Social Studies Elective

Chapter 2

Governance in Singapore (Summary)
Chapter 2.1: Guiding Principles of Governance Guiding Principle Leadership is Key
Information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Principle of Selection Problems of Corrupt Leadership Honest and capable leadership Mismanagement of funds / resources Maintain stability Ensure Singapore continues to Loss of support and respect from people grow. Preferential treatment given to cronies. Make right decisions, not popular decisions Moral courage and integrity (Good character) Do not occur by chance, need to select and groom Talent and ability is not enough incorruptibility as well. Principle of forward-looking Examples: Look, plan ahead and anticipate future challenges 1. NEWater (Recycling of sewage water, in anticipation Be prepared for challenging times of the end of water agreements with Malaysia. Safeguard resources for future 2. Integrated Resorts: To boom tourist industry Open to new ideas and risk-taking, and stay relevant 3. Taking Risks: Encouraging Singaporeans to be in global world innovative and creative Be resilient in changing world conditions Capture growing markets. Principle of Meritocracy Meritocracy, a key part of this principle, means a system that rewards hard work and talent and encourages people to do well. Meritocracy thus helps to keep everybody in the society an equal opportunity to achieve their best and be rewarded for their performance. Bursaries, scholarships and money packages given out. Surplus from good economic growth given out to reward Singaporeans (progress package) Principle of transparency Involving people in decision making Most religious groups were against the Integrated Resorts (only the casinos), thus Government took feedback and set boundaries size, entry requirements, etc. for casinos. Having a say in decision making develops in people a greater sense of belonging in the country; thus more opportunities have been created to involve people in decision-making. Policy decisions made to serve the needs of the nation may change to suit the needs of the people and the nation over time.

Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reward for Work and Work for Reward

A Stake for Everyone, Opportunit ies for All

Chapter 2.2: Managing Traffic in Singapore Guiding Principle Area Licensing Scheme Advantages
It is one of the measures taken to control the flow of traffic. Under this scheme, motorists have to pay for the use of certain roads in Singapore. Gantries were set up at the boundaries of city areas to monitor motorists driving into restricted zones. To support the ALS, other measures such as improving bus services, parking costs and park-and-ride zones were

Disadvantages
When it was first implemented, motorists were unhappy. Lots of costs were involved as this system was labour intensive. However, over time the ALS was successful in ensuring smooth traffic flow and many people showed support for improved traffic flow in the city area.
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Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www.freewebs.com/chiamdj.

Motorists have to pay to use certain roads and expressways into the city at certain times of the day.com/chiamdj.freewebs. the scheme was still being used today as when time passes and needs of people change. The COE have to be renewed every 10 years. an average of 5. measures failed in the past might work today. 1980s Present: Decreasing Birth Rate Higher Education of Women.79 babies was born to each woman. In 1960s. Contraception. However. Successful bidders will pay the quota premium to obtain the COE. they could use public transport to enter the city area.1. The second plan encouraged married couples to stop at 2. From there. Women marrying later Higher costs of living Ageing Population Smaller defence force Smaller pool of local talent Unattractive to multinational companies Limited success 3 or more if you can afford it.Electronic Road Pricing Park and Ride Scheme Vehicle Quota System implemented. The third plan aimed to maintain the replacement level at 2. Chapter 2. 1 Singapore Planning and Population Board Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www. 3 Five-Year Plans The first plan in 1966 emphasized the need for smaller families. However. Motorists park their vehicles at car parks outside the CBD. peak hour traffic has been successfully controlled. Car buyers had to bid for the COE (Certificate of Entitlement) before they could purchase the car. Can only control the number of cars on the road. the fertility rate went down to 1. Aimed to maintain the replacement level at 2. Uses technology to monitor and regulate traffic flow.3: Changing times.82.1 children 3 Child Policy Attracting Foreign Talent Pro-Family measure scheme Effects of Government Policies Seen later in the 60s and 80s. In this way. Introduced when there was a sharp increase in car ownership. By 1980. changing needs a case study of Singapore s population policy (Summary) Period / Population Trend 1950 1960s: Period of Baby Boom 1966 1980s: Family Planning Causes Peace and Stability More jobs Traditional Beliefs (Larger families are more secure) Effects Overcrowding (shortage of housing) Unhygienic Living Conditions Poor Healthcare services Little Education Few Jobs Solutions Set up the SFPPB1 to control the population growth. it was not very successful as motorists rather switch to the regular bus service or drove into the CBD before 7:30am as they thought it was not worthwhile to leave their cars parked outside the city all day. 2 . legalizing abortion and numerous disincentives.

high medical and housing costs. travelling. Singapore can become unattractive to multi-national corporations Positively. Sparked off debate and unhappiness among the less-educated people. Foreign talent is granted easier entry with subsidised housing and attractive education package for their children. Negatively. became too pragmatic with having a small family due to the costs of bring up children. Improving Living Conditions / Higher Standard of Living (Better healthcare / nutrition) Housing and living Arrangements Additional housing needed to meet the needs of the elderly.3.24 in 2004. Encouraged marriages among graduates and encourage them to have more children.Chapter 2. Many measures were introduced to help couples decide to marry early and become parents. CPF and talents Physical Fitness centres All kinds of activities like hiking.2: Ways to Promote Population Growth in Singapore The 3-child Policy Parents were encouraged to have 3 or more children if they can afford it.com/chiamdj. sailing. Helps to promote population growth as when foreigners come to live and work here. Examples: Equalized medical benefits. the elderly can still contribute in numerous ways as they have skills and talents. high medical and housing costs. Declining Birth Rate b.freewebs. Nurses and Counsellors would be required to look after the elderly.1: Impact of an Ageing Population There are 3 main reasons for an ageing population a. Higher standard of Healthcare More resources will have to be spent on healthcare services The working population would also be affected as they have to pay increased taxes for expenditure for healthcare Recreation Economy Healthcare Chapter 2. Success is not registered as people were not very receptive to these measures. they develop an attachment and may take up permanent residence. etc. 5 day work week for Civil Service and Extended maternity leave. The Graduate Mothers Scheme Pro-family measure scheme Attracting Foreign Talent Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www. Safter toilet floor tiles (no slip) and grabpoles. 3 . Grandparent caregiver relief.3. Allowed the use of Medisave to pay for the delivery charges to relieve the financial burden of having children. Limited success due to the costs of bringing up children. Post-War Baby Boomers (65 and over by 2030) c. Granny flats / Studio Apartment: Specially fitted to meet the needs of the elderly. Singapore s economic success has also attracted more foreign talents to make Singapore their home. Offered in 2004 with regard to marriage and parenthood. Limited success fertility rate dropped back to 1. Produced better results as it has been the fastest way to promote population growth whereas the other policies take more time. More day-care centres and home nursing care would be required.

3: Meeting the challenges of an ageing population Senior citizens as assets to society: Many Helping Hands support: Individual responsibility: The challenge would be to ensure that Senior Citizens remain contributing members of society. knowledge. Family support: Strong and stable families bring about social stability and harmony. By sharing the responsibility of taking care of the senior citizens. Social Studies Chapter 2: Governance In Singapore (Revision) This document can be downloaded from www. As Senior Citizens have valuable skills.  Public housing schemes: First time buyers can get a housing grant if they buy a flat in an area where their parents live.  Central Provident Fund (CPF): Savings in the special account (retirement. Thus the government has introduced some measures to help strengthen family bonds such as the Senior Citizens Week and Grandparents day. 4 . family and community are looking after the senior citizens. mentally and socially active. contributing to their own CPF accounts and grandparents taking care of children while parents work. talent and work experience. they can add value to public and private organizations and help boost family life.Chapter 2. Financial planning: All Singaporeans are encouraged to plan early and be financially prepared for life in their old age. Government Support:  Tribunal for the Maintenance for Parents: Parents can get the court s help to seek financial support from their children from their children who are capable but are not doing so.3. Everyone has a part to play in helping the nation prepare for an ageing population.com/chiamdj.freewebs. emergency and investment purposes) and a retirement account. Healthy lifestyle: The individual is encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle by watching his diet and exercising regularly. the government burden will be reduced as the government can rely less on increasing taxes as the individual. Some community organizations provide free health checks and organize recreational activities for senior citizens to help them remain physically.  Tax relief: Tax payers can claim an income tax deduction for taking care for the senior citizens. Community help: The government provides subsidies to voluntary welfare organizations running communitybased services for senior citizens.

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