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Media available:

1. Newspapers
2. Magazines
3. Yellow pages
4. Radio
5. Television
Media especially refers to two main divisions, the print media such as Newspapers &
Magazines and the electronic media such as Radio and Television.

Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and
scalable publishing techniques. Social media use web-based technologies to transform and
broadcast media monologues into social media dialogues. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein
define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and
technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-
generated content."[1] Businesses also refer to social media as consumer-generated
media(CGM). Social media utilization is believed[who?] to be a driving force in defining the current
time period as the Attention Age[citation needed]. A common thread running through all definitions of
social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value.
The rise and rise of social media
27 August 2010 | by Rebecca Stalker

The definition of social media is 'a type of media that is based on conversation and interaction
between people online'. Essentially it’s another way for us to communicate with each other,
share thoughts, opinions, recommendations, ideas or simply update our peers on mundane
activities in our daily lives - I had a slice of toast for breakfast, and the like.

There is no way anyone could have predicted the impact that social media would have on the
internet and how it is changing the way that we converse with each other and how brands
communicate with their audiences. In Australia there are over 7.9 million active users on
Facebook and almost 0.7 million people on Twitter, not to mention all the people engaging on
YouTube, LinkedIn, Foursquare, Digg, blogs, forums and other websites.

So why has social media become such a powerful entity in our everyday lives? It's because we
are social animals that crave a sense of belonging and desire to develop relationships with
others. Social media emulates and builds upon how we behave in real life, collecting friends
and networks, searching for advice and recommendations, and expressing our views on life. In
short the social media world has become our second life, our online life.

It's hard to believe that social media began just seven or eight years ago as a way for students
to interact online. Now, the age range with the highest percentage of engagement in social
media is from 35 to 44 - a core demographic for a majority of franchise businesses.

What social media can mean for your business

Only a small selection of Australian franchise businesses are dipping their toes into social
media, primarily retail food businesses, and only a handful executing this really effectively. The
most important reason for jumping on the social media bandwagon is to have a clear objective
and plan of how this is going to impact your business - not just creating a Twitter page
because everyone else is doing it.

Taking into consideration the audience online, there is huge potential for franchises to get
involved and tap into these communities. Most companies don't realise that targeting an online
audience is important for all types of business; the principles are the same it is just the
execution that needs to be tailored.

Having a presence in social media is already assisting businesses in increasing brand

awareness within target audiences and recruiting a loyal following that is continually engaging
with the brand. Consumers engaged in social media can provide strong word of mouth
recommendations for your business and also become a community to undertake research.

So what about the bottom line? This is where most franchise businesses fall down as it is
difficult to measure whether social media activity is making an impact on sales. The only way
to truly measure this is through analytics on an e-commerce platform and reviewing how many
followers click through to order your product.

However, it is important not to forget how valuable other measurements can be and most
social media channels have free analytics tools that can measure volume of followers,
engagement levels, sentiment of discussion and also provide some insight to the audience you
have online, as this may differ from a business's offline audience.

Getting started in social media

Conversations are occurring online about people and businesses, whether we want them to or
not, and the general advice is to 'join the conversation'. However, where do you start?

It is best not to jump in and hope for the best, as with every new business venture, clear
objectives should be set out up front and a strategy developed. The general rule with social
media is that there are four steps to get started:

• Listening: this is a research gathering phase that requires monitoring of all social
media channels to get some insight into what people are already saying about the
business, who is saying it and to work out where the opportunity lies.
• Analysing: next take all the information you have secured and conduct an analysis
to develop a robust strategy that will clearly meet the objectives of the program.
• Recruiting: once the channels for communication have been established there is a
need for a strong recruitment phase that can include online and offline components to
spread the word about the social media activity.
• Engaging: this step runs simultaneously with the recruitment phase, as it is
essential to begin interacting with customers as soon as the channels are established.
This is when you start to build your loyal community and you need to keep the
dialogue with the audience going.

It is important to keep revisiting these stages to ensure the content is fresh, of value and
provides a strong source of interaction with your audience groups.

The most significant issue is the loss of control, the fact that you can't stop the negative
comments from disgruntled customers. But it is the way these issues are dealt with that can
make or break the relationship between the business and its followers, often ending in an
overwhelming positive response.

Customers are usually understanding if they can see the business is providing strong customer
service, listening to its followers and making positive changes. Before embarking on a social
media program it's a key recommendation to put together a strong issues management plan,
which is often a tailored version of the customer service manual, in preparation for negative

Social media and the franchise network

This loss of control can also apply to allowing franchisees free reign to explore social media.
Any savvy small business owner is going to investigate new communication methods and it's
best for franchisors to give franchisees the best possible opportunity of getting it right.

Some franchisors will provide franchisees with a series of guidelines in getting tarted in social
media, which includes a smaller version of the four steps and providing them with content
ideas and details about the brand personality to ensure the voice is kept consistent. This can
work well within franchise networks as long as there is strong support from the franchisor.

Social media should not be seen as a scary communication tool as long as the reasons for
diving in are justified and a strong strategy is put in place - it can provide a strong return for a
franchise business. The online world is not a phase and it is only going to get larger and more
influential in marketing practices.

Rebecca Stalker is an account director at Keep Left PR

A Tribune Special
The changing face of Indian media
Journalists must protect social equilibrium, says Justice G.N.

THE technological breakthrough in printing has brought in unforeseen structural

change in the print media. It has not only helped in better designing and layout and
more attractive presentation with improved colour scheme in printing of the papers
but also made it feasible and economically viable to print more multi-edition copies
faster and at lesser cost with better get up and attractive type, thus, enabling the
press to cater to more readers stationed at different locations.

Today’s readers of the print media have a wide variety of options to choose from the
publications devoted to specialised subjects because of diverse information easily
available on account of technological development. With a click of the mouse news
and happenings in every part of the globe are before you.

The advertisement revenue has become the main revenue base of the press. In the
case of the metropolitan press, it accounts for about 70-80 per cent of its total
revenue. Consequently, space in the newspapers is disproportionately occupied by
the advertisements. The gap between news and advertisement ratio is fast widening.

The advertisements have also made inroads in the policy and outlook of the
newspapers in more sense than one. With the rapid growth of advertisements by
way of corporate communication and for luring potential consumers, the revenue
earning of a newspaper from such advertisements is very often quite robust.

Investigative journalism as sting operation has opened a new chapter in the history
of the press. It has made the press to acquire a more powerful position and has
helped to enhance the image of the press as an active watchdog of society.
Unfortunately, investigative journalism has often been misused to settle personal
scores or to tarnish the image or blackmail individuals and men in position. This
aspect of media behaviour deserves a careful scrutiny for taking appropriate
remedial measures.

Today’s media, particularly big national level newspapers, are mostly owned by the
corporate houses. These newspapers barring a few are running the newspapers to
derive more and more profits like commercial enterprises. More and more revenue
from corporate houses and commercial ventures being targeted, news content and
articles have orientation suiting corporate houses and business community.

The emergence of big media houses and corporatisation of media is heading fast
towards monopoly in the media. This is a matter of concern.

The small and medium newspapers, particularly regional newspapers with low
circulation and operating in remote rural areas, are facing acute financial crisis and
their survival is at stake because of rapid spreading of wings by big newspapers
covering a large number of cities and districts.

The media, like other institutions, has also succumbed to the vice of malpractices
and corruption. In the media, such malpractices operate in both explicit and implicit
forms. Yellow journalism and blackmail were the known forms of corruption in
journalism. But in today’s media functioning, subtle and implicit form of corruption is
creating greater mischief.

The distortion, disinformation and “paid news syndrome” aimed to serve certain
interests and suppression of news and concerns of other interests have become a
usual feature in the media. The promotion of certain politicians and political groups,
business magnets, commercial and industrial interests, products and services, and
entertainment programmes through induced news and favourable articles and in the
process, maligning rivals through interviews, articles, reports, so-called surveys and
reviews have ushered in an era of tainted communication.

In the last parliamentary elections, the media in general and print media in particular
has indulged in nefarious monetary deals with some politicians and candidates by
agreeing to publish only their views not as advertisements but as news items and not
to publish the viewpoints of other candidates and even publish news items against
rival candidates as desired by the other party in exchange of specified amount of
money. This “paid news syndrome” was so rampant that voices of concern were
raised by members of various journalists’ unions and also members of civil society
and eminent media personalities.
A committee has been set up by the Press Council of India to collect inputs from
various parts of the country and make in-depth study of the malady of “paid news
syndrome” in elections and to make its recommendation to the Press Council.
Newspapers enjoy freedom of speech and expression as the watchdog of the nation
and as a representative voice of the people with a solemn duty to inform the people
and the government correctly and dispassionately. They do not enjoy freedom of
speech and expression to misinform and give distorted news and project views of a
particular party or group in the guise of news for monetary consideration.

Of late, trial by media of sub judice matters and incorrect reporting of court
proceedings have become a disturbing phenomenon. Being perturbed by this
growing menace, at the initiation of the Chief Justice of India, the Supreme Curt
Legal Services Authority in association with Press Council of India, Editors’ Guild of
India and Indian Law Institute organised a national level seminar in New Delhi to
discuss this malady and to evolve remedial measures which were followed by
regional conferences held in Kochi, Bhubaneswar, Mumbai and Guwahati. A training
programme for reporters of court proceedings was also arranged.

Earlier, the editor used to control the contents of the newspaper, including the
advertisements. Today, the office of the editor has been marginalised and the editor
has very little or no say about the contents of the newspaper. It is the manager or
director in-charge of advertisement who decides what space is to be left for contents
to be published other than advertisements or write-ups desired by the advertisers
and corporate sector.

It, therefore, does not require imagination to comprehend that real contents in the
newspaper will be consumer and material-oriented thereby blatantly ignoring
appropriate news. There is an imperative need to address serious issues for public
awareness and good governance.

The representatives of media in seminars or round table concerning media

functioning often assert boldly that the news contents are aimed to cater the felt-eed
of the readers which they perceive as their duty and first priority. Such assertion is
not only incorrect but a random statement without any basis.

The media being the most powerful mass communicator and watchdog of the nation
and also the fourth pillar of democracy has a solemn duty to educate and inform
people properly and correctly with appropriate news contents and not to slowly inert
the urge of the readers for good and rich news contents, articles and write-ups.

By highlighting the needs and aspirations of the grassroot level of society, the media
can truly contribute to the creation of a vibrant and developing India where every
citizen would be equal.

The press in India has always been at the forefront of national life. Even though
there has been a considerable erosion of ethics over the decades since
Independence, the basic values adhered to by the Indian media over the ages, still
continue to inspire. The media has always risen to the situation whenever there is a

In this new era of journalism rich with booming information and mindboggling
entertainment and in the context of global invasion and competition, the need of the
hour is sober introspection by the journalists and not losing the focus on the
paramount duty of the media to be the fourth estate without making any
compromise with vested interest.

In a multi-religious, multilingual and multi-ethnic denominations comprising the

polity of India, the social fabric is quite delicate. Journalists must be very sensitive to
this delicate and fragile social structure and should refrain from doing any act which
may even remotely disturb the equilibrium of society.

The writer is Chairman, Press Council of India, New Delhi. This article is
excerpted from his keynote address at the inaugural session of National
Press Day in Hyderabad

roject Report on Advertising Effectiveness [Advertising/Sales

Promotion/Sales Management]


People no longer buy shoes to keep there feet warm and dry. They buy them
because of the way the shoes make them feel masculine, feminine, rugged,
different, sophisticated, young, glamorous, "in" buying shoes has become an
emotional experience . Our business now is selling excitement rather than
shoes. - Francis C. Rooney
Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product it attractively
and making it accessible to target customers. Companies must also
communicate with their present and potential customers. Every company is
inevitably cast into the role of communicator and promoter.

What is communicated, however should not be left to change. To communicate

effectively; companies hire advertising agencies to develop effective ads; sales
promotion specialists to design sales incentive programmes and public relations
firms to develop the corporate image. They train their sales people to be
friendly and knowledgeable. For most companies, the question is not whether
to communicate but rather what to say, to whom.

Promotion influences demand by communicating product and company

message to the market. A promotion Techniques involves the co-ordination of
all communication efforts aimed at a specific audience; consumer and
shareholder. The most critical promotional question is the proper mix of
advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity. The promotion mix
is usually co-ordinated on a campaign basis, taking the campaign may efforts
include a total campaign with one unified theme. All promotion messages tie in
to this theme in one way or the the, rather than conflicting with it.

The word ‘Advertising’ has its origin from a Latin word ‘Adventure’ which
means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the word is ‘to announce
publicity or to give public concerned to a specific thing which has been
announced by the advertiser publicity in order to inform and influence them
with the ideas which the advertisement carries. In business world the terms in
mainly used with reference to selling the product of the concern.

The advertising, as Jones defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production
method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the
individual salesman, such as manufacturing the machine supplements the hands
of the craftsman." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media space
or time in order to promote a product or an idea. From a careful scrutiny of the
above definition, the following points emerge :

Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature. This any sponsored
communication designed to influence buyer behaviour advertising.
Advertising is non-personal. Unlike personal selling, advertising is done in a
non-personal manner through intermediaries or media whatever the form of
advertisement (Spoken, written or visual). It is directed at a mass audience and
not directed at the individual as in personal selling.

Advertising promotes idea, goods and services. Although most advertising is

designed to help sell goods, it is being used increasingly to further public
interest goals.

Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. It

discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas.

Advertising thus is :

1. Impersonal

2. A communication of ideas.

3. Aimed at mass audience

4. By a paying sponsor.

The two forms of mass communication that are something confused with
advertising are publicity and propaganda. If we eliminate the elements of the
"paying sponsor" (The paid requirement) we would have the element of
publicity left : For publicity is technically speaking, advertisement without
payment. In a similar manner. If we eliminate the requirement of an "identified
sponsor", the resulting communication is propagandistic.

It is important for us to emphasize that advertising may involve the

communication of ideas or goods of service. We are all aware that advertising
attempts to sell goods and services. But we may overlook the more important
fact that it often sells ideas. Advertising may persuade with information; it may
persuade with emotion: more frequently, it endeavours to persuade with some
mixture of both.

(1) Electronic Media

Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers over the
airwaves; radio or T.V.

(A) Radio :
Advertisers using the medium of radio may also be classified as National or
Local advertisers. The radio is a prominent vehicle of advertising in our
country and accounts for a large sum of the total advertising budget.

The radio serves principally local rather than national or large regional markets.
Many small advertisers use the radio. So do some large organizations.

When T.V. became a factor in the advertising scene, some industry observers
felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or even disappear. This
has not been so, for radio operators have responded to the challenge by offering
programmes that features music etc. which appeal to local audience consumers
have responded very favourably to this approach. Moreover TV does not have
much coverage in our country.

(B) Television :

Late in India, a growing class of advertising media has been the TV. In our
country, commercial advertising on TV is severely limited because broadcast
timings are only in the evenings. The TV is a unique combination timing of
sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the other media do. This is
particularly advantageous for advertisers whose product require demonstration.
TV advertising offers advantage of impact, mass coverage, repetition,
flexibility and prestigious. In our country not everyone has a TV set; therefore
it does not reach everyone. Moreover, in rural India where 76.31% of our
population lives. There are hardly any TV sets, except at the community centres
where electricity is available. Moreover, TV programmes in our country do not
offer much selectivity. The translation is limited, any centers do not have TV

TV appeals to both the senses of sound and of sight . As a result is combines

the two to produce high-impact commercials. Finally, the fact that product or
service is promoted on TV may build a prestigious image of the product and its
sponsor. The pleasure derived from watching TV is at least potentially
transferable to the advertising message delivered through the medium.

(ii) Print Media

The print media carry their massages entirely through the visual mode. These
media consist of newspapers, magazines and direct mail.

(A) Newspaper :
A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on advertising in
newspapers. Newspapers in our country virtually reach most of the homes in
the cities. Since newspapers are local, marketers can easily use them to reach
particular markets. This selectivity is easily rigorous. Some are in the twelve-
hour range. From the viewpoint of the advertiser, newspaper offers several
advantage, they are local in content and appeal and provide opportunity for
direct communication between a product and its local dealers or distributors.
Because newspapers supply news, they offer an atmosphere of factual
information and of currency that may be favourable for some advertising
situations. Advertisers can reach a very broad audience through newspapers
which offer great flexibility. The advertisers may choose the specific area to be
covered and the advertisement can be placed in newspapers at very short notice
as compared with other media.

(B) Magazines :

Magazines are also mean of reaching different market, both original and
matinal and of general and specific interest. An organisation may approach
national markets through such publication as Business India, Famina,
Sportsweek, India Today, Business World and Filmfare. Some marketers divide
their market on the basis of such variable as age, educational level and interest
magazines. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve business,
industrial consumers, ladies, sports etc. The diversity of magazines is
tremendous. Some offer news or together "General Interest" content to huge
audience. Others are highly specialised, technical or even exotic. In general,
magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective audience.

The primary advantage of magazine advertising are selectivity of market

targets; quantity reproduction long life; the prestige associated with some
magazines; and the extra service offered by many publications. The quality of
magazines reproduction is usually high. Consumers sometime keep individual
copies for long period of time; reread them or pass them on to other. Some
magazines have prestige value. The marketer can cover national or large
regional markets at a low cost per contract (per individual reached). Magazines
generally offer high-quality printing of advertisement.


(A) Outdoor Advertising :

Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and bill-boards, posters or displays
(such as those that appear on a building’s wall) and electric spectacular (large,
illuminated, sometime animated sign and display). The marketers may purchase
billboards on the basis of showings. A showing indicates the percentage of the
total population of a particular geographic area that will be exposed to it during
one month period. The highest showing is 100. Here the number of billboards
is would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times
during a month. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected and
maintained by the marketer rather than by the advertising media.

This form of advertising has the advantage of communication quick and simply
ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that are available for
sales. Outdoor advertising is particularly effective in metropolitan and other
can use this medium to bring the products to the attention of consumers or to
remaining them of the product, while they are on shopping trips or area
disposed towards shopping. Advertisers may utilize this medium to
economically reach a large mass of people or small local markets.

(B) Transport Advertising :

Transport advertising appears on the inside or outside of taxis, buses, railways

and other modes of passenger transportation. Marketers may use transit
advertisement to attain high exposure to particular groups consumers on theory
way to and from work and tourists. Repeat exposure is possible for a majority
of the people in our country use public transport basis. Transport advertising is
useful in reaching consumers at an advantageous point which they are
embarking on a shopping trip. This medium is a low cost medium.

According to the American Marketing Association, Sales Promotion consists of
those marketing activities other than personal advertising and publicity that
stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as displays
shows and expositions, demonstration and various non-recurrent selling efforts
not in the ordinary routine.

Sales promotion activities are impersonal and usually non-recurring and are
directed at the ultimate consumers, industrial consumers and middlemen. These
activities tend to supplement the advertising and personal selling efforts.
Examples of sales promotion are free product samples, trading stamps, store
displays, premiums, coupons and trade shows. For many organisations,
including the marketers of food, toys and clothing, store displays are an
important sales promotion device. Display exposes the promotion messages to
consumers at the time and place of purchase. Such exposure is especially
important for items that are bought on impulse. Numerous consumers products
are purchased in stores that use self-service selling method's. Marketers of such
items need effective display in order to distinguish their products from those of
their rivals.


Publicity is a means of promoting the mass market and is similar to advertising,

except that it is free, is found in the editorial portion of news media and
pertains to newsworthy events. The most common type of publicity are news
release (also know as press release), photographs and feature stories. Marketers
have less control over the nature of the publicity that their organisation and
products receive than they have over their advertising, personal selling and
sales promotions messages. Upon receiving a news release, for instance, the
editor or broadcast station programme director may choose to throw the release
in the waste paper basket, change the hording, or print or broadcast it in the
original form. The disposition of the news release is entirely in the hands of the
media and cannot be dictated by the marketer. Publicity may be negative as
well as positive. Some products and brands have received bad publicity; for
example cigarettes, wings, artificial sweeteners have been branded unsafe or
unhealthy in the publicity which they would rather have done without. Many a
companies and trade association officials attempt to develop favourable
working relationships, with the media in order to minimise bad publicity. They
realize that such communications to the public may have every adverse impact
upon the image of the organisation.


Personal selling consists of persons to communication between the sales

persons and their prospects. Unlike advertising, it involves personal
interactions between the sources and the destination. Advertising aims at
grouping the shotgun approach, while personal selling aims at individuals the
right approach. Sales persons are in the position to tailor their messages
according to the unique characteristics of each prospect. Further, by observing
and listening, sales persons receive immediate feedback on the extent to which
their messages are getting across. If feedback indicates that the message is not
getting across, the sales person may quickly adjust it or the method of its

Personal selling may be a very intense means of promotion. Consumers can

easily leave the room-during a TV commercial, ignore a store display. The
most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person provided
that the organisation has sufficient funds. The most effective method of
promotion probably is to have sales person call upon every target consumers,
for many institutions, especially those that appeal to the mass market, this
would be terribly inefficient. As a result, they employ mass marketing
techniques such as advertising, personal selling is very important in industrial


Marketers engage in public relations in order to develop a favourable image of

their organisation and products join the eyes of the public. They direct this
activity to parties other than target consumers. These "other" include the public
at large labour unions, the press and environmental groups. Public relations
activities include sponsoring, lobbying and using promotion message to
persuade members of the public to take up a desired position. The term public
relations refers to a firm's communication and relationships with the various
sections of the public. These sections include the organisation customers,
suppliers, share holders, employees, the government, the general public and the
society in which the organisation operates. Public relations programme may
higher be formal or informal. The critical point is that every organisation,
whether or not it has a formalized (organised, programme, should be concerned
about its public relations.


Advertising is an art not a science. Effectiveness of which cannot be measured

with a mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue that
advertising efforts go to waste, but every advertiser is keenly interested in
measuring or in evaluation of ad. effectiveness. Testing for the effectiveness of
ad. will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or after the ad
has done in the media. It is of two types, pretesting which is done before the ad.
has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before
the ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done
after launching the advertising campaign. The basic purpose of advertising
effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes, to predict the relative strength of
alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to increase their
efficiency. In measurement of ad. effectiveness feed back is always useful even
if it costs some extra expenditure to the advertiser.
Sales-Effect :

Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess

advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact.
What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and
brand preference by 10%?

Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication

effect. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising, such as the
product's features, price, availability and competitors' actions. The fewer or
more controllable these other factors are, the easier it is to measure
advertising's effect on sales. The sales impact is easiest to measure in direct-
marketing's effect on sales. The sales impact is easiest it is to measure in direct-
marketing situations and hardest measure in brand or corporate-image-building


These assess the various stages of buyer awareness, preference, buying

intention and the actual purchase in relation to ad. effort. They are called sales
effect tests.

Measuring Sales Response to Advertising :

Though increase in sales in the true measure of advertising effectiveness, in

reality it is difficult to measure the increase that is due to a particular
advertisement. It is rather difficult to correlate the response in sales with the
advertising programme. However, a few methods have ben discalled in the
following paragraphs which are generally used to measure the sales response to

The Netapps Method :

The term Netapps has been framed from the term net-ad-produce-purchases.
This method, which has been developed by Daniel Starch and Staff company,
requires the measurement of both readers and non-readers who purchased and
who did not purchase the brand under investigation. The netapps method is
useful in the relative measurement of the sales-effectiveness of various
advertising approaches. But the method is subject to a high level of false
reporting and open to interviewer bias. Moreover, we have considered
advertising influence as the only factor which results in a purchase. There may
be, and often are, other variables which affect purchases.
Sales Results Tests :

The additional sales generated by the ads are recorded, taking several routes.

Past Sales before the ad and sales after the ad are noted. The difference is
attributed to ad impact.

Controlled Experiment : In experimental market, any one element of marketing

mix is changed. It is compared with the sales of another similar market. The
element's presence observance is a reason for difference in sales.

Instead of two markets, the experiment can be carried on the two groups of

The inventory audit is dealers inventory before and after the ad is run.

Attitude Tests

This is an indirect measurement of the post-testing effects of ads on attitudes

towards the advertised product or brands. The change in attitude as a result of
advertising is assessed. The assumption is that favourable attitude towards the
product may lead to purchases.

Most ads are designed to either reinforce or change existing attitudes. An

attitude is a favourable or unfavourable feeling about a product.