You are on page 1of 5

Introduction

¾ What is extrusion of metals? ¾ What is drawing of metals?


ƒ Forcing of a billet through a die ƒ Changing or reduction of the
ƒ Can create solid and hollow cross section of a rod, wire, or
cross sections tube by pulling it through a die
ƒ A semi-continuous process ¾ What products are made
Chapter 15 (each billet is extruded
individually).
• Discrete products by cutting
using drawing?
ƒ Rivets, bolts, screws
Extrusion and Drawing of Metals into desired lengths
○ Gears, brackets, coat hangers
ƒ Round and non-round profiles
ƒ What is the difference between
extrusion and drawing?
ƒ Carried out at room temperature
or at elevated temperature. • Push or draw…
Alexandra Schönning, Ph.D. ƒ Often combined with forging
Mechanical Engineering process
University of North Florida • Fasteners, parts for bicycles,
cars, …
Figures by
¾ What is made using
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
extrusion?
ƒ Railings for slidng doors, tubing
Kalpakijan and Schmid
¾ What material is generally
extruded?
ƒ Aluminum, copper, steel,
magnesium, lead, plastics direct extrusion process

Page 15-1 Page 15-2

Example of products made using extrusion The extrusion process


¾ Names of the process ¾ Other types of extrusion
ƒ Extrusion processes
ƒ Direct extrusion ƒ Indirect extrusion
ƒ Forward extrusion • The die moves toward the billet
¾ What are the process steps? ƒ Hydrostatic extrusion
• The billet is smaller in diameter
ƒ Round billet is placed in a than the chamber.
chamber • The billet is surrounded by a
ƒ The billet is forced through the fluid
die using a hydraulically driven • The pressure is supplied by a
ram or a pressing stem ram
ƒ Die opening may have round or • Friction is low
non-round cross section ƒ Impact extrusion

Figure 15.2 Extrusions, and examples of


products made by sectioning off
extrusions. Source: Kaiser Aluminum.

Page 15-3 Page 15-4

Extrusion Variables Extrusion Force

Ao⋅ k⋅ ln
¾ Geometric Variables ¾ Circumscribing circle ¾ The extrusion force Ao 
ƒ Die angel, α diameter (CCD) F
ƒ Extrusion Ratio: R required depends on  Af 
• Ao/Af: Ratio of the cross ƒ Billet material strength
sectional area of the billet to the
A of the extruded part
¾ k = extrusion constant
ƒ Extrusion ratio
¾ Temperature ƒ Metal and temperature
¾ Speed of ram ƒ Friction billet/chamber dependent
¾ Lubricant type and billet/die
ƒ Diameter of the smallest circle ƒ Temperature
that the cross section can fit
within. ƒ Speed
¾ Shape factor
ƒ One of the variables
determining the complexity of
extrusion
ƒ Ratio of perimeter of extruded
product to the cross sectional
area.
• Circle has the smallest shape
factor

Page 15-5 Page 15-6

1
Metal Flow in Extrusion Extrusion Practice
¾ Effects the mechanical ¾ Dead zone ¾ What materials are extruded? ¾ Straitening and twisting
ƒ Aluminum, copper, magnesium, ƒ May be required for small cross
properties of the part ƒ Metal at corners is almost alloys, steels sections
¾ The metal flows stationary ¾ Extrusion ratio R = Ao/Af ¾ Die angle causes a butt end
longitudinally, resulting ƒ 10 to 100 ƒ Remains in the chamber after
operation is complete
ƒ Lower for less ductile materials
in an elongated grain ƒ At least R=4 to work the ƒ Cut off as scrap
structure material in the plastic region ¾ Stepped extrusion
¾ Length of extruded materials ƒ Extruding the billet partially in
ƒ < 7.5 meters typically one die and then one or more
ƒ 30 meters max dies
¾ CCD (circum scribed
diameters)
ƒ 6 mm – 1m for Aluminum
¾ Ram speeds
ƒ Up to 0.5m/s
ƒ Lower for aluminum, copper
ƒ Higher for steels

Page 15-7 Page 15-8

Hot Extrusion Die Designs and Die Materials


¾ Why hot extrusion? ¾ Square dies ¾ Tubes
ƒ For metals that don’t have sufficient
ductility at room temperature ƒ Used for non-ferrous ƒ Created by fitting a
ƒ Reduce the required extrusion force metals mandrel to the ram
¾ Disadvantages and problems ƒ Dead metal zones develop ƒ Wall thickness, typically
ƒ Die wear due to high operating • Creates a die angle • > 1 mm Al
temperatures • > 3 mm carbon steel
ƒ Cooling of the billet in the chamber – • > 5 mm stainless steels
non-uniform extrusion
• Reduce effects of problem by heating the (a)
die prior to extrusion (c)
ƒ Oxide film develops on surface
• May be abrasive direct extrusion process
• Affects the flow pattern of the metal
• Reduce/remove this problem by using a
dummy block in front of the ram (b)
○ Oxidized layer is left in the container
• Reduce/remove this problem by heating
the billet in an inert-atmosphere furnace

Die design: tapered


Page 15-9 Page 15-10

Hollow Sections Good vs. Bad Cross Section


¾ Welding chamber ¾ What materials does this ¾ Important
methods using special work for? ƒ Symmetry of cross section
dies. ƒ Materials that reweld well ƒ Eliminate sharp corners
¾ How does this method under high pressure ƒ Keep section thickness
• Aluminum uniform
work?
ƒ Metal divides and flows ¾ Lubricants can’t be used ƒ Avoid extreme change in
around the supports of the ƒ Prevents rewelding the dimensions of the
internal mandrel. cross section
• This results in strands
ƒ Rewelding of the strands
occur within the chamber
after the supports and
before the die
• High pressure makes this
possible Figure 15.10 Poor and good examples of cross-sections to be extruded. Note the importance of
eliminating sharp corners and of keeping section thicknesses uniform. Source: J. G. Bralla (ed.);
Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1986.
Used with permission.
Page 15-11 Page 15-12

2
Die Materials and Lubrication Cold Extrusion
¾Die materials ¾ Often involves different manufacturing operations such
as direct and indirect extrusion and forging.
ƒ Hot worked die steels
¾ Used in making
ƒ Coatings may be applied to extend life ƒ Tools and components in cars, motorcycles, bicycles,
¾Lubrication appliances…
¾ Advantages over hot extrusion
ƒ Glass: a glass cylinder is placed in the die entrance of ƒ Improved mechanical properties through work-hardening
the chamber. The billet heats the glass and the ƒ Good control of dimensional tolerances
molten glass acts as a lubricant at the die interface. ƒ Improved surface finish
ƒ Jacketing or canning ƒ Elimination of need for billet heating
• If the metal is likely to stick to the container walls, then the ¾ Disadvantages
billet can be enclosed by a thin-walled container of a softer ƒ Stress magnitudes on the tools are high Æ wears the die
metal.
¾ Lubrication
ƒ Applied to the workpiece

Page 15-13 Page 15-14

Examples of Cold Extrusion Impact Extrusion


¾ Typically considered a
cold extrusion process
¾ Components
ƒ Die
ƒ Blank (or slug)
ƒ Punch
¾ Punch forces the blank to
extrude backward

Page 15-15 Page 15-16

Hydrostatic Extrusion Extrusion Defects


¾ Incompressible fluid surrounds the billet ¾ Surface cracking ¾ Internal Cracking
ƒ Vegetable oils are used ƒ At high temperatures: ƒ Due to tensile stresses at the
• Resulting from too high center line in the deformation
¾ Billet is a little smaller than the container temperature, friction, speed zone
• Surface starts to crack and then ƒ Tendency of center cracking
¾ Usually at room temperature tear • Increases with increased die
¾ Advantage ƒ At lower temperatures angle
• Bamboo defect • Increases with increased
ƒ No container wall friction ○ The billet may temporarily amount of impurities
ƒ Brittle materials can be extruded using this method since the stick, the pressure increases and • Decreases with increasing
the billet moves forward. extrusion ratio and friction
ductility increases with the hydrostatic pressure
¾ Pipe effect
ƒ Small die angles and high extrusion ratios can be used ƒ Surface oxides and impurities
¾ Disadvantage are drawn to the center of the
billet (like a funnel)
ƒ Tooling is complex ƒ Minimize by making the flow
ƒ Results in minimal industrial applications pattern more uniform (reduce
friction and temperature
gradients)

Page 15-17 Page 15-18

3
Extrusion Equipment The Drawing Process

¾Most common are horizontal hydraulic presses ¾ What is it? ¾ Drawing force (F)
ƒ Speed of the operation can be controlled ƒ The cross-section of a round
F Yavg⋅ Af ⋅ ln
Ao 
wire/rod is reduced in size or
¾Cold extrusion changed in shape by pulling it
through a die.
 Af 
ƒ Yavg: average stress of material
ƒ Typically vertical hydraulic presses ¾ Variables drawn
ƒ Amount of reduction in cross- ƒ Af: exit cross-sectional area
ƒ More economical as they require less floor space sectional area ƒ Ao: initial cross-sectional area
ƒ Die angle ¾ Max reduction in cross-sectional
• Optimum angle for minimum area: 63%
drawing force can be computed.
• Other product quality dimensions
may require a different angle.
ƒ Friction along die/workpiece
ƒ Drawing speed

Figure 15.17 General view of a 9-MN


(1000-ton) hydraulic-extrusion press.
Source: Courtesy of Jones & Laughlin
Steel Corporation.

Page 15-19 Page 15-20

Drawing Process / Practice Die Design


¾ Drawing of other shapes ¾ Drawing speed ¾ Die angles usually range
ƒ Initial cross section is typically
round or square
ƒ Material dependent from 6o to 15o
ƒ 1 m/s to 50 m/s (fine wire)
ƒ Mandrels can be used for ¾ Typically reductions in area
¾ Typically have two
internal cavities
are kept below 45% angles: approach and
ƒ Ironing can be used to obtain
flat sheets (a wedge shaped die ¾ Sizing operations relieve angle
is used) ƒ Small reduction in area ¾ Basic design has been
ƒ Used primarily to improve developed through trial
surface finish and dimensional
accuracy
and error
¾ Annealing may be necessary ¾ The land gives the final
between passes to maintain dimension of the product
sufficient ductility in the ¾ Die materials
material
ƒ Tool steels
¾ Bundle drawing
ƒ Numerous wires can be drawn ƒ Diamonds
at the same time. • Used for fine wire
ƒ Can result in wires as fine as • Used as inserts
4µm.
Page 15-21 Page 15-22

Lubrication Defects and Residual Stresses

¾Wet drawing ¾ Defects ¾ Residual Stresses


ƒ Dies and the rods are completely immersed in the ƒ Similar to those of ƒ Common in cold drawn
extrusion products
lubricant • Common is center cracking ƒ Sometimes to an
¾Dry drawing ƒ Seams are common advantage; sometimes to a
ƒ The surface of the rod is coated with the lubricant • Longitudinal scratches or disadvantage
folds in the material ƒ Warping may occur if
(soap)
material is removed
¾Coating
ƒ Rod or wire is coated with a soft metal acting as
lubricant
¾Ultrasonic vibration of the dies and mandrel
ƒ Reduce forces, improve surface finish, and improve
die life
Page 15-23 Page 15-24

4
Drawing Equipment Roll Straightening
¾ Draw bench
ƒ A single die
ƒ Used for diameters Figure 15.22 Schematic illustration of roll straightening of a drawn round rod (see also Fig. 13.7).
> 20 mm
ƒ Lengths < 30 m
¾ Bull block
ƒ Usually multiple dies are
used
ƒ Lengths = several
kilometers

Page 15-25 Page 15-26