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Media especially refers to two main divisions, the print media such as Newspapers & Magazines and the electronic media such as Radio and Television.
1. http://www.indianetzone.com/6/indian_media.htm 2. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1914/19140810.htm
Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media use web-based technologies to transform and broadcast media monologues into social media dialogues. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of usergenerated content." Businesses also refer to social media as consumer-generated media(CGM). Social media utilization is believed[who?] to be a driving force in defining the current time period as the Attention Age. A common thread running through all definitions of social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value.
The rise and rise of social media
27 August 2010 | by Rebecca Stalker The definition of social media is 'a type of media that is based on conversation and interaction between people online'. Essentially it’s another way for us to communicate with each other, share thoughts, opinions, recommendations, ideas or simply update our peers on mundane activities in our daily lives - I had a slice of toast for breakfast, and the like. There is no way anyone could have predicted the impact that social media would have on the internet and how it is changing the way that we converse with each other and how brands communicate with their audiences. In Australia there are over 7.9 million active users on Facebook and almost 0.7 million people on Twitter, not to mention all the people engaging on YouTube, LinkedIn, Foursquare, Digg, blogs, forums and other websites. So why has social media become such a powerful entity in our everyday lives? It's because we are social animals that crave a sense of belonging and desire to develop relationships with others. Social media emulates and builds upon how we behave in real life, collecting friends and networks, searching for advice and recommendations, and expressing our views on life. In short the social media world has become our second life, our online life. It's hard to believe that social media began just seven or eight years ago as a way for students to interact online. Now, the age range with the highest percentage of engagement in social media is from 35 to 44 - a core demographic for a majority of franchise businesses. What social media can mean for your business Only a small selection of Australian franchise businesses are dipping their toes into social media, primarily retail food businesses, and only a handful executing this really effectively. The most important reason for jumping on the social media bandwagon is to have a clear objective and plan of how this is going to impact your business - not just creating a Twitter page
the fact that you can't stop the negative . This is when you start to build your loyal community and you need to keep the dialogue with the audience going. However. The most significant issue is the loss of control. Consumers engaged in social media can provide strong word of mouth recommendations for your business and also become a community to undertake research. of value and provides a strong source of interaction with your audience groups. there is huge potential for franchises to get involved and tap into these communities. as it is essential to begin interacting with customers as soon as the channels are established. The general rule with social media is that there are four steps to get started: • Listening: this is a research gathering phase that requires monitoring of all social media channels to get some insight into what people are already saying about the business.because everyone else is doing it. However. So what about the bottom line? This is where most franchise businesses fall down as it is difficult to measure whether social media activity is making an impact on sales. Having a presence in social media is already assisting businesses in increasing brand awareness within target audiences and recruiting a loyal following that is continually engaging with the brand. sentiment of discussion and also provide some insight to the audience you have online. as with every new business venture. who is saying it and to work out where the opportunity lies. • Analysing: next take all the information you have secured and conduct an analysis to develop a robust strategy that will clearly meet the objectives of the program. It is important to keep revisiting these stages to ensure the content is fresh. where do you start? It is best not to jump in and hope for the best. Most companies don't realise that targeting an online audience is important for all types of business. • Engaging: this step runs simultaneously with the recruitment phase. whether we want them to or not. engagement levels. the principles are the same it is just the execution that needs to be tailored. Getting started in social media Conversations are occurring online about people and businesses. The only way to truly measure this is through analytics on an e-commerce platform and reviewing how many followers click through to order your product. it is important not to forget how valuable other measurements can be and most social media channels have free analytics tools that can measure volume of followers. and the general advice is to 'join the conversation'. clear objectives should be set out up front and a strategy developed. as this may differ from a business's offline audience. • Recruiting: once the channels for communication have been established there is a need for a strong recruitment phase that can include online and offline components to spread the word about the social media activity. Taking into consideration the audience online.
Social media and the franchise network This loss of control can also apply to allowing franchisees free reign to explore social media. The advertisement revenue has become the main revenue base of the press. But it is the way these issues are dealt with that can make or break the relationship between the business and its followers. which is often a tailored version of the customer service manual. Social media should not be seen as a scary communication tool as long as the reasons for diving in are justified and a strong strategy is put in place . With a click of the mouse news and happenings in every part of the globe are before you. Some franchisors will provide franchisees with a series of guidelines in getting tarted in social media. which includes a smaller version of the four steps and providing them with content ideas and details about the brand personality to ensure the voice is kept consistent. says Justice G. It has not only helped in better designing and layout and more attractive presentation with improved colour scheme in printing of the papers but also made it feasible and economically viable to print more multi-edition copies faster and at lesser cost with better get up and attractive type. Customers are usually understanding if they can see the business is providing strong customer service. thus. Ray THE technological breakthrough in printing has brought in unforeseen structural change in the print media.N. in preparation for negative feedback. listening to its followers and making positive changes. Rebecca Stalker is an account director at Keep Left PR A Tribune Special The changing face of Indian media Journalists must protect social equilibrium. Today’s readers of the print media have a wide variety of options to choose from the publications devoted to specialised subjects because of diverse information easily available on account of technological development. often ending in an overwhelming positive response. enabling the press to cater to more readers stationed at different locations. Any savvy small business owner is going to investigate new communication methods and it's best for franchisors to give franchisees the best possible opportunity of getting it right. In the case of the metropolitan press. This can work well within franchise networks as long as there is strong support from the franchisor. The online world is not a phase and it is only going to get larger and more influential in marketing practices.it can provide a strong return for a franchise business. it accounts for about 70-80 per cent of its total .comments from disgruntled customers. Before embarking on a social media program it's a key recommendation to put together a strong issues management plan.
Investigative journalism as sting operation has opened a new chapter in the history of the press. subtle and implicit form of corruption is creating greater mischief. are facing acute financial crisis and their survival is at stake because of rapid spreading of wings by big newspapers covering a large number of cities and districts. It has made the press to acquire a more powerful position and has helped to enhance the image of the press as an active watchdog of society. The advertisements have also made inroads in the policy and outlook of the newspapers in more sense than one. the revenue earning of a newspaper from such advertisements is very often quite robust. The gap between news and advertisement ratio is fast widening. has also succumbed to the vice of malpractices and corruption. disinformation and “paid news syndrome” aimed to serve certain interests and suppression of news and concerns of other interests have become a usual feature in the media. This “paid news syndrome” was so rampant that voices of concern were raised by members of various journalists’ unions and also members of civil society and eminent media personalities. But in today’s media functioning. Today’s media. products and services. The small and medium newspapers. In the last parliamentary elections. like other institutions. articles. and entertainment programmes through induced news and favourable articles and in the process. business magnets. Consequently. commercial and industrial interests. The emergence of big media houses and corporatisation of media is heading fast towards monopoly in the media. the media in general and print media in particular has indulged in nefarious monetary deals with some politicians and candidates by agreeing to publish only their views not as advertisements but as news items and not to publish the viewpoints of other candidates and even publish news items against rival candidates as desired by the other party in exchange of specified amount of money. maligning rivals through interviews.revenue. investigative journalism has often been misused to settle personal scores or to tarnish the image or blackmail individuals and men in position. news content and articles have orientation suiting corporate houses and business community. The distortion. Yellow journalism and blackmail were the known forms of corruption in journalism. The media. such malpractices operate in both explicit and implicit forms. In the media. particularly big national level newspapers. The promotion of certain politicians and political groups. . This is a matter of concern. Unfortunately. With the rapid growth of advertisements by way of corporate communication and for luring potential consumers. These newspapers barring a few are running the newspapers to derive more and more profits like commercial enterprises. space in the newspapers is disproportionately occupied by the advertisements. are mostly owned by the corporate houses. particularly regional newspapers with low circulation and operating in remote rural areas. This aspect of media behaviour deserves a careful scrutiny for taking appropriate remedial measures. reports. More and more revenue from corporate houses and commercial ventures being targeted. so-called surveys and reviews have ushered in an era of tainted communication.
at the initiation of the Chief Justice of India.A committee has been set up by the Press Council of India to collect inputs from various parts of the country and make in-depth study of the malady of “paid news syndrome” in elections and to make its recommendation to the Press Council. In this new era of journalism rich with booming information and mindboggling entertainment and in the context of global invasion and competition. It. Bhubaneswar. the editor used to control the contents of the newspaper. the basic values adhered to by the Indian media over the ages. the office of the editor has been marginalised and the editor has very little or no say about the contents of the newspaper. Newspapers enjoy freedom of speech and expression as the watchdog of the nation and as a representative voice of the people with a solemn duty to inform the people and the government correctly and dispassionately. They do not enjoy freedom of speech and expression to misinform and give distorted news and project views of a particular party or group in the guise of news for monetary consideration. It is the manager or director in-charge of advertisement who decides what space is to be left for contents to be published other than advertisements or write-ups desired by the advertisers and corporate sector. Earlier. Such assertion is not only incorrect but a random statement without any basis. Today. still continue to inspire. the need of the . trial by media of sub judice matters and incorrect reporting of court proceedings have become a disturbing phenomenon. does not require imagination to comprehend that real contents in the newspaper will be consumer and material-oriented thereby blatantly ignoring appropriate news. the Supreme Curt Legal Services Authority in association with Press Council of India. The press in India has always been at the forefront of national life. By highlighting the needs and aspirations of the grassroot level of society. therefore. Editors’ Guild of India and Indian Law Institute organised a national level seminar in New Delhi to discuss this malady and to evolve remedial measures which were followed by regional conferences held in Kochi. Even though there has been a considerable erosion of ethics over the decades since Independence. The media has always risen to the situation whenever there is a crisis. Being perturbed by this growing menace. The representatives of media in seminars or round table concerning media functioning often assert boldly that the news contents are aimed to cater the felt-eed of the readers which they perceive as their duty and first priority. articles and write-ups. Of late. the media can truly contribute to the creation of a vibrant and developing India where every citizen would be equal. including the advertisements. Mumbai and Guwahati. A training programme for reporters of court proceedings was also arranged. The media being the most powerful mass communicator and watchdog of the nation and also the fourth pillar of democracy has a solemn duty to educate and inform people properly and correctly with appropriate news contents and not to slowly inert the urge of the readers for good and rich news contents. There is an imperative need to address serious issues for public awareness and good governance.
htm roject Report on Advertising Effectiveness [Advertising/Sales Promotion/Sales Management] ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF PROMOTION MIX People no longer buy shoes to keep there feet warm and dry. multilingual and multi-ethnic denominations comprising the polity of India. the social fabric is quite delicate. rugged.allprojectreports. .hour is sober introspection by the journalists and not losing the focus on the paramount duty of the media to be the fourth estate without making any compromise with vested interest. Press Council of India. feminine. glamorous. In a multi-religious. New Delhi. Our business now is selling excitement rather than shoes. They buy them because of the way the shoes make them feel masculine. different. Rooney .com/advertising%20effectiveness/advertising_effectiveness. "in" buying shoes has become an emotional experience . Journalists must be very sensitive to this delicate and fragile social structure and should refrain from doing any act which may even remotely disturb the equilibrium of society. This article is excerpted from his keynote address at the inaugural session of National Press Day in Hyderabad www. young. The writer is Chairman. sophisticated.Francis C.
Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product it attractively and making it accessible to target customers. companies hire advertising agencies to develop effective ads. the following points emerge : Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature. Promotion influences demand by communicating product and company message to the market. This any sponsored communication designed to influence buyer behaviour advertising. Every company is inevitably cast into the role of communicator and promoter. consumer and shareholder. rather than conflicting with it. They train their sales people to be friendly and knowledgeable. the question is not whether to communicate but rather what to say. to whom. All promotion messages tie in to this theme in one way or the the. A promotion Techniques involves the co-ordination of all communication efforts aimed at a specific audience. ADVERTISING The word ‘Advertising’ has its origin from a Latin word ‘Adventure’ which means to turn to. Companies must also communicate with their present and potential customers. sales promotion and publicity. What is communicated. sales promotion specialists to design sales incentive programmes and public relations firms to develop the corporate image. as Jones defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the individual salesman. personal selling. The most critical promotional question is the proper mix of advertising." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. The dictionary meaning of the word is ‘to announce publicity or to give public concerned to a specific thing which has been announced by the advertiser publicity in order to inform and influence them with the ideas which the advertisement carries. taking the campaign may efforts include a total campaign with one unified theme. In business world the terms in mainly used with reference to selling the product of the concern. From a careful scrutiny of the above definition. For most companies. To communicate effectively. . however should not be left to change. such as manufacturing the machine supplements the hands of the craftsman. The promotion mix is usually co-ordinated on a campaign basis. The advertising.
The two forms of mass communication that are something confused with advertising are publicity and propaganda. advertising is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries or media whatever the form of advertisement (Spoken. radio or T. Advertising promotes idea. It is directed at a mass audience and not directed at the individual as in personal selling. Advertising thus is : 1. A communication of ideas. In a similar manner. it is being used increasingly to further public interest goals.Advertising is non-personal. By a paying sponsor. It is important for us to emphasize that advertising may involve the communication of ideas or goods of service. (1) Electronic Media Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers over the airwaves. If we eliminate the requirement of an "identified sponsor".V. It discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas. Advertising may persuade with information. We are all aware that advertising attempts to sell goods and services. Although most advertising is designed to help sell goods. Unlike personal selling. the resulting communication is propagandistic. advertisement without payment. But we may overlook the more important fact that it often sells ideas. Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. goods and services. written or visual). 3. Impersonal 2. If we eliminate the elements of the "paying sponsor" (The paid requirement) we would have the element of publicity left : For publicity is technically speaking. it may persuade with emotion: more frequently. (A) Radio : . Aimed at mass audience 4. it endeavours to persuade with some mixture of both.
magazines and direct mail. (B) Television : Late in India. (ii) Print Media The print media carry their massages entirely through the visual mode. became a factor in the advertising scene. TV advertising offers advantage of impact.V. The TV is a unique combination timing of sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the other media do. some industry observers felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or even disappear. mass coverage. therefore it does not reach everyone. The radio serves principally local rather than national or large regional markets. TV programmes in our country do not offer much selectivity. This is particularly advantageous for advertisers whose product require demonstration. In our country. The radio is a prominent vehicle of advertising in our country and accounts for a large sum of the total advertising budget. commercial advertising on TV is severely limited because broadcast timings are only in the evenings. TV appeals to both the senses of sound and of sight . flexibility and prestigious. repetition. This has not been so. except at the community centres where electricity is available. As a result is combines the two to produce high-impact commercials. Finally. There are hardly any TV sets. the fact that product or service is promoted on TV may build a prestigious image of the product and its sponsor. for radio operators have responded to the challenge by offering programmes that features music etc. any centers do not have TV towers. Many small advertisers use the radio. These media consist of newspapers. Moreover. So do some large organizations. a growing class of advertising media has been the TV. The pleasure derived from watching TV is at least potentially transferable to the advertising message delivered through the medium. in rural India where 76. Moreover. The translation is limited. In our country not everyone has a TV set. When T.Advertisers using the medium of radio may also be classified as National or Local advertisers.31% of our population lives. which appeal to local audience consumers have responded very favourably to this approach. (A) Newspaper : . Moreover TV does not have much coverage in our country.
they are local in content and appeal and provide opportunity for direct communication between a product and its local dealers or distributors. industrial consumers. posters or displays (such as those that appear on a building’s wall) and electric spectacular (large. Sportsweek. technical or even exotic. Some magazines have prestige value. The marketer can cover national or large regional markets at a low cost per contract (per individual reached). From the viewpoint of the advertiser. Since newspapers are local. reread them or pass them on to other. the prestige associated with some magazines. educational level and interest magazines. magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective audience. (iii) OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA (A) Outdoor Advertising : Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and bill-boards. Some marketers divide their market on the basis of such variable as age. Others are highly specialised. they offer an atmosphere of factual information and of currency that may be favourable for some advertising situations. Famina. This selectivity is easily rigorous. and the extra service offered by many publications. An organisation may approach national markets through such publication as Business India. sports etc. . Business World and Filmfare. Consumers sometime keep individual copies for long period of time. The primary advantage of magazine advertising are selectivity of market targets. both original and matinal and of general and specific interest.A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on advertising in newspapers. Magazines generally offer high-quality printing of advertisement. In general. Advertisers can reach a very broad audience through newspapers which offer great flexibility. The diversity of magazines is tremendous. newspaper offers several advantage. India Today. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve business. ladies. marketers can easily use them to reach particular markets. Because newspapers supply news. Newspapers in our country virtually reach most of the homes in the cities. Some offer news or together "General Interest" content to huge audience. The advertisers may choose the specific area to be covered and the advertisement can be placed in newspapers at very short notice as compared with other media. (B) Magazines : Magazines are also mean of reaching different market. Some are in the twelvehour range. quantity reproduction long life. The quality of magazines reproduction is usually high.
coupons and trade shows. (B) Transport Advertising : Transport advertising appears on the inside or outside of taxis. The highest showing is 100. Display exposes the promotion messages to . store displays. including the marketers of food. This form of advertising has the advantage of communication quick and simply ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that are available for sales. railways and other modes of passenger transportation. buses. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected and maintained by the marketer rather than by the advertising media. industrial consumers and middlemen. The marketers may purchase billboards on the basis of showings. Sales Promotion consists of those marketing activities other than personal advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. For many organisations. Advertisers may utilize this medium to economically reach a large mass of people or small local markets. SALES PROMOTION According to the American Marketing Association. such as displays shows and expositions. Sales promotion activities are impersonal and usually non-recurring and are directed at the ultimate consumers. store displays are an important sales promotion device. Here the number of billboards is would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times during a month. Outdoor advertising is particularly effective in metropolitan and other can use this medium to bring the products to the attention of consumers or to remaining them of the product. sometime animated sign and display).illuminated. demonstration and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine. Repeat exposure is possible for a majority of the people in our country use public transport basis. A showing indicates the percentage of the total population of a particular geographic area that will be exposed to it during one month period. while they are on shopping trips or area disposed towards shopping. toys and clothing. Transport advertising is useful in reaching consumers at an advantageous point which they are embarking on a shopping trip. Examples of sales promotion are free product samples. This medium is a low cost medium. Marketers may use transit advertisement to attain high exposure to particular groups consumers on theory way to and from work and tourists. trading stamps. These activities tend to supplement the advertising and personal selling efforts. premiums.
Marketers of such items need effective display in order to distinguish their products from those of their rivals. while personal selling aims at individuals the right approach. wings. personal selling and sales promotions messages. Consumers can easily leave the room-during a TV commercial. They realize that such communications to the public may have every adverse impact upon the image of the organisation. PERSONAL SELLING Personal selling consists of persons to communication between the sales persons and their prospects. for example cigarettes.consumers at the time and place of purchase. by observing and listening. Marketers have less control over the nature of the publicity that their organisation and products receive than they have over their advertising. for instance. artificial sweeteners have been branded unsafe or unhealthy in the publicity which they would rather have done without. Many a companies and trade association officials attempt to develop favourable working relationships. Unlike advertising. The . with the media in order to minimise bad publicity. change the hording. If feedback indicates that the message is not getting across. the sales person may quickly adjust it or the method of its presentation. except that it is free. Upon receiving a news release. PUBLICITY Publicity is a means of promoting the mass market and is similar to advertising. ignore a store display. sales persons receive immediate feedback on the extent to which their messages are getting across. Further. Some products and brands have received bad publicity. Publicity may be negative as well as positive. is found in the editorial portion of news media and pertains to newsworthy events. Advertising aims at grouping the shotgun approach. The disposition of the news release is entirely in the hands of the media and cannot be dictated by the marketer. Numerous consumers products are purchased in stores that use self-service selling method's. Personal selling may be a very intense means of promotion. the editor or broadcast station programme director may choose to throw the release in the waste paper basket. photographs and feature stories. or print or broadcast it in the original form. The most common type of publicity are news release (also know as press release). Such exposure is especially important for items that are bought on impulse. Sales persons are in the position to tailor their messages according to the unique characteristics of each prospect. it involves personal interactions between the sources and the destination.
personal selling is very important in industrial marketing. PUBLIC RELATIONS Marketers engage in public relations in order to develop a favourable image of their organisation and products join the eyes of the public. Testing for the effectiveness of ad. They direct this activity to parties other than target consumers. will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or after the ad has done in the media. Effectiveness of which cannot be measured with a mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue that advertising efforts go to waste. pretesting which is done before the ad. Public relations activities include sponsoring. ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising is an art not a science. Public relations programme may higher be formal or informal. lobbying and using promotion message to persuade members of the public to take up a desired position. this would be terribly inefficient. whether or not it has a formalized (organised. In measurement of ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done after launching the advertising campaign. employees. suppliers. share holders. the government. but every advertiser is keenly interested in measuring or in evaluation of ad. The most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person call upon every target consumers. The critical point is that every organisation. . the press and environmental groups. the general public and the society in which the organisation operates.most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person provided that the organisation has sufficient funds. effectiveness feed back is always useful even if it costs some extra expenditure to the advertiser. The term public relations refers to a firm's communication and relationships with the various sections of the public. especially those that appeal to the mass market. The basic purpose of advertising effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before the ad. should be concerned about its public relations. As a result. These "other" include the public at large labour unions. It is of two types. effectiveness. for many institutions. programme. to predict the relative strength of alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to increase their efficiency. These sections include the organisation customers. they employ mass marketing techniques such as advertising.
They are called sales effect tests. The sales impact is easiest to measure in directmarketing's effect on sales. buying intention and the actual purchase in relation to ad. the easier it is to measure advertising's effect on sales. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%? Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect. effort. in reality it is difficult to measure the increase that is due to a particular advertisement. requires the measurement of both readers and non-readers who purchased and who did not purchase the brand under investigation. But the method is subject to a high level of false reporting and open to interviewer bias. we have considered advertising influence as the only factor which results in a purchase. Moreover. price. preference. . such as the product's features. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. The sales impact is easiest it is to measure in directmarketing situations and hardest measure in brand or corporate-image-building advertising. Measuring Sales Response to Advertising : Though increase in sales in the true measure of advertising effectiveness. which has been developed by Daniel Starch and Staff company. The fewer or more controllable these other factors are. However. a few methods have ben discalled in the following paragraphs which are generally used to measure the sales response to advertising. The netapps method is useful in the relative measurement of the sales-effectiveness of various advertising approaches. There may be. The Netapps Method : The term Netapps has been framed from the term net-ad-produce-purchases.Sales-Effect : Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. availability and competitors' actions. This method. It is rather difficult to correlate the response in sales with the advertising programme. PROGRESS TESTS These assess the various stages of buyer awareness. other variables which affect purchases. and often are.
any one element of marketing mix is changed. Controlled Experiment : In experimental market.Sales Results Tests : The additional sales generated by the ads are recorded. The element's presence observance is a reason for difference in sales. The inventory audit is dealers inventory before and after the ad is run. An attitude is a favourable or unfavourable feeling about a product. The difference is attributed to ad impact. The change in attitude as a result of advertising is assessed. Attitude Tests This is an indirect measurement of the post-testing effects of ads on attitudes towards the advertised product or brands. the experiment can be carried on the two groups of consumers. Past Sales before the ad and sales after the ad are noted. The assumption is that favourable attitude towards the product may lead to purchases. . It is compared with the sales of another similar market. Instead of two markets. taking several routes. Most ads are designed to either reinforce or change existing attitudes.