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CHAPTER 8

SALTS
Your Previous Knowledge :
Chemical properties of acid :
Acid + Metal  Salt + H2
Acid + Metal Carbonate  Salt + H2O + CO2
Acid + Metal oxide  Salt + H2O
Acid + Alkali  Salt + H2O
Definition:
Salt is an ionic compound formed
when the H+ ion in
an acid is replaced by a metal ion or
an NH4+ ammonium ion

Example :
from base

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2 O

From acid
Salts can be classified into two main groups
Do 8.1
page 2 Salts Double
decomposition

Soluble Insoluble
salts salts
Neutralisation

Na+, K+, NH4+ Cl- SO42- CO32- PbCl2, PbSO4,


and nitrate salts salts salts AgCl, BaSO4,
salts HgCl CaSO4
Reaction acid with
NAK metal/metal oxide/ metal
salt PAH PBC
carbonate
PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS

Method I: Neutralisation reaction:

Acid + Alkali → Salt + H2O

This method is suitable for


sodium, potassium and ammonium salts.
Acid + Alkali → Salt + H2O

Potassium Sulphate :
H2SO4 + 2KOH → K2SO4 + 2 H2O

Sodium carbonate :
H2CO3 + 2NaOH → Na2CO3 + 2H2O

Ammonium Chloride :
HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl
Method 1 : Neutralization reaction
Acid + Alkali → Salt + H2O
Titration method

acid Salt
solution

alkali heat the salt solution


until 1/3 original
Salt volume and cooled at
salt room temperature

To dry the salt :


press the salt
between 2 filter
paper heat
1. Measure 25 cm3 2 mol dm-3 Sodium hydroxide
solution by using a pipette and transfer into a
conical flask.
2. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein into the conical
flask
3. Pour hydrochloric acid into a burette. Record initial
acid
reading of burette.
4. Titrate hydrochloric acid into the conical flask until
the colour of solution in the conical flask change
form pink to colourless.

alkali 5. Record the final reading of burette. Volume of acid


used to neutralised the alkali is V cm 3.
6. Repeat step 1-4 without adding phenolphthalein.
7. Cool the saturated salt solution to
room temperature and crystal of salt
formed.

8. Filter the crystal salt and rinsed by


using small amount of distilled
water.

9. Press the salt between 2 filter


paper to dry the salt.
PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS
Method II: Reaction of Acid And Bases

(a) Acids + Metal → Salts + H2


This method is not suitable for salts when
the metal is below hydrogen in the
Electrochemical Series, e.g copper.

(b) Acid + Metal Oxide → Salt + H2O


(c) Acid + Metal Carbonates → Salt + H2O+CO2
Zinc sulphate:
H2SO4 + Zn → ZnSO4 + H2
H2SO4 + ZnO → ZnSO4 + H2O
H2SO4 + ZnCO3 → ZnSO4 + CO2 + H2O

Copper Chloride :
HCl + Cu → No Reaction!!!
2HCl + CuO → CuCl2 + H2O
2HCl + CuCO3 → CuCl2 + CO2 + H2O
Copper(II) Sulphate :
H2SO4 + Cu → No Reaction!!!
H2SO4 + CuO → CuSO4 + H2O
H2SO4 + CuCO3 → CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O
Method II : Reaction of Acid And Bases
Excess
•Metal
•Metal oxide
•Carbonates
Salt
Acid solution

heat
heat the salt
Salt
solution until 1/3
original volume and
salt
cooled to room
temperature

To dry the salt :


press the salt
between 2 filter
paper
heat
1. Measure [50-100] cm3 [0.1-2.0] mol dm-3
sulphuric acid and pour into a beaker.
2. Heat the acid.
3. Add CuO/CuCO3 powder little by little until
excess
4. Stir the mixture by using glass rod.
5. Filter the mixture.
6. Pour the salt solution into an evaporating dish.
7. Heat the salt solution until saturated.
8. Cool the saturated salt solution to room
temperature and crystal of salt formed.
9. Filter the crystal salt and rinsed by using
small amount of distilled water
10. Press the salt between 2 filter paper to dry
the salt.
Have fixed
Have flat surface,
geometrical shapes
straight edges and
such as cuboid,
sharp angles
rhombic or prism

Physical
Characteristic of
Crystal Salt

Crystal of same Crystal have fixed


substance have angles between
same shape but two neighboring
may be in different surfaces
size
PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS.
Insoluble salts can be prepared by
• Double decomposition reaction
• Precipitation method.

The general equation:


Salt solution + Salt solution →Insoluble salt + Salt solution

Example:

Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → PbCl2 + 2NaNO3


(White precipitate)

Ionic equation : Pb2+ + 2Cl- → PbCl2


DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION REACTION
Soluble salt

Soluble salt formed

Precipitate – insoluble
salt formed

Residue : insoluble
salt salt

To dry the salt :


press the salt Filtrate : soluble
between 2 filter salt
paper Filter to separate the
Rinse the salt precipitate
1. Measure [50-100] cm3 [0.1-2.0] mol dm-3
lead(II) nitrate solution and pour into a beaker.

2. Pour [50-100] cm3 [0.1-2.0] mol dm-3 sodium


iodide solution into the beaker.

3. Stir the mixture and a precipitate is


formed.

4. Filter the mixture.

6. Rinse the residue /precipitate with


distilled water.

7. Press the precipitate with 2 filter paper


to dry the salt
QUALITATIVE
ANALYSIS OF
SALTS
GENERAL PROCEDURES
INVOLVED :
• Observations on the physical properties of salts
• Tests for gases
• Action of heat on salts
• Tests for anions
• Tests for cations
• Confirmatory test for Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+ and NH4+
ions
OBSERVATIONS ON THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
OF SALTS

1. Solubility of salts
2. Colour of salt
Effects Of Heat On Salts.
Metal Carbonates Nitrates Chlorides
K No decomposition Decomposes. Forms No decomposition.
Na O2 and nitrite. Very stable except
for
Ca Decomposes. Decomposes. Forms NH4ClNH3 + HCl
Mg Forms metal metallic oxide,
Al oxide, CO2 nitrogen dioxide
(Brown gas) and O2
Zn
Fe
Sn
Pb
Cu
Hg Decomposes. Decomposes to
Ag Forms metal, CO2 metal, NO2 and O2
Au and O2
Effects Of Heat On Carbonate Salts.
Carbonate salt → Metal oxide + CO2
Example: Heating of copper(II) carbonate.
Copper(II)carbonate

Heat
Lime water

Chemical equation: CuCO3 → CuO + CO2

Observations:
1. Lime water will turn lime water chalky.
2. Green solid of copper(II) carbonate turns black
solid of copper(II) oxide
Other examples:
(a) PbCO3 → PbO + CO2
Observations:
i. Lead(II) oxide, PbO deposit is brown when hot,
turns yellow when cooled.
ii. Lime water turns chalky.

(b) ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2


Observations:
i. Zinc oxide, ZnO deposit is yellow when hot,
turns white when cooled.
ii. ii. Lime water turns chalky.
Effects Of Heat On Nitrate Salt.
Nítrate salt → metal oxide + NO2 + O2
Example: Heating of Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2.

Glowing wooden splinter

Copper(II) nitrate
Brown gas

Heat Blue litmus paper

Chemical equation:
2Cu(NO3)2 → 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2
Observations:
1. Black solid deposit
Copper (II) oxide, CuO

2. Glowing wooden splinter is put into the


test tube, it rekindles / ignites
Oxygen, O2 gas produces.

3. Brown gas released


Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 gas produces
ANALYSIS OF ANIONS IN SALT
A. Carbonates:
1. Add 2 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 carbonate salt
solution into a test tube
2. Add 2 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl into the test
tube
3. By using a delivery tube, flow the gas released
into a test tube containing lime water.
Observation:
1. Lime water turns chalky
2. Confirm the presence of CO32- ions
B. Sulphate salt :
1. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of Sulphate
salt solution into a test tube
2. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of HCl and
2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of Barium
chloride solution into the test tube
3. Shake the mixture
Observation:
1. White precipitate formed
2. Confirm the presence of SO42- ions
C. Chloride salt :
1. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of Chloride
salt solution into a test tube
2. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of HNO3
and 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of Silver
nitrate solution into the test tube
3. Shake the mixture

Observation:
1. White precipitate formed
2. Confirm the presence of Cl- ions
D. Nitrates Salt:
1. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of nitrate salt
solution into a test tube
2. Add 2 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 dilute H2SO4 and
2cm3 0.5mol dm-3 Iron(II) Sulphate solution
3. Shake well
4. Carefully add few drops of concentrated
sulphuric acid down the side of the test tube

Observation:
•Brown ring is obtained
•Confirm the presence of NO3- ions
QUALITATIVE
ANALYSIS OF
SALT :
CONFIRMATORY TEST OF CATION
Reaction with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution :
Reaction with Ammonia , NH3 solution :
Confirmatory Test for Cation Using Other Reagents

Reagent Cation Observation


Potassium
hexacyanoferrate(II)
Dark blue precipitate
Fe3+
solution formed
Potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III)
Dark blue precipitate
Fe2+
solution formed
Potassium
thiocyanate
Blood red solution is
Fe3+
formed
Nessler’s Reagent
NH4+ Brown precipitate formed
Potassium iodide
solution
Yellow precipitate is
Pb2+
formed
Ionic equation for formation of an insoluble salt can be
written if :
(a) Formula of the salt is known
(b) The number of moles of ions reacted to form the salt is
known
A. Formula of salt is known :

Fe2(CO3)3
2 mole of Fe3+ 3 mole of CO32-

Ionic equation :
2 Fe3+ + 3 CO32- → Fe2(CO3)3
B.Mole ratio of ions :
Can be determine from an experiment through the
Continuous Variation method
To determine the ionic equations of the reaction

In this reaction :
solution X ions (yellow) : Fixed volumes
solution of Y ions( colouless) : different volumes that change
gradually

Determine the volume of Y ions that reacts completely with all


of the X ions

Calculate the number of moles of X ions and Y ions that


have reacted using formula MV/1000

Determine the simplest mol ratio of Y ions to X ions in the


reaction to construct the ionic equation
Experiment 8.2 : (page 121 – practical book)
To construct the ionic equation for the formation of Lead
(II) chromate (VI)

How to construct an ionic


equation for the formation of
lead (II) chromate (VI)?
Hypothesis :
suggest a suitable hypothesis

Variables :
determine all the variable for this experiment

Procedure :
1. Label seven test tubes of the same size from 1 -7
and place them in a test tube rack.
2. Fill a burette with 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium
chromate (VI) solution. Run in 5.00 cm3 of the
potassium chromate (VI) solution into each of
the seven test tube.
Fill a second burette with
0.5 mol dm-3 lead (II)
nitrate solution. Add
varying volume of lead
(II) nitrate solution
Observation :

Measure height of
precipitate
Result :

potassium chromate (VI)

Lead(II) nitrate solution


Height of precipitate (cm3)

Volume of lead(II) nitrate


required completely reacted
= 5 cm3

Volume of lead(II) nitrate solution,


5 0.5 mol dm-3 added (cm3)

Number of moles of CrO4 2- ions


in 5.00cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3
potassium chromate (VI)
Mole of CrO42- = MV/1000 Mole of Pb2+ = MV/1000
= (0.5)(5.00)/1000 = (0.5)(5.00)/1000
= 0.0025 mol = 0.0025 mol

Simplest mole ratio of Pb2+ and CrO42- ions = 0.0025 : 0.0025


= 1:1
Ionic equation : Pb2+ + CrO42- → PbCrO4
What information can a balanced chemical equation
provide us with?

The quantitative study of reactants and products in a


chemical reaction is known as stoichiometry
Example 1 :

From equation:
3 mol H2SO4 → 1 mol Al2(SO4)3
0.5 mol → 0.17 mol
Moles of Al2(SO4)3 = 0.17 moles
Example 2 :

From equation:
1 mol Cu → 1 mol Cu(NO3)2
0.25 mol → 0.25 mol
Mass of Cu(NO3)2 = 0.25 x RMM
From equation:
1 mol H2 → 1 mol Mg
0.02 mol → 0.02 mol