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 Garden City Movement- Sir Ebenezer Howard

 Neighbourhood Planning- C A Perry
 Satellite Town
 City Beautiful Movement
 Geddisain Triad- Patrick Geddes
 Radburn Theory
 Ribbon Development
 Broad Acre City- Frank Lloyd Wright

1. GARDEN CITY- Sir Ebenezer Howard

 Most potent planning model in Western
urban planning
 Created by Ebenezer Howard in 1898 to
solve urban and rural problems
 Source of many key planning ideas during
20th century
 He analysed the reasons for people to move to city or country side.
 The Garden City consists for different zones, street types and garden
 The core Core in centre is about 4 sq. km and contains central park,
surrounded by a commercial, cultural and administrative zone.

‘Garden City’

An impressive diagram of the three magnets namely the town

magnet, country magnet with their advantages and
disadvatages and the third magnet with attractive features of
both town and country life.

Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City.

Core Garden City Principles

 Strong community
 Ordered development
 Environmental quality
These were to be achieved by:

 Unified ownwership of land to prevent individual land

 Speculation and maximize community benefit
 Careful planning to provide generous living and
 Working Space while maintaining natural qualities
 Social Mix and good community facilities
 Limits to growth of each garden city
 Local participation in decisions about development

2. NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT- Clarence Arthur Perry

Clarence Arthur Perry

-a New York planner. Perry’s neighborhood unit concept began as a means of insulating the
community from the ill-effects of burgeoning sea of vehicular traffic.

Evolved due to the advent of industrial revolution and degradation of the city environment
caused due to:

 High congestion
 Heavy traffic movement through the city
 Insecurity to school going children
 Distant location of shopping and recreation activities; etc.


-To create a safely healthy physical environment in which:

 Children will have no traffic streets to cross on their way to school, schools which are within
walking distance from home;
 An environment in which women may have an easy walk to a shopping centre where they may
get the daily household goods.
 Employed people may find convenient transportation to and from work
 Well equipped playground is located near the house where children may play in safety with their
friends for healthy development of their mind and spirit.

 Unit of Urban Planning

 Street System
 Facilities
 Population
 Sector
 Size and Density
 Neighborhood Walkways
 Protective Strips


 Compact in Size
 Mix of Uses
 Network of Streets
 Public Open Space
 Building Typologies
 Parking Strategies
 Transit Opportunities
 Compatibility


A Satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban

planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan
areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly
independent of larger metropolitan areas.


 Predate the metropolis' suburban expansion

 Are at least partially independent from that metropolis economically and socially
 Are physically separated from the metropolis by rural territory or by a major geographic
barrier such as a large river; satellite cities should have their own independent
urbanized area, or equivalent
 Have their own bedroom communities
 Have a traditional downtown surrounded by traditional "inner city" neighborhoods
 May or may not be counted as part of the large metropolis' Combined Statistical Area

 The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and
urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing
beautification and monumental grandeur in cities.
 The movement, which was originally associated mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and
Washington, D.C., promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to create moral and civic
virtue among urban populations.
 Advocates of the philosophy believed that such beautification could promote a harmonious
social order that would increase the quality of life, while critics would complain that the
movement was overly concerned with aesthetics at the expense of social reform.

Burnham believed that a city needed a grand entrance and that was the railway depot.

The grand boulevard was justified as a solution to traffic problems encountered by suburban commuters
and a way to provide housing for higher people in the city.

Burnham also wanted all the bridges over the rivers rebuilt to be more attractive.

Goals and Objectives

 To introduce beautification and monumental grandeur in cities.

 To sweep away social ills.
 To have a cultural resemblance with their European competitors through the use of Beaux-Arts
 To prevent upper classes back to live, but to work and spend money in the urban zone.

City Beautiful Movement superimposed a system of diagonals and rotundas over the basic rectangular
grid street patterns of American cities

City Beautiful" planning concentrated on public buildings as focal points of wide and grandiose avenues

5. GEDDISIAN TRIAD- Patrick Geddes

Patrick Geddes:

 Father of Modern Town planning

 First to link sociological concepts into town planning
 “Survey before plan”
Geddisian Triad Concept

 Gave new approach to the development of existing towns and new techniques of
 A town is integration of ‘folk, work and place’
 This means that in preparing a plan we must take into consideration:
-The no. and the kind of people
-Their needs for work
-And place (housing, education recreation and amenities)
 All data must be analysed and then developed.
 His technique of planning were
a) Survey before plan
b) Plan Before Development
c) Observe to understand and understand to foresee.

Patrick Geddes Planning Concepts

 Rural development, Urban Planning and City Design are not the same and
adopting a common planning process is disastrous.
 Conurbation- Waves of population inflow to large cities, followed by
overcrowding and slum formation, and then the wave of backflow- the wholw
process resulting in amorphous sprawl, waste, and unnecessary obsolescence.
The Sequence of Planning is to be:

 Regional Survey
 Rural development
 Town Planning
 City Design

Radburn was going to meet the problems of "modern society" is best illustrated in
architect Henry Wright's "Six Planks for a Housing Platform". These ideas formed the
basic philosophy that he followed in designing Radburn. His planks were:


Henry Wright’s “Six Planks for a Housing Platform”

1. Plan simply, but comprehensively. Don't stop at the individual property line. Adjust
paving, sidewalks, sewers and the like to the particular needs of the property dealt with -
not to a conventional pattern. Arrange buildings and grounds so as to give sunlight, air and
a tolerable outlook to even the smallest and cheapest house.

2. Provide ample sites in the right places for community use: i.e., playgrounds, school
gardens, schools, theatres, churches, public buildings and stores.

3. Put factories and other industrial buildings where they can be used without wasteful
transportation of goods or people.

4. Cars must be parked and stored, deliveries made, waste collected - plan for such
services with a minimum of danger, noise and confusion.

5. Bring private and public land into relationship and plan buildings and groups of buildings
with relation to each other. Develop collectively such services as will add to the comfort of
the individual, at lower cost than is possible under individual operation.

6. Arrange for the occupancy of houses on a fair basis of cost and service, including the
cost of what needs to be done in organizing, building and maintaining the community.