites and the Pharaoh

bel et son message." Rotary Bulletin (Cairo),No. 219 Ramesses II of Egypt." Journal of the Egyptian Antiquities

Uune-July 1964): 26-33. (26, Nefertari between Hathor Organization 6 (1920): 184, 204-5.
and Isis; 28, Nefertari before the cow Hathor in her boat;
Lefebvre,C. "Une Version abrege de la Stele du Mariage."
and behind Ramses massacring his enemies; 29, pan­
ASAE 25 (1925): 34-45.
orama of the two temples; 33, fa�ade)
MacQuitty,W. Abu Simbel. London,1965. (14, 73 123,
__ . "Temples de Nubie: Des tresors menaces." Art et
126, 149, 159, 161)
Style 58 (1960). (Fig. 43, fa�ade; 44, photogrammetric
. Ramesses the Great: Master of the World.
renderings of gradation levels; 45, massacre of the north­
New York,1978.
ern enemies; 46, first Hathoric column of the southern
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Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch.,and Kuentz, Ch. Le Petit Tem­


Le Courrier (UNESCO). (December 1964): 11-16. (16, aerial
view of the two temples)
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Soleil." 2 vols. Vol. 2, Plates. Centre de Documentation et Montet,P. Everyday Life in Egypt in the Days of Ramesses
d'Etude sur l'Ancienne Egypte, Memoires. Cairo,1968. the Great. A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop and M. s. Drower,tr.

London,1958.
Drioton, E.,ed. "Le Site et la signification des temples

d'Abou Simbel." Nubie. Cahiers d'histoire egyptienne x, Nawrath,A. Agypten. Bern,1962. (90: 252, the three
1967: 19-22. colossi of the northern section of the fa�ade; 91, 92: 254,

Emery,W. Egypt in Nubia. London,1965. (PI. XXXI) in color,the fa�ade,southern and northern views)

Porter, B.,and Moss, R. Topographical Bibliography of


Freed, R. Ramesses the Great. Memphis, Tenn.,1987.
Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paint­
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ICCROM Monograph. Bern,1962: 1-16.
Egypt. Oxford,1951: 111-17.
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Ramses Ie Grand. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais
(Pis. 68-69)
(exhibition catalogue). Paris,1976.

Gilbert,P. "L'Art d'Abou Simbel." Chronique d'Egypte 35,


Redford,D. B. "The Earliest Years of Ramesses II,and the
No. 69-70 (1960): 27-46. (Figs. 7, 8)
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SOURCE MATERIALS 133


III. Scientific and Paintings Conservation paintings in this particular tomb. Individual contributions

Studies to the volume have been listed separately below. A more

recent overview of the subject was contributed by john K.

Scientific and paintings conservation studies directly McDonald in the 1992 exhibition catalogue In the Tomb of

related to the wall paintings of the tomb of Nefertari, as Nefertari: Conservation of the Wall Paintings. This essay is

well as a number of works of general scientific interest that aimed at the general reader and surveys the EAO-GCI con­

have been cited in these studies, are listed below. As yet, servation project from inception to completion.

no attempt has been made to characterize the collectivity Unpublished topographic and drainage pattern maps

of ancient Egyptian tomb paintings within their varied geo­ of the Valley of the Queens may also be cited here, as

logical, architectural, and environmental contexts from a they comprise indispensable tools for defining the scope

scientific point of view. Nor has there been a critical survey of deterioration and site protection problems of the tomb

of the different theories and methodologies that have been of Nefertari. A topographic map of the Theban necropolis

applied to date to confront the problems of deterioration, was produced in 1981 during the fourth season of a The­
despite the undisputed recognition of the paintings' histor­ ban mapping project undertaken by the University of Cali­

ical and aesthetic significance. The increasingly vital sub­ fornia, Berkeley. The work was directed by Kent R. Weeks,

ject of site management is equally neglected in the former professor of Egyptology at the University of Califor­

literature-a lack that is all the more conspicuous consid­ nia at Berkeley, and current chairman of the Department

ering the active interests of the Egyptian Antiquities Orga­ of Egyptology at the American University of Cairo (see

nization, UNESCO, ICCROM, and the international community Weeks 1981).


of archaeologists, art historians, and conservation special­ In February and March of 1987, Robert Cameron of
ists in safeguarding Egyptian antiquities as a whole. R. E. Cameron and Associates, Inc.-a Massachusetts­

A valuable study that offsets the above-mentioned based engineering-survey company-undertook a survey­

lacunae in a singularly important area is Ancient Pigments ing project in the Valley of the Queens under the direction

in Wall Paintings of Egyptian Tombs and Temples: An of Farouk El-Baz, director of the Remote Sensing Center at

Archaeometric Project, published in 1986 by Ahmed El-Gor­ Boston University. The project was funded by Earthwatch

esy of Heidelberg's Max Planck Institut fUr Kernphysik. The and equipped with surveying instruments on loan from

study is based on two field trips funded by the Stiftung the Topcon Instrument Corporation of America and the

Volkswagenwerk in 1981 and 1982. It is a systematic sur­ Carl Heinrich Company (see Cherrington 1987). Because
vey of the variety of natural, synthetic, and semisynthetic of the lack of adequate aerial photographs required to

pigments found in polychromic decorations in more than cover the proposed soo-acre study area, Cameron decided

fifty tombs and twelve temples across Egypt-including instead to use ground survey methods to update a

the tomb of Nefertari-and the innovative technologies 1:2000 stereo photogrammetric survey produced in 1969
developed from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom for by the Centre de Photogrammetrie Architecturale et

the manufacture and application of these pigments. The Archeologique of the Institut Geographique National de

article was co-authored with H. jaksch of Tracor Europa Paris (IGN ) . The 1969 survey was based on aerial photo­
BV in Karlsdorf, M. Abdel Razek of the Egyptian Antiqui­ graphs taken in 1964. A detailed topographic survey locat­
ties Organization ( EAO) in Cairo, and K. L. Weiner of the ing the tomb entrances and some of the lower areas was

Institut fUr Kristallographie und Mineralogie of the Univer­ thus produced (see Wissmuller and Gonzalez 1989). Swiss
sity of Munich, and includes a brief review of past contri­ Air Photo later synthesized these data, and a topographic

butions to the field. map of the Valley of the Queens was completed

Wall Paintings of the Tomb of Nefertari: Scientific in 1988.


Studies for their Conservation, First Progress Report, pub­ When the joint EAO-GCI Nefertari Conservation Project

lished in july 1987 as part of the joint project of the Egyp­ was launched in 1986, it became necessary to prepare a
tian Antiquities Organization ( EAO) and the Getty drainage pattern map of the Valley of the Queens. The

Conservation Institute (GCI) , is the main source for an project had access to a set of Egyptian Survey Organiza­

understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical tion base maps prepared by a British team in 1926, as
characteristics of the exquisite and extremely endangered well as the Berkeley map of the Theban necropolis, both

134 AFSHAR
of which proved inadequate for the undertaking. Dr. Arosio, R., and Nicola, G. L. "Ricerca chimica nella pratica

Farouk El·Baz was at this time entrusted with the task of del restauro: il caso della 'Madonna della Consolata' di
using advance technologies to map the region in the Torino." In L'lmpresa del restauro: materiali delle Gior·
immediate vicinity of the tomb of Nefertari. The objective nate di studion sui tema "Artigianato e ricerca scientifica
was to determine the drainage pattern and develop a
nel restauro d'arte." Aramengo Restoration Laboratory
hydrologic model of the terrain, and to locate areas of the
Report, January 12-17, 1983. Bologna, 1985: 93-100.
walls in the tomb that needed emergency treatment. The
Barbieri, M., Calderoni, G., Cortesi, C, and Fornaseri, M.
results and recommendations of the study were published
"Huntite, a Mineral Used in Antiquity." Archaeometry 16,
as a monograph in 1986 and appeared in an edited ver­

sion in the First Progress Report (see El·Baz 1987). The NO. 1 (1974): 211-20.

map itself was completed in 1989 and, together with the


Bayer, G., and Wiedemann, H. G. "Agyptisch Blau-ein
Swiss Air Photo topographic map mentioned above, is
synthetisches Pigment des Altertums wissenschaftlich
accessible through Dr. El-Baz.
betrachtet." Sandoz Bulletin 40 (1976): 20-39.
More recently, Christian Leblanc, director of the Unit

of Associated Research (URA 1064) at the National Center El-Baz, F. Egypt as Seen by Landsat. Cairo, 1979.

forScientific Research in France (CNRS) , has reproduced a


___ . "Geoarchaeologists Use RemoteSensing Tools
topographic map of the Valley of the Queens, prepared in
toStudy Ancient Life, Landforms." Geotime 35, NO. 7 Ouly
1988 by Yves Laurent, that also includes the tomb loca­
1990): 16-18.
tions as well (page 18, this volume). The map first

appeared at the end of chapter 1 in volume one of Leb· ___ . Geographic and Geologic Setting of the Tomb
lanc's Ta Set Neferou: une necropole de Thebes-ouest et of Nefertari, Egypt. Boston University Center for Remote
son histoire, published by Dar al·Kutub in Cairo in July Sensing. Technical Paper NO. 1, 1986.
1989 (seeSection I of this article). It derives from the IGN
___ . "Geographic and GeologicSetting." In Wall
stereophotogrammetric survey mentioned above. Chris­
Paintings of the Tomb of Nefertari. First Progress Report,
tian Leblanc is currently working jointly with the EAO Doc·
umentation Center (CEDEA) on a project to restore the July 1987. M. A. Corzo, ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif.,

Valley of the Queens to its original pharaonic level. The 1987: 46-52.

project has also prepared an as·yet-unpublished map of


___ . "RemoteSensing and Archaeology." In 1991
the area that reproduces the plans of the tombs to scale.
Yearbook of Science and the Future. Encyclopaedia

Britannica. Chicago, Illinois, 1990: 144-61.


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FIGURE 2. NEFERTARI'S EXCEPTIONAL POLITICAL

STATUS IS INDICATED BY THIS RELIEF CARVING

INSIDE THE SMALL TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL. SHE

STANDS BEHIND RAMESES II IN A SCENE SHOW­

ING THE RITUAL SLAUGHTER OF A NUBIAN CAP­

TIVE BEFORE THE GOD AMON. THIS DRAWING

(AND FIG. 3) FROM HERMANN MULLER-KARPE

(1985).

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138 AFSHAR
FIGURE 3. NEFERTARI PARTICI·

PATES IN A RITUAL BEFORE THE

GODDESS HATHOR IN EQUAL

CAPACITY AS HER HUSBAND, RAME'

SES II. THE SCENE INDICATES HER

EXCEPTIONAL RANK IN RELIGIOUS

AFFAIRS. DRAWING OF A RELIEF

IN THE SMALL TEMPLE AT ABU

SIMBEL.

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SOURCE MATERIALS 139


Author Index Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch. Lefebvre, C. 129,133 Saltzman, M. 136
128,133 Lhote, A. 129 Santini, M. 137
Domaslowski, W. 136 Litvan, G. G. 137 Sauneron, S. 130
Adzigian, J. 129
Donadoni Roveri, A.M. 128 Lucas, A. 137 Schiaparelli, E. 130
Albini, F. 139
Donadoni, S 128 Mace, A. C. 129 Schilling, M. 138
Ammar, M. S. 135
Dondelinger, E. 128,137 Machold, H. 129 Schmidt, J. D. 133
Arai, H. 135
Drioton, E. 128,133 MacQuitty, W. 129,133 Schott, S. 128
Arosio, R. 135
Drower, S. 131,133 Maher-Taha, M. 129 Schwartzbaum, P. 137
Badawy, A. 127
EI-Masry, A. 138 Marro, G. 129 Severin, T. 130
Baedeker, K. 127
EI-Baz, F. 135,137 Marsal, J. 139 Shedid, A.-G. 130,138
Baikie, J. 127
EI-Deeb, A. A. 135 Martini, R. H. 133 Simon, F.T. 138
Baines, J. 127
EI-Etr, H. A. 137 Marwan, N. Z. 129 Smeaton, J. E. 136,138
Ballerini, F. 127
EI-Goresy, A. 137 McDonald, J. K. 137 Smith, E. 137
Barakat, K. 135
Emery, W. 133 Meeks, N. D. 139 Smith, W. S. 130,131
Barbieri, M. 135
Erichsen, W. 128 Mekhitarian, A. 129,130 Soeib, A. S. 138
Basch, M. A. 127
Esmael, F. A. 137 Michalowski, A. 136,137 Stanley Price, N. P. 138
Baud, M. 127
Farina, G. 128 Mojzsis, S. 135 Steindorff, G. 131
Bayer, G. 135
Faulkner, R. O. 128 Mond, R. 130 Stoppelaere, A. 138
Benedite, G. A. 127
Fornaseri, M. 135 Montet, P. 133 Thausing, G. 131
Berry, L. G. 135
Foucart, G. 129 Montoto, M. 137 Thomas, E. 131
Bianchi, R. S. 127
Freed, R. 133 Mora, L. 137 Thomson, G. 139
Billard, J. B. 127
Gaballa, G.-A. 129 Mora, P. 137,138 Tite, M.s. 139
Billard, T. C. 136,139
Gardiner, A. H. 133 Moriarty, D. 130 Torraca, G. 137,138,139
Billmeyer, Jr., F. W. 136
Gauri, K. L. 137 Moss, R. 130,133 Toth, E. 135
Bimson, B. 139
Gazzola, P. 133 Moukhtar, G. 137 Ulrich, D. 139
Birch, M. 128
Gerster, G. 133 Moustafa, A. R. 137 Valbelle, D. 131
Blackman, A. M. 132
Ghanem, E. H. 135 MUlier-Karpe, H. 130 Vandier, J. 131
Bonneval, H. 132
Gilbert, P. 133 Nawrath, A. 130,133 Velikovsky, I. 133
Botti, G. 128
Gitton, M. 129 Nicola, G. L. 135 Vidal, P. 139
Breasted, J. H. 132
Goedicke, H. 131 Nicolini, L. 137 Vouve, J. 139
Brochwicz, Z. 136
Goldstein, J. I. 137 Noerdlinger, H. S. 130 Weeks, K. R. 139
Brunet, J. 139
Gonzalez, I. 139 Noll, W. 137,138 Weigall, A. 131
Burns, G. 136,138,139
Goodwin, W. J. 138 Otto, E. 129 Werbrouck, M. 128
Burton, H. 128
Guichen, G. de 138 Pabst, A. 138 Wiedemann, H. G. 135
Caffery, J. 128
Habachi, H. 129 Palet, A. 138 Wildung, D. 131
Calderoni, G. 135
Hangst, K. 137,138 Peet, T. E. 128 Wilkinson, C. K. 131
Campbell, C. 128
Hari, R. 129 Phillipot, P. 137 Wilson-Yang, K. M. 136,139
Capart, J. 128
Harris, J. R. 137 Piankoff, A. 130 Wimmer, H. 131
Capriotti, G. 137
Heick, W. 129 Pijoan, J. 130 Winkler, H. A. 131
Carbonnell, M. 132
Helmi, F. M 138 Plenderleith, H. J. 138 Winlock, H. E. 131
Cerny, J. 128
Hirmer, M. 129 Poksinska, M. 138 Wissmuller, D. A. 139
Carotti, G. 128
Hobbs, A. H. 129 Porta, E. 137,138 Wojtuniak-Struzynska, J.
Champdor, A. 128
Howie, R. A. 136 Porter, B. 130,133 139
Cherrington, M. 136
Iskandar, Z. 137,138 Posener, G. 130 Wolf, W. 131
Christophe, L.-A. 132
Jaksch, H. 137 Preusser, F. 138 Wood, R. 131,133
Corfield, M. 136
Janssen, J. J. 129 Price, W. 130 Yehia, M. A. 139
Cortesi, C. 135
Kadry, A. 137 Rachewiltz, B. de 130 Yoyotte, J. 130
Corzo, M. A. 136
Kitchen, K. A. 133 Redford, D. B. 133 Zussman, J. 136
Curtis, G. 136
Klebs, L. 129 Riederer, J. 138
Curto, S. 128,133
Koch, M. 135 Riesterer, P. P. 131
D'Alessandro, L. 137
Kuentz, Ch. 133 Riviere, G.-H. 139
Davies, Nina M. 128
Lalouette, C. 133 Robins, G. 130
Davies, Norman de Garis
Langdon, S. 133 Romano, J. F. 130
128
Lange, K. 129 Romer, J. 130
Deer, W. A. 136
Lawton, J. 129 Rutherford, J. 136
Delbourgo, S. 136
Leblanc, C. 129 Saleh, A.-S. 138

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