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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

Conversion of English Text to Braille Code

vibration signal for Visually Impaired People
M.Rajasenathipathi Dr.M.Arthanari
Assistant professor in Computer Science Director
N.G.M. College of Arts and Science Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications
Pollachi- 642001, Tamilnadu, India Ellispettai-638116, Tamilnadu, India

Doctoral Research Scholar
Anna University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract - This paper is concerned with the translation of text to vibration signal in a hand glove. The glove contains six
Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using vibration positions which equals to six raised dots of a
an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a Braille cell. Braille translation is not a trivial task, however,
translation system that combines a finite state machine with left because there is a need to perform the contractions
and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This
allows the translation of different languages and different
grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All II. BRAILLE CODE CONVERSION
the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of
different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that
A. What is Braille code
they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal
vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the As mentioned earlier Braille generally consists of cells of six
Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The raised dots arranged in a grid of two dots horizontally by three
changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion dots vertically. The dots are conventionally numbered 1, 2,
are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for and 3 from the top of the left column and 4, 5, and 6 from the
mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to top of the right column.The presence or absence of dots gives
learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind the coding for the symbol.
people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by
students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using
English as their primary or secondary languag; and well-suited
to the needs of blind students in developing countries

Keywords: Braille; cell; hand glove; viberation; characte; dot

I. INTRODUCTION Figure 1 . A Braille Cell

Braille is a system of writing that uses patterns of raised dots
to inscribe characters on paper. It therefore allows visually- English Braille is used to code the letters punctuation
impaired people to read and write using touch instead of symbols, some double letter signs and word signs directly but
vision .It is a way for blind people to participate in a literate capital letters and numbers are dealt with by using a prefix
culture. First developed in the nineteenth century, Braille has symbol
become the pre-eminent tactile alphabet. Its characters are
six-dot cells, two wide by three tall. Any of the dots may be
raised, giving 26 or 64 possible characters. Although Braille
cells are used world-wide, the meaning of each of the 64
cells depends on the language that they are being used to
depict. Different languages have their own Braille codes,
mapping the alphabets, numbers and punctuation symbols to
Braille cells in accordance with the varying needs. Braille
characters can also be used to represent whole words or
groups of letters. This text can then be translated into Braille Figure 2. Words and Abbreviations of Braille cell

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

Sample texts in Braille • Justification of computer Braille translation:

Braille has come under attack in recent years, with studies
showing decreasing usage due to changing patterns of
education. Alternative technologies, like speech synthesis,
now exist for many of its applications. It can be safely
Be kind to others assumed that sighted people will use without complexity, but
it is difficult for partially sighted or blind. There are
Figure 3. Example for Braille to English fundamental reasons for continuing with Braille.
• Reading and writing Braille code is a form of literacy:
Literacy is a vital component of modern knowledge and
society, and Braille code permits literacy for blind people.
Using audio only technology denies literacy to Braille users.
• Braille code is silent:
Alternative technologies to Braille may not be useful in all
circumstances. A speech synthesizer and speech interpreter
forbid complete privacy and intrude on the local
environment. This would not be appropriate in, for example,
an office environment.
• Braille code is accurate in reading:
Speech synthesis is an alternative method to Braille code
conversion. it may introduce different meanings. Problems
will arise from words not known to the synthesizer, miss-
spelt words, or with words pronounced differently according
to context Reading straight from the text removes a
potential source of error.
• Braille code allows interpretation of the text by the
reader, not by another:
Any reader who wishes to interpret a text themselves – an
actor, or a reader for pleasure – may want to form their own
interpretation of a text, not be forced into that of a wrong
logic in computer program or particular actor. In accuracies
in interpretation may be possible.
• Braille code is cheaper than computer technology:
The mechanism to produce Braille vibration signal and
produce Blind can understand the communication to the
Figure 4. Letters, Numerals and Special symbols of Braille world very easily and it is new communication path for blind
B. Use of Braille with computer technology III BRAILLE CODE TRANSLATION MECHANISM
With the profitable commercialization of several public
The recent development of personal computers has brought translators the number of approaches available for study in
new benefits to Braille users that have access to them. the public realm has decreased. Approaches have inclined to
Computerized Braille translation is one of these benefits, but be based around the use of dictionaries of specific
it is not a straightforward process because of the complexities translations and limited rule systems because of the trade-off
of Braille construction. between translation rule numbers and accuracy. The rules
work with a ‘window’ of the input text that can potentially be
• Difficulties of computer Braille translation: translated, and examine the context to the right of the
Construction makes Braille translation difficult. Without it, window to see a rule is correct to determine whether the
Braille translation would be a relatively text characters to window is in the middle or end of a word. A finite state
Braille cells. Each language (English, French) would need its machine determines whether the translation is performed.
own unique mapping dictionary, but the operation would be This may be still the basis for commercial products, but they
trivial. Contraction greatly increases complexity, so computer have ceased to be published in the public domain.
translation is generally difficult. For example, in German,
there are many words that are formed from the concatenation
of other words, similar to the English.

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
A finite state machine, the translation engine, works with, but Before translation starts, the input text is normalized,
is independent of a single language rules table. The former ensuring that any character in the text is appropriate for that
contains the translation algorithms and functions, and the language. This may be upper and lower case, for instance. It
latter all of the translation information for translation of one can simplify translation and can also allow more flexibility if
language in one direction. The translation engine can use any required.
language rules table, so any language can be translated to or
from Braille code if the language rules table is constructed. The algorithm is high-level, but simple. The design does not
The language rules table consists of a set of translation rules make explicit what should output when no match is found for
and a decision table. During translation the engine works an input character. A space, or the input character, or another
along the input text, character by character. It attempts to character, or nothing may be written, at the discretion of the
match a window of input text starting with the current implementer and produce the no vibration in Braille glove as
character with one of the translation rules in the language output. The choice will reflect the final user requirements for
rules table. A successful match with a translation rule must an implementation of the system.
match a segment of text, the context, to the left and right of
the window and the state of the engine. The engine state is
controlled by a finite state machine, using the contents of the IV SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
decision table, and regulates which subset of the language
A. Braille Transalation implementation
translation rules can be used. This allows both contracted and
non-contracted translation can be supported from the same Braille Trans is coded in the Matlab 7.6. It is designed to be
language rules table. The translation rule then provides the compiled and run on one of the Microsoft Windows 32-bit
translation for that window of input text, which is appended operating systems (Windows '95/'98/Me or Windows
to the growing output text, and the engine moves along the NT/XP). When compiled to an executable program, in native
input text to the next unmatched character. A description of code, it resides on a machine as a Windows Dynamic Linked
the structure of the language rules table will clarify the Library (DLL). This is a binary executable that supplies a
translation mechanism. public interface to the Windows operating system and can
thus be utilized by other Windows applications with
A. The translation algorithm and process comparative case.
B. Hardware System Description
The details of the language rules table provided in the
preceding sections should allow the algorithm of the The block diagram of Braille vibration hand glove system is
translation engine to be understood. It initializes and loads as follows
language translation table and translate input text into Braille
code then it send signals to operate Braille hand glove.

Current character = first character of input Micro

While current character <> end of input PC Controller Driver
Do 89C51 Relay 6
Start at first rule whose focus begins with current character
Match = FALSE
RS 232C Relay 6
If focus matches
And state is ok
And right context matches
And left context matches
Vibrator 6
Add output from matching rule to output buffer
Set new state according to matching rule
Match = TRUE Figure 5. Block diagram for Vibration Hand Glove
Current character moved along input by length of focus
End The vibration glove system will be comprised of the
Else following key components
Go to next rule 1. 89C51 Micro controller
Until match 2. Driver Relay
End 3. Relay
4. RS 232 C
5. Vibrator motor with hand glove

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
Port 1 contains higher order address line (A8-A15). Port 3
contains special purpose register such as serial input receiver
register SBUF, interrupt INT0,INT1 and timers T0 , T1 many
of the pins have multi functions which can be used as general
purpose I/O pins (or) Special purpose function can be
decided by the programmer itself.
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-
bit microcomputer with 4KB of Flash Programmable and
Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is
manufactured using Atmel high density non-volatile
memory technology and is compatible with the industry
standard MCS-51™ instruction set and pin out.

The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be

reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory programmer. Here the vibration motor timing and
on/off procedure is programmed in hi-tech c language and it
is loaded in micro controller. Based on the signals from
Figure 6. Braille Vibration Glove Braille code value it is activated with the corresponding
motors in Braille hand glove.

• Micro controller and Working principle: • RS-232:

Microcontroller is a general purpose device, which integrates In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial binary
a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto data interconnection between a DTE (Data Terminal
single chip. It has inbuilt CPU, memory and peripherals to Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit Terminating
make it as a mini computer. A microcontroller is integrated Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports.
with In this circuit the MAX 232 IC used as level logic converter.
1. CPU Core The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a
2. RAM and ROM capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA 232 voltage levels
3. Some parallel digital i/o ICs from a single 5V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 to
5V TTL/CMOS levels. Each driver converts TLL/CMOS
Microcontrollers will combine other devices such as: input levels into EIA-232 levels. In this circuit the
A timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform microcontroller transmitter pin is connected in the MAX232
tasks for certain time periods. A serial I/O port to allow data T2IN pin which converts input 5V TTL/CMOS level to
to flow between the controller and other devices such as a RS232 level. Then T2OUT pin is connected to receiver pin
PIC or another microcontroller. An ADC allows analogue of 9 pin D type serial connector which is directly connected
input data to convert into digital data. to PC. Here the Braille hand glove is connected to COM1
port of PC and it retrieves the Braille signals through RS-
Micro controller is a stand alone unit, which can perform 232.
functions on its own without any requirement for additional
• Vibrator motor:
hardware like I/O ports and external memory. The heart of
The main component in Braille glove is vibration motor. it is
the microcontroller is the CPU core. In the past, this has
configured in two basic varieties ie coin (or flat) and cylinder
traditionally been based on a 8-bit microprocessor unit. For
(or bar). Cylinder type motors are simple brush motors with a
example Motorola uses a basic 6800 microprocessor core in
traditional axial design. The centric movement of the weight
their 6805/6808 microcontroller devices.
attached to the rotor provides vibration during operation. In
Braille glove it is best suited in finger positions. The amount
In the recent years, microcontrollers have been developed
of vibration is directly proportional to the voltage applied to
around specifically designed CPU cores, for example the
the motor. Cylinder motors are manufactured in high
microchip PIC range of microcontrollers.AT89C51 is the 40
volumes and are fairly inexpensive. An electrical current
pins, 8 bit Microcontroller manufactured by Atmel group. It
applied to the coil in the direction of the arrow generates
is the flash type reprogrammable memory. Advantage of this
upward force on the left side of the coil and downward force
flash memory is we can erase the program within few
on the right side, causing the coil to revolve clockwise.
minutes. It has 4KB on chip ROM and 128 bytes internal
RAM and 32 I/O pin as arranged as port 0 to port 3 each has V. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK
8 bit bin .Port 0 contains 8 data line(D0-D7) as well as low
The development of computer text and Braille translation is
order address line(AO-A7).
necessary for visually impaired community. A number of
private translation programs exist, but their private

ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
ownership restricts open development. A translation
algorithm has been developed and implemented in a Matlab
7.6 translation program and high-tech C language was used
in Braille hand glove. However, a number of limitations of
this implementation were identified: the platform and
character-set dependency of the Matlab implementation, its
standalone function, and the difficulties of using Braille M.Rajasenathipathi ( is a third
Trans as part of a larger application. The project therefore year Doctoral Research Scholar in the Research and
proposed the development of a number of new classes to Development Centre of Bharathiar University. He received
improve wherever possible on Braille Trans. The his Master degree in computer Applications and M.Phil
development of these classes was a success, and the time degree in computer science from M.K. University. He is also
available was appropriate to the work required. working as an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at
N.G.M.College , Pollachi , India. He has been an active
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