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Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
Procedia Structural
Structural IntegrityIntegrity
(2017) 608–613
(2016) 000–000

2nd International Conference on Structural Integrity, ICSI 2017, 4-7 September 2017, Funchal,
Madeira, Portugal

XV Portuguese of microstructural
Conference failure
on Fracture, PCF 2016, probability
10-12 February based
2016, Paço on Portugal
de Arcos,
restoration of the field distributions laws in components of
Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an
heterogenous media
airplane gas turbine engine
Mikhail Tashkinov
*, Elena
b Spaskovaca
P. Brandão , V. Infante , A.M. Deus *
Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Komsomolsky Ave., 29, Perm, 614990, Russia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
IDMEC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
CeFEMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa,
One of the common approaches in the micromechanics of structurally inhomogeneous media with a random structure is connected
with the methods of statistical mechanics for many-particle systems. The approach to the analysis of the distribution of stress and
strain fields in representative volumes of heterogeneous media introduced in this paper is based on reconstruction of the distribution
laws for each component. Methods for finding parameters of distribution laws are described, different types of distribution laws
were compared.
During The technique
their operation, modernof analysis
failure components
probability ofare microstructural
subjected to elements is given.
increasingly Some numerical
demanding operatingresults for
particular thestudies
case high pressure turbine (HPT) blades. Such conditions cause these parts to undergo different types of time-dependent
are presented.
© degradation, one of Published
2017 The Authors. which is creep. A model
by Elsevier B.V. using the finite element method (FEM) was developed, in order to be able to predict
© 2017 The Authors.
the creep Published
behaviour by Elsevier
of HPT blades. B.V.
Flight data recordsof(FDR) for a specific aircraft, provided by a commercial aviation
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee ICSI 2017.
wereresponsibility of thethermal
used to obtain Scientificand
Committee of ICSI
mechanical data2017
for three different flight cycles. In order to create the 3D model
needed random
Keywords: for thestructure,
FEM analysis, a HPT
distribution blade
of fields, scrap
failure was scanned,
probability, and its
representative chemical
volume composition
element, and material properties were
fracture criteria.
obtained. The data that was gathered was fed into the FEM model and different simulations were run, first with a simplified 3D
rectangular block shape, in order to better establish the model, and then with the real 3D mesh obtained from the blade scrap. The
overall expected behaviour in terms of displacement was observed, in particular at the trailing edge of the blade. Therefore such a
1. Introduction
model can be useful in the goal of predicting turbine blade life, given a set of FDR data.

2016analysis of mechanical
The Authors. behavior
Published by Elsevier of
B.V. structurally heterogeneous media keeps bringing up challenges due to
development of new multiphase materials, the advantagesof of
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee PCFwhich
2016.allow them to substitute traditional materials in
design of parts and structures for various applications. It is necessary to take into account multi-particle interactions
the components andTurbine
High Pressure contribution of each
Blade; Creep; ofElement
Finite them to the effective
Method; 3D Model;strength characteristics. Multiscale hierarchy of

* Corresponding author. E-mail address:

2452-3216 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Peer-review underauthor.
* Corresponding responsibility
Tel.: +351of218419991.
the Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017.
E-mail address:

2452-3216 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of PCF 2016.
2452-3216  2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of ICSI 2017
Mikhail Tashkinov et al. / Procedia Structural Integrity 5 (2017) 608–613 609
2 Mikhail Tashkinov/ Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

structurally heterogeneous materials is commonly studied using the concept of a representative volume element, when
the size of microstructural inhomogeneities is much smaller than the size of the volume itself.
In structurally heterogeneous materials deformation and fracture processes depend on the peculiarities of local
stress fields, for calculation of which fluctuations and deviations from the averaged values, caused by inhomogeneities
at the microscale, are important. A common direction in micromechanics of materials with random structure is the
methods of statistical mechanics for many-particle systems when multi-point statistics for stresses, deformations and
displacement fields are used to describe the interaction of inhomogeneities. The characteristics of the fields presented
in this way allow taking into account randomness of elements arrangements in the structure, as well as dispersion of
the properties of the components.
A large number of papers have been devoted to the description of structurally inhomogeneous media using tools of
statistics and probability theory, among which works of Baniassadi et al. (2012), Jiao et al. (2008), Liu and Ghoshal
(2014), Sheidaei et al. (2013), Yeong and Torquato (1998) were devoted to the methodology of describing and
identifying the microstructure of inhomogeneous media by means of correlation functions; the works of Aboudi et al.
(2013), Hyun and Torquato (2001), Kpobie et al. (2012), Torquato (2010) present the results of analysis of the
properties of the microstructure and their relationship to the mechanical and physical properties of the medium; the
influence of microstructure parameters on effective properties was also studied by Matveeva et al. (2014), Melro et al.
(2012), Rasool and Böhm (2012), Yu et al. (2013).


𝑝𝑝 failure probability
𝜎𝜎𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 stress tensor
𝜀𝜀𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 strain tensor
dist random variable distribution law
𝐸𝐸 Young’s modulus
𝜈𝜈 Poisson’s ration
RVE representative volume elemts

The heterogeneity of the microstructure has a significant effect on the distribution of stress and strain fields in
representative volume elements. Methods and tools of statistical analysis make it possible to investigate these
distributions from the analytical point of view. In this case, for example, the characteristics of failure of representative
volume and its components can be expressed in probabilistic quantities. The approach presented in this paper allows
to investigate probability of fracture initiation for the RVE phases basing on statistical representation of fracture
criteria and recovery of the stress and strain distribution functions in phases.

2. Failure probability based on fields distribution

There are several approaches for obtaining distribution of stress and strain fields in RVE. The first and most
common approach is to create a finite element model and process the data calculated for sets of elements belonging
to the matrix or inclusions. In this case, the result depends on mesh, the density of which increases with the complexity
of the geometry of the model. Another method is based on formalization of information about microstructure by means
of correlation functions and by solving an integral-differential equation containing the Green's function to obtain the
fluctuations of displacements, strain and stress fields. This approach is described by Buryachenko (2007), Chen and
Ang (2014), Tashkinov (2015), Xu et al. (2009). The accuracy of distribution laws reconstruction in this case depends
on order of the correlation functions and order of the statistical moments obtained on the basis of the integral-
differential equation solution.
In this work implementation of the methodology was performed using finite element analysis based on a mesh with
voxel-type elements. For instance, let’s consider the following procedure for restoration of stress distribution. For
each component of the stress tensor obtained for the set of finite elements corresponding to the phase, a sample of
pairs of stress values and the corresponding probability (weight coefficient) is constructed. These samples can be
analyzed using the moments of a random variable or the procedure for maximizing the log-likelihood function (Cam
610 Mikhail Tashkinov et al. / Procedia Structural Integrity 5 (2017) 608–613
Mikhail Tashkinov/ Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3

and Yang (2000)). For the analytical representation of this kind of numerical data, the type of the parametric
distribution law should be chosen. Its parameters are determined from the solution of the system of equations
connecting the parameters and moments of the random variable.
Based on the distribution of fields, it is possible to obtain the value of failure probability of components for a given
criterion and strength constants. In the simple case, the failure probability can be defined as

𝑝𝑝[𝜎𝜎𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 > 𝜎𝜎𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 , 𝜎𝜎𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 ~𝑑𝑑ⅈ𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠] (1)

Here, 𝜎𝜎𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 is stress critical value (which is material’s strength parameter), 𝜎𝜎𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 ~𝑑𝑑ⅈ𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 denotes that stress are
distributed according to 𝑑𝑑ⅈ𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 with a set of pararmeters.
In the general case, when, for example, the phase properties are not isotropic, a more complex criterion (Hashin's,
Tsai-Wu, Mises and others criteria) can be used. The distribution law of the expression for such criteria can be obtained
in the form of a transformation of the of distribution laws of the quantities which it consists of.

3. Modeling of heterogeneous RVE

Let’s consider a representative three-dimensional structurally inhomogeneous media with polydisperse particles.
A three-dimensional geometric model of this volume is a cube (matrix) with random disjoint spheres of different sizes
(inclusions). Assume that the matrix and inclusions have isotropic mechanical characteristics. The model
characteristics of the matrix and inclusions were taken 𝐸𝐸𝑀𝑀 = 109 , 𝑣𝑣𝑀𝑀 = 0.33 and 𝐸𝐸𝐼𝐼 = 1010 , 𝑣𝑣𝐼𝐼 = 0.33 respectively.
The volume fraction of inclusions is 20%. The loading was given in the form of tensile displacements 𝑢𝑢1 = 10−6
along the axis 1. The calculations were performed in the MSC Digimat package. An RVE and stress distributions for
11 component are shown on Fig. 1.

a b

Fig. 1. (a) Condsidered RVE; (b) Component 11 of stress tensor after applied load.

The distributions of the 𝜎𝜎11 component for the inclusions and the matrix phases are shown on Fig. 2.
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Fig. 2. Distribution of stress 11 component for matrix and inclusions.

The skew normal distribution, the Weibull distribution, and the gamma distribution were investigated as
distribution models (Johnson et al. (1994)). Skew normal and Weibull distribution are parametrized by a scale, location
and a shape parameter; gamma distribution has one more additional shape parameter.
Plots of probability density functions for these three distributions based on numerical modeling results (Fig. 2) are
presented on Fig. 3.
Calculated distribution parameters are presented in table 1.

Table 1. Distribution parameters values.

Matrix Inclusions
Skew normal Weibull Gamma Skew normal Weibull Gamma
Location parameter 735.018 251.972 -658.013 1914.33 1670.58 1546.75
Scale paramteter 591.449 1065.29 0.0140719 2928.37 2605.8 0.00301951
Shape parameter 1 8.64909 2.71031 152.57 15.0564 1.26998 26.8883
Shape parameter 2 - - 0.426703 - - 0.245275

a b

Fig. 3. Probability density function for 11 component of stress tensor for: (a) matrix; (b) inclusions.

As an illustration, let’s obtain the graph of the failure probability function for the obtained stress distribution laws
𝜎𝜎11 in the matrix and inclusions in dependence of the variable value of the critical constant 𝜎𝜎𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 (see Fig. 4).
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Mikhail Tashkinov/ Structural Integrity Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5

a b

Fig. 4. Dependence of failure probability on tensile strength for: (a) matrix; (b) inclusions.

Now let’s consider RVE of porous media with polydisperse inclusions with volume fraction 45%. As in the
previous case, matrix is isotropic: 𝐸𝐸𝑀𝑀 = 109 , 𝑣𝑣𝑀𝑀 = 0.33 . Pores are filled with vacuum. RVE is subject to
simultaneous tensile and shear load so that macroscopic strains are equal to:

10−6 10−6 0
𝑒𝑒 = (10−6 0 0) (2)
0 0 0

Distribution of 11 component of stress for such media is presented on Fig. 5a. Distribution functions for all
components of stress tensor can be restored (see Fig. 5b). Normal and skew normal distributions were used as model

a b

Fig. 5. (a) Stress field 𝜎𝜎11 in RVE; (б) Probability density functions stress tensor components.

The distribution functions obtained for each component of the strain tensor make it possible to calculate the fracture
probability using more complex criteria combining the strength constants of the material and the values of the
components of stress or strain tensors.

4. Conclusions

The described approach allows to restore stress and strain fields distribution laws in RVE phases and calculate
phase failure probabilities for phases with predetermined criteria and strength properties. Some numerical case studies
were considered.
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In general case, such statistical approach can be used for investigation of the influence of spread of the
microstructure parameters as well as the constants of an inhomogeneous medium on the strength characteristics of the
material. The question is whether it is possible to assess failure probability of the entire RVE on the basis of the
probability of microscale fracture. There are a number of approaches that make it possible to establish a relationship
between the probability of phases, the number of destroyed microparticles, and experimental data. Thus, by
introducing parameters determined experimentally for each material, it is possible to obtain relationships that directly
connect the probabilities of micro- and macro-scale fracture. There are also approaches based on basic mathematical
theories, such as percolation theory (Kesten (1982)) and beam theory (Bredon (1997)), which determines which
pattern of failed micro-scale elements will lead to failure of the whole element. The criteria for the components
represented in the form of the laws of distribution of stress and strain tensors can correspond to one or another failure
mechanisms, which makes it possible to use the fracture model with a set of criteria.


The research is supported by the Grant of the President of Russian Federation for state support of young Russian
scientists (MK-2395.2017.1).

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