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5, 2010

**Performance Evaluation of SVM based Abnormal Gait Analysis with Normalization
**

M. Pushpa Rani1

1

G.Arumugam2

2

Associate Professor in Computer Science, Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India

Professor & Head, Dept. of Computer Science, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract—Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful tools that are specifically designed to solve large-scale classification problems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of other mathematicians and scientists developed a new statistical approach that is more efficient particularly in dealing with large classification problems which they called as Support Vector Machines (SVM). An SVM method is being broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability. In this paper, a two stage SVM algorithm is proposed for children abnormal gait analysis. The algorithm uses T-Test based preprocessing methods for feature selection, normalization and combines SVM for Classification. Only samples that have weak relationships with all the clusters are involved in SVM. Experimental results reveal that this algorithm based on T-Test-SVM combination achieves a remarkable recognition performance for children abnormal gait analysis with reduced Computational cost. Keywords Abnormal Gait Analysis, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gait Data Classification, T-Test

I.

INTRODUCTION

GAIT analysis is very significant for early diagnosis of gait diseases and treatment assessment. Doctors in earlier days used to diagnose gait diseases manually with the help of certain graphs generated by the gait analysis system, with which only vague clues which may or may not reflect the reality were obtained. In most cases, doctors had different views of opinion by interpreting these curves. As machine based learning technology has developed, it has gained much interest in gait analysis, which is of great support to doctors for more reliable and accurate diagnosis of a disease. A Gait analysis is a systematic study of human motion. i.e., walking, running, skipping and the like, which mainly concentrates on the physical activities. Gait analysis is very much useful to check out the human conditions; whether normal or abnormal using the eye and brain of the observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics and the activity of the muscles. In other words, gait analysis is used to assess, to plan and to treat the individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. There exist a lot of methods to check out these normality and abnormality on human gait, but SVM is found to be more suitable in terms of its efficiency [2]. Motion analysis provides large volume of

gait data to describe the human motion; walking speed, joint angles, forces, and moments etc., Data like joint kinetics, joint moments and joint powers have also been used for gait recognition. Also this technology is very useful for checking the walking pattern of children as Children under the age of 13 have more chances to have different style of walking. To trace out any abnormality in children’s walk, our proposed method takes a key role; and with this one could diagnose any existing fault features of walking in early ages of childhood itself. This will surely of great help for earlier treatment of gait abnormality in children. An SVM method has been broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability, accuracy and efficiency. In this paper the SVM technique is performed by having a training set and test samples. The training set is categorized into different sets of conditions, which can be grouped into two classes i.e. normality and abnormality. For this, the collection of data is very important and several observations are needed. The information regarding leg length, height, cadence, stride length and age are some of the features which are of great help in this gait analysis. The SVM constructs a hyper plane or a set of hyper planes in a high or infinite dimensional space, which can be used for classification or clustering. In simple words, given a set of training examples, each with a label of belonging to one of these categories, an SVM training algorithm builds a model that predicts in which category a new example falls. The proposed method uses t-test-SVM for classification. Interestingly, a good separation is achieved by the hyper plane that has the largest distance to the nearest training data points of any class. The t-test method is used to normalize data prior to classification. In its simplest form t-test provides a statistical analysis of means of several groups and therefore can generalize the Student's two-sample t-test to more than two groups. The following section of this paper is projected as follows: Section 2 discusses some of the related works done earlier in gait based classification. The proposed t-test SVM gait classification method is described in Section 3. Section 4 illustrates the performance Analysis and Section 5 concludes the paper with directions for future work.

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II.

RELATED WORK

The study of human gait has created much interest in many application areas including biomechanics, clinical analysis, computer animation and biometrics. As a result many researches emerged in recent years and of which, a few studies related to Gait classification are noted herewith. C. Bauckhage et al., [13] well thought-out about automatic gait analysis as a means to deduce if an observed walking pattern appears to be normal or not. When compared to most contributions to visual gait analysis, the problem dealt with the paper requires a representation that abstracts from individual gait characteristics but allows for the classification of gait across individuals. Addressing this requirement, the author presented a homeomorphism between 2D lattices and shapes that enables a robust vector space embedding of silhouettes. Sampling apt lattice points allows to roughly track the movement of limbs without requiring any limb recognition strategy. Combining shape representations obtained from several frames into lager feature vectors provides temporal context for the classification task. Experimental results expose a complete knowledge that gait classification using support vector machines yields excellent accuracy. Temporal filtering of the results of classification in further improvements of the reliability of the presented framework, because it lessens the effect of sporadic misclassifications. A.H. Khandokerl et al., [3] demonstrated the effectiveness of wavelet based multi scale correlation exponents of MFC as features for automated screening an individual subject of proper balance control as being within healthy ranges, or having high enough risk to be categorized as a falls risk or a faller by using SVM. Findings of that study were based on a small sample of impaired subjects, compared to a relatively small sample of healthy peers. Therefore, further validation of the relative risk estimation task is suggested in a larger, more diverse sample of healthy and balance impaired falls risk in elderly adults, which may subsequently lead us to make more robust automated diagnostic model of falls risk estimation. The significance of this study is that it provides an early estimation of relative falls risk in the elderly that holds great potential for indicating balance improving interventions to reduce their relative risk of falls. Jian Ni et al., [17] had a look about gait recognition, which is simulated in the small and medium-scale gait database. Higher recognition rate and faster recognition speed of the algorithm are verified. The reason that this algorithm obtains superior test results is: The paper adopts support vector machine based on hybrid kernel function. This method makes that the SVM model has better generalization ability. In the method of parameter selection, the text uses the objective function and combines OPS algorithm to select the best kernel parameter. The way combines the advantages of objective function and PSO algorithm to optimize SVM parameters. It significantly improves the optimization speed, at the same time obtains a good optimization effect.

J.H. Yoo et al., [18] had described an automated gait recognition system using back propagation neural network algorithm. Gait is the most common human motion, and each person appears to have his or her own characteristic gait pattern. To identify the human gait, a total of 27 parameters are considered as gait features. By calculating a class separability of the given feature, only 10 important features for classifying the gait are selected from these feature sets. Then, the enhanced back-propagation neural network algorithm is applied to the SOTON database, and recognition rate of 90% for 30 subjects is accomplished. The results achieved give promising performance and higher recognition rates than those of an earlier gait recognition approach. Ju Han et al., [19] proposed a new spatio-temporal gait representation, called the Gait Energy Image (GEI), for individual recognition by gait. Different from other gait representations which consider gait as a sequence of templates (poses), GEI represents human motion sequence in a single image while preserving temporal information. To overcome the limitation of training templates, a simple model is proposed for simulating distortion in synthetic templates and a statistical gait feature fusion approach for human recognition by gait. Experimental results show that a) GEI is an effective and efficient gait representation and b) the proposed recognition approach achieves highly competitive performance with respect to the published major gait recognition approaches. This paper presents a methodical and comprehensive gait recognition approach, which can work just as fine as other complex published techniques in terms of effectiveness of performance while providing all the advantages associated with the computational efficiency for real-world applications. Shakhnarovich et al. combined the face and MV-based gait. The front face was captured by one camera and the side-view of the person was captured by another camera. Face-alone, gait-alone and combined face and gait recognition rates were 80%, 87%, and 91%, respectively. Zhou et al. [21] used a single camera to capture both face and gait. Recognition rates for face and gait separately were 64.3% and 85.7%, a single respectively. Conversely, when they were combined, the recognition rate increased up to 100% [23]. In [22], WS-based gait recognition was combined with speaker verification. Performance proved to be appreciably better in a noisy environment, compared to when speaker verification was used alone. The EER was in the range of 2%-12%, less than half of the EER of individual modalities. In this group, gait is captured using a video-camera from distance. Video and image processing techniques are employed to extract gait features for recognition purposes. BenAbdelkader et al. [25] used stride and cadence for person identification and verification. Johnson and Bobick [26] extracted static body parameters such as the height, the distance between head and pelvis, the maximum distance between pelvis and feet, and the distance between feet, and

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used them for recognition. Most of the MV related gait recognition algorithms are based on the human silhouette [27, 28]. That is the image background is detached and the silhouette of the person is extracted and analyzed for recognition, For example, Liu and Sarkar [27] computed the average silhouettes over a gait cycle, and used the Euclidean distance between them to compute similarity. III.

METHODOLOGY

The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in Figure1. After suitable preprocessing, the Salient Gait Features are extracted from the possible Gait Signatures. These Gait features are then subjected to t-test normalization and subsequently to SVM Classifier. Preprocessing Gait Images Deriving Gait Signature Gait Feature Extraction

There are k classes.

SVM Classifier

Normal/ Abnormal

Feature

Normalization

Statistical based Feature Selection

Figure1: Proposed Architecture

A. Statistical Methods for Gait Feature Selection & Normalization The main objective of feature selection is to discover a subset of features, satisfying certain criteria. In pattern recognition, recognition metric will be the classification accuracy or inversely the classification error. But direct minimization of the classification error cannot be analytically performed, so a wide range of alternative statistics that are easier to evaluate are performed. The typical measure used in the gait feature selection is introduced as follows: 1. T-Test The t-test finds whether the means of two groups are statistically dissimilar from each other. This analysis is appropriate to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate for the analysis of the two-group randomized experimental design. The t-score (TS) [31] of feature i is defined as follows:

is the maximum of all k. Ck refers to class k that includes , samples is the expression value of feature i in sample j is the mean expression value in class k for feature i. where n is the total number of samples. xi is the general mean value for feature i. Si is pooled within-class standard deviation for feature i. In fact, the TS used at this point is a t-statistic between the centroid of a specific class and the overall centroid of all the classes. Another possible model for TS could be a t-statistic between the centroid of a specific class and the centroid of all the other classes. Two samples are given as input to the T-Test. The paired ttest determines whether input features differ from each other in a significant way under the assumptions that the paired differences are independent and identically normally distributed. This gives a clear view for Abnormal Gait Analysis 2. PCA (Principal Component Analysis)

Where,

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) involves a mathematical process that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components. The fallouts of a PCA are usually discussed in terms of component scores and loadings. PCA is the simplest of the proper eigenvector-based multivariate analyses. Often, its process can be thought of as revealing the internal structure of the data in a way which best explains the variance in the data. If a dataset (multivariate) is visualized as a set of coordinates in a high-dimensional data space (1 axis per variable), PCA supplies the user with a lower-dimensional picture, a "shadow" of this object when viewed from its (in some sense) most informative viewpoint. with zero empirical mean (the empirical For a data matrix, mean of the distribution has been subtracted from the data set), where each row represents a different repetition of the

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experiment, and each column gives the results from a particular probe, the PCA transformation is given by:

⎧n sgn ⎨∑ ai∗ y ∗ k x, xi∗ + b} j ⎩ i =1

(

)

=V

where the m-by-n diagonal matrix Σ is an nonnegative real numbers on the diagonal and W Σ VT is the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is factorization of a rectangular real or complex matrix of X. B Support Vector Machine The support vector machine is used as a classifier in the paper. SVM is the one of the best linear classification method and kernel mixed applications. The SVM transforms the samples to high-dimension space by the kernel mapping, and then get the best linear classification surface of samples in this new space. This Non-linear transformation is achieved by appropriate inner product function. The best linear classification surface function of characteristics space can be described by the formula:

C SVM kernel functions This work is the first attempt to test the classification ability of feature combinations in gait applications. We have used three main kernel functions for our study here. The Partial kernel function, which only influence to data near the test points and the kernel function more applied here is the Radial Basis Function:

k (x, x k ) = exp − x − x k

{

2

2δ 2 ,

}

where δ is the width of the gaussian kernel. The overall kernel function which allows that, the data away from the test points will also have impact to kernel function. It is the polynomial kernel to be more suitable in this case:

2

k(x, xk)=[(x, xk)+1]d,, where d is degree of polynomial. IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

g ( x ) = Σ a j y i k ( x, xi ) + b

n j =i

Where (xi, yi) are the two types of sample collection divided in the sample space, b is the classification threshold, and k(x, xi) is being the nonlinear kernel function that replaces characteristics space and meets Mercer conditions. Ascertain the best linear classification surface function is got by striking the best resolve ai where i = 1, 2,…,n of the following function Q(a).

g (x ) = Σ a j y i k

n j =i

max Q (a ) =

a

∑a

i=0

n

i

− 0 .5 ∑ ∑ a i a j y i y j k (x i , x j )

n n i=0 j =0

∑ya

i =1

n

i i

= 0,

i = 1,2,..., n

0 ≤ ai

The above equation is solving of quadratic function extreme value on condition that inequality, Q (a) is convex function. Because its local optimal solution is global optimal solution, the solution is unique. Thus the best classification function of SVM is:

⎧n f ( x ) = sgn ( g ( x )) = sgn ⎨∑ a j y j k (x, xi ) + b} ⎩ j =1

This study mainly deals with the performance analysis of the T-Test based SVM classification method for gait normality and abnormality. In this section, several experiments are carried out to test the validity of T-Test based SVM. A comparative analysis is also done for the proposed T-Test with PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The experimental data used in this study are obtained from the gait database of Virginia University [11]. There are totally 158 gait samples present in the database and all these samples are used for this experiment. These samples belong to 68 children with normal gait and 88 children with abnormal gait affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The ages of these children range from 2 years to 13 years. Four features of gait samples are selected for classification and they are stride length, cadence, leg length and age. In this study, the t-test is applied to normalize the gait samples. Figure 2 shows the distribution of samples before and after normalization. As shown in Figure 2, the overlap of two sample sets is effectively reduced after normalization, which helps to improve the classification accuracy. Three kernel functions are used to build SVM classifiers in this study. By comparing the classification results of three classifiers, the most suitable kernel function may be decided for t-test-SVM. They are Radial Basis Function (RBF), linear and the polynomial. The RBF has best accuracy rate when compared to the other kernels such as the linear and the polynomial. In general, the RBF kernel is a reasonable first choice.

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(a)

Figure 2: (a) Distribution of Raw Data Before Normalization.

(b)

(b) Distribution of Raw Data After Normalization.

This kernel nonlinearly maps samples of interest in a higher dimensional space so that, unlike the linear kernel, it can handle the case when the relation between class labels and attributes is nonlinear. Furthermore, the linear kernel is a special case of the RBF since the linear kernel with a penalty parameter C has the same performance as that of RBF kernel with some parameters. In addition, the sigmoid kernel behaves similar to the RBF for certain parameters. The next reason is the number of hyper parameters that influences the complexity of model selection. The polynomial kernel has additional hyper parameters than that of the RBF kernel. Finally, the RBF kernel has fewer numerical difficulties. One key point should lie between 0 and 1, in contrast to polynomial kernels and linear kernel of which kernel values may go to infinity or zero, while the degree is large. Moreover, that the sigmoid kernel is not valid product of two vectors, under some parameters and conditions. There are a few situations where the RBF kernel is not suitable. In meticulous, when the number of features is very large, one may just use the linear kernel. By applying this kernel function, the accuracy of t-test -SVM and PCA SVM are compared at the end of this section. Polynomial order d is an important parameter when polynomial kernel function is applied in t-test-SVM. The classification accuracy of gait samples by using different polynomial order is shown in Figure 3, and d is chosen from 1 to 10. As shown in Figure 3, the classification accuracy declines along with the increase of polynomial order. This is since the aspect of the feature space is high under a large polynomial order and it leads a declining generalization capability of SVM.

So, the linear kernel order d is set to be 1 in the following experiments. When d is 1, the polynomial kernel function actually is a linear kernel function with accuracy of 90.12%. But in case of the RBF kernel with σ = 4, c = 100,the absolute accuracy rate is of 98.15%, which leads the other two kernels. When radial basis function (RBF) is applied, the kernel parameter σ in the RBF and the regularization parameter C may impact the classification accuracy of T-Test-SVM. Figure 4 elaborately shows the relationship between classification accuracy and parameters combination (d, C).

TABLE 1: BEST ACCURACY ACHIEVED FOR KERNEL FUNCTIONS

Kernel Function Linear Polynomial RBF

Parameters d=1 d=1 σ=4, C=100

Accuracy (%) 90.12 85.69 98.15

The classification accuracy of the RBF kernel function rates high of order 98%, this is shown in figure 4 for all the three cases of C=1, C=10, C=100. The Figure reflects that, the generalization capability of the SVM enhances along with the increase of C. This is because the regularization parameter C may adjust the ratio of confidence interval and empirical risk.

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These analysis reveals that T-Test have accuracy rate of 98.15%, while that of the PCA is comparably low.

Figure 3, Classification Accuracy and Polynomial Order Figure 4, Classification Accuracy for Various Parameter Combinations

TABLE 2: AVERAGE ACCURACY FOR VARIOUS σ & C VALUES

σ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C=1 20.12 35.08 54.82 65.54 75.12 90.43 92.54 93.72 92.05 92.34 92.16

C=10 54.21 63.75 78.64 85.11 90.39 92.42 92.78 96.64 96.89 96.92 96.11

C=100 92.07 94.29 94.38 95.93 96.17 97.59 97.26 98.07 98.15 98.15 98.05

V.

CONCLUSION

In this case, the SVM has almost no change of the empirical risk and generalization capability. Table I shows the classification accuracy of the three classifiers.

TABLE 3: BEST ACCURACY ACHIEVED FOR VARIOUS METHODS

Algorithm Std SVM PCA SVM T-Test SVM

Accuracy (%) 87.68 96.51 98.15

In this paper Abnormal Gait Analysis is done using the SVM with T-Test Combination. The results are compared with the other existing methods based on their Classification accuracy. An automated abnormal gait classification system is described using machine learning techniques. To achieve this, the gait signature has been extracted by combining a statistical approach and machine learning based analysis is further done using the anatomical knowledge. For the derived gait signatures, the motion parameters were calculated, and the gait features based on the motion parameters were extracted. The T-Test based SVM classifier is used to analyze the discriminatory ability of the extracted features. The result of the proposed method has produced very good classification rate which exceeds 98%. As such, the automated abnormal classification system not only accords with quantitative analysis in results, but also confirms distinctiveness as normal and abnormal gait. Hence this gait classification for medical diagnosis would be a real boon as its convenience will surely benefit the children and also the elderly. The drastic development of computer vision techniques also ensures that the clinical gait analysis put into practical realization may gradually be achieved. REFERENCES

[1] Mostayed, A. Mynuddin, M. Mazumder, G. Sikyung Kim Se Jin Park," Abnormal Gait Detection Using Discrete Fourier Transform", International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 2008. Bauckhage, C. Tsotsos, J.K. Bunn, F.E.,"Detecting Abnormal Gait", Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 2005. A.H. Khandokerl, Daniel Lai, Rezaul K. Begg and Marimuthu Palaniswami,"A Wavelet Based Approach for Screening Falls Risk in the Elderly using Support Vector Machines", Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Sensing and Information Processing, 2006. ICISIP 2006. Inman, V. T., Ralston, H. J., and Todd, F.: Human Walking. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (1981).

The generalization capability of the SVM is weak when C is small, because a small C indicates that the punishment for empirical risk is small and hence the possibility of the empirical risk is large. When C exceeds a certain value, the complexity of a classifier reaches the maximum allowed limit in the feature space. Table 3 shows, that the T-Test SVM algorithm have better accuracy rate while compared with other algorithms. The accuracy rate of the PCA and T-Test SVM are compared with the different parameters for a particular dataset of children.

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**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
**

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S., and Prügel-Bennett, A.: Automatic Gait Recognition using Area-based Metrics. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24(14) (2003) 2489-2497. Christian Bauckhage, John K. Tsotsos, Frank E. Bunn, "Automatic Detection of Abnormal Gait", International journal of Image and Vision Computing, 2007. Zongyi Liu and Sudeep Sarkar, "Improved Gait Recognition by Gait Dynamics Normalization," IEEE Trans on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 28, No. 6, June 2006. L. Lee, G. Dalley, and K. Tieu, “Learning Pedestrian Models for Silhouette Refinement,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 663670, 2003. A. Veeraraghavan, A.R. Chowdhury, and R. Chellappa, “Matching Shape Sequences in Video with Applications in Human Movement Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1896-1909, Dec. 2005. Jian Ni, Libo Liang, " Gait Recognition Method Based on Hybrid Kernel and Optimized Parameter SVM", IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, 2009. ICCSIT 2009. Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang," Automated Human Recognition by Gait using Neural Network", IEEE Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools & Applications, 2008. Ju Han, Bir Bhanu, "Individual Recognition Using Gait Energy Image", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 28, No. 2, February 2006. G. Shakhnarovich, L. Lee, and T. Darrell. Integrated face and gait recognition from multiple views. In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition., 2001. Xiaoli Zhou, Bir Bhanu, and Ju Han. Human recognition at a distance in video by integrating face profile and gait. In 5th International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pages 533–543, July 2005. Elena Vildjiounaite, Satu-Marja Makela, Mikko Lindholm, Reima Riihimaki, Vesa Kyllonen, Jani Mantyjarvi, and Heikki Ailisto. Unobtrusive multimodal biometrics for ensuring privacy and information security with personal devices. In Pervasive, pages 187– 201, May 2006. Springer LNCS. G. Shakhnarovich, L. Lee, and T. Darrell. Integrated face and gait recognition from multiple views. In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 2001. Davrondzhon Gafurov, "A Survey of Biometric Gait Recognition: Approaches, Security and Challenges", NIK-2007 conference. [25] C. BenAbdelkader, R. Cutler, and L. Davis. Stride and cadence as a biometric in automatic person identification and verification. In Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pages 357–362, May 2002. [26] Amos Y. Johnson and Aaron F. Bobick. A multi-view method for gait recognition using static body parameters. In Third International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pages 301–311, June 2001. [27] Zongyi Liu and Sudeep Sarkar. Simplest representation yet for gait recognition: Averaged silhouette. In International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pages 211–214, 2004. [28] Zongyi Liu, Laura Malave, and Sudeep Sarkar. Studies on silhouette quality and gait recognition. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 704–711, 2004. [29] Yanmei Chai, Jinchang Ren, Rongchun Zhao, and Jingping Jia. Automatic gait recognition using dynamic variance features. In International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pages 475 – 480, 2006. [30] http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/symptoms/abnormal_gait_in_children/ common.htm. [31] M. Pushpa Rani and G.Arumugam, “An Efficient Gait Recognition System For Human Identification Using Modified ICA “,International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, vol. 2, No 1, pp 55-67,January 2010. AUTHORS PROFILE Ms.M.Pushpa Rani is an Associate Professor in Computer Science at Mother Teresa Women’s University, Tamil Nadu, India. She received her Master’s degree in Computer Applications from Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India, and is currently pursuing doctoral Research in Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India. She has published many articles in International Journals and more than 30 papers in National and International Conferences. Her current research areas include Image Processing, Biometrics and Adaptive Learning System. Dr G Arumugam is a senior Professor in the Department of Computer Science, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, He did his Masters degree in Applied Mathematics specializing in Computer Science in the PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore in the year 1980. He started his research carrier from the Department of Mathematics, IIT Kanpur in 1981.He got his Doctorate degree from the University of Pierre and Marie Curie , France in 1987.He was a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the University of JYVASKYLA, Finland for a period of three months. He worked in the Hexaware Info Systems, Chennai as a Project Manager and as a Consultant in the Polaris Software, Chennai to gain industrial experience.. He was in Singapore for a period of 2 ½ years as Visiting Professor in the Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore from July 2000 to Nov.2002.He has published several papers in the international and national journals and in the conference proceedings. His area of research is design and analysis of algorithms, data mining, and cryptography and network security.

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Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful toolsthat are specifically designed to solve large-scale classification problems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of other mathematicians and sci...

Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful toolsthat are specifically designed to solve large-scale classification problems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of other mathematicians and scientists developed a new statistical approach that is more efficient particularly in dealing with large classification problems which they called as Support Vector Machines (SVM). An SVM method is being broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability. In this paper, a two stage SVM algorithm is proposed for children abnormal gait analysis. The algorithm uses T-Test based preprocessing methods for feature selection, normalization and combines SVM for Classification. Only samples that have weak relationships with all the clusters are involved in SVM. Experimental results reveal that this algorithm based on T-Test-SVM combination achieves a remarkable recognition performance for children abnormal gait analysis with reduced Computational cost.

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