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WOMEN TRAFFICKING

The Exploitation in Trafficking Women and the Poor Communication measures in


Upper Authority in Developing Nations

Submitted to: Mrs. Batool Nawab


Submitted by: Rubab Hussain
Reg: 0718123
Class: BaBs
Date: July 1, 2010

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Sociology – Women Trafficking – Developing Nations 1/7/2010

Executive Summary

Communication has a vital role to play if the incurable crime of women trafficking is to be completely
eliminated out of the system. An astonishing fact is that women trafficking does not involve a central
criminal organization alone. Ironically, people who belong to organizations that work to eradicate
women trafficking are involved in facilitating the process. This include the heavy involvement of
officials who are in police, judicial system, airport authorities, customs, visa and embassy staff, border
control, immigration services, intelligence, security services and even armed forces.

Governmental departments play a role in fuelling women trafficking in developing nations and
especially in under developed nations, due to communication barriers. Organizations from the private
sectors such as travel agencies, airlines and financial institutions are also part of the illegal chain in
women trafficking. One imperative that links all these departments and organizations is
communication which unfortunately is in a poor state due to deliberate acts of corruption and fraud.

First, it is essential to identify the factors that contribute to the disruption of communication at the
upper level. Developing nations or nations that belong to the third world category are most vulnerable
to corruption and illegality. The fact that corruption is flourishing not only at the bottom but also at the
top of the hierarchy of people involved pays evidence as to how poor the situation is in developing
nations. The issue of trafficking and sexual exploitation of women is a subject of great concern and
much consideration is required in developing countries to combat this raging threat on especially
young, poor helpless females. The preservation of all human rights is necessary for successful progress
of a nation/state. We as citizens of Pakistan, which is a developing nation itself, requires the need for
reform and understanding of the issues at hand.

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Sociology – Women Trafficking – Developing Nations 1/7/2010

Contents

Executive Summary...........................................................................................................I

1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................1

1.1.. .Background.......................................................................................................2

1.2.. .Problem Statement............................................................................................2

2. Causes and Effects of Women Trafficking .........................................................................6

3. Status of Communication within Upper Authorities...........................................................8

3.1.. Organised Crime Unit, Victim and Authorities................................................6

3.2.. Short Comings of Communication Process......................................................6

4. Effects of Ineffective Communication from Upper Level...................................................7

4.1...Reasons for Poor Communication....................................................................7

5. Recommendations................................................................................................................8

6. References............................................................................................................................9

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Sociology – Women Trafficking – Developing Nations 1/7/2010

1. Introduction

United Nations defines Human rights as the ‘rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our
nationality... sex... or any other status. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and
indivisible.’ The exploitation and trafficking of women is in direct violation of these rights that we so
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adamantly protect. The view of women as a commodity rather than an asset is against regulations laid
down to protect individual rights. There are close to 115 developing nations in the world, in which
there are millions who operate within the illegal ‘trafficking business’. It is important to explore why
this exploitation of women occurs, how it occurs, and its effects.

One of the underlining issues is the ineffective communication measures in upper authority. A
developing country means underdeveloped governing bodies, and poor governing capabilities means
weak communication standards. Even the communication which exists is rendered ineffectual due to
corruption (the trafficking chain depends upon this); the ability for upper level authorities to tackle the
trafficking problem head on lies in the eradication of communication gaps and the eventual curtailing
of internal corruption. When dealing with issues such as women trafficking affective communication is
essential to inhibit the escalation of this type of criminal activity. To resolve the problem we must first
understand the issue. The vast number of crimes that occur in direct consequence of trafficking women
range from physical abuse to emotional torture. The solution lies in the source; by effectively detecting
and relaying information concerning women trafficking, our governing bodies can tackle the issue
head on at its root. Communication is the key!

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1.1.Background

The reason why women trafficking is prevalent throughout the world is due to the fact that more than
two-thirds of the world lives in poverty. False promises are made to women as they try to search for a
better life. This leads them to believe that they will have everything they want in another country for a
small fee which they can easily pay off in the rich society of the first world. What really happens is
that these women end up working as cheap labour or are forced into prostitution in order to pay off
these debts. ‘The women are forced to sell themselves for sex until they can pay off their fee for
reaching the new country.’2 More than often these women end up working for the same people who
enslaved them, by bringing in more women to join them. They do this by telling the same lies that
convinced them that a life ‘abroad’ would be better than the one they had in their own country.

1.2.Problem Statement

Women trafficking is widespread in developing countries. There are governmental agencies in place to
deal with this problem; however they are ineffectual due to the lack of communication, or degenerate
standards of communication specifically from upper level authorities.

To bring an end to this trafficking problem, women's groups worldwide have been lobbying their own
governments and the United Nations to crackdown on women trafficking especially into the sex trade,
but one of the biggest obstacles they continue to face is trying to figure out who the ringleaders are and
the authorities responsible in tackling them head-on. This is hard to do because of the majority of rings
being operated by members of organized crime, and the communication problems in the governing
bodies.

Our job is to bring to view the state of affairs concerning this women trafficking in developing nations,
as well as communication problems amongst the organisations who deal with these issues.

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2. Causes and Effects of Women Trafficking

Trafficking in human beings is a cruel and increasingly worrying prospect in the world today; the
increased globalisation of world has only further fuelled organised criminal activity. Each year
millions of people around the world are transported through force or coercion into lives of forced
labour and sexual servitude. The great majority of these victims are women who are exploited in
commercial sex industries. Trafficking in women not only involves sexual exploitation, but also labour
exploitation causing us to relate it very much to slavery. The victims are subjected to violence, rape,
battery and extreme cruelty as well as other types of pressure and coercion. The developing nations
and the candidate countries are much affected by these scourges to society.

3. Status of Communication within Upper Authorities

3.1. Organised Crime Unit, Victims and Authorities

There exists an organized crime group that commits the act of human trafficking in order to gain some
financial benefit. The people who are the victims of human trafficking may receive financial benefits
or in many cases are forced by use of threat or power of position, or are deceived into being exploited.
The exploitation includes prostitution, slavery and removal of organs.

3.2. Breach in Communication

Trafficking Chain

• The provision of documentation like identity papers, visas and permits


• Transportation across borders
• Control and exploitation of the victims
• Laundering and investing the finances
The authorities involved are:
• Public sector - police, customs officers, visa officers, border control, immigration services, local
officials, intelligence and security services, armed forces
• Private sector – travel agencies, airlines, financial institutions
• Persons, groups, parties with influence
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They either violate their duties by ignoring or tolerating the trafficking, or they may be involved in
organized crime by actively participating in the human trafficking.

Criminal Justice Chain

There is an active obstruction of investigations, prosecution and judicial proceedings, and in the
revealing of information. The parties involved include parliamentarians and government officials,
investigators, criminal police, prosecutors, and judges.3

4. Effect of Ineffective Communication from Upper Level

Officials who are designated at high public positions misuse their status in order to gain illegal favours
which could either be in the form of financial offerings or other personal benefits. They are also bribed
with hefty amounts for bridging a way for traffickers illegally. One cannot clap with one hand alone
and this is exactly what happens in the case of women trafficking. If officials from upper authorities
were not corrupt in their job, it would be practically impossible for any trafficking to take place.
Unfortunately, this isn’t the case and with the aid of all upper authorities, there’s absolutely no
stopping illegal women trafficking in developing nations.

4.1.The Reasons for Poor Communication

It is now important to identify how this poor communication from the upper level makes the process of
stopping women trafficking ineffectual.

Due to corruption at ground-root level, police, despite knowing all spots where the prostitution takes
place, do not pass on information to concerned authorities for them to take any action against it.
Trafficking takes place across borders which become possible because of the lack of communication
between the law enforcement agencies of the two countries. Since vital information regarding
premature and illegal deportation is not being disseminated, victims are easily transported to the
desired destinations of the criminal organizations.

Law enforcement and criminal justice authorities in developing nations have no established
collaboration between themselves. Unless veiled information about where and how is the trafficking

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taking place is passed on by the law enforcement agencies, the criminal justice authorities cannot take
any action.

Local police as well as political authorities in developing countries may provide protection to pubs and
bars in exchange for money or sexual services. Police officers may earn a second salary as security
guards in clubs and bars. They may also inform bar owners before raids instead of passing on that
information to law enforcement authorities. Police officers may provide help to traffickers in the
course of investigations, for example, by deporting victims before giving testimony. If the police
themselves are corrupt, even if information is there, it won’t be functional.

Authorities controlling borders are futile which leads to provision of entry visas and residence and
work permits, or entry without control of travel documents. Due to poor communication, authorities at
the receiving end are indefinite about the intruders with illegal documentation and therefore allow
them in their country. However, if they communicated amongst themselves, the illegal intrusion could
be clogged and the victims could be identified.

Due to lack of communication between police and criminal justice authorities in the developing
countries, vital information is not passed, because of which pro-active investigations are halted and no
anti-trafficking operations are conducted.

5. Recommendations

As far as developing nations are concerned, there needs to be cooperation between different criminal
justice agencies within jurisdictions and the police, in investigations (including the arrest of traffickers,
the tracing and rescue of victims, securing evidence, witness statements from victims, investigations,
financial investigations and search and convulsion of proceeds) as well as pro-active investigations
(including undercover operations, surveillance and other special investigative means, intelligence
gathering and crime analysis, and financial investigations).

It is essential for all agencies (criminal justice, police, law enforcement, anti-trafficking) in the
developing countries to enhance communication and cooperation at all levels of the hierarchy so that
vital information is appropriately circulated and the required operations be conducted. Investigations
and their results should be disseminated to all parties so that proactive measures can be taken before
hand and illegal women trafficking can consequently be put to a halt.

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6. References

1. http://jewishsurvivors.blogspot.com/2006/06/international-trafficking-ring-busted.html
With files from Dale Ann Freed - posted by Jewish Survivors at Wednesday, June 07, 2006

2. Chew, Lin. 1999. "Global Trafficking in Women: Some Issues and Strategies." Women's
Studies Quarterly

3. Reanda, Laura. 1999. "Endangering the United Nations. The Changing International Agenda."
The European Journal of Women's Studies.

4. Taylor, Carole Anne. 1999. "Commodity Future." The Women's Review of Books.

5. United Nations Crime and Justice Research Institute, Serial Publications, Issues & Reports No
5. Women’s Victimisation in Developing Countries, Anna Alvazzi del Frate - Angela
Patrignani

6. http://www.ams.org/membership/develop.html

7. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx

8. http://www.unicri.it/wwk/publications/books/reports/r5.php

9. Human Trafficking: www.humantraffickingsearch.net

10. http://www.u4.no/helpdesk/helpdesk/queries/query33.cfm

11. http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/legal_cooperation/combating_economic_crime/3_technical
_cooperation/PACO/PACOTP28rev(PortorozFinal).pdf

12. http://www.interpol.com/Public/THB/Women/Default.asp

13. http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Reports/Html/197.htm

14. http://www.coe.int/t/dg2/trafficking/campaign/default_en.asp