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The IELTS Listening Test

Instructions for Test Practice 02 CONTENTS
Listening Test 1 03
Listening Test 2 04
Listening Test 3 10
Listening Test 4 19
Fast Track Listening 27
Learn from your mistakes
How can I improve? 35
Tips from test-takers 36
The IELTS Reading Test
Instructions for Test Practice 40
Reading Test 1 41
Reading Test 2 42
Reading Test 3 56
Reading Test 4 68
Reading Test 5 80
Reading Test 6 92
Fast Track Reading 104
Learn from your mistakes
How can I improve? 117
Tips from test-takers 119
Sample Answer Page (Listening and Reading)120
The IELTS Writing Test
Examiners’ Suggestions 124
Fast Track Writing 126
More about task 1
More about task 2 127
Instructions for Test Practice 128
Writing Test 1 Task 1 131
Task 2 132
Writing Test 2 Task 1 136
Task 2 140
Writing Test 3 Task 1 144
Task 2 148
Writing Test 4 Task 1 152
Task 2 156
Writing Test 5 Task 1 160
Task 2 164
Writing Test 6 Task 1 168
Task 2 172
Note: Activities and Sample Answer follow each Task
The IELTS Speaking Test
Examiners’ Suggestions
Fast Track Writing
Instructions for Test Practice
Speaking Test 1 (CD 1)
Interview questions and activities
Speaking Test 2 (CD 2)
Interview questions and activities
More Practice Questions
QUICK GUIDE to a higher IELTS score
Managing your test performance
Answer Key: Listening
Answer Key: Reading 210
Transcripts: Listening 211
Transcripts: Speaking Test 213
Welcome to IELTS on Track! This test practice and preparation book has complete
IELTS practice test and Fast Track strategy and activity sections. It has been


written for candidates who are preparing for the IELTS Test (Academic) in order to
enter an academic course in an English-speaking institution. It is designed both
for independent study and for use as a classroom textbook, especially for courses
with a focus on writing and speaking skills. IELTS on Track is not an official IELTS
publication and, like most other practice and preparation books, is not endorsed
officially by IELTS. The IELTS on Track series has its own website – which has other helpful test preparation materials.


IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is a widely used and
recognized international Test of English administered by Cambridge English
Language Assessment, formerly Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP
Education Australia. There are two versions: Academic (for students wishing to
study in an English-speaking university for college) and General training (for entry
for vocational programs, schools or for immigration).

IELTS test four performance areas: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. All
candidates receive a test score between 1 (lowest) and 9(highest) Academic
Institution set their own IELTS entry scores

The IELTS test is taken in this sequence:

Listening 40 questions -30 minutes (+ 10 minutes to transfer

Academic Reading 40 questions based on three texts- 60 minutes
Academic Writing 2 essays task- 60 minutes
Speaking a standard interview in 3 parts lasting 11-14
The current IELTS material for test applicants, which is available at all times centers
worldwide gives further information about the test. The official website: also
gives up-to-date information and test data.


IELTS on Track is divided into four units- Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking.

Each unit contains IELTS practices test and a Fast Track section



The CD recordings offer a wide variety of English accents- British, American, Australian,
Canadian and Scottish. This is consistent with the international nature of the IELTS test and
the need for candidates to accommodate varieties of English spoken at a nature speed.


Topics that are interesting, durable and even controversial have been favored
for inclusion. The aim has been to encourage critical thinking and discussion
in IELTS preparation classrooms. All six tests are at a level comparable to the
actual IELTS but the later test pose a slightly higher level of challenge than
the earlier ones.


The Writing Test Task 1 material covers a wide range of test task type. The
Writing Test Task 2 prompts are usually short and clear. The aim has been to
enable users of this book to focus on their own writing needs.


The two sample IELTS Speaking test on CD 1 and CD 2 involve nonnative

speakers- one from Taiwan and other from Hungary.

1 QUICK GUIDE to a higher IELTS score

This new section offers detailed guidance for managing test performance
professionally and improving upon your IELTS score in each of the four



The FOUR Fast Track sections offer easy to follow strategies, activities and


Immediately following both Listening and Reading test sections you will find the Fast
Track sections. Refer to these pages to help you to analyze your mistakes and
develop strategies for listening to and reading IELTS test material. Also check the
student comment and language tips.

The first part of this section explores the requirement of the IELTS Academic Writing
Test and targets problem areas with hints for improvement. Each of the twelve
Writing task has planning assistance plus a Sample Answer, which generate
language building activities. ‘Notes’ following the answers provides additional
discourse pointers. Our belief is that IELTS candidates will become better attuned to
the type of writing required for the test if they work analytically and interactively
with whole sample answers. This consistent with an inductive approach

Two recorded speaking test on CDs are accompanied by listening activities so you
can ‘track ’in an active way the interview format and content. There are also
teacher comments for the two candidates, examiner’s suggestions, plus extra test
practice topics and questions.


Of course, if you are working alone you will choose how the best to use this book,
but we would remind you two principles that we hope may influence you.

Learn by reviewing performance

Our approach is based on an inductive view of learning. This means that we believe
that it is better to learn by doing IELTS test and then reviewing the strengths and
weaknesses of your performance. Repeating the test helps to reinforce corrections
and build confidence and speed. Your progress will be more efficient working this
way than just doing one test after another.

‘Use it or lose it’

Again we strongly encourage you to try the same test several times to make sure
you can build on what you have learnt about your performance, monitoring and
then demonstrate improvement. This is why we say ‘Use it or lose it ‘GOOD LUCK!


 The IELTS Listening Test
 Instructions for Test Practice
 Listening Test 1-4
 Fast Track Listening
 Learn from your mistakes
 How can I improve?
 Tips from test-takers




Structure of the test
The test has 4 sections of increasingly difficult:
Section 1: a conversation on a general topic with 2 or 3 speakers.
2: a talk by one speaker on a general topic.
3: a conversation on an academic topic with 2 or 3 speakers.
4: a talk or lecture in academic styles.

? Questions

There are 40 questions, made up of 7 different question types.

Within each section there are two short pauses, one at the
beginning and one in the middle. These give you time to read
questions before listening. There is also time at the end of
each section to finish writing your answers .

The listening test takes 30 minutes. You hear the recording ONCE

Test Instructions
There are recorded instructions at the beginning of the test. As you listen, write
your answers on the question paper. At the end of the test you are given
time to transfer the answers to an answer sheet.



There are FOUR LISTENING Practice Test 4

Before You Start
Make a photo copy of the question paper or write your answers in the text box. Use
Practice under Test Conditions
Time: 30 minutes
Find a quiet place where you will not be interrupted
DO NOT use Dictionary.
There are instructions for the test at the beginning of each CD.
Test 1 start on CD 1 Track 1.
Do not stop your player once you begin the test.

After You Finish

Practice transferring your answers to the Sample Answer Sheet on page 122. Check
the Answer Key on page 210

Before You Try the Next Test

Turn to FASTTRACK LISTENING on page 35
Repeat for Listening test 2 to 4.
Read the ‘Quick Guide’ on page 199-201 for more suggestions on
improving your score in the Listening Test.

Listening Test 1


Section 1Questions 1- 10
Questions 1-5
Circle the correct letter A-C

Andrea is feeling happy because…
A. She’s seen Harry.
B She’s finished her exams.
C. She can sleep in

[1] What is Harry’s Problem?

A. He doesn’t want to sell his things.
B. He needs to decide what to do with his possessions.
C. He wants to take everything to England.

[2] Which of the items below does Harry wants to sell

[3] Where are Harry going to advertise his books for sale>
A. In the university bookshop.

B. In the student newspaper.

C. In the economics department.

[4] Andrea thinks it is unlikely students will buy the furniture because…
A. they’re all doing the same thing.
B. they live at home.
C. It’s summer vacation.
[5] Andrea thinks that the second hand shop…
A. may not pay well.
B. may not take your goods.
C. may not take free goods.

Questions 6-10
Complete Harry’s notes using NO MORE THAN TWO WORD.


SECTION 2 Questions 11- 20
Complete the Fitness Centre brochure using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS.


SECTION 3Questions 21- 30
Questions 21-25
Complete the notes below using ONE WORD ONLY


 Understanding subtle [21]……………………………..
between the Canadian and United States food sectors is
important for successful food marketing
 Canada has many different ethnic groups: e.g. Toronto
has large [22]…………… and Asian population
 Growth of ethnic specialties of Mediterranean, Caribbean,
South East Asian and [23]………………………………….
 Therefore supermarkets now offering new [24]……………..
to prepare these foods, e.g. condiments and sauces
 80% of Canadian market controlled by 8 major national
 Seminar to compare Canadian food trends with [25]
………………. And UK


Questions 26-30
Complete the form below. Write ONE WORD OR A NUMBER for each answer


SECTION 4 Questions 31-40
Complete the lecture notes using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.


SECTION 1 Questions 1-11
Questions 1-5
Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER
for each answer.

Questions 6-8
Circle the correct letter A-C.
[6] What time should Anrietta finish work in the hamburger shop?
A 7.00 pm
B 3.00 am
C 11.00 pm

[7] What is the problem with Annetta's pay at the hamburger shop?
A the pay is too much
B the pay is late
C the pay isn't correct
[8] How many children will Annetta have to look after?
A two boys and a girl
B two boys and two girls
C two girls and a boy


Questions 9-11
Label the map, choosing your answers from the list below. Write the correct letters
A-E on the map.
A Post Office
B Bank
C Primary School
D Petrol Station
E Kindergarten

SECTION 2 Questions 12-21

Questions 12-14
Circle the correct letter A-C.
[12] The excursion is being organised for...
A all students.
B overseas students.
C new students.

[13] How far is it from the college to Ironbridge?

A 59 kilometres
B 55 kilometres
C 50 kilometres


[14] Students going on the excursion should look at the list and...
A print their name, telephone number, student number and tick if they have a car.
B print their telephone number and sign their name.
C print their name and tick if they have a car.

Questions 15-16
[15] If students do not like eating meat, can they get a cheap meal at the
restaurant in Ironbridge?

[16] What time must the students arrive to catch the bus?

Question 17
Circle the correct letter A-D.
[17] Which building is the bus garage?

Questions 18-21


[18] Name THREE things that Pamela Sutcliffe recommends the students take on
the excursion.

[19] Where will students find details in writing on Monday?

[20] Why is Ironbridge famous?

[21] Which three of the following famous tourist sights are mentioned? Write the
correct letters A-H.
A Great Wall of China E Taj Mahal
B Angkor Wat F Mt. Kilimanjaro
C Grand Canyon G Leaning Tower of Pisa
D Pyramids H Great Barrier Reef


SECTION 3 Questions 22-30
Questions 22-26
Look at this notice detailing the students' work experience placements. Write NO
CHANGE if the information has NOT changed or WRITE IN THE CHANGES.


NAME S am / pm G DATE

Theresa University Friday Mornings 23/3 EXAMPLE

No change
Manuel Mainly Music Tuesday 7/3 EXAMPLE
Mornings Friday
Henry The Beauty Shop Thursday 22/3 [22]

Jo Highway Hotels Monday Mornings 5/3 [23]

Nancy Explore Travel Wednesday 14/3 [24]

Service Mornings

Chris Gorgeous Gowns Wednesday 14/3 [25]


Gordon Games to Go Tuesday 20/3 [26]



Questions 27- 30
Complete Gordon’s about his work experience placement usingNO MORE


Starting times [27]

If ill, phone [28]………………………………………….
 Due in week 10
 Worth [29]…………………………………………. Of
 Outline history, management structure etc.
 Include visuals

e.g. [30]

SECTION 4 Questions 31-40

Question 31-34
Circle Tfor True’ F for False’

The speaker has come the Theosophical Society F

[31] One of the main points of the talk is to save money

[32] She thinks students should do more housework T
[33] She argues that plastic containers won’t biodegrade quickly
[34] She wants that asthma sufferers should be careful with her recipes


Question 35-37
Circle the correct letter A-C
[35] To remove tea or coffee stains you should use…
A. bicarbonate of soda.
B. a vacuum cleaner.
C. milk
[36] If you burn your space saucepan accidentally, you should…
A. give it to a friend.
B. wipe it with vinegar.
C. put vinegar and salt in it and bolt it.
[37] If you scratch wooden furniture, you can remove the marks using…
A. a salt mixture.
B. sesame oil.
C. olive oil and vinegar.
Questions 38-40
Complete the notes on the bottle label. Write NO MORE THAN TWO
WORDS for each answer


SECTION 1 Questions 1-10
Questions 1-6
Complete the form using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.


Questions 7-10

Circle the correct letter A-C.

[7] What happened to Sam’s car?

A It was replaced by another one.

B It broke down.

C It was stolen.

[8] Why does Jan need a car now?

A She lives too far from the university.

B She spends too much time on the bus.

C She would feel safer at night with a car.

[9] What does Sam recommend?

A check the service records

B avoid buying an old car

C get a mechanical inspection

[10] How are they traveling to Elena's?

A by motorcycle

B on foot

C by bus

SECTION 2 Questions 11-20s

Questions 11-13as you listen, fill in the details to complete the information in the


map below.


Questions 14-16

Fill in the chart using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.

Questions 17-20

Complete the following using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.

Advice for Participants on Whale Watching Excursions

For a smooth ride, sit [17] __________ of the boat.

Watch the waves and hold onto the ropes.

Survival suits are [18] __________ in colour for maximum visibility. They are designed

to keep you floating upright in the water even if you [19] ____________ and will

protect you from cold.

For seasicknesses: Place a patch [20] ________________ instead of taking pills.


SECTION 3 Questions 21-30

Fill in the summary below with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER for each


Questions 24-26

Complete the summary. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each space.


Questions 27 and 28

Circle the correct letter A-C

[21] what was Sarah Price’s worst experience during the trip?

A She got lost in Mongolia.

B She was homesick.

C She got sick in a remote place.

[28] In which of the following areas does Ray expect to have most difficulty?

A loneliness

B time pressure

C organization skills

Question 29 and 30

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

[29] In what month does the journey begin?

[30] Name 2 things that are provided free of charge to the competitors.

___________ and____________

SECTION 4 Questions 31-40

Questions 31-33

Circle the correct answer A-C


[31] What does QWERTY stand for?

A letters on the top row of the keyboard

B the company that made the first typewriter

C letters on the home row of the keyboard

[32] The first commercial typewriter was developed in...

A Germany.

B Great Britain.

C United States.

[33] The purpose of the QWERTY keyboard layout was...

A to slow down typing speed

B to prevent keys from sticking

C to reduce typing inefficiency

Question: 34-39

Complete the Summary below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each


In 1932 August Dvorak solved the inefficiency problem by re—designing the [34]

____ of the typewriter. He put the most commonly used letters on the

home row. Using the Dvorak keyboard, over 3000 words or [35] _____ of all work can

be done from the home row. In contrast, only [36] _____ can be typed from the home

row on the QWERTY keyboard. Other advantages of the Dvorak keyboard

include a 50% improvement in [37] _____ and a 15 — 20% increase in

[38] _____. But the most important difference is in finger movement.

Typist: using the QWERTY keyboard moved their fingers [39] _____ miles

per day compared to one mile a day for Dvorak typists.

Question 40

Circle the correct letter A-C.

[40] Which of these was the main reason why the Dvorak keyboard was never


A the Depression of 1939

B bad timing

C resistance to change


SECTION 1 Questions 1-10

Question 1

Circle the correct letter A-C

[1] Jenny's journey began in

A London

B Singapore

C Hong Kong


Questions 2-4

Complete the form. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.


Name: Jenny Lee

Address: [2] ____________________ St., Riverside 

Telephone Number: [3] ________________

Arrived on: Flight QA 392

Connecting from: Flight [4] ____________

Questions 5-7

Circle the correct letters A-C

[5] which of the drawings resembles Jenny’s bag?


[6] Which extra feature does Jenny identify?

A black colour

B wheels

C a metal handle

[7] What time should Jenny's bag arrive?

A 5.50 pm

B 6.10 pm

C 7.50 pm

Question 8

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for the answer.

When Jenny picks up the bag she has to [8] _____ in person

Question: 9 and 10

Name TWO things that the agent advises Jenny to bring

[9] _____

[10] _____

SECTION 2 Questions 11-20

Questions 11 and 12

Complete the notice below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for

each answer.

Box Office Hours (Regency Theatre):


Mon —Thurs: [11] _____

Friday, Saturday: 10 am — 8 pm

Internet Address: [12] _____

Questions 13-15

Indicate the number (1-4) to press for information on each of the following.

[13] Symphony Orchestra _____

[14] Classical Ballet _____

[15] Formula One Grand Prix _____

Questions 16-20

Fill in the information about Formula One Grand Prix Tickets.

Dates: [16] _____

Ticket prices:

Saturday (concession rate) [17] _____

Grandstand ticket (4 days) [18] _____

Gate opening time Saturday and Sunday: [19] _____

Booking fee per ticket: [20] _____

SECTION 3 Questions 21-30

Questions 21-23

Match the 3 speakers (21-23) with the background information below (A-G).

[21] Anna _____

[22] Veronika _____

[23] Chris _____



A has done film reviews

B currently in third year

C gaining course credit for festival project

D has made films

E enrolled in Media Studies

F works as a journalist

G has film club experience

Question 24

Circle the correct letter A-C.


[24] The total number of films in the festival each year is...

A five

B three

C twelve

Question 25-28

Circle the correct letter A-C.

[25] Who chooses the films for the festival?

A the committee members

B the international Students' Society

C independent distributors

[26] During the intermission, who is interviewed on camera?

A journalism students

B members of the audience

C the organizing committee

[27] Of the films shown in the festival

A none is in English.

B most are dubbed.

C many have subtitles.

[28] The festival did not make a profit last year because of

A poor weather.

B high price of admission.

C lack of publicity‘

Question 29 and 30

Complete the following using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.


Planning Overview

Task: To be completed by:

[29] 1 March

obtain sponsorship and advertising 15 March

[30] _____ 31 March

print and distribute posters April


Questions 35-38

Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Environmental benefits of reed beds

-produce good quality! [35]_____ for farming use

-provide a [36] _____ for birds and animals

Advantages over conventional system

-lower [37] _____ costs

-10% cheaper installation

- less maintenance

-efficiency [38] _____ with time

Questions 39 and 40

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

[39] Name ONE group which has opposed the introduction of reed bed technology.


[40] Give ONE concern about reed bed systems raised by students in the question

period. _____


Make seconds count
In a 30 minute listening, almost 4 minutes have no speaking at all. There are
pauses after each section to finish writing your answers. But there are also
important pauses at the beginning and in the middle of sections.
These pauses are your chance to prepare. They are the introduction to the
topic. You can read the questions and get ready to answer.
What should I do in the pauses?
You can:
 underline key words in the instructions
 find out what the instructions tell you:
about the speakers
about the topic
 read the questions
 check question types
 predict/guess answers

More practice… with a friend

Do lots of training practice with dictation exercises. Ask an English-speaking
friend to make up a list, based on the information below, and read it out to
you. As you listen, write the words as quickly as you can, then check your
For dictation:
 spelling of unknown words (eg surnames ), note vowels and double
 telephone numbers , addresses, dates, times, amounts of money
 weights and measures (check a good grammar book for abbreviations-
metric and imperial)

Tips from test-takers

We asked successful test-takers to help us list the keys to success in the
listening test… and some things to watch out for. Here’s what they came up
Warm up with English
‘I warm up for test practice by putting on the radio (English language) as
soon as I wake up in the morning. That helps me to start thinking in English.’



Keep calm

‘Keep calm under pressure. I can hear more clearly and understand better
when I’m relaxed.’

Keep track of questions

‘Watch the question numbers so you don’t get lost. Keep up with the
questions so you know what to expect next. Don’t fall behind.’
Stay interested
‘Pay attention to everything you hear. Listen as if every topic is really
important and interesting – even if it isn’t.
‘Predict what is coming next. Listen for those ‘marker’ words that help you
stay with the speaker.’
Intelligent guessing
‘If you didn’t get the answer, guess. Write something for each question. You
can find a lot of useful information on the question paper – spelling, for
example and sometimes even answers. Use your common sense.’
Watch for the ‘tricks’
‘You have to keep listening, even if you think you heard the answer. It can be
a bit tricky, like in real life, where things have to be repeated and corrected.
Be prepared.’
Read, listen and write at the same time.
‘Take notes from anything you hear, to get used to listening and writing at
the same time. Then, you have to keep the questions in your mind as well.
Just keep practising. It get easier.’

 The IELTS Reading Test

 Instructions for Test Practice
 Reading Tests 1-6
 Fast Track Reading
 Learn from your mistakes
 How can I improve?
 Tips from test-takers



 The IELTS Reading Test

 Instructions for Test Practice

 Reading Test 1-6

 Fast Track Reading

 Learn from your mistakes

 How can I improve?

 Tips from Test Takers




Structure of the test

The test has 3 reading passages of increasing difficulty.

The readings are based on those from magazines, books, journals or newspapers.

The topics are of general interest, written for a non-specialist audience.

At least one text contains a detailed logical argument.


There are 40 questions in total and 8 different question types.


The reading test takes 1 hour.

Test Instructions

The instructions in each test are clear and easy to follow, and you are given

examples of

unfamiliar question types. You write your answers directly onto the reading answer

sheet, not

on your question paper. All answers get one mark.


There are SIX Reading Practice Tests

Before You Start

Make a photocopy of the Sample Answer Sheet of this book. Use pencil.

Practice under Test Conditions

Find a quiet place where you will not be interrupted.

DO NOT use a dictionary.

Set a timer for 1 hour.

After You Finish

Check the Answer Key

Before You Try the Next Tests


Repeat for Reading Tests 2 to 6


Passage 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14 which are based on this

Survivor from the sky

In a remarkable documentary, Wings of Hope, German director Werner Herzog
recounts the true story of an eighteen year old girl, the sole survivor of a plane
crash in the Amazon jungle in 1971. Twenty-nine years later Herzog returns to the
jungle with Juliane Koepke, now a 46 year old biologist, and she tells her amazing
story on film. Juliane had just graduated from high school in Lima, Peru and, with
her mother, was flying out to spend Christmas at her father’s research station in the
jungle. A half hour into the flight they encountered a horrific storm. In the midst of
wild turbulence, the plane was struck by lightning and fell into a nose dive.
Passengers screamed as baggage flew around the compartment. Then the plane
broke into pieces and suddenly Juliane found herself outside free-falling 30,000 feet.
‘ I was suspended in the mid-air, still in my seat. It wasn’t so much that I had left the
plane but that the plane had left me. It simply wasn’t there any more. I was all alone
with my row of seats,’ says Juliane. ‘I sailed on through the air, then I tumbled into a
fall. The seatbelt squeezed my stomach and I couldn’t breathe any more.’ Before
she lost consciousness, Juliane saw the dense jungle below, ‘a deep green, like
broccoli’, with no clearings for hundreds of miles.
Somehow, miraculously, Juliane survived that fall from the sky. In the film, she
speculates on a number of factors which may have combined to save her. First, the
storm had produced a strong updraft from the thunder clouds. Secondly, being
strapped into a row of seats, she was aware of falling in a spiralling movement , like
a maple seed pod. Then, hitting the canopy of trees, she tumbled through a maze
of vines which slowed her landing in deep mud.
But surviving the fall, though miraculous in itself, was just the beginning. When
Juliane awoke hours later, wet and covered with mud, she was still strapped to her
seat. Staggering to her feet, she assessed her injuries: a fractured bone in the neck,
concussion and deep cuts in her leg and back. She was also in shock, lost and
totally alone in the Amazon jungle.
No doubt it washer familiarity with the wilderness that enabled her to cope. Her
parents were biologist and Juliane had grown up in the jungle. She realised her only
hope was to follow a little stream of water nearby, trusting that it would eventually
lead to a larger river and rescue. With no provisions, dressed in the miniskirt she
had worn on the plane and wearing just one shoe, she set off through initially. I saw
planes circling above me, but a after a few days I realised the search had been
called off,’ she said.
Surprisingly she felt no hunger but as the days passed her health was deteriorating
rapidly. The gash in her shoulder, where flies laid their eggs was now crawling with
maggots. ‘I knew I’d perish in the jungle so I stayed in the water.’ Walking in the
stream however presented one risk more serious than any others. Before each step
she had to poke ahead in the sand with a stick, to avoid treading on poisonous sting
rays, lying hidden on the bottom.
As the stream grew into a river, swimming was the only option. However, here in
deeper water, there were new threats. Crocodiles basking on the shores slipped
silently into the water as she passed. Juliane trusted that they feared humans and
were entering the water to hide. She swam on. On the tenth day, starving and
barely conscious, she spotted a hut and a canoe. They belonged to three
woodcutters working nearby. Rescue was at hand.
For this 46 year old woman, re-living such a traumatic experience on film must have
been a great challenge. But she shows little emotion. Flying back into the jungle she
sits in the same seat (19F) as on the fateful day. She is dispassionate, unemotional


in describing the flight. On the ground, when they finally locate the crash site, in
dense jungle, Juliane is scientific in her detachment, looking through the debris, now
buried under dense vegetation. She examines a girl’s purse, the skeleton of a
suitcase. Walking along the stream, she spots the engine which she remembers
passing on the third day. Her arms and legs are covered with mosquitoes, but she
seems to ignore all discomfort. Then, back in the town, standing in front of a
monument erected in memory of the victims of the crash, entitled Alas de
Esperanza (Wings of Hope), Juliane comments simply, ‘I emerged, as the sole
embodiment of hope from the disadter.’
Questions 1-14

Questions 1-3 Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE
WORDS from the passage
1 How old was Juliane at the time of the crash?
2 What is her occupation now?
3 What was the cause of the plane crash?
Questions 4—10 Choose the correct letter A—D. [4] What happened to the plane? A
It broke apart in the air. B It hit trees and exploded. C It crashed into a
mountainside. D It hit the ground and burst into flames.
[5] Which of the following did NOT help to slow her fall? A an updraft caused by
storm clouds B hitting vines C the section of seats to which she was attached D a
[6] Which of the following injuries did she sustain? A a broken foot B a broken arm C
concussion D cuts on her head
[7] What helped her to survive? A knowledge of the jungle B a map showing the
location of the nver C appropriate clothing and Shoes D food supplies from the Plane
[8] What was the biggest threat to her survival?
A infected wounds B sting rays C starvation D crocodiles
[9] How long was she lost in the jungle?
A 3 days B 5 days C 10 days D 15 days
[10] How was she finally rescued?
A search party found her in the jungle. B Native hunters found her. C She signaled to
a plane from the river. D She reached a campsite along the river.
Questions 11-14 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in
this passage?
Write: YES if the statement agrees wrth the writer’s Views. No if the statement
contradicts the writer’s views. NOT GIVEN if the information is not clearly given in
the passage. t5 a.
[11] Other survivors of the crash were found in the jungle.
[12] Juliane was upset when she re-visited the crash site.
[13] Wings of Hope is the name given to a memorial statue.
[14] Juliane suffered nightmares for many years as a result of her experience

Questions 15—27
Questions 15—19 Classify the following as relating to:
A the silk of bombyx mori B dragline silk of nephila clavipes C capturr silk of nephila
[15] forms the framework of a web
[16] most elastic silk


[17] allows predator to drop quickly
[18] single strand can be up to 900 metres long
[19] strongest silk
Questions 20-24 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the wnter in the
YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer. NO if the statement
contradicts the writer. NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the

[20] All spiders screte silk.

[21] Artificial genes for spider silk have been produced.
[22] Spider silk protein occurs naturally in goats’ milk.
[23] China is leading research efforts in the area of spider silk.
[24] Spider silk is now being produced commercially.
Questions 25-27
Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer, complete
the following.
Comparison of Synthetic and Natural Fibres
Main problem in the production of synthetic fibres: [25]
3 disadvantages of natural fibres: [26]
Proportion of clothing made from natural fibre: [27]

Questions 28—40 Questions 28~31

Complete the summary. Choose your answers from the box below the summary.
There are more words than you will need to fill the gaps.
For four centuries map makers have been trying to convert three—dimensional
information as ACCURATELY as possible onto a two-dimensional plane. However,
each method of [28] ........... involves a compromise. Thus Mercator's projection
indicates true north and south, known as fidelity of
[29] ................................................... , but misrepresents the relative size of
countries. To avoid this distortion other cartographers rounded the lines of latitude
and longitude. Dr Peters felt that such maps presented a first-world
[30] ................. . His map, with equal area projection, enables us to
[31] ..................................... the size of one country with another.
List of words
axis estimate perspective map direction compare size judge accurately angle
distances models projection change

Questions 32-36
Use the information in the text to match the map projection [M A P] with the
charasteristics listed below.
M Mercator projection
A Aitoff projection


P Peters Projection
[32] makes Europe seem larger than it is
[33] maximum distortions at the poles
[34] maintains greatest accuracy at 45 degrees latitude
[35] most distorts the position of the equator
[36] more accurately represents country shapes and sizes
Questions 37-39
Choose one drawing (A-D) to match each of the three projection types (3 7-3 9).
There are more drawings than names so you will not use all of them.
[37] Mercator projection
[38] Aitoff projection
[39] Peters projection

Question 40 Choose the correct letter A-D.

[40] The main point made by the writer of this article is that we need to...
A understand maps.
B understand map-making.
C understand that maps are not objective.
D understand the importance of latitude and longitude.

Questions 1—13
Questions 1-2 Choose the correct letter A-D.
[1] The researchers concluded that
A subjects underestimated the time spent ’on hold’. B it is better for companies not
to use any 'on-hold' music. C light jazz was the most acceptable music overall. D
both gender and type of music influence callers’ reaction.
[2] The researchers recommended that
A their client continue to play alternative music.
B four types of music should be offered to people ‘on hold’.
C advertising is preferable to music.
D women can be kept waiting for longer than men.
Questions 3-7 Choose the type of music from the list A-D below which corresponds
to the findings of the study.
Types of musIc A light jazz B alternative C classical D rock

[3] music preferred by men

[4] longest waiting time estimate (both sexes)
[5] music to avoid on telephone hold
[6] music to use if clients are mostly women
[7] best choice of ’on-hold’ music overall
Questions 8-13 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer?
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer.


NO if the statement contradicts the writer.
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this. [8] Businesses
want to minimise the time spent ’on hold'. [9] The research sample consisted of real
clients of a company.
[10] The sample consisted of equal numbers of men and women.
[11] Advertising is considered a poor alternative to 'on-hold' music.
[12] The consumer service company surveyed was playing classical music.
[13] Researchers asked subjects only to estimate the length of time they waited ‘on

Questions 14-25 questions 14—18

The passage has 8 sections A-H. Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs
B—F from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers (i-x). There are more headings than sections so you
will not use all of them
List of Headings
(i) The significance of tea drinking (ii) Possible solution to the puzzle (iii) Industry in
Holland and France (iv) Significant population increase (v) The relationship between
drinks and disease (vi) Gin drinking and industrialisation (vii) Dysentery prevention
in Japan and Holland (viii) Japan’s waterborne diseases (ix) Preconditions necessary
for industrial revolution
[14] Section B [15] Section C [16] Section D [17] Section E

Question 19-22
Complete the table using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage
Mid 17th century Main drinks were Hops helped to No significant
………. make beer last change
Late 17th century Gin becomes more Beer becomes Mortality rate goes
popular, especially expensive because up
with poor people of [19] ………..
Early 18th century [20] ……….. Britain starts trade Mortality rate goes
drinking starts to with chine down
Mid 18 century Decline in urban [22] ………. Water Infant mortality
deaths caused by used for tea and rate goes down by
[21] ………… beer; antibacterial half
qualities of tannin

Questions 23-25 Choose the correct letter A-D.

[23] In 1740 there was a population explosion in Britain because...
A large numbers of people moved to live in cities.
B larger quantities of beer were drunk.
C of the health-protecting qualities of beer and tea. D of the Industrial Revolution.
[24] According to the author, the Japanese did not industrialise because they didn’t


A like drinking beer.
B want animals to work. C like using wheels.
D want unemployment.
[25] Macfarlane thinks he has discovered why...
A the British drink beer and tea.
8 industrialisation happened in Britain when it did.
C the Japanese did not drink beer.
D sanitation wasn't widespread until the 19th century.

Questions 26-40
Questions 26—32
Complete the summary below. Choose your answers from the box below the
summary. There are more words than you will need to fill the gaps.
Although IT is one of the leading career ................ made by graduates today, the
industry’s demand for qualified applicants [26] ......................... the supply of skilled
I'l‘ personnel. Despite the [27] ................................... widespread use of computer
technology in all areas of life, [28] .................................... face difficulties recruiting
people whose education has equipped them to commence worldng productively
without further training. Several business organisations now offer income and other
[29] .................................... inducements to potential employees. They also include
group [30] .................................... in their selection procedures, often inviting up to
forty [31] .................................... to their company for the two-day visit. In this way
the company can demonstrate the reality of the working [32] .....................which is
likely to involve challenging co-operative projects than individualised tasks.
List of Words
exceeds extracts choices candidates employees admiration previous financial
employment regularity advantages employers environment activities current
Questions 33-37 Do the following statements reflect the views of the writer of the
' YES if the statement refiects the views of the writer. NO if the statement
contradicts the writer. NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks
about this.
[33] The American Intercontinental University includes team-based learning in all its
courses on all its campuses. [34] The composition of teams is changed regularly.
[35] Theoretical problems are the most important team activity. [36] The team
members participate in assessment of other team members. [37] International
students prefer traditional classroom learning to team-based learning.
Questions 38—40
Choose one phrase from the list of phrases A-H below to complete each of the
following sentences. There are more phrases than questions so you will not use all
of them.
[38] Students’ work is assessed... [39] The teams make a joint presentation... [40]
The need to achieve consensus assists
List of Phrases
A to compete with other teams as judged by the facilitator. B by individual tests and
exams. C to see who has the strongest point of view in the group. D individually, by
their peers and as a team. E in the development of communication skills. F to
practise working as a group while putting theory into practice. G to assist


international and non-traditional students. H in getting to know new friends and


Passage 1
You should spend about 29 minutes on Questions 1 -13 which are based on this passage

Sleeping on the job

North Americans are not a people of the siesta. There is a tendency to associate
afternoon naps with laziness and non-productivity. Latin Americans and some in
Europe cultures take a different view. In Mexico and Greece, for example, it is
customary to close business between noon and about 4.00 pm siesta time.
Recent studies are showing that if you can take a 15-30-minute nap while at work
in the afternoon, you’ll be more alert, more energetic, happier doing what you
do, more productive and therefore more likely to get ahead, Napping on the job is
not yet a trend but there is serious talk in academic circles about the merits of
power napping’.
By some estimates, the average American collects an annual ‘sleep debt’ of 500
hours---subtracting from assumed norm of eight hours a night. Two out of three
American get less than eight hours of sleep a night during the work week,
according to a recent study by the National Sleep Foundation in Washington. Forty
percent say they’re so tired that it interferes with their daily activities. Sleep
researcher William Anthony, a professor of psychology at Boston University, says
fatigue is a significant problem in modern society. He says sleepiness is a leading
cause of auto accidents, second only to drunkenness. All that drowsiness costs an
estimated $18 billion annually lost in productivity. ‘We have a simple message to,’
says Professor Anthony. ‘People should be allowed to nap at their breaks. The
rationale is a productivity one – workers are sleepy, and when they’re sleepy on the
job they’re not productive.’
Some companies are encouraging sleep at work, primarily for safety. The
Metropolitan Transit Authority, which runs the New York subway system and two
suburban railroads, is considering power naps for its train operators and bus drivers.
Another railway has started letting its rain operators take nap breaks of up to 45
minutes but only when trains are stopped at designated spots off the main lines
dispatchers have been notified. Some overseas air carriers permit airline pilots,
when not on duty, to nap in the cockpit. Airlines in the United States have not
accepted this practice yet.
According to the Encyclopedia of Sleep and Dreaming: ‘There is a biologically-based
tendency to fall asleep in mid-afternoon just as there is a tendency to fall asleep at
night. Moreover, if sleep the night before is reduced or disturbed for any reason, a
nap the subsequent afternoon is not only more likely to occur, nut it can also relieve
sleepiness and increase alertness.’ The nap zone, documented in numerous studies,
is typically between noon and 3.00 pm. Some people power through this natural
slowdown with caffeine or sugar but if employers allowed naps, the benefits would
be improvements in mood and performance, especially in mid-afternoon. Workers
would concentrate better and persevere in tasks longer. Workers commonly sneak
naps even without permission but some companies have begun encouraging naps
as part of their policies on boosting production. One US distributor, is opening a
2,000-square-foot nap facility that provides beds for up to 20 of its 225 workers at a
time. A company on Japan sets up tents in business offices, provides eyeshades and
ear plugs and encourages employees to snooze in the middle of the work day.
According to Professor Anthony, ‘You’re not going to see napping at traditional types
of operations…. But in 21st century-style operations, this isn’t going to be a perk. It’s
going to have more to do with productivity. Smart employers are understanding that
their employees need to rest to do their best.
Some suspect that corporate naptime, like other perks, is just a way to keep people
at the office longer. On the other hand, growing flexibility in hours for some workers
is allowing nap times to become more common. With eleven million Americans


telecommuting and another forty million working out of their homes full or part-
time, office hours are basically as long as you can stay awake. One thing is sure:
longer commutes, more intense, stressful workdays and higher production demands
are taking a toll. So, with Americans sleeping less and working longer hours, some
employers are warming up to the idea that a little nap in the middle of the day can
be good for business.

Questions 1- 13
Question 1
Circle the correct answer A-D

[1]According to the passage, which of the following statements is supported by recent


A. Napping is an indicator of laziness

B. Two thirds of Americans sleep too much
C. Napping in the workplace is a current trend.
D. Short naps at work increase productivity

Questions 2 – 6
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Passage 1?

YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer think about this

[2] The number one cause of car accidents

[3] People who nap in the afternoon are lazy.
[4] A nap in the middle of the day can improve your mood
[5] People who nap regularly live longer
[6] The majority of Americans sleep at least eight hours a night

Questions 7-9
Choose one phrase from the list in the box (A-F) to complete each of the following

[7] Humans are biological programmed to ….

[8] Employees of some progressive companies are encouraged to….

[9] Traditional employers are likely to

A. drink coffee to stay awake during the afternoon

B. have a nap during breaks
C. fall asleep when they are bored
D. sneak naps without permission
E. resist the trend toward napping
F. fall asleep in the afternoon

Questions 10-11
Complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE PASSAGE

[10] In the transportation industry napping is a matter of … __________________

[11] On some airlines pilots can sleep in the cockpit if …._________________

Questions 12-13
Circle the correct answer A-D

[12] According to the writer, in America the workplace is becoming…


A. less flexible
B. more exciting
C. less demanding
D. more stressful

[13] According to the writer, what is the main reason why employers support the idea of
naps at work

A. for healthy reasons D. To encourage creativity

B. to promote safety
C. to increase productivity
Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on this passage

A y
Homeopathy us an alternative system if medicine, founded in the
early 19TH century by a German physician. Dr. Samuel Hahnemann.
Since 1980 homeopathy has experienced a strong resurgence of
interest in North and South America as well as in Europe. Surveys

B indicate that more than a third of French physician have prescribed

homeopathic remedies and almost 50 per cent of British physicians
have referred patients for homeopathic treatment.
Hahneman’s discovery of the principle of homeopathy was accidental.
After taking some quinine he noticed that he developed malaria-like
symptoms. Since malaria patients were treated with quinine, he
speculated that possibly malaria is cured by quinine because it causes
malaria-like symptoms in healthy people. He decided to explore his
theory by testing other substances use as medicine at the time, such as
arsenic and belladonna. His tests were conducted by either taking the
substances internally himself or by administering them to healthy
volunteers and then recording all of the symptoms the volunteers
experienced. He continued his experiments on a wide range of natural
substances, often toxic. These recorded results created ‘drug pictures’
which formed the basis for the new system of medicine. The next step
was to give the tested substances to patients suffering from the same
group of symptoms represented by the drug picture recorded. The
results were incredible. People were being cured from diseases that had
never been cured before. He condensed his theory into a single Latin

C phrase: similia similibus curentur (let likes be cured by likes). This

means that a disease can be cured by a medicine which produces in a
healthy person, symptoms similar to those experienced by the patient.
The process of making remedies is very precise. A homeopathic remedy
is morally a single substance. The substances may be made from
plants, minerals and even animals for example snake venom and
cuttlefish ink. To make remedies, the raw material is dissolved in a
mixture that contains approximately 90% alcohol and 10% water. The
mixture is left to stand for 2 to 4 weeks, shaken occasionally then
strained. The resulting liquid or tincture is then diluted according to
very specific measures to a factor of 1:100. For example to produce a
It is this use of high dilutions that gas given rise to controversy. Many

conventional doctors claim that homeopathy functions only as a placebo
because the dosage is so small. However, the clinical experience of
homeopathy shows that this tiny dose can be effective: it works on
unconscious people and infants, and it even works on animals. Controlled
clinical studies performed by medical researchers are demonstrating can
be an effective method of treatment for many diseases.

E The most important part of homeopathic treatment lies in the lengthy

interview which the homeopath conducts with the patient. The idea
behind this one to two hour consultation is to build up a psychological,
emotional, and physical history of the patient, to discover the underlying
patterns of disease. The homeopath then decides which medicine to
prescribe based on the closet match between the patient’s symptoms
and the known symptoms elicited by the medicine in a healthy body. A

F single dose is given for the shortest period of time necessary to

stimulate the body’s healing power.

How does the concept of homeopathy differ from that of conventional

medicine? Very simply, homeopathy attempts to stimulate the body to
recover itself, Instead of looking upon the symptoms as something wrong
which must be set right, the homeopath sees them as signs of the way
the body is attempting to help itself. Another basic difference between

conventional medical therapy and homeopathy is in the role of
medication. In much of conventional therapy the illness is controlled
through regular use of medical substances. If the medication is
withdrawn, the person returns to illness. For example, a person who
takes pill for high blood pressure every day is not undergoing restoration
of perfect health as Dr. Hahnemann said.

Homeopathy has made significant progress in treating diseases which

orthodox medicine finds difficult. Best at dealing with inflammatory
conditions such as arthritis, skin conditions, migraines and respiratory
problems linked to allergies, it has also proved highly successful at
treating asthma. But homeopathy is not an appropriate treatment for
degenerative diseases such as emphysema. It cannot treat diseases
which destroy tissue, although it can still be beneficial is used
combination with other treatments. Two of the main advantages of
homeotherapy are the low cost of the medications and the rarity of
adverse reactions. The medicines are inexpensive, safe, and easy to use,
so people can learn to handle many of the common illnesses for which
they currently seek medical help. The resulting savings in costs and the
increase in personal independence represent a significant contribution to
health care


Questions 14-26

Questions 14-19
The reading passage has 7 section A-G
Choose the mist suitable headings for sections B-G from the list of headings (i-x).
There are more headings than sections so you will not use all of them.

List of Headings
(i) The future of homeopathy
(ii) Concerns about homeopathy
(iii) Comparison with traditional western medicine
(iv) Dr. S. Hahnemann
(v) Theoretical and experimental basis
(vi) Revival of homeopathy
(vii) Preparation of medicines
(viii) Debate over effectiveness
(ix) Advantages and limitation of homeopathy
(x) Aspects of treatment

Section A vi

Section B

[15] Section C

[16] Section D

[17] Section E

[18] Section F

[19] Section G

Questions 20 -22
Complete the description below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM
THE PASSAGE for each

Making a homeopathic remedy

The remedies come from plant animal and mineral sources
A single product is mixed with [20] ………... and left to stand for 2-4 weeks
This mixture is strained to produce a tincture which can be diluted
1 drop of this tincture is added to 99 drops of alcohol/water
The mixture is then [21]………….…. vigorously.
This produces a remedy with potency of 1c
As the remedy becomes more diluted it gets [22] …………….

Questions 23-26
Complete the summary. Choose your answer from box below

Homeopathy differs from conventional medicine in a number of ways. Conventional

medicine views symptoms as an indication of something wrong in the body whereas
homeopathy sees them as signs that the body is attempting to [23] ____________.


The uses of medication differ also. Many types of conventional medication [24]
____________ but if the medicine is taken away, the illness returns. The intention of
homeopathy is to bring about a complete cure. Homeopathic remedies are [25]
_____________ than conventional and have fewer [26] ___________.

List of words/phrases
cheaper cure heal itself
illness treatments getting better
control symptoms more expensive side effects
stronger shealthy patients


Passage 3
You should spend about 20 minutes in Question 27-40 which are about on this passage

The hemp revival

The hemp plant, one of the world’s oldest industrial resources, is back. The
rediscover of this renewable resource is making it the fibre of choice for future
textiles, personal care products, building materials, paper and fuel.

Hemp has been grown for paper, textiles, food and medicine throughout human
history. The earliest known woven fabric made of hemp, dates back to the eighth
millennium (8,000-7,000 BC). The majority of all sails, clothes, tents, rugs, towels,
paper, rope, twine, art canvas, paints, varnishes, and lighting oil were made from
hemp. Hemp seeds were regularly used as a source of food and protein for

Hemp’s drastic decline in use and importance within a matter of fifty years is widely
considered to have been brought about by the timber and petrochemical industries
in America. By themed-1930s, changes in technology were beginning to impact on
the hemp industry. Mechanical stripping equipment and machines to conserve
hamp’s high-cellulose pulp became available and affordable. Timber and paper
holding companies stood to lose bllions of dollars if hemp were to be grown on large
scale. A resurgence of the hemp industry also threatened the emerging petro-
chemical companies which had patented the chemicals for pulp processing.
Newspaper articles began to appear, linking hemp with violent crime. The term
used however, was ‘marijuana’ to distance it from hemp used for industrial
purposes. Because few people realized that ‘marijuana’ and hemp came from same
plant species, virtually nobody suspected that the Marijuana Prohibition of 1938
would destroy the hemp industry.

Supporting the theory that marijuana was banned to destroy the hemp industry,
were two articles written just before the Marijuana Prohibition, claiming that hemp
was on the verge of becoming a super crop. These articles, which appeared in well-
respected magazines, praised the usefulness and potential of hemp. Hemp can be
used to produce more than 25, 000 products’ and ‘hemp will prove, for both farmer
and public, the most profitable and desirable crop than can be grown. This was the
first time that billion dollar was used to describe the value of a crop. Less than one
year after these articles were written the Marijuana Prohibition took effect. To what
extent a conspiracy was involved is still being debated, but the important thing is
that for thousands of years, hemp was used extensively. Then over a short period, it
became illegal in many parts of the world.

Now, however, the focus is on the development of hemp as an industrial resource.

Initially, a distinction needs to be made between the two types of hemp. ‘Cannabis
has evolved into two basic species. Plants grown for fibre and seed are universally
called hemp. Cannabis grown for its drug content is commonly called marijuana or
drug cannabis. Drug-type cannabis varies widely in THC content from approximately
1-2% in unselected strains to 10% in the best modern vaireties. (as citied from
Watson 1994). Hemp contains virtually none of active ingredients of drug-type
cannabis (THC). It is not feasible to get high in hemp, and most marijuana produces
very low-quality fiber. Hemp should never be confused with marijuana, as their roles
cannot be reversed.

It is evident that hemp is as extraordinary fibre. Both stems and seeds can be
utilized. Most significantly, hemp can be grown without pesticides and herbicides.
The plant also has the ability to suppress weeds and soil borne diseases. Based on
the hemp industries which have been established overseas, there is a large demand
for hemp products and hemp is proving to be a highly profitable industry. On an
annual basis, one acre of hemp will produce as much fibre as


2 to 3 acres of cotton. The fiberis stronger and softer than cotton lasts twice as long
and will not mildew. Cotton grows only in warm climates and requires more water
and more fertilizer than hemp as well as large quantities of pesticide and herbicide.

Hemp can also be used to produce fibreboard that is stronger and lighter than
wood, and its fire retardant. Unlike paper from wood pulp, hemp paper contains in
dioxin, or other toxic residue and a single acre of hemp can produce the same
amount of paper as four acres of trees. The trees take 20 years to harvest and
hemp take single season. In warm climates hemp can be harvested two or even
three times a year. On an annual basis, one acre of hemp will produce as much
paper as 2 to 4 acres of trees. From tissue paper to cardboard, all types of paper
products can be produced from hemp. The quality of hemp paper is superior to tree
based paper. Hemp paper will last hundreds of years without degrading and it can
be recycled many more times than tree-based paper.

Today, industrialized nations around the world are waking up to the enormous
potential of hemp. While some countries, like China and India, have never had laws
against hemp cultivation, others are legalizing industrial hemp after many years of
lumping it together with marijuana. The products and fabrics that are emerging
from the international hemp industry are finding strong demand in an eco-aware
global community. Hemp is indeed and agricultural crop for the twenty-first century.


Questions 27-40

Questions 27-31
Re-order the following letters (A-F) to show the sequence of events according to the passage. The first one has been
done for you as an example







A. Timber and petro-chemical industries threatened

B. Articles praise hemp as a potential billion dolor crop

C. Widespread cultivation of hemp

D. Prohibition of marijuana

E. Newspaper articles link hemp to violent crime

F. Development of stripping machines

Questions 32-33
Complete the following using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE PASSAGE.

Hemp Marijuana
Fibre Strong and durable [32] ……………….

Drug Content [33]……………… up to 10% THC

Questions 34-39
From the information given in the passage, classify the following (34-39) as characteristic of:

A. Hemp
B. Wood
C. Cotton

[34] mildew-resistant

[35] dioxin is a by-product


[36] can be harvested more than once a year

[37] large amounts of fertilizer needed

[38] fire-retardant properties

[39] requires mild temperature

Question 40
Choose the correct answer A-D

[40] The main purpose of this article is…

A. To criticize government policy on hemp

B. To show the economic benefits of hemp
C. To compare hemp and marijuana
D. To promote research into new uses of hemp.


Passage 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on this passage.

Frogwatch, a remarkable success story started in Western Australia, is the brainchild
of Dr. Ken Aplin. His work as the curator of reptiles and frogs in the Western
Australian Museum, involved long field trips and he wondered if a community based
frog-monitoring network could help him keep track of frogs. Through such network,
ordinary untrained members of the community could learn about frog habitats,
observe the numbers and kinds of frogs in their local area, and report this
information to the museum.

Launched in 1995, Frogwatch recently gained its 3221 st member, and many people
say that this is the best thing the museum has ever done. Each participant receives
a ‘Frogwatch kit’ – a regular newsletter, an audio tape of frog calls and identification
sheets. Recently, Frogwatch membership increased dramatically when a mysterious
parasitic fungus disease began attacking frogs nationwide. Although research is yet
incomplete, scientists suspect the fungus originated overseas, perhaps in South
America, where frogs have died in catastrophic numbers from a fungus disease
genetically similar to the Australian organism.

Researchers in Western Australia needed to know how widespread the infection was
in the state’s frog populations. So Aplin sent an ‘F-file’ (frog fungus facts) alert to
Frogwatch members, requesting their help. He asked them to deliver him dead or
dying frogs. More than 2000 frogs have now been examined, half from the
museum’s existing collection. Aplin once thought the fungus had arrived in Western
Australia in only the past year or two, but tests now suggest it has been there since
the late 1980s.

Frogwatch has proved to be the perfect link to the public and Aplin has become a
total convert to community participation. He’s now aiming for a network of 15,000
Frogwatch members as the museum can’t afford to use professional resources to
monitor frog populations. Much of the frog habitat is on private land, and without
community support, monitoring the frogs would be impossible.

Not everyone is convinced by the ‘feelgood’ popularity of Frogwatch. While Aplin

believes even tiny backyard ponds can help to significantly improve frog numbers,
Dr. Dale Roberts isn’t so sure. A senior zoology lecturer at the University of WA,
Roberts agrees the program has tapped into the public’s enthusiasm for frogs, but
he warns that strong public awareness does not amount to sound science.

He argues that getting the public to send in pages of observations is a good thing,
but giving these reports credibility may not be valid scientifically. In addition he’s
not convinced that Frogwatch’s alarmist message about the danger of fungal
infection is valid either. In Western Australia, for example, there was a long summer
and very late drenching rains that year, following two equally dry years. So, he
argues, there are other things that might have precipitated the deaths. He
questions what could be done about it anyway. If it’s already widespread, it may not
be worth the cost and effort of doing anything about it. Even if it’s causing high
death rates, he says he can still find every frog species found ever the past ten
years in the south-west of Australia.


Roberts argues that Western Australia is different. Unlike most other states, species
are still being discovered there; the disappearances of frog types in Queensland and
New South Wales, are not occurring in Western Australia, although three south-west
species are on the endangered list. Roberts believes that no amount of garden
ponds in Perth will help those species, which live in isolated habitats targeted for

Aplin’s response is that increasing the number of frog-friendly habitats is important

for the very reason that many West Australian frog species are found in small,
highly restricted locations. He argues that pesticide-free gardens and ponds can
offer a greater chance of survival to animals battling habitat disturbance,
environmental pollutants, climatic variation, and now fungal disease. Aplin’s opinion
is that they should use the precautionary principle in cases where they don’t yet
know enough about the situation. Usually diseases sort themselves out naturally
and some frog fauna will co-evolve with the fungus. Given time some balance may
be restored, but in the shorter term, they are seeing negative impacts.

The nationwide spread of the chytrid fungus is being mapped by Dr. Rick Speare, a
specialist in amphibian disease at James cook University. Speare also tests the
accuracy of Aplin’s fungus diagnoses and says Frogwatch is ‘an amazing and under-
acknowledged system…the best program in Australia for harnessing public interest
in frog biology…There are a lot of eyes out there looking for dead or sick frogs,
beyond the power of any biologist to collect.’

Aplin argues that they should never underestimate the importance of having a
community base, especially when governments want to cut research funds. ‘People
can protest in ways that a handful of scientists hiding in a laboratory can’t do. For
just about every environmental problem, community involvement is fundamental’. Furthermore Frogwatch is
proving to be a social phenomenon as much as anything else. It seems ordinary people know that frogs are a
measure of the environment’s health.
Questions 1 – 13
Questions 1-6
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer of the passage?


YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer.

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer.
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

[1] Frogwatch members need a basic level of scientific training.

[2] ll Frogwatch members live in Western Australia.

[3] Frogwatch has proven that frogs are disappearing because of a fungus.

[4] Scientists in WA have examined about two thousand frogs collected by Frogwatch

[5] The Frog fungus disease has been in Western Australia for more than ten years.

[6] New species of frogs have been found in Western Australia recently.

Questions 7 – 12
The reading passage describers the opinions of Dr. Ken Aplin, Dr. Dale Roberts and Dr.
Rick Speare in relation to strategies for frog conservation.

Match one of the researchers A-C to each of the statements below.

There may be more than one correct answer.

A for Dr. Aplin
B for Dr. Roberts
C for Dr. Speare


EXAMP Answer
Frogwatch is the best Australian program for A
Encouraging public interest in frogs.

[7] Although the involvement of large numbers of people is encouraging, this does not
guarantee scientifically valid data.

[8] The development of frog friendly backyards will help to conserve frog species.

[9] Although it is possible that frogs will adapt to fungal and other problems in the long
Term, we should take precautions in case this does not occur.

[10] As there may be many other explanations for recent frog deaths, it is not worth
spending a great deal of time and money studying this fungus.

[11] Because of the unique geography of Western Australia most frog species in the
Stateare not in danger of extinction.

[12] Frogwatch has greater potential for frog observation than is possible by the

Question 13
Write the appropriate letter A-D.

[13] The main purpose of the Frogwatch is...

A for people to collect and deliver dead or dying frogs to scientists

B for people to observe and collect information about frog populations
for scientists
C for people to allow scientists onto their private land to look at frog
D for people to set up ponds in their gardens as habitat for frogs


Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-28 which are based on this passage .

Just relax…..
Hypnosis is an intriguing and fascinating process. A trance-like mental state is induced in one

person by another, who appears to have the power to command that person to obey
instructions without question. Hypnotic experiences were described by the ancient Egyptians
and Greeks, whilst references to deep sleep and anesthesia have been found in the Bible and
in the Jewish Talmud. In the mid-1700s, Franz Mesmer, an Austrian physician, developed his
theory of ‘animal magnetism’, which was the belief that the cause of disease was the
‘improper distribution of invisible magnetic fluids’. Mesmer used water tubs and magnetic
wands to direct these supposed fluids to his patients. In 1784, a French commission studied
Mesmer’s claims, and concluded that these ‘cures’ were only imagined by the patients.
However, people continued to believe in this process of ‘mesmerism’ and it was soon realized
that successful results could be achieved, but without the need for magnets and water.

B The term hypnotism was first used by James Braid, a British physician who studied suggestion
and hypnosis in the mid-1800s. He demonstrated that hypnosis differed from sleep, that it
was a physiological response and not the result of secret powers. During this same period,
James Esdaile, a Scottish doctor working in India, used hypnotism instead of anesthetic in
over 200 major surgical operation, including leg amputations. Later that century, a French
neurologist, Jean Charcot, successfully experimented with hypnosis in his clinic for nervous

Since then, scientists have shown that the state of hypnosis is a natural human behavior,
which can affect psychological, social and/or physical experiences. The effects of hypnotism
depend on the ability, willingness and motivation of the person being hypnotized. Although
hypnosis has been compared to dreaming and sleepwalking, it is not actually related to sleep.
It involves a more active and intense mental concentration of the person being hypnotized.
Hypnotized people can talk, write, and walk about and they are usually fully aware of what is
being said and done.

There are various techniques used to induce hypnosis. The best-known is a series of simple

suggestions repeated continuously in the same tone of voice. The subject is instructed to
focus their attention on an object or fixed point, while being told to relax, breathe deeply, and
allow the eyelids to grow heavy and close. As the person responds, their state of attention
changes, and this altered state often leads to other changes. For example, the person may
experience different levels of awareness, consciousness, imagination, memory and reasoning
or become more responsive to suggestions. Additional phenomena may be produced or
eliminated such as blushing, sweating, paralysis, muscle tension or anaesthesia. Although
these changes can occur with hypnosis, none of these experiences is unique to it. People who
are very responsive to hypnosis are also more responsive to suggestions when they are not
hypnotized. This responsiveness increases during hypnotism. This explains why hypnosis
takes only a few seconds for some, whilst other people cannot be easily hypnotized.

It is a common misunderstanding that hypnotists are able to force people to perform criminal

or any other acts against their will. In fact, subjects can resist suggestions, and they retain
their ability to distinguish right from wrong. This misunderstanding is often the result of public
performances where subjects perform ridiculous or highly embarrassing actions at the
command of the hypnotist. These people are usually instructed not to recall their behavior
after re-emerging from the hypnotic state, so it appears that they were powerless wile
hypnotized. The point to remember however, is that these individuals chose to participate,
and the success of hypnotism depends on the willingness of a person to be hypnotized.

Interestingly, there are different levels of hypnosis achievable. Thus deep hypnosis can be

induced to allow anesthesia for surgery, childbirth or dentistry. This contrasts to a lighter
state of hypnosis, which deeply relaxes the patient who will then follow simple directions. This
latter state may be used to treat mental health problems, as it allows patients to feel calm
while simultaneously thinking about distressing feelings or painful memories. This can help
recovery from psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression or phobias. Sometimes,


after traumatic incidents, memory of the events may be blocked. For example, some soldiers
develop amnesia [loss of memory] as a result of their experiences during wartime. Through
hypnosis these repressed memories can be retrieved and treated. A variation of this
treatment involves age regression, when the hypnotist takes the patient back to a specific
age. In this way patients may remember events and feelings from that time, which may be
affecting their current wellbeing.

Physicians also have made use of the ability of a hypnotized person to remain in a given
position for long periods of time. In one case, doctors had to graft skin onto a patient’s badly
damaged foot. First, skin from the person’s abdomen was grafted onto his arm; then the graft
was transferred to his foot. With hypnosis, the patient held his arm tightly in position over his
abdomen for three weeks, then over his foot for four weeks. Even though these positions
were unusual, the patient at no time felt uncomfortable!

Hypnosis occasionally has been used with witnesses and victims of crime to enable people to
remember important clues, such as a criminal’s physical appearance or other significant
details that might help to solve a crime. However, as people can both lie and make mistakes
while hypnotized, the use of hypnotism in legal situations can cause serious problems. Also
hypnosis cannot make a person divulge secret information if they don’t want to. This was
confirmed by that memories refreshed through hypnosis may include inaccurate information,
false memories, and confabulation (fact and fantasy combined).

Questions 14-28
Questions 14-18
The passage has eight section A-H. Choose the most suitable heading for sections B-F from
the list of headings below. Write the appropriate number (i-x).

There are more headings than sections, so you will not use all of them.

EXAMP Answer
Section A (x)

List of Headings
[14] Section B (i) Use of hypnotism in criminal cases
(ii) The normality of hypnotized subjects’
[15] Section C behavior
(iii) Early medical experiments with
[16] Section D hypnotism
(iv) Early association of hypnosis with
[17] Section E psychology
(v) Dangers of hypnotism
[18] Section F (vi) How to hypnotise
(vii) Hypnosis and free will
(viii) Difference between mesmerism and

Questions 19-23
Complete the notes on the history of hypnosis using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE PASSAGE.

References to hypnotism can be found in both the Talmud and the [19] ………………….Even when Mesmer’s [20]
……………… were not used, successful results occurred without them. Braid identified hypnosis as a natural [21]
………………. response, rather than magical or mystical. Early psychological studies showed the difference
between sleep and hypnosis.
Successful hypnosis requires the subject’s active [22] ………………. Consequently subjects can speak or move
around and are [23] ………………… of their surroundings.

Questions 24-28
Choose the correct letter A-D.

[24] In order to induce hypnosis the hypnotist will…

A encourage the person to relax using a repetitively even tone of voice.

B say a specific set of words in a special tone of voice.
C say any words but in a particular tone of voice.


D encourage the person to relax while focusing on a slowly moving object.

[25] Hypnotized subjects can be instructed to…

A do something they have previously said is against their wishes.

B demonstrate physical strength they would normally not have.
C reveal confidential information against their will.
D do something that they would not normally be opposed to doing.

[26] Past events are recalled under hypnosis…

A to entertain the hypnotist.

B to allow subjects to reassess them without distress.
C to help the subjects improve their memories.
D to make the subject feel younger.

[27] After surgery, hypnosis may be used…

A to make drugs unnecessary.

B to keep the patient mobile.
C to make the patient forget to move.
D to minimize patient’s discomfort while immobile.

[28] The American Medical Association reported that…

A people lie when giving evidence under hypnosis.

B people should be hypnotized before giving evidence.
C evidence given when hypnotized may be unreliable.
D secret evidence can be obtained through hypnosis.


Passage 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40 which are based on this passage.

Kids and
Two Italian psychologists, Vincenzo Marte and Giovanni Notarnicola, describe the
traditional spontaneous practice of sport by children – climbing trees, riding a
bicycle along quiet roads, racing their friends across the fields – as an activity of
freedom, a special activity of discovery and learning. In the case of free sporting
activity, the child’s time is given up entirely to the activity, as can be seen in
endless games of football young children play, which may then be followed by
bicycle races and/or a swim in the river, for example.

Today, however, children’s discovery of sport has become very different. It is often
parents who take their children, when they are very young, to the swimming pool or
to the sports grounds or sports halls. Children’s first experience of sport thus takes
place as an organized activity, which they see as organization of their free time. By
organizing sport for children, and often deciding for them, we unfortunately create
an imbalance preventing them from managing their own play/sports time, thus
denying them an opportunity of autonomy and independence as was possible in the
A first possible reason for the imbalance in the practice of sport by children is
therefore linked to the urban society we live in today. We need not regret the past; it
is rather a question of knowing how to recreate this freedom in our towns and in the
country, where sport is increasingly based on organized leisure activities. Doing one
sport is now the rule in clubs. Sports grounds are often on the outskirts of cities, and
are overcrowded and invariably enclosed, while recreational areas such as parks or
hard-packed surfaces, are very few and far between. How can we find the balance
of a varied and spontaneous relationship to sport under such conditions?
Some interesting answers have already been suggested which take into account the
need to recreate this freedom. Marte and Notarnicola have shown that children who
have experienced such freedom were considered by sports trainers to be more
capable when they joined organized sport aged 12-13. Their study concluded that
no formal training, no matter how early in life it took place, could replace these first
Measures which would reverse this imbalance include: increasing the number of
sports facilities which encourage self-organisation by the children, and also setting
up unstructured playing areas with little in the way of equipment. Areas where
street sport can be practiced need to be established and sports clubs which offer
multidisciplinary sports training should be supported. Children should be offered
pre-school activity where they can discover different sports.


For children, sport remains a special kind of discovery and learning, no matter how
much adults limit and control the practice of early intensive training. Here is the
second example of imbalance in children’s sport. Today, sport ispracticed with early
intensive training from the youngest possible age. Sometimes this is even before
the age of six and is usually one specific sport within an organized framework.
When adult-style competitions are introduced at an early age, the condition which
encourage a balanced development of children through sport are no longer
Today, early intensive training is much more widely on offer. Many sports
organisations claim that they are forced to do this type of training because of what
is called ‘the golden age’ to acquire the physical skills. It is considered unthinkable
for a young skater or gymnast to miss this period, because if they did so, they
would fall so far behind the best, that they could never hope to catch up. Faced with
this demand for early ability, it is important that a safety net is put in place to
maximize the benefits and minimize the disadvantages of such intensive training.
Why do very young children give up sport? The most common reason for leaving a
sport is to change to another sport, which in itself is no bad thing. However, children
may leave a sport because they believe that they have received too much criticism
and too many negative assessments. We know that young children, up to the age of
eleven or twelve, cannot assess their own level of competence. They believe that if
they are making an effort, then this in itself is a sign of their competence.
We also know that young children are particularly sensitive to criticism from adults
or peers. Trainers must therefore pay particular attention to this and avoid
excessive criticism. They should also avoid any strategies that discriminate against
the child: for example in team sports, naming first choice players and reserves. It
should be remembered that primary school children’s main desire is to have fun and
socialize. The desire to improve and become agood competitor will develop later.
This brief example shows that knowledge of child development is indispensable for
those who take care of children at this ae. It is up to trainers, sports doctors and
psychologists to implement the measure necessary to limit this excessive early
practice of sport by children.
A third source of imbalance which threatens children and sport is parental attitudes.
The American psychologist, Rainer Martens, emphasizes that, ‘too often children’s
joy of sports is destroyed by adults who want glory through victory.’ Several studies
have shown that parental pressure is high on the list of reasons why children leave
sport. The presence of mothers and fathers can prevent children from considering
sport as their own, where they can learn to master technical difficulties, manage
interpersonal relations, and experience success and failure. As Martens highlights,
‘adults are solely to blame if joy and sadness become synonymous, to a child, with
victory or defeat’.
If the children make the decisions, this ensures that they enjoy being a child in
sport, and are relaxed with their development as human beings. We need only
observe the activity in a school playground, where games are organized on an
improvised playing field, to understand that children show genetic traces of the
hunter instinct, which naturally leads them to physical activity. Sport is included as
something they want, and which they identify both as a means of release and as a
form of self-expression. By acting as a route to self-discovery, sport gives children
both the opportunity to know their limits, and to acquire tools which will allow them
to surpass them. Playing sport is a source of learning, progress and pleasure; and
additional way of enriching life.


Questions 29-40
Questions 29-36
Complete the summary below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS FROM THE PASSAGE.

Marte & Notarnicola define the spontaneous sporting games of children as activities of [29]

…………………. Because today sport is often decided and [30] ……………… by parents, children lose

their autonomy. A first imbalance occurs because [31]……………….. are out of the city and often

crowded, whilst there are a limited number of open recreational areas where children can play


Children should discover and learn about sports themselves. The second imbalance occurs because they

start early [32] …………… training very young and participate in only [33]………… specific activity.

Children often give up a sport because of negative [34]…………….. It is important that trainers avoid

excessive criticism of young children may give up sport is the attitudes of their parents. This third

imbalance occurs as parents exer [36] ………………… on children to win rather than to enjoy sport.

Questions 37-40
Choose the correct letter A-D.

[37] Children’s expression of this ‘freedom’ is important because…

A it allows them to be lazy.

B it menas they can learn to swim and ride a bike.
C it puts them in charge of what they do and when they do it.
D it relieves the parents from transporting their children to sports.

[38] Ways of allowing children to develop this ‘freedom’ include…

A making transport to sports clubs free.

B offering a range of different sports in each sports club.
C offering sporting tuition to pre-school children.
D making children play outside regularly.

[39] To encourage young children to continue with sport we should give them…


A accurate feedback about their ability at sport.
B experience of failure as well as success.
C experience of being reserves as well as first choice team members.
D the opportunity to mix socially with their peers at sport.

[40] The author believes that…

A children’s sport should not be organized by adults.

B playing sport is an important part of children’s development.
C children need to learn that sport is about losing as well as swimming
D children can be psychologically and physiologically damaged by sport.


There is no doubt that dogs are the oldest of all species tamed by humans and their
domestication was based on a mutually beneficial relationship with man. The
conventional view is that the domestication of wolves began between 10,000 and
20,000 years ago. However, a recent ground-breaking paper by a group of
international genetics has pushed this date back by a factor of 10. Led by Dr. Robert
Wayne, at the University of California, Los Angeles, the team showed that all dog
breeds had only one ancestor, the wolf. They did this by analyzing the genetic
history through DNA of 162 wolves from around the world and 140 domestics’ dogs
representing 67 breeds. The research also confirms, for the first time, that dogs are
descended only from wolves and do not share DNA with coyotes or jackals. The fact
that our companionship with dogs now appears to go back at least 100,000 years
means that this partnership may have played an important part in the development
of human hunting techniques that developed 70,000 to 90,000 years ago. It also
may even have affected the brain development in both species.
The Australian veterinarian David Paxton suggests that in that period of first
contact, people did not so much domesticate wolves as wolves domesticated
people. Wolves may have started living at the edge of human settlements as
scavengers, eating scraps of food waste. Some learned to live with human beings in
a mutually helpful way gradually evolved into dogs. At the very least, they would
have protected human settlements, and given warnings by barking at anything
approaching. The wolves that evolved into dogs have been enormously successful in
evolutionary terms. They found everywhere in the inhabited world, hundreds of
millions of them. The descendants of the wolves that remained wolves are now
sparsely distributed, often in endangered population. In return for companionship
and food, the early ancestor of the dog assisted humans in tracking, hunting,
guarding and a variety of other activities. Eventually humans began to selectively
breed these animals for specific traits. Physical characteristics changed and
individual breeds began to take shape. As humans wandered across Asia and
Europe, they took their dogs along, using them for additional task and further
breeding them for selected qualities that would better enable them to perform
specific duties.

According to Dr. Colin Groves of the department of Archeology and Anthropology at

Australian National University, early humans came to rely on dogs’ keen ability to
hear, smell and see – allowing certain areas of the human brain to shrink in size
relative to other areas. ‘Dogs acted as Humans’ alarm system, trackers and hunting
aids, garbage disposal facilities, hot water bottles and children guardians and
playmates. Human provided dogs with food and security. This symbiotic relationship
was stable for over 100,000 years and intensified into mutual domestication; said
Dr. Groves. In his opinion, humans domesticated dogs and dogs domesticated
Dr. Groves repeated an assertion made as early as 1914 – that humans have some
of the same physical characteristics as domesticated animals, the most notable
being decreased brain size. The horse experienced as 16 per cent reduction in brain
size after domestication while pig’s brains shrank by as much as 34 per cent. The
estimated brain-size reduction in domesticated dogs varies from 30 per cent to 10
per cent. Only in the last decade have archeologists uncovered enough fossil
evidence to establish that brain capacity of humans declined in Europe and Africa
by at least 10 per cent beginning about 10,000 years ago. Dr. Groves believes this
reduction may have taken place as the relationship between humans and dogs
intensified. The close interaction between the two species allowed for the
diminishing of certain human brain functions like smell and hearing.


Question 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer of the
YES if the statement agrees with the author’s views.
NO if the statement contradicts the author’s views.
NOT GIVEN if the information is not clearly given in the passage.

1. The co-existence of wolves and humans began 10,000 years ago.

2. Dogs, wolves, jackals and coyotes share a common ancestor.

3. Wolves are a protected species in most parts of the world.

4. Dogs evolved from wolves which choose to live with humans.

5. Dogs probably influenced the development of human hunting skills.

Question 6-8
Choose the correct letter A-D.
6. How do we know that dogs have been more successful in evolutionary
terms than wolves?
A Dogs can be trained more easily than wolves.
B Wolves are stronger than dogs.
C Humans prefer dogs to wolves.
D There are more dogs than wolves today.

7. As a result of domestication, the size of the human brain has...

A increased.
B decreased.
C stayed the same.
D becomes more complex.
8. What can we infer from the studies of brain size and domestication?
A Domestic life is less demanding than surviving in the wild.


B Animals like living with humans.
C Domestic has made animals physically weaker.
D Pigs are less intelligent than dogs.

Question 9
There are many different types of dogs today, because, in early times
humans began to
9. ___________Their animals for the characteristics they wanted.

Question 10-14
Match one of researchers (A-C) to each of the findings (10-14) below.
A Dr. Wayne
B Dr. Paxton
C Dr. Groves
10. Studied the brain size of domesticated animals
11. Claims that wolves chose to interact with humans
12. Established a new time frame for domestication of wolves
13. Believes that dogs and humans domesticated of wolves
14. Studied the DNA of wolves and dogs


The crop phenomenon has puzzled and mystified humanity for many years.
The designs just appear, place carefully in fields of food and grains. Some are
larger than football fields and highly complex in design and construction.
Others are smaller and more primitive. We call them crop circles, but many
of them are not circular. Some are elongated abstract designs, a few
resemble insects or other known forms, and some are mixture of lines,
circles, and other shapes melded into intricate patterns. Most become visible
overnight, though it has been claimed that a few have appeared within a
half-hour in broad daylight.
Crop circles have appeared all over the world about 10,000 instances from
various countries have been reported in recent years. The first modern rash
of crop appeared in Australia in December of 1973. A strange circular imprint
appeared in a wheat field near Wokurna, a community southeast of Adelaide.
Soon seven swirled circles up to 14 feet in diameter appeared in an oat field
nearby. In December of 1989, an amazing set of circles, ranging from a few
inches to a few feet in diameter appeared in wheat belt west of Melbourne.
As many as 90 crop circles were found. The best documented and largest
modern spread of crop circles began in southern England during summer of
1980. By the end of 1988, 112 new circles had been formed, at that time
circles were being reported worldwide, 305 by the end of 1989. The total
grew to an outstanding 1000 newly-formed circles in 1990. In 1991,200 to
300 circles were reported. Crop circles have been documented in over 30
countries, Including Canada, the former Soviet Union, Japan and United
Nine out of ten circles remained simple with broken stems flattened to the
ground and swirled. The stalks around the circles remained completely erect.
But over the years, crop circles have become much more geometrically
intricate. Patterns involved multiple circles, bars, triangles, rings, and spurs.
Pictorial imagery also appeared. Reliable eyewitnesses have reported seeing
unusual lights and hearing unidentifiable sounds while on an early-morning
walk in the countryside where crop circle showed later that day. High-
pitched, warbling noises have been recorded at the site of some crop circles.
On several occasions a strange glow or a darker coloring has been seen in
the sky over a crop circle. And in more than one instance, the electrical
power of small planes flying overhead has been cut off abruptly. While the
casual energies do not seem to harm animals or even insects as far as we
can tell, wild creatures tend to avoid the circles. Flocks of birds have been
seen to split apart and fly around the perimeter rather than go directly over a
crop circles formation.
Researchers have spent a great deal of time investigating different aspects
of crop circles. They try to detect traces of human involvement in the circle-
making, test the area of the circles itself for geophysical anomalies, and


analyze the field’s grain both from within and outside the circles, searching
for differences.
Dr. W. C. Levengood of BLT Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has
analyzed many grain samples and confirmed, time after time, significant
changes at the cellular level of crop circle plants. The plants from the circles
have elongated cells blown-out growth nodes. Seeds from the circles plants
often show accelerated growth rates when they are sown, and in some
instances, quite different looking plants results. In many instances it appears
that a vortex-like energy causes the plants to swirl down, flattering the
design into the land. Whatever this energy is, it does not generally inhibit the
plant’s growth. They continue to show normal response to the sun, rising
upward over several days following the appearance of the circle. Michael
Chorost of Duke University found occasions of short-lived radionuclides in the
top layer of soil in some of the formations. A British government laboratory
found diminished nitrogen and decreased nematode populations as well as
decreased water content in the soil of a formation. Researchers have
discovered other anomalies as well, such as curious embedded magnetic
particles and charred tissue. Some of plants stalk within the circles show
evidence of being exposed to rapid microwaves heating.
Scientists have attempted to explain crop circles as a result of natural
processes. One popular theory, accepted by many mainstream scientists and
academics, is known as ‘Plasma Vortex Theory’. Developed by Dr. Terence
Mearden, it theorize that electrified air (plasma), on the side of hills, become
mini-tornadoes and screws down onto the ground, creating the circles. The
theory also holds that electrified air would cause a light to appear above the
circle and therefore account for UFO sightings. Although this theory still has
considerable support it has come under fire because of highly intricate and
complex crop circle pattern that have appeared since 1991. Another theory is
that the circles are all hoaxes or practical jokes. Major support came to this
theory when, on September 9, 1991, two Englishmen claimed to have
created approximately 250 crop circles. However, those circles were more
ragged than others, and many were already subjects. It is irrational to
believe that all crop circles are faked for publicity or other reasons. Many
crop circles appeared long before phenomenon gained large recognition from
the public and press. Too many circles and patterns are formed each year in
too many countries for them to have been hoaxes. Many crop circles show
strange mathematical traits when analyzed.
The crop phenomenon is an enigma. Many dollars have been spent by
researchers and their associations in an attempt to find a solution to this
intriguing puzzle which will continue to haunt humanity until explanation is


Question 15-19
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer of this passage?
YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer.
NO if the statement contradicts the writer.
NOT GIVE if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.
15. Crop circles only appear in what fields.

16. Crop circles have never been documented in tropical countries.

17. The largest number of crop circle reporting’s in a single year occurred in

18. The patterns of crop circles have become increasingly complex over the

19. All crop circles are hoaxes.

Question 20-23
Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
FROM THE PASSAGE for each answer.
Since the early 1970’s, over ten thousand crop circles have been around the
world, the greatest number in [20]_________, where in a single year, over one
hundred circles appeared. Phenomenon such as appearance of strange light
and unusual [22] _____________ sometimes occur around the sites of crop
circles. [22] __________ are not affected but it has been observe that birds
[23] _____________ flying over a formation.
Question 24-27


Use the information in the text to match one scientist (A-C) with each area
of study (24-27) listed below.
A Dr. Mearden
B Dr. Levengood
C Michael Chorost
24. Changes in the structure of soil within crop circles
25. Accelerated growth of seeds from crop circles

26. Electrical charges in the air around crop circles

27. Changes in cell structure of plants found in crop circles


A number of books. Articles and television programs have disputed the
reality of the claimed hazards of global warming, overpopulation,
deforestation and ozone depletion. Two newspaper commentaries show the
profound differences of opinion on critical issues affecting the planet.
The fist, by Robert Kalpan, has generated both fear and denial. Entitled the
coming anarchy, the report paints a horrifying picture of the future for
humanity. The author suggests that the terrible consequences of the
conjunction between exploding human population and surrounding
environmental degradation are already visible in Africa and parts of
Southeast Asia. As society is destabilized by the AIDS epidemic, government
control evaporates, natu9nal borders crumble beneath the pressure of
environmental refugees and local populations revert to tribalism to settle old
score or defend against feeing masses and bands of stateless nomads on the
Kaplan believes what he has seen in Africa and Southeast Asia in the
beginning of a global pattern of disintegration of social, political and
economic infrastructure under the impact of ecological degradation,
population pressure and disease, as ecosystems collapse, this scenario could
sweep the plant. First in Eastern Europe and then the industrialized
countries. It has a frightening scenario, built on a serious attempt to project
the aftermath of ecological destruction. It comes from core recognition that
the planet is finite and consumption has vast social, political and economic


ramifications. It has also generated a great deal of discussion and
Marcus gee pronounces Kaplan’s version ‘dead wrong’ in a major headlined
apocalypse deferred. Attacking the ‘doomsayers’, Gee counters with the
statistics favored by believers in the limitless benefits and potential of
economic growth. Citing the spectacular improvements in human health,
levels of education and literacy, availability of food and length of life even in
the developing world, gee pronounces the fivefold increase in the world
economy since 1950 as the cause of this good news. He does concede that
immense problems remain, from ethnic nationalism to tropical deforestation
to malnutrition to cropland losses but concludes that Kaplan has exaggerated
many of the crises and thus missed the broad pattern of progress.
Focusing on the statistics of the decline in child morality and the rise in
longevity, food production and adult literacy, gee reaches the conclusion that
thins have never been better. Economic indicators such as the rise in gross
world product and total exports show ‘remarkable sustained and dramatic
progress; life for the majority of the world citizens is getting steadily better in
almost every category;
Gee’s conclusions rest heavily on economic indicators. He points out the
annual 3.9 percent rise in the global economy and the more than doubling of
the frosts output per person that has occurred for the past thirty years. World
trade has done even better, growing by 6 percent annually between 1960
and 1990 as tariffs have declined from 40 percent of a product’s price in
1947 to 5% today.
Gee skips slightly over such facts as third world debt and the daily of 22,000
child deaths from easily preventable disease. He also fails to mention that
during this period the gulf between rich and poor countries has increased. He
does acknowledge the threats of loss of topsoil and forests, pollution of the
air, and contamination of the water. However, he concludes that there is little
evidence they are serious enough to halt or even reverse human progress.
Gee challenges the notion of a population crisis since there has never been
as many people so well off. Furthermore, he suggests there will never be a
limit to population because more people means more Einstein’s to keep
making life better.
Gee’s outlook rest on a tiny minority of scientists who have faith in the
boundless potential of science and technology to overcome the physical
constrains of air, water and soils so that a much larger population can be
sustained. His final proof? - The general rise living standard along with
population is a correlation, not proof of casual connection. Gee is ignoring
basic economic as well as scientific reality.
If we inherit a bank account with a thousand dollars that earns 5% interest
annually, we could withdraw fifty dollars or less each year forever, however
suppose we start to increase our withdrawals, say up to sixty dollars, then
seventy dollars and more each year. For many years the account would yield
cash. But it would be foolish that we could keep drawing more from the
account indefinitely. Yet that is what gee believes. As ocean fisheries around
the world show, we are using up the ecological capital of the planet
(biodiversity, air, water, soil) rather than living off the interest. It is a
dangerous deception to believe that the human created artifice called
economic can keep the indicators rising as the life support systems of the
planet continue to decline.
The value system that dominates most of the popular media promotes the
delusion that resources and the economy can continue to expand indefinitely.


It also blinds the public to the urgency and credibility of warnings that an
environmental crisis confronts us.

Question 28-33
Use the information in the passage to match the people (A-C) with the
opinions (28-33) listed below. There are many be more than one correct
A R. Kaplan, author of The Coming Anarchy
B M. Gee, author of Apocalypse Deferred
C D. Suzuki, author of this passage
28. Our patterns of consumption are using up the ecological capital of the
29. Crises beginning in the Third World will spread of developed countries.
30. Scientific progress will enable the planet to sustain increased population.
31. Social and political infrastructure worldwide could collapse.
32. Earth’s life support systems are at critical risk.
33. Environmental problems are not a threat to progress.

Question 34-36


Choose ONE phrase from the list below (A-G) to complete each of the
following sentences, there are more phrases than questions so you will not
use all of them.
34. The growth of world trade…
35. The relationship between population and standard of living…
36. Natural resources and the economy…

A have not benefited developing countries
B has led to a drop in the standard of living generally
C cannot continue to expand indefinitely
D have decreased third world debt
E shows a correlation, not cause and effect
F pose a threat to human progress
G has been accompanied by a fall in tariffs

Question 37-40
Choose the correct letter A-D
37. Which of the following is NOT stated by Kaplan as key contributing factor
to potential global destabilization?
A political corruption
B collapse of ecosystems
C population explosion
D malnutrition and disease
38. What is the main source of Gee’s optimism?
A scientific and technological advance
B decreasing Third World debt
C the rise in the standard of living worldwide
D economic growth
39. Which of the following can we infer about the views of the author of this
A He disagrees with both Gee and Kaplan.
B He supports the view of Gee.
C His views are closer to those of Kaplan.


D He thinks both Gee and Kaplan are right.

40. The main purpose of the author in this passage is…

A To alert us to an environmental crisis.
B To educate the media.
C To create uncertainly about the future.
D To challenge current economic theory.

Beneath the white blanket of Antarctica lies half a continent of virtually uncharted
territory-an area so completely hidden that scientists have little clue what riches
await discovery. Recently, Russian and British glaciologists identified an immense
lake- one of Earth’s largest and deepest-buried beneath 4,000 meter of ice
immediately below Russia’s Vostok Station.
As details have emerged. A growing number of scientists is showing interest, with
dozens of investigators keen to explore the feature, known as Lake Vostok. A thick
layer of sediment at the bottom of the lake could hold novel clues to the planet’s
climate going back tens of millions of year. By looking at the ratio of different
oxygen isotopes, scientists should be able to trace how Earth’s temperature
changed over the millennia. NASA has expressed interest in Lake Vostok because of
its similarity to Europa. This moon of Jupiter appears to have a water ocean covered
by a thick ice sheet, measuring perhaps tens of kilometers in depth. If hydrothermal
vents exist beneath the ice, chemical reactions on Europa or places even more
distant, say many scientists. Though cheap compared with a European mission, any
expedition to Vostok would represent a significant investment.
Vostok Station holds the uncomfortable distinction of having recorded the coldest
temperature on Earth. Thermometers there measure -89.6°C in July 1983, and the


average temperature hovers around -55°C. It’s the thick ice, strangely, that enables
a lake to survive in such a frozen environment. The 4 kilometers of ice acts
effectively as an insulating blanket protecting the bedrock underneath the ice from
the cold temperature above. Geothermal heat coming from the planets interior
keeps the lake from freezing and warms the lowest layers of ice. The tremendous
weight of the ice sheet also plays a role in maintaining the lake. Beneath 4 km of
glacier, the pressure is intense enough to melt ice at a temperature of -4°C. These
factors have helped lakes develop across much of the thickly blanketed East
Antarctica. To date more than 70 hidden lakes have been detected in the small
portion of the continent. Lake Vostok is the largest of these. Stretching 280 km from
south to north and some 60 km from east to west. At Vostok station, which sits at
the southern end of the lake, the water depth appears to be 500 m according to
seismic experiments carried out by Russian researchers.
The first clues to Lake Vostok’s existence came in the 1970s, when British, U.S., and
Danish researchers collected radar observations by flying over this region. The
radar penetrates the ice and bounces off whatever sits below. When researchers
found a surface as flat as a mirror, they surmised that a lake must exist underneath
the ice. An airborne survey of the lake is being undertaken, the first step toward
eventually drilling into the water. Along with the potential rewards come a host of
challenges. Researchers must find a way to penetrate the icy coveting without
introducing any microorganisms or pollutants into the sealed-off water.
What about life in the depths? If tiny microbes do populate the lake, they may be
some of the hungriest organisms ever discovered. Lake Vostok has the potential to
be one of the most energy-limited, or oligotrophic, environments on the planet. For
the lake’s residents, the only nutrients would come from below; Russian
investigators have speculated that the lake floor may have hot springs spewing out
hydrothermal fluids stocked with reduced metals and other sorts of chemical
nutrients. Scant geological evidence available for this region, however, indicates
that the crust is old and dead. Without a stream nutrients seeping up from the deep
Earth, the only potential source of energy lies above the lake. The ice sheet above
the water is creeping from west to east at a rate of roughly four meters per year.
The lowermost layers of ice melt when they come in contact with the lake, liberating
trapped gases and bits of crushed-up rock. If the glacier recently passed over rock
before reaching the lake, it could be supplying organic compounds useful to
microorganisms. It also could be seeing the lake with a continuous source of new
residents. Bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and even pollen grains have been found in
the Vostok ice core samples taken down to depths of 2,750 m –three quarters of the
way to the bottom. At least some of these organisms are alive and capable of
growing, according to recent reports. The results of this analysis may indirectly
indicate whether anything survives in the lightless body of water.

Questions 1-13
Question 1-4
The passage has 5 sections (A-E) choose the most suitable heading for
sections B-E from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers
(i-vii). There are more headings than the section so you will not use all of
i. Cost of exploration
ii. Location and description of the lake
iii. Potential for living organism in the lake
iv. Challenges of exploration
v. Discovery of the fake
vi. Possible sources of nutrients to support life
vii. Types of organisms in the lake
viii. Scientific interest in Lake Vostok

1. Section B


2. Section C

3. Section D

4. Section E

Question 5-6

Choose the correct letter A-D

5. Which is NOT given as a reason interest in exploring Lake Vostok?
A to test technology for space exploration
B to develop anti-pollution devices
C to investigate the history of Earth’s climate
D to look for living organisms

6. Lake Vostok does no freeze because…

A A thick ice cover provides insulation.
B it is warmed by heat from the Earth’s surface
C low pressure prevents freezing.
D an underwater volcano erupted recently
Question 7-13
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the author?
YES if statement reflects the author’s claims
NO if the statement contradicts the author claims.
NOT GIVEN if the information is not clearly given in the passage

7. Only one lake has been found beneath Antarctica.

8. Lake Vostok was detected by radar.
9. Exploration of Lake Vostok is coordinated by Russia.
10. Nutrients to support life have been found in the Antarctic ice.
11. The ice above the lake is moving to the east.
12. Scientists have drilled through the ice into the water of Lake
13. The water in the lake is approximately 500m deep at southern


The cells from
Recently, an international team of biologists met to discuss what they
believe is a global crisis in the sudden appearance of strange marine micro-
organisms capable of poisoning not just fish but people too.
In the mid-1980s, fishermen in North Carolina, on the eastern coast of the
United States, began complaining about mysterious fish kills. They were
convinced that pollution was responsible but nobody would listen. That
changed in 1988 after an accident at a research center. Tank after tank of
fish suddenly died. Researchers spotted an unknown micro-organism in the
water. It was later named pfiesteria.
Pfiesteria belongs to a prehistoric group of algae that are part plant, part
animal. They are called dinoflagellates after the tiny whips or flagella (tails)
that propel them through the water. Magnified a thousand times they are
some of the strangest and most beautiful creatures in the sea. They are at
the bottom of the food-chain but, to deter fish from swallowing them, some
have evolved powerful toxins.
The researchers discovered that pfiesteria doesn’t just discourage fish. It
actively hunts them before eating them. Fish are one of its preferred foods
but one of the intriguing things about pfiesteria is that it will eat anything
from bacteria to dead plant and animal remains all the way up to mammalian
tissues. Therefore its food spans the entire food web of an estuary. Gradually


the researchers realized that nothing in the water was safe from pfiesteria. It
could harm humans too. A mis-directed air-conditioning unit duct from a
room containing the toxins nearly killed one of the researchers. He suffered a
host of symptoms ranging from profuse sweating, tingling hands and feet, to
liver and kidney problems, as well as memory loss.
As the research intensified, some startling discoveries were made. In tanks,
pfiesteria was quite content to behave like a plant and photosynthesize.
However, when fish were added to the tank, a dramatic transformation
occurred. The algae switched to attack mode. In a matter of minutes, it
changed shape and secreted a toxin. The fish quickly became disoriented
and within five minutes, all were dead. Then pfiesteria changed shape again
and devoured the dead fish. When it had eaten enough, it vanished. No one
had ever seen an organism do this before.
Initially scientists thought this was part of a natural cycle, but on closer
examination, realized that pollution was to blame. When the water
containing the biggest fish kills was analyzed, scientists found high levels of
pollution. But pollution is just one of the factors that can boost the
transformation of pfiesteria. Other factors include large numbers of fish
travelling together which feed in stagnant areas with a lot of food to eat.
That is the perfect habitat for pfiesteria. But pfiesteria is not the only
concern. In the oceans around the world similar kinds of algae are now
materializing and turning toxic. In the last decade, algal blooms have
poisoned sea-lions in California, caused catastrophic fish kills in the Pacific,
the Mediterranean and the North Sea, as well as devastating the shellfish
industry in New Zealand. Researchers from forty seven nations met recently
to share the latest information about harmful algal blooms. They heard about
new kinds of toxins and discussed possible links between toxic algae and
whale standings. But what dominated the proceedings was news that toxic
algae are spreading to new shores in ballast water carried by ships.
That may have already happened in Australian waters. A tuna kill in 1996
cost fish farmers an estimated $45 million. The official explanation was that
a storm was to blame. But there were also reports of orange-brown streaks in
the water. When a water sample was examined, it was found to be teeming
with an alga never before seen in Australia, called chattonella. The same
chattonella killed half a billion dollars’ worth of fish in Japan in 1972. This
toxin was also present in the livers of the dead tuna. Despite this powerful
evidence, the official explanation remains that the storm was the killer.
However, in Japan this was a prime example of an algal bloom induced by
the waste products of the aquaculture industry itself, and of course that is
not something that the tuna industry wants to hear.
It is clear that chattonella is present in Australian waters. But there is little
knowledge of what else may surface or where it may have come from. What
is of greater concern is that, in Australia and around the world, there is a
reluctance to acknowledge that it is human activity which is triggering the
transformation of normally benign organisms into increasingly dangerous
forms. If we continue to mismanage the way nutrients and pollutants are
released into the environment we will have to confront new versions of the
cells from hell.


Questions 14-26
Question 14-17
Complete the summary below. Choose your answers from the box below the
summary. There are more words than you need so you will not use all of
Conditions, it acts like a [14] _________, but it also developed powerful [15]
_____________ as a defense against being eaten by fish. When the fish are
disabled and killed by the neurotoxins, the organism [16] __________ them.
Then it [17] _____________

Jaws grow animal
Kills eats poisons


Plant disappears micro-organism
Bacteria fish dies

Question 18-21
Fill in the blanks with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE
Conditions which favor the growth of toxic algae include high levels of [18]
_________, and [19] _____________ fish feeding together. Research scientist at
the international conference learned about [20] __________ toxic algae and
how they are spreading around the world in water [21] _____________
Question 22-26
Classify the following as:
A caused by pfiesteria
B caused by chattonella
C caused by an unidentified micro-organism

22. Death of sea-lions off the coast of California (1990s)

23. Fish kill in Japan (1972)

24. Shellfish industry losses in New Zealand (1990s)

25. Tuna industry losses in Australia (1990s)

26. Fish kill in North Carolina (1990s)

Mysteries of the
In 1992, a German scientist made a discovery which was to upset whole
areas of scientific study from history and archeology to chemistry and
botany. Dr. Svetlana Balabanova, a forensic specialist, was performing tissue
tests on an Egyptian mummy, part of a German museum collection. The
mummified remains were of a woman named Henut-Taui who had died over
3,000 years ago. Amazingly, the tests revealed that her body contained large
quantities of cocaine and nicotine. Dr. Balabanova had regularly used the
same testing methods to convict people of drug consumption but she had
not expected to find nicotine and coca in an Ancient Egyptian mummy. It is


generally accepted that these two plants, naive to the Americas did not exist
on other continents prior to European exploration.
Dr. Balabanova repeated the tests then sent out fresh samples to three other
labs. When the results came back positive she published a paper with two
other scientists. If Balabanova was shocked by the results of her tests she
was even more shocked at the hostile response to her publication. She
received many insulting letters, accusing her of fraud.
There were two explanations that came immediately to mind. One was that
something in the tests could have given a false result. The second was that
the mummies tested were not truly Ancient Egyptian. Perhaps they were
relatively modern bodies, containing traces of cocaine. Dr. Balabanova then
examined tissue from 134 naturally preserved bodies over a thousand years
old discovered in an excavated cemetery in the Sudan. About a third of them
tested positive for nicotine or cocaine.
But something had happened even earlier which should I have initiated
serious discussion. In 1986 the mummified remains or Ramses II arrived in
Paris for repair work. Dr. Michelle Lescot of the Natural History Museum
(Paris) was looking at sections of bandages and within the fibers found a
plant fragment. When she checked it under a microscope she was amaze to
discover that the plant was tobacco. Fearing that she had made some
mistake she repeated her tests again and again with the same result every
time: a New World plant had been found on an Old World mummy. The result
caused a sensation in Europe. Was it possible that a piece of tobacco had
been dropped by chance from the pipe of some forgotten archeologist? Dr.
Lescot responded to this change of contamination by carefully extracting
new samples form the abdomen, with the entire process recorded on film.
These samples, which could not be ‘droppings’, were then tested. Once again
they were shown to be tobacco. The discovery of tobacco fragments in the
mummified body of Ramses II should have had a profound influence upon our
whole understanding of the relationship between Ancient Egypt and America
but this piece of evidence was simply ignored. It raised too many questions
and was too far outside of commonly accepted scientific views.
So now question had returned. Could Ancient Egyptian trade have stretched
all the way across the Atlantic Ocean? This was an idea so unbelievable it
could only be considered after all the other possibilities had been eliminated.
Could Egyptian have obtained imports from a place thousands of miles away,
from a continent supposedly not discovered until thousands of years later?
Was it possible that coca-a plant from south America had found its way to
Egypt 3,000 years ago? If the cocaine found in mummies could not be
explained by contamination, or fake mummies or by Egyptian plants
containing it, there appeared to be another interesting possibility: a trade
with links all the way to Americas.
The Egyptians did make great efforts to obtain incense and other valuable
plants used in religious ceremonies and herbal medicines, but to the majority
of archeologists, the idea is hardly worth talking about. Professor John
Baines, an Egyptologist from Oxford University states: ‘I don’t think it is at all
likely that there was an ancient trade network that included America. The
essential problem with any such idea is that there are no artifacts …found
either in Europe or in America.’ But other experts aren’t so sure. Professor
Martin Bernal, and historian, from Cornell University say, ‘We’re getting more
and more evidence of world trade at an earlier stage. You have the Chinese
silk definitely arriving in Egypt by 1000 BC.’ In his opinion, it is arrogance on
the part of modern people to believe that a transoceanic trading network
could only have been set up in recent times.


The discoveries in the mummies from Egypt and Sudan have challenge
conventional beliefs. It is no longer possible to exclude the hypothesis of
transoceanic trade in ancient times. The tale of Henut Taui and the story of
Ramses II show that, in science, facts can be rejected if their don’t fit with
our beliefs, while what is believed to be proven, may actually be uncertain. It
is understandable then, how a story of a scientist, a few mummies and some
routine tests, could upset whole areas of knowledge we thought we could
take for granted.

Questions 27-40
Question 27-29
Choose the correct letter A-D
27. What most surprised Dr. Balabanova about her discovery?
A The presence of drugs in the mummies
B The fact that the plants originated in the western hemisphere
C The positive results of tests on the other mummies
D the hostile reaction of the scientific community
28. Which of the following was ruled out by Dr. Lescot’s investigation?


A Tobacco had been dropped onto the mummy.
B Tobacco grew in Ancient Egypt.
C chemicals produced false test results.
D The mummies were fake.
29. Why was the discovery of tobacco in the body or Ramses II ignored?
A Contamination was suspected.
B The evidence raised difficult questions.
C The tests produced false results.
D The researcher was a woman.
Question 30-34

Match ONE of the researchers (A-D) to each of the statements (30-34) below.
There may be more than one correct answer.
A Dr. Svetlana Balabanova
B Dr. Michele Lescot
C Professor John Baines
D Professor Martin Bernal
30. First to first a substance from the Americas in a mummy.
31. Argues against transoceanic trade because of lack of evidence.
32. Had to defend against attacks on research methodology.
33. Gives evidence of extensive Egyptian trade in ancient times.
34. Publication of research results was controversial.
Question 35 – 39
Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in the passage?
YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer.
NO if the statement contradicts the writer.
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.
[35] There is proof that tobacco was grown in Ancient Egypt.
[36] Trade routes across the Atlantic Ocean may have existed thousands of
years ago.
[37] Ancient Egyptians were great ship builders.
[38] The scientific community generally rejects the idea of contract between
ancient Egypt and the Americas.
[39] The unusual test results could have come from ‘qat’, a plant native to
North Africa.
Question 40
Choose the correct letter A-D
[40] What is the main idea of this passage?


A. Experimental research often gives false result.
B. Long held beliefs can be challenge by new information.
Correct answers is safety – lose
a mark because of inaccurate
C. The scientific community is conservative by nature.
D. Ideas which don’t fit our belief system must be wrong.
Correct answer is animals – lose
a mark because plurals missing

You lose marks for small errors.

Mistakes like these can cost you easy marks.
Correct answer is viii – lose a
Look at this example of an answer sheet. mark because not written
1. Safely
Did you lose many marksCorrect
in Practice Test
answer is 1 because
not on duty –
2. Animal lose a mark because on is
of this kind of mistake? Don’t throw away marks
3. Three because you are in a hurry! A couplemissing
of errors like
these could make all the difference to your final
4. Vii No answer so no mark given!
score! Always put an answer – you
5. B
Try to analyse each mistake. Whymight be lucky
did you write the
6. D wrong answer? Only one answer required, so
7. Not duty Did you? two answers get no marks, even
if one of them is correct
8. Harvest  Have problems understanding the words
9. ……………… in the question?
…….  Have problems understanding a word or
1 Animals, phrase in the passage?
0. Birds  Choose an incorrect answer which was
included to ‘tempt’ you?

If you still don’t understand why an answer is incorrect, ask a teacher, a

native speaker or another student to explain the answer to you.
Be sure you understand before starting the next test.
Try this… to build your vocabulary
Write down all new words and expressions.
 Keep a special notebook for new words and phrases.

 Check the meaning in your dictionary and with a teacher or native


 Find out any other meanings when the word(s) is used in a different
 Write a few examples using the word or expression.

 Ask a teacher or native speaker to check what you’ve written.

 Make sure that you will understand the meaning if you read it in
another test.
Collect synonyms.
 Note down words or phrases from the reading, with the same meaning
as different words used in the question.


Eg: on Saturday and Sunday = at the weekend
It was cold, wet and windy day = the weather was pretty miserable.
Watch out for tricky synonyms! If you got caught once, don’t get caught
Practice reading to conquer time!
Another common reason for errors and or low score in the IELTS reading test
is lack of time.
Mistakes are made due to hurrying, and often candidates don’t finish the test
in the time allowed.
So to improve your test results you need to work both quickly and accurately
anf conquer time!
Pace yourself

 Practice spending no more than 20 minutes per section, aim for less.

 Don’t waste marks (remember?) so be sure you get all the easier
answers correct.
 Don’t spend too long on one question, mark it and come back later.

 Don’t leave unanswered. Guess. you might be lucky!

Read what you need
Learn to skim and scan:
 Skim for the part of the passage that seems related to the questions by
looking at headings, sub-headings and topic sentences (usually the
first sentence of a paragraph).
 Scan by looking carefully at that part to find the specific information.

Practice makes perfect ….

 To get to know questions and answer type.

 To increase your vocabulary.

 To spot the synonyms.

 To face yourself through the test

How can I improve?

You need to read efficiently for success in IELTS.

What to read first…

 First look quickly at the reading text: its title, sub headings, tables,
What is it about?
 Then look quickly at the first few questions. How many are there? What


 There’s no time memorize them, but your brain will be
more focused.
 Now read the text quickly and then go back to the questions.

Adapt the way you read to the type of question.

 Whole text question such as choosing headings for paragraphs or


First read the topic sentences. These should tell you what the paragraphs
If the topic sentence and the heading seem similar, then read the paragraph
slowly and carefully to check that they go together.

 Detail questions such as multiple choice questions (choose A, B, C or


First skim to find which part of the text seems to be about that information.
When you locate that part of the text, scan carefully for the specific detail
you need.
NB there will always be an answer that is wrong, but put into try and tempt
you, (the red herring answer) so double check that you’ve chosen the right

Practice skimming for names and numbers

 If the questions ask for the name of a place, city, country, street,
person or organization, they’re quite easy to find because they always
start with a capital letter.

 Remember the different ways to write numbers: nine or 9 or (iX) or IX,

1400 or one thousand four hundred or fourteen hundred or 1400 (the

 Be sure you’re familiar with how decimals and fractions or written in


If you don’t understand the word or phrase…

Don’t panic! Try to guess from the nouns and verbs around it.
Look for words likely similarly or in contrast to or unlikely which may help


By taking the time to repeat the test, you are developing you’re reading
skills, building vocabulary and increasing your understanding of test
strategies. This is time well spent.
Tips From Test takers 23
Never stops practising my reading in English. When
im on the bus, train or walking, I always try to
understand the signs, posters and advertisements. 25
If I don’t understand, I write it in a notebook so that .
I can ask a friend or my teacher.
Tip from Yi Ling
I was very slow at reading and thought i could never finish the test
in one hour. But I made myself do a practice test every weekend.
After a couple of months I began to recognize the kind
29 of
questions and how to find the answers more quickly.. I was always
careful with t easier questions at the beginning of the test. When I
did the IELTS exam I got a 6! 30
Fall in love .
I’m in love with my dictionary! I bought a really 32
good dictionary. It was quite expensive, but I used it .
every day so I don’t feel guilty about how much it
cost. I try to check everything I don’t understand. 33
Tip from Sachiko
In some question types in the IELTS Reading test, answer to the earlier
35 passage,
question are often found nearer the beginning of the reading
and answers to later questions are found in later parts of.the passage, so
sometimes you can use less time searching for answers. 36
Module taken:
Version number: 39
Academic General training
1. .
2. 41
3. .

4. 42



What’s Ahead in the writing unit

 The IELTS Writing Test

 What is the examiner looking for?


 Examiners Suggestions

 Fast track writing

 More about task 1

 More about task 2

 Instruction for test practice

 Writing test 1 – 6
Activities and sample answer for each writing task
Each writing test consist of two tasks to be completed in 1 hour.
Task 1
Write a report describing a diagram or table.
Time: 20 minutes
Length: 15o words minimum
What skills are needed?
 Read and understand the diagram/table

 Organize the information into connected sentences

 Write clearly and accurately in an academic style

What is the examiner looking for?

Assessment in other words…….
Task achievement Have you done what the question ask,
without leaving out
Important details.
Coherence/Cohesion Have you built and organized your
paragraphs so that information
Is easy to track?
Is your information connected
effectively from sentence to
Lexical Resource Is your vocabulary appropriate, varied
and accurate?

Grammatical Range Are your sentences grammatically

accurate, with a variety of
And Accuracy complex as well as simple

Task 2


Write an essay to develop an argument, express a point of view or solve a
Time: 40 minutes
Length 250 words minimum
What skills are needed?

 Read and understand the essay question

 Generates ideas on the topic

 Organize your ideas into paragraphs

 Write clearly and accurately in an academic style

What is the Examiner looking for?
Assessment in other words ……
Take response is your viewpoint developed clearly and
approximately with enough relevant
Coherence/Cohesion Have you built and organized your paragraphs so
that overall meaning is easy
to track? Are your ideas connected effectively
from sentence to sentence?
Lexical Resource Is your vocabulary appropriate, varied
and accurate?

Grammatical Range Are your sentences grammatically

accurate, with a variety of
And Accuracy complex as well as simple sentences?

Here’s what IELTS examiners have to say about some of the most common
problems they see in writing test along with suggestions for improvement.

Task 2 answers unfinished if too much time is spent on task 1.
Too short
If you write less than the minimum numbers of words for either task you will
lose marks


Off topic
An essay that doesn’t address the topic will lose marks, even if it is well
Saying the same thing in slightly different ways shows you don’t have
enough ideas.
Irrelevant information
Filling out an essay with information unrelated to the question wont get
Mixed up
Some essays have too many ideas and too little organization. They are
difficult to follow.
It is impossible to give a good mark, if the writing is illegible.
Stop working on task 1 after 20 minutes. Task 2 is worth more marks, so give
yourself the full 40 minutes to complete your task 2 answer.
Practice regularly. Once you learn the essay patterns you will be able to write
the required number of words without wasting time counting.
Keep going back to the task statement while planning and writing to make
sure you relate your argument to the task as it is written.
This is usually a problem of a planning. Think of as many ideas as you can
before you start to write decide on a topic for each paragraph and which
example to include.
Check back to the wording of the task. Is the idea example relevant to the
topic does it answer the question as given if not leave it out.
Stick to one main idea per paragraph stated clearly in the topic sentence.
Use the rest of the paragraph to develop and support that idea with
Be kind to the examiner:

 Draw a line under your plan to separate it to the answer.

 Leave space between paragraphs.

 Cross out words neatly

 Write legibly!
More about task 1 and how to do it
Task 1 is about describing information given in the form of a pie chart table
graph or process diagram flow chart. The differences are outlined below. In
the report you may add an opinion or comment in the conclusion but the
main task is to summarize and describe. Often a task 1 will combine two
types of diagrams. Write about both and show the relationship between
Think first
Pie charts/graphs, tables


Analyze the task
Highlight the key words. Note all headings,
Rates and measurements.
Select the most important trends.
Choose the best examples and summarize.
Ask Questions
What is the purpose of this graph?
What changes have occurred overtime?
What are the significant trends?
What is the most interesting feature?
Process Diagrams/Flow charts
Highlight key words from task description.
Note all labels and the order of steps.
Describe the process step by step
From beginning to end.
What is the purpose of this process?
How does it work?
How to include alternative steps?
Then Write
Paraphrase the task description in 1 or
Two sentences but don’t copy it.
Give an over view of most noticeable data.
Paraphrase the task description in 1 or 2
sentences. Include the purpose/ end product
of the process.
Focus on trends and interesting comparisons.
Describe the most significant data first.
Give examples to support trends.
Use statistics accurately.
Follow each step in sequence.
Include every step.
Expand headings into sentences.
Use connecting words to link steps.
Does not have be a separate paragraph.


A single, summarizing sentence can be round off your report.
Does not have be a separate paragraph.
A single, summarizing sentence can be round off your report.
To build your writings skills it is a good idea to work through all six of the task
1s before starting the task
Task 2 essays require you to explore issues by comparing, evaluating or
challenging ideas.
You may be asked to present an argument or offer a solution to a problem.
This means demonstrating your understanding of the topic by including
examples and evidence. You should think of your audience as a non-
specialist, educated reader. The main essay types are outlined.

Step 1 Analyze the task

 Know the main essay types and what you have to do for each one.

 Read and highlight / underline key words related to (1) the topic and
(2) the task.

 If necessary, explain key terms in your introduction.

Essay Types Task Words This means…

Problem/solution What can be done to Explain 2 or 3 aspects
solve…? of the issue.(1
paragraph each)
How can this
Suggest solution.
Problem be addressed?
What challenge…?
What strategies…?

Agree or Disagree Do you Agree or Take a position.

Defend it strongly. Give
Why? several
Explain your position. Reasons to support
your argument. (1
Justify your opinion.
paragraph each)
It is useful to
acknowledge the
opposite view (counter
argument) and say why
you don’t accept
Two sides of an Discuss Give a balanced
argument presentation. This
means you should write
Advantages/disadvanta equally about both
ges sides of the issue. In
the conclusion you can
indicate your position.


Make choices and From options A, B, C, D, Each of your choices
justify E etc. becomes the topic of
one paragraph.
Choose 3 most
important. Give reasons for
choosing in this order.
Justify your choice.
Evaluate an argument To what extent…? You will probably take a
position which is
How important….?
neither in total
What do you think? agreement (100%) nor
total disagreement
(0%), but somewhere in
Explain why.

Step 2 Generate ideas

Using spider diagrams

 Write key topic word(s) in the center of a circle.

 Note down any related ideas or examples that come to mind.

 Do the same for other important words from the task.

 Group the ideas to become your paragraph topics.


Idea Example


Using Questions

 Start with key topic words.

 Think about the task and ask relevant questions.


 Group the answers

What evidence? Who?


Key Word

What Example Advantages/ Disadvantages?

Step 3 Plan your Essay

Introduction (1 short paragraph) General statement(s) about the

topic followed by thesis
Statement (what you are going to write about
or what
Position you intend to take on the question.)

Body (3-4 paragraphs) Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence

(main idea)
Followed b examples/evidence for support.

Conclusion (1 short paragraph) Summarise, but don’t repeat,

main ideas. Include
Recommendation if necessary or (re)-state
your position,
To bring essay a close.

Beginning Task 2 practice?

 A good answer is more important than a fast one, so don’t worry about
time at first.

 It is more important to plan carefully and write a good answer.

 The more you practice, the fast and more proficient you will become.
First plan WHAT you want to say:
How many paragraphs
What supporting evidence/ideas to include
What order to put them in


Then focus on HOW to say it. As you write,
Think about:
There are
SIX writing
Practice Tests

Test section format

Test papers are clearly marked in the next section.
Note: There are 3 pages of activities including a sample answer for Task 1
and Task 2 of each Writing Test.
To practise under test conditions
Total time allowed for each test (Task 1 plus Task 2): 60 minutes
DO NOT use a dictionary.

How to use this section

Test practice focus
Do a complete practice test (Task 1 and Task 2).
Compare your essays with the Sample Answers.
Use Plan your answer and Build your language skills
To improve organisation, grammar and vocabulary.
Re-write your essays if you have found ways to improve them.

Need more help?

Work through all Task 1s before beginning Task 2s.
Use Plan your answer to get started.
Do the activities in Build your language skills.
Study the Sample Answer and Notes.
…THEN write your own answer.
Sample Answers are a useful reference. However, try not to imitate them
when you write your essays. Your own academic writing style will develop
with practise.


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The two pie charts below show changes in world population by
region between 1900 and 2000.
Summarise the information by choosing and reporting the key
features, and make any relevant comparisons.


1 TASK 1
Analyse the task Look at the question, title and subtitle.
Highlight key words.
Identify the main trends.

Think it through Ask questions to find the information you

Then use the gapped sample answers as a

What kind of diagram is it? These…………show changes in world
What do the charts show? ………..1900 and 2000. The major regions
Over what time period? ………..represented as percentages of the
How are the regions shown? ………..population.
Where did the most significant From 19000……….2000 Africa’s
percentage of world
Change occur between 1900 population………from 4.5% to 10% while
And 2000? ………..grew from 3% to 8% of world…………

Which 2 areas showed the On the………..hand, the percentage of

Greatest decreases and by how ……….Europe and Asia decreased
during the
Much? ……….period. Europe dropped………..25%
14% while Asia’s percentage declined from
60% to 54%.
Which regions stayed the same? North………..however showed no change,
What about the new category? Remaining at…………of world
population both in


1900 and 2000. The Middle East and North
………… new category in 2000, represented
………… of world population.

What about ‘Others? The percentage of ………… the

remaining areas of
the………….(‘Others’) rose slightly from 2.5% to

What was the actual change in Overall, this represents a huge
………….in the
Population? Number of humans on the …………, from 1600
Over what period? Million to 6 billion …………just one
hundred years.
What does this show? Most of this …………..growth has
occurred in developing…………


1 TASK 1
Complete these activities based on the sample answer to develop writing
skills for Task 1 questions.
1 Synonyms
Find words, or expressions in the sample answer that mean the same as:
 Between 1900 and 2000 ______________________

 Increase(d) ______________________

 Decrease(d) ______________________

 Show(ed) no change ______________________

 World population ______________________

2 Connecting words
Find 3 more words/expressions from the sample answer that are use to
connect ideas, sentences and paragraphs.
1. eg on the other hand
2. _________________
3. _________________
4. _________________
3 Prepositions
What prepositions follow each expression from the sample answer?

 …world population increased ………….4.5% …………10%.


 …remaining …………5%....

 …this represents a huge increase ……….the number of humans…

 Most ……….this growth has occurred ……….the developing world.


These pie charts show changes in world population between 1900 and 2000.
The major regions are represented as percentages of the total world

From 1900 to 2000 Africa’s percentage of world population increased from

4.5% to 10% while Latin America grew from 3% to 8% of world population.
On the other hand, the percentage of population in Europe and Asia
decreased during the same period. Europe dropped from 25% to 14% while
Asia’s percentage declined from 60% to 54%. North America, however,
showed no change, remaining at 5% of world population both in 1900 and
2000. The Middle East and North Africa, a new category in 2000, represented
6% of world population. The percentage of population in the remaining areas
of the world (‘Others”) rose slightly from 2.5% to 3%.

Overall, this represents a huge increase in the number of humans on the

planet from 1,600 million to 6 billion in just one hundred years. Most of this
population growth has occurred in developing countries.


 The pie chart and body of the report deal with percentages of
population, not the actual number of people. Be sure you understand
the difference.

 It would be incorrect to say ‘Africa increased from 4.5% to 10%’

without adding ‘of world population’. You could also say, ‘Africa’s
percentage of world population increased from…’

 The actual change in the number of people in the world between 1900
and 2000 (1,600 million to 6 billion) is only mentioned in the

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:


People today move to new cities or new countries more than
ever before.
What challenges do they experience? What strategies are
there to meet these challenges?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your own
knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.


Step 1 Analyse the task Read carefully to understand all the
What type of essay is it? Problem/solution
What are the key words…
…related to topic? Move/city/country
…related to the task? Challenges/strategies
Step 2 Generate Ideas Ask questions based on the key words.
What are the challenges?
- New job/study
- Accommodation Practical
- Finding your way
- Loneliness Social
- New language
- No family/friends
What strategies can help?
- Get advice
- Travel guide Practical
- Street directory
- Join clubs
- Share house or homestay Social
- Overseas students’ association
Step 3 Think it through Put your ideas in order before you start
to write.
Introduction Make a general statement about ‘moving’.
Ask a question. ‘Why do people move?’
Then answer it.
Paragraph topics 1. Practical challenges (travel, accommodation)
and strategies


2. Social challenges (communication, stress) and
Conclusion summarise and re-state option


1 TASK 2
Complete these activites based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 2 questions.
1 Connecting words (who, which, that, where)
Find the sentences in the sample answer that combine each of the following
pairs into one and write the connecting word used in each.

This is due to modern technology. Modern

Technology makes travelling easier. ______________________

These provide challenges to someone. Someone

Has not lived independently before. ______________________

It is helpful to get advice from someone. Someone

Is familiar with the area. ______________________

There are travel guides. Travel guides give tips and

Useful information. ______________________

There are other sports or hobby clubs. It is possible

To meet people in other sports or hobby clubs.

2 Before or After?
Do these little words in the sample answer refer to things stated before (B) or
after (A) them?
These might present B/A many of these problems
such anxious moments B/A it is possible to… B/A
it might be helpful B/A
3 Synonyms

Which word in each group is not a synonym of the others?


To move / to relocate / to change
Useful / usable / handy
Reasons / issues / challenges / problems
Planning / preparing / starting


People today are clearly more mobile than in the past. This is largely due to
modern technology which makes travelling and communicating easier and
quicker. Why do people move? Often people re-locate to large cities for
employment; some people study in English-speaking countries. Whatever the
reason, moving away from home may create many challenges, both practical
and social.
Firstly there are practical problems such as finding accommodation,
managing finances, shopping and so on. These might present challenges to
someone who has not lived independently before. In addition, adapting to a
new city environment includes understanding the public transport system,
possibly in another language, while trying not to get lost! The best strategy
for minimising such anxious moments is to prepare in advance as much as
possible. Thus it might be helpful to get advice from someone familiar with
the area. There are also publications such as travel guides to overseas
countries which give tips and useful information. A city street directory is
also very handy. Ideally, sharing accommodation with someone who is
familiar with the city, or staying in a ‘homestay’ on arrival in a new country,
may overcome many of these problems. Homestay families or ‘share mates’
will provide company and be able to explain aspects of the new city or
culture that may seem strange at first.
There are also social and emotional issues to deal with, like loneliness or
problems with the language Moreover, starting a new job our course may be
stressful at first. Generally, however, there are organisations such as
overseas students’ associations in an educational institution, or other sports
or hobby clubs where it is possible to meet people and make friends.
In conclusion, although there are many challenges when leaving home for a
new city or country, planning in advance can transform an ordeal into an
Comments (304
 Introduction starts with a general statement, then suggests some more
specific details (why people are mobile). Finally a ‘thesis statement’
previews the body of the essay (the practical and social challenges).
The writer avoid copying sentences from task prompt.

 First paragraph details practical challenges and strategies. Second

paragraph deals with social challenges and strategies. An alternative
essay plan could be one paragraph on challenges and one paragraph
on strategies.


You should spend about 20minutes on this task


The table below shows personal savings as a percentage of personal income
for selected countries in 1970, 1990 and 2000.

Summarize the information by choosing and reporting the key features, and
make any relevant comparisons.

Write at least 150 words.

Personal Savings as a percentage of personal income

1970 1990 2000
Canada 5.6 11.5 1.9
France 18.7 12.5 13.6
Germany 13.8 13.8 11.8*
Italy 29.5 17.6 11.4
Japan 17.6 12.1 13.6
UK 9.2 8.2 11.1
USA 8.2 5.5 4.0


Analyze the task Look at the question, title and subtitle.
Highlight highlight key words.
Identify the main friends.
Think through Ask questions to find the information you
Then use the gapped sample answer as a
What does the table show? The table shows the ……. of person
…for how many countries? devoted to …….in seven countries
in 1970,


…over what period? 1990, and 2000

Which countries show the The …….dramatic changes are
…….in Italy,
Greatest change? Japan, France and Canada.
For 1970, which country has In 1970 Italy …….the highest
savings the highest rate of saving? 29.5% …….by
France …….18.7% and then
(From highest to lowest) Japan with 17.6%. Canada had

For 1990? By 1990 Italy was…….the leading

(From highest to lower) though……savings rate had
dropped….17.6%. Germany was next
13.8% (same …….1970) and the …….in
France and Japan …….close behind. In
Canada,……… savings rate had
almost…….to 11.5%. The UK …….the
USA had …….rates, 8.2%and 5.5%…….
For 2000? …….2000 the savings rates …….
leveled out considerable across
seven countries. France and
…….led with 13.6% followed…….
Germany, Italy, and the …….at around 11%.
Personal in North America dropped …….,
with the USA at…….and Canada at
a…….low 1.9%
What is the importance of these The overall ……. shows a reduction
Statistics? savings over this 30 ……. period.

Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 1 questions.
1 Sequencing statistics
Use these 5 expressions to complete a mini-text about five countries, A to E:
in last place, followed by, leading, next, close behind
A is the ………… country, …………B. C is ……….., with D………… . ……… is E
2 Synonyms
Which expressions in the sample answer have the same meaning?
Expression Sample answer expression
Most significant ………………………………


Variations ………………………………
Can be seen ………………………………
Stabilized ………………………………
Fell considerably ………………………………
3 ‘most ….. ‘OR ‘–est’ ……………………………..
Write the superlative form of these adjectives from the sample answer.
Adjective Superlative form
Dramatic ……………………………..
Low ………………………….....
High …………………………….
Evident …………………………….
Close ……………......................

The table shows the percentage of personal income devoted to savings in

seven countries in 1970, 1990 and 2000.
The most dramatic changes are evident in Italy, Japan, France and Canada. In
1970 Italy had the highest savings rate of 29.5% followed by France with
18.7% and Japan with 17.6%. Canada had the lowest rate – 5.6%
By 1990 Italy was still the leading country, though its saving rate had
dropped to 17.6% Germany was next with 13.8% (same as 1970) and the
rates in France and Japan were close behind. In Canada, the savings rate had
almost double to 11.5%. The UK and the USA had the lowest rates, 8.2% and
5.5% respectively.
By 2000 the savings rates had levelled out considerably across the seven
countries. France and Japan led with 13.6%, followed by Germany, Italy and
the UK at around 11%. Personal savings in North America dropped
significantly, with the USA at 4% and Canada at a very low 1.9%.
The overall trend shows a reduction in savings over this thirty-year period.


 This essay shows a simple plan of organization-the savings rate from

highest to lowest in each of the 3 time periods.
 The challenge is to vary language use (say similar things in different
ways) and to link the information smoothly.
 Respectively: a useful term for Task 1 essays. It means ‘in that order’
e.g. UK, US, 8.2% and 5.5% respectively.
 Useful expressions for table description: most dramatic changes are
evident, almost doubled, levelled out considerably, dropped
significantly, the overall trend shows.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:
Climate change is now an accepted threat to our planet, but
there is not enough political action to control excessive
consumerism and pollution.


Do you agree?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your own
knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words

Step 1 Analyze the task.Read carefully to understand all the details.

What type of essay is it? Agree or disagree
What are the key words...?
…related to the topic? Climate change, political action,
consumerism, pollution
…related to the task? Do you agree?
Which terms need explaining? Climate change
Step 2 Generate IdeasAsk questions based on the key words.
What kind of climate change? Global warming, rising sea levels,
unpredictable weather patterns (storms,
drought, floods)
…caused by? Industrial activity especially in the
developed world

How is pollution connected Kyoto Agreement (intended to limit

to climate change? failed because of pressure from

How does consumerism modern lifestyle based on consumerism,

cars, houses,
relate to Pollution/climate having many things
How could political action through schools pressure on
be effective?
What are the problems? traditional political parties support
economic growth;
Environmental parties like Greens; good
policies, little power

Step 3 Think it through Put your ideas in order before you start to write.
Introduction agree almost 100% (opinion based on
evidence define climate

Paragraph topics 1. Pollution e.g.…


2. Consumerism e.g.…
3. Political action e.g.… and problems
Conclusion plea for action to save planet; strong view,
strongly expressed

1. Compressing Information
Academic writing tries to express information economically.
Find the expressions in the sample answer which use fewer words but
mean the same as:
 The levels of the worlds’ seas
e.g. ……………… (2 words)

 The temperature of the seas

………………… (2)
 The interest of those companies that have factories and offices in
many countries
………………… (5)
 Policies about the environment which are responsible policies
2. Use of present progressive
Find 2 examples of the present progressive tense, used in this essay
it show the ongoing nature of the problems:
e.g. ……………………

 ……………………
 ……………………
3. Use of “This”
What does ‘this’ refer to?
 (para 2) “This is probably related to…’ This refers to:
 (para 2) “This keeps factories operating…’ This refers to:

I agree entirely with the opinion in the title. There is increasing

evidence that changes are not just random but are being
accelerated by industrial activity, particularly in developed
countries. Many nations are recording, or the hottest summer on
record. Sea levels are rising and sea temperatures are increasing
more rapidly than before.
The Kyoto Agreement in the 1990s tried to create international
consensus to limit industrial emissions of gases but unfortunately
some nations are unwilling to commit to real change. This is
probably related to economic pressures from within the country and
the interests of multinational corporations. I industrialized nations a
good lifestyle means a high level of consumerism. This keeps
factories operating and people employed but it also creates
enormous pollution and waste.


To solve these serious problems requires political action in a number
of directions. At the individual level, education programs in schools
should be set up to reduce wasteful behavior and to encourage
respect for the planet. At the corporate level, businesses need to
develop responsible environmental policies together with
governments. They must be held legally accountable for their
One major difficulty is that environmental parties like the Greens
have little political power. Their policies are appropriate but they
need support from the general public in order to increase pressure
on the main parties and large corporations.
The time for action is definitely now. Each year of delays and
ineffective policy will make it harder to restore the health of planet
Earth. (266 words)
 This essay your opinion, so it is appropriate to say: ‘I agree
entirely with…’
 The argument in each paragraph is structured around a
topic sentence followed by examples to give
evidence/support. A simple plan is to build each paragraph
of the body around a key word/idea from the question.
Write the topic sentence and develop the rest of the
paragraph with examples and supporting ideas.
 To maintain relevance to the topic, arguments focus on
climate change only, not on the other environmental

test 3 task
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task
The diagrams below show how chocolate is made and how the price of a
chocolate bar is divided up among those involved in the process.
Summarize the information by choosing and reporting the key features, and
make any relevant comparisons.
Write at least 150 words.
How chocolate is made


And other








Plan Your Answer test 3 task 1
Analyze the task Look at the question, title and subtitle.
Highlight key words.
Think it through
Description Put the 5 steps (A-E) for making chocolate in the
correct order.
(Process diagram) Write the sentences in full to develop
paragraph 1 structure.
The process of making chocolate begins with. . .
A. liquor/either/pressed/become/cocoa powder
shell/sell/food industry
B. add/sugar etc./refine/produce/chocolate bar
C. or/pressed/become/cocoa butter
D. grid cocoa/produce/cocoa liquor/waste products
E. industrial chocolate/make from/cocoa liquor,
cocoa butter
Description Ask questions to find the information you need.
(Pie chart) Then use the gapped sample answer (part) as
a writing guide.
How to paraphrase the tittle as a How is the ……………. from the retail
topic sentence of a chocolate bar ……………. Up?
What is a logical sequence? The pie chart indicates that the farmer
who …………….
1 start with the first step, also mostthe ……………. Receives only …………….
Significant information the retail price.
The ……………., on the other hand, receives


2 contrast with remaining A rather small 10 % ……………. To the
amounts company while 15% is taken by the
the form of taxes.
3 end with largest percentage The cost of …………….and
production, make up
the largest proportion, 37% of the …………….of
chocolate bar.


Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 1 questions.
1 Use of the passive
Find 6 verbs in the passive voice from the sample answer.
Nite: ‘becomes’ does not have a passive form
E.g. __ is used____
_____________ _____________ _____________
_____________ _____________ _____________
2 Tricky little words
What little word comes immediately after these words from the sample
Cocoa butter is used along ___________
Ingredients and production make ___________
How is the money divided ___________
10% goes ___________
3 Synonyms
From the sample answer fin synonyms for:
to produce (paragraph 2) ___________
gets (para 3) ___________
goes to (para 3) ___________
Answer: 1 can be sold/ is combined/ is refined / is divided up/ is taken 2
with/ up/ up to 3 to make/receives/is taken by


The diagrams illustrate the chocolate-making process and the percentage allocation
of the price of a chocolate bar.
The process of making chocolate begins with the grinding of the cocoa beans, to
produce cocoa liquor and some waste products. The liquor is used in two ways.
When pressed into powder it can be sold on to the food industry. Alternatively when
pressed into cocoa butter it is used, along with the liquor to make industrial
chocolate. This is combined with sugar and other ingredients and refined to produce
chocolate bars.
How is the money from the retail price of a chocolate bar divided up? The pie chart
indicates that the farmer, who produces the cocoa bean, receives only 4% of the
retail price. The supermarket, on the other hand receives 34%. A rather small 10%
goes to the chocolate company, while 15% is taken by the government in the form
of taxes. The cost of ingredients and production, make up the largest proportion,
37% of the price of a chocolate bar.


 A brief overview introduces the answer without copying the task

 Useful language for describing a process: …begins with/ …either….or/
….which is then/ … in order to make/…after that/… further/…finally
 In this task there are two diagrams to describe. The obvious way to
organize the essay is to write one short paragraph on each diagram.
With 5 minutes planning time that leaves 7 minutes (approximately 75
words) per paragraph. Keep it simple.
 Impersonal language is generally used in academic writing and Task
1s. The following is an exception: ‘From the pie chart we can see…’
 A useful and concise introduction is the question in Paragraph 3: ‘How
is the money…. Divided up?’
 For emphasis, the highest percentage of cost is put last as a separate
 A summarizing comment can be effective, if you are under the
minimum word length. Not necessary in this answer.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:
Many people keep dogs cats as companions.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pet ownership for the
animals involved and for the community as a whole.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your own
knowledge or experience.
Step 1 Analyze the task Read carefully to
understand all the details.


What type of essay is it? Two sides of an
What are the key words…
…related to the topic? Dogs/cats/pet
…related to the task? Advantages and

Step 2 Generate Ideas Ask questions based on

the key words.
‘Pet ownership’ What are the advantages? What are the
For animals loved, cared for, well-fed lack of freedom
and natural
Activity: kept indoors at night
and balled (cats), on lead,
muzzled (dogs)
For the community? Pet owners healthier and happier not always well-
treated and
Service: guide and guard dogs more regulations:
To protect native animals
from cats
To control dogs
Cost of abandoned pets
Step 3 Think it through Put your ideas in order before you
start to write.
Introduction paraphrase task statement to restate
both sides of issue
Paragraph topics 1 advantages of pets: for animals
For owners
For community
2 disadvantages: for pets
For community
Conclusion complex relationship
Restate main idea in a new way.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task

Write about the following topic:


We live today in an electronic information age. It is easier to be
connected by technology yet many people seem no closer to feeling
happy in their lives.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your own
knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.
Page 160

Step 1 Analyze the task Read carefully to

understand all the details.
What type of essay is it? Two sides of an argument
What are the key words…?
…related to the topic? Electronic information age, happy
…related to the task? Discuss
Which terms need explaining? Happy/connected

Step 2 Generate Ideas Ask questions based on

the key words.
‘Pet ownership’ What are the advantages? What are the
For animals loved, cared for, well-fed lack of freedom
and natural
Activity: kept indoors at night
and balled (cats), on lead,
muzzled (dogs)
For the community? Pet owners healthier and happier not always well-
treated and
Service: guide and guard dogs more regulations:
To protect native animals
from cats
To control dogs
Cost of abandoned pets
Step 3 Think it through Put your ideas in order before you
start to write.
Introduction paraphrase task statement to restate
both sides of issue
Paragraph topics 1 advantages of pets: for animals
For owners
For community


2 disadvantages: for pets
For community
Conclusion complex relationship
Restate main idea in a new way.

1. Use of Passives
Put the passive form of these verbs to complete these phrases using
the sample answer:
Feed care for love give restrict keep impose require abandon
 …pets are f…………..and c……………. and I ………………
 It is easy to see how much attention is ………………..
 The freedoms are increasingly.
 These restrictions have been …a…………
 …pet owners are ….. to clean up …
 … dogs and cats that have been ………….. by owners

2. Connecting expression
Find the missing connecting expressions indicated for each paragraph.
(NOT ’and’)
(para 1) / …………..
(para 2) / in return / not only, but/ ……………/
(para 3) /……………../ no longer, but/ …………../…………
(para 4) ………………./ ………………
3. Compressing Language
Find the expression in the sample answer for:

 The owning of pets ……………… (2 words)

 The part of the supermarket where pet products are
sold ……………………………… (5)

 Owners who do not take responsibility ………………………………..


Dogs and cats can be wonderful companions but there are also a number of
problems associated with pet ownership, both for the animals and for the
In the best situations pets are fed, cared for and loved as part of a family. It
is easy to see how much attention is given to pets, by the range of products
available in the pet section of supermarkets. In return, cats and dogs
contribute to the well being of the community in many ways. Dogs are useful
for protection and serve as guides for the disabled. People with pets are not


only happier and healthier, but may even live longer. This the animals
benefit individuals and the community as well.
There are, however, also negative aspects for the pets and for the
community. The freedoms of both dogs and cats inside at night to protect
native birds and animals. Dogs can no longer run free in parks and at the
beach but must be kept on leads. These restrictions have been imposed by
the community to protect the public. In addition pet owners are required to
clean up after their dogs. Parks and beaches often provide plastic bags for
this purpose. The community also has to pick up the costs of dogs and cats
that have been abandoned by irresponsible owners.
So the relationship between pets and the community is a complex one. More
and more the community is intervening to force pet owners to restrict the
activities and freedom of their pets. Still, responsible owners, prepared to
give adequate time and attention to their cats and dogs, can give them a
good and happy life. (290 words)

 Task words: ‘Many people keep dogs and cats…’ Paraphrase:
‘Dogs and cats can be wonderful companions.’
 This essay is organized into 2 paragraphs:
advantages/disadvantages. Each paragraph includes 2 aspects –
for the pet, for the community. Each point has an example to
support it.
 The argument balances positives and negatives and the
conclusion reflects both sides.


Writing test 4 task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The two graphs below show the percentage of smokers and the consumption
of alcohol in liters in selected countries, for the period 1960-2000.
Summarize the information by choosing and reporting the key features, and
make any relevant comparison.
Write at least 150 words.


Plan your answer Test 3 Task 1
Analyze the task Look at the question, the title and subtitle.
Highlight key words
Think it through Ask the questions to find the information you
Then use the gapped sample answer as a
Introduction The two graphs show tends……..smoking
and alcohol
Consumption for 1960-2000 for several
…….., smoking declined
dramatically……..consumption of
alcohol witnessed a fluctuating
Description (Graph 1)
What is the general trend? In terms ……..smoking patterns, the
general…… the USA, ……..and Holland is
Which year to start with and ……..had the highest percentage of smokers in
what order? …… nearly 60%…… Japan at about
47%and the USA at ……..40%.Holland
experienced the……..dramatic decrease, falling
…….. What is the trend through 1980 about
43% in 1980 and then declined at the same
rate as …….. and 2000 for each country? until
2000. USA’s……..fell to below 20% by …….. .

Description (Graph 2)
How to signal the change Turning……..alcohol consumption, the
of topic and make a general ……..different

What is the best order to put The number of……..per capita consumed
by Holland the information in? and the……..increased
sharply between 1960 and ……..form
around 4 liters per…… Holland
about…… 1980 and the form nearly
Which counties have a similar 8 liters to……..than 10 in the USA in
trend? Thereafter……..Countries’ consumption
declined…… around 8
liters……..the USA in 2000 and
10 in Holland.


Which country has a different The…… Turkey was rather different. Turkey’s
pattern? …………….remained low, rising only…………...
from 1 liter to about 1.5 liters per person
between 1960 and 2000.
How to summarize these trends?


Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 1 questions.
1 Qualifiers
Write adverb or adjective form the text to complete the notes:
1960 – 80_________ decrease in smoking
1960 – 80_________ alcohol drinking increased __________ . Post 1980
1960 – 2000 alcohol consumption rose _________
2 Synonyms – odd one out
Which word in each group is not a synonym of the others?
Approximately about until around
a little below slightly less than well under
much more than somewhat more than a lot more than well
declined dropped fell stabilized decreased went down
rose went from went up increased
3 Economical sentences
Using the sample answer, try to write these sentences in a more economical
- The number of liters per capita which were consumed in Holland and
the USA increased sharply… ( save 2 words)
- Turkey consumption remained low. Its consumption rose only
Between 1960 and 2000 (save 2 words)
- Holland experienced the most dramatic decrease. Holland’s
percentage fell about 43% in 1980…. (save 2 words)
Answers 1 dramatic/ sharply /steadily/slightly 2 until/well under/ somewhat
more than/ stabilized/ went from 3 consumed (which were consumed) /,
rising (its consumption rose) /. Falling (Holland percentage fell)


The two graphs show trends in smoking and alcohol consumption for 1960-
2000 for several countries. Overall, smoking declined dramatically while the
consumption of alcohol witnessed a fluctuating pattern.
In terms of smoking patterns, the general trend in the USA, Japan and
Holland is downloads. Holland had the highest percentage of smokers in
1960 at nearly 60%, followed by Japan at about 47% and the USA at around
40%. Holland experienced the most dramatic decrease, falling to about 43%
in 1980 and then declined at the same steady rate as Japan until 2000. USA’s
level fell to below 20% by 2000.
Turning to alcohol consumption, the story is different. The number of liters
per capita consumed in Holland and the USA increased sharply between
1960 and 1980 from around 4 times per person in Holland to about 11 in
1980 and from nearly 8 liters to more than 10 in the USA. Thereafter both
countries’ consumption declined steadily to around 8 liters in the USA in
2000 and 10 in Holland. The pattern in Turkey was rather different. Turkey’s
consumption remained low, rising only slightly from 1 to about 1.5 liters per
person between 1960 and 2000.
(197 words)
The introduction provides an overview of the most general trends before
going into more detail.
Graph vocabulary trends/downwards/ higher percentage/followed by
dramatic decrease/ falling to/ steady decline
Topic sentences in each paragraph use economical signal expressions: ‘In
terms of’ /’Turning to’….
‘Per capita’ is a useful synonym for ‘per person’.


Writing test4 task
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
We live today in an electronic information age. It is easier to be
connected by technology yet many people seem no longer to feeling
happy in their lives.
Give reason for your answer and include relevant ideas from your own
knowledge and experience.
Write at least 250 words.


Plan your answer test 4 task 2
Step 1 Analyze the task Read carefully to understand the

What type of essay is it? Two side of an argument

What are the keywords…..
…related to the topic? electronic information age, happy life
…related to the task? discuss
Which terms need explaining happy/connected
Step 2 Generate ideas Ask questions based on the
key words
What are the advantages of the *email/internet/chatrooms (easy
quick cheap
electronic age contact)
*contact with family, friends (old/new)
*technology can overcome isolation e.g.
Are we happier? Isolated at computer (only on-line
Evidence of lack of happiness? Rate of
Step 3 Think it through put your ideas in order before you start
to write.
Introduction what is happiness? How is it related
to being
Paragraph topics 1. Advantages of technology (on the one
2. Disadvantage (on the other hand)
Conclusion summarize/indicate your opinion

Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 2 questions:
1. Synonyms


Which of the expressions in each group is not a synonym of the

To communicate/ to contact/ to be connected / to overcome/
to stay in touch
 Rates/cases/ levels
 For example/via/like/such as
2. Compressing information
Which shorter expressions in the sample answer mean the same as:
 The rate at which people are getting divorced (Find 2 words)
 The amounts of stress that are being experienced(2)
 Websites on the internet where people can make dates with one
 The age in which there is a lot of information available(2)
 A call on the telephone(2)
 The levels at which people use the internet(4)
3. Could this be used instead?
Could the expression on the right directly replace the expression in the
sample answer?
Answer Yes or No
Expression in the sample answer Could this be
used instead?
 In this way … (para2) After this,…(Y/N)
 For example ( para 2) For instance… (Y/N)
 Similarly … (para 2) In a similar way… (Y/N)
 Even so… (para 4) Nevertheless… (Y/N)
 …therefore… (para 4) …so… (Y/N)

The electronic information age that we live in today, certainly makes

communicating very quick and easy. It is simple for many people to contact
dozens of others every day via computer of phone, but does this make them
feel happier? Happiness is difficult to define, but in addition to basic needs
like food, shelter or peace, it depends on such things as good health, a
loving family and friends, and a satisfying occupation – either job, study or
pastime. Whether modern communication has increased people’s feelings of
happiness is, however, debatable.
There are many advantages to being connected electronically. For the price
of a local phone call we can stay in touch via email with family or friends
around the world. In this way isolation by distance or climate can be
overcome. For example, Finland with its long winter has one of the highest
rates of internet use. Information that would only be available to a small
number of people without the use of computers is not at our fingertips.
Similarly, thousands of people use chatrooms and internet dating sites every


On the other hand it seems to be the case that depression and suicide rates
are high and the divorce rate is increasing. Employees complain of longer
working hours and increased stress levels. There is concern that people are
in fact becoming more isolated, only communicating on-line. On this
evidence they seem unhappier today.
Happiness is hard to measure, as it is subjective and depends on the
particular situation. Perhaps there is more awareness of current problems
because so much information is available through technology and the media.
Even so, it would seem that the quality of our relationships and therefore our
level of happiness is unrelated to modern technology, which is, after all, only
a tool. (299 words)

 The ‘thesis statement’ (last sentence of the introduction)tells the

reader that the body of the essay will give arguments both for and
against ‘……. Is debatable.’
 Useful expression for a discussion essay:
‘there is concern that’ … means that some people are worried about
the situation… ‘Perhaps’… shows that the writer is considering possible
reasons for these problems ‘it would seem that’… indicates something
is probable rather than 100% certain.


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The three diagrams below show the development of, and plans for, the
coastal zone of Bright sea.
Summarize the information by choosing and reporting the key features and
make any relevant comparisons.
Write at least 150 words.

y Fisherme

se Cafe
Lighthouse Keeper’s




Car park

Telecommuni ACADEMIC
Ferry Wharf Sailing
Analyze the task

Think it through

What do diagrams show?

Diagram 1
What was there in 1950?

Diagram 2
What additional structures are there now?

Diagram 3
What new structures are planned?

What final observation summarize the data?

Look at the question, title and subtitle.
Highlight key words.
Ask questions to find the information you need. Then use the gapped sample
answer as guide.
The diagrams of the coastal area of Bright Sea illustrate….. Development
from a fishing community in 1950 to a…. terminal, with plans for future…
In 1950 the coastal zone of Bright Sea…. Undeveloped….. Just a lighthouse
and lighthouse keeper’s house…… was a jetty for fishing boats, and……..
Few cottages.
Currently, it can be…. That certain developments have taken place. For
example, roads… been constructed and there is a hotel near the lighthouse.


A large wharf….. Now supporting a ferry service. A café and shop are
catering for the daily…. of the community.
There are plans for Bright Sea to experience further…. The hotel is to be
extended and a sailing club…. Alongside the hotel, to the south. A ……ferry
wharf will be added with a telecommunications antenna and…. Shop
replaced by a supermarket and… In the northern part of Bright sea, a
restaurant and… will be built to supersede the café.
In…. the coast of Bright sea has changed from…. A fishing community in
1950 and is expected to become a more significant ferry terminal. The
lighthouse will have been the only constant……



Write the appropriate preposition for each sentence from the sample answer.

………1950 the coastal zone of Brightsea was undeveloped…..Further north,

there was a jetty…… boats…and… a sailing club built alongside the
hotel…..the south.
A second ferry wharf will be added….. a telecommunications antenna……the
northern part of Brightsea, a restaurant and apartments will be
built….summary, the coast of Brightsea has changed from being…

Complete the passive verb forms from the sample answer using
the verbs in brackets()
…it can ………… …………. (see).
…roads have …….. ……….. (construct)
The hotel is to ………. ………… (extend)
A second, ferry wharf will be ………. (add)
… and the shop …….. by a supermarket and car park. (replace)

SYNONY Find synonyms in the sample answer for these questions.

area ………….. undergo …………………
at present …………….. important ……………….
day to day……………. unchanged………………
ANSWERS: 1 In/ for/ to/ with/ In/ In
2 be seen/ been constructed/be extended/added/replaced/
The diagrams of the coastal area of Brightsea illustrate its development from
a fishing community in 1950 to a ferry terminal, with plans for future


In 1950 the coastal zone of Brightsea was undeveloped with just a lighthouse
and lighthouse keeper’s house. There was a jetty for fishing boats, and a few
Currently, it can be seen that certain developments have taken place. For
example, roads have been constructed and there is an hotel near the
lighthouse. A large wharf will be added with a telecommunications antenna
and the shop replaced by a supermarket and car park. In the northern part of
Brightsea, a restaurant and apartments will be built to supersede the café.
In summary, the coast of Brightsea has changed from being a fishing
community in 1950 and is expected to become a more significant ferry
terminal. The lighthouse will have been the only constant landmark.

 The paragraph structure of this report is simple, with each diagram
allocated a separate paragraph.
 The use of verb tenses is challenging in this type of report about
changes across different time points. The first diagram requires the
simple past tense, with the present/ present perfect/ present
continuous forms needed for the second diagram. The third diagram
requires some future tense forms. The final paragraph summary uses a
mixture of tenses.
 The report uses synonyms well. ( Examples: show / illustrate; area /
zone; growth/development; build/construct; replace/supersede)
 The summary paragraph can be shortened if more time is needed for
Task 2.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:
Most developed countries spend a large proportion of their health budgets on
expensive medical technology and procedures. This money should be spent
instead on health education to keep people well.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your own
knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.


Step 1 Analyze the task
What type of essay is it?
What are the key words…
….related to the topic?
….related to the task?
Step 2 Generate Ideas
What kind of…
…technology? (give examples)
…procedures? (give examples)
What is health education?


Step 3 Think it through
(turn statement into questions)
Paragraph topics


Read carefully to understand all the details.

Two sides of an argument
Expensive medical technology/procedures health education.
To what extent / agree disagree

Ask question based on the key words.

High-tech MRI scanners
Organs transplants/ IVF
Learning how to stay well
eg lifestyle changes,diet,exercise

Put your ideas in order before you start to write

Why is the health budget spent this way?
Why spend money on health education?

1 advantages of spending on health education (on the one hand)

2 advantages of high tech hospital treatment ( on the other hand)

Summarize and indicate opinion.


Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 2 questions.
Compressing information


Which shorter expressions in the text mean the same as these?
 The amount of money planned for use on health
 Problems connected with people’s health (2)
 Care which is given by nurses (2)
 Sicknesses that are caused by the way people live (2)
 The transferring of a body part from one person into the body of
another (2)
Word groups
In the sample answer find 8 expressions connected to each of the following
(a) Health
What’s the next word?
Match the word(s) on the left from the sample essay with one on the right
that follows it.
Straightforward world
It is questionable term
The best treatment whether
The long issue
Developed possible
Answers: 1 health budget/ health problems/ nursing cars/ lifestyle diseases /
organ transplants 2a (examples) unwell, ill health, medical, doctor, sick,
treatment, surgery, hospitalization, diseases 2b
savings,budget,expensive,health,dollar,spend,afford,costly,money 3
straightforward issue/ questionable whether / treatment possible/ the long
term/ developed world.

Almost daily there are reports of new advances in medicine. In the developed
world certainly, the prognosis for many medical problems is more optimistic
today than ten years ago and continues to improve. But these developments
in health care are very expensive, and it is questionable whether countries
can afford to continue to increase spending on health. Many believe that it
would be better to spend more preventing people from becoming unwell in
the first place, and reduce the amount spent on curing ill health.
As many modern diseases are a consequence of our lifestyles, one way of
making savings to the health budget would be to educate people about how
to prevent expensive health problems such as diabetes or heart disease.
Most medical doctors today do not have the time to (nor are they paid to)
teach patients how to make these changes to their lifestyle through diet or
It is understandable that when people are sick they want the best medical
treatment possible, with access to the latest diagnostic equipment,
expensive MRI scanners, for example. If the problem is life threatening then
we demand complex operations such as open-heart surgery or organ
transplants. Such procedures usually require intensive nursing care and
lengthy periods of hospitalization, which are costly.


Thus it can be seen that this is not a straightforward issue and depends to
some extent on one’s situation. While the ‘health dollar’ is limited, however,
it would seem rational to direct more resources towards the prevention of ill
health. In this way fewer people would become ill from theses preventable
lifestyle diseases. In the long term this should save the country money and
increase the well-being of the population.
 The wording of the question is decisive eg ‘should be spent’ whereas
the wording of the answer is qualified eg ‘Many believe it would be
preferable’, ‘it would seem rational’,’where larger numbers may
 In this essay, statements are regularly followed by examples which
help to explain, clarify and develop the idea.
‘preventable lifestyle diseases; examples given are diabetes, heart
‘lifestyle changes’- diet, exercise
‘expensive diagnostic equipment’- MRI scanners
‘expensive operations’-open-heart surgery, organ transplants
 Use of linking words: similarly/ such procedures/ thus it can be seen/
however/ in this way
 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
 The chart and table show the number of fishers in millions for
different regions between 1970,1980 and 2000, and the world’s top ten
exporters of fish in 2000.

 Summarize the information by choosing and reporting the key features,
and make any relevant comparisons.
 Write at least 150 words.

World’s TOP TEN
1. Thailand
N 2. Norway



3. USA

4. China

5. Denmark

6. Canada

7. Taiwan


Analyze the task

 Think it through

 Introduction

 Description of bar chart


 What are the most significant
 statistics?
 What about remaining regions?
 (In descending order of importance describe both the numbers of fishers and
the trends)

 Description of table
 How to signal transition to new topic/ paragraph and identify most significant
 What is the logical way to group remaining countries?

 Conclusion
 How to summarize this trend?

 Look at the question, title and subtitle.
 Highlight key words. Identify the main trends.
 Ask questions to find the information you need. Then use the gapped
sample answer as a guide.

 The bar chart and table present statistics……fishing between 1970 and
 The data in the chart indicate that Asia was the region…. The largest
numbers of fishers in 1970,1980 and 2000 at 9,13 and 24 million… No
other region witnessed such…. Increases in numbers. Africa’s
fishers….. 1.3 million in 1970, and 2 million in both 1980 and 2000.
South America had steady numbers of fishers, 1.2million,…. The
period. In North America…. Were 0.5 million fishers in 1970 increasing
to…. 1.2million in 1980, a number that remained…… in 2000. Europe
had the fewest with 0.6 million in 1970….to 0.3 million in 1980 and…..
to 0.6million in 2000.
 ….. to the table of exporters for 2000, five of the ten, listed countries
are from the Asian….. Thailand was the world’s exporter of fish, but
European and North American countries were also…..Norway and
Denmark took second and fifth places……, while USA is the third…..
exporter and Canada ranks…… China and Taiwan…… fourth and
seventh places, while Russia,…… and South Korea complete the table
in eighth, ninth and tenth…………
 To…..,there are more fishers in Asia…. In the rest of the world


Complete these activities based on the sample answer to develop writing
skills for Task 1 questions.
1 Synonyms
Choose a synonym to match each expression from the sample answer.
Spectacular/ show/ reducing/ significant / conclude/ stayed the same
In the sample answer Synonym
Indicate ………………………………………..


Dramatic ………………………………………..
Remained unchanged
Contracting ………………………………………..
Prominent ………………………………………..
Summarize ………………………………………..
2 Listing positions in a table
Match the country form the table with the appropriate expression.
The second largest, the biggest, in fifth position, the third largest, the lowest
ranked, in fourth spot.
Denmark ………………………………………..
Thailand ………………………………………..
USA ………………………………………..
South Korea
Norway ………………………………………..
China ………………………………………..
3 Prepositions
What preposition goes with each expression in the sample answer?
 Dramatic increases……..numbers...
 Increasing………..about 1.2 million…
 Returning………..0.6 million…
 Turning ………. The table of exporters…
 ……eight , ninth and tenth spots.
 …….summarize…
Answers: 1 indicate-show/ dramatic-spectacular/ remained unchanged-
stayed the same/ contracting-reducting/ prominent-significant/ summarise –
conclude 2 Denmark- in fifth position, Thailand- the biggest, USA- the third
largest, South Korea- the lowest ranked, Norway- the second largest,China- in
fourth spot, 3 in/to/to/to/in/to
The bar chart and table present statistics about fishing between 1970 and
The data in the chart indicate that Asia was the region with the largest
numbers of fisher in 1970,1980 and 2000 at 9,13 and 24 million respectively.
No other region witnessed such dramatic increases in numbers. Africa’s
fishers numbered 1.3 million in 1970, and 2 million in both 1980 and 2000.
South America had steady numbers of fishers, 1.2 million throughout the
period. In North America there were 0.5 million fishers in 1970 increasing to
about 1.2 million in 1980, a number that remained unchanged in 2000.
Europe had the fewest fishers with 0.6 million in 1970 contracting to 0.3
million in 1980 and returning to 0.6 million in 2000.
Turning to the table of exporters for 2000, five of the ten, listed countries are
from the Asian region. Thailand was the world’s top exporter of fish, but
European and North American countries were also prominent. Norway and
Denmark took second and fifth places respectively, while the USA is the third


largest exporter and Canada ranks sixth. China and Taiwan occupy fourth
and seventh places, while Russia, Indonesia and South Korea complete the
table in eighth, ninth and tenth spots.
To summarize, there are more fishers in Asia than in the rest of the world

 ‘Fishers’ has replaced ‘fishermen’ as a gender-neutral term to include

women who work in the industry and catch fish for a living.
 ‘Turning to’ indicates transition to a new paragraph and a new topic-
from the chart to the table.
 In the second paragraph, European countries are grouped together,
then North American to give variety and to follow the topic sentence
 Use variety to avoid repetition: top exporter/ take second place/ is the
third largest exporter/ occupy fourth place/ ranks sixth/ in eighth…
 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
 Write about the following topic:

 Because of the pressure of new subjects such as business studies,
many schools have dropped sport or physical education (PE) from the

 How important is sport or PE in a young person’s education?

 Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant ideas from your
own knowledge or experience.


Step 1 Analyze the task
What type of essay is it?
What are the key words…
…related to the topic?
…related to the task?

Step 2 Generate Ideas

Why is sport/ physical education being replaced on the school curriculum?

What is the value of PE in school?

How important is it?


Step 3 Think it through

Paragraph topics


Read carefully to understand all the details.

Evaluate an argument
Sport/ physical education
How important….

Ask questions based on the key words.

Low priority compared to employment- related subjects

Break from mental activity, better concentration on school work, exercise,

fitness, learn new sports

As important as any subject ‘fitness for life’

Put your ideas in order before you start to write.

Question asks ‘How important?’
Answer: ‘of vital importance’
1. Problem of academic demands and time pressure PE improves
concentration and performance
2. Problem of obesity, sedentary lifestyle of many students PE offers
exercise, new activities, fitness for life
Summarize and re-state opinion.
Complete these activities based on the sample answer to build writing skills
for Task 2 questions.
1.Connecting expressions
Could the expression in brackets () be used instead of these connecting
expressions in the sample answer without making other changes? Yes or No?


 It is true that (Even though) (para 1) Y/N
 As a result (Nevertheless) (1) Y/N
 While(Whereas) (1) Y/N
 So that (since) (2) Y/N
 In addition (As well) (3) Y/N
 In conclusion( to summarize) (4) Y/N
 The result will be (As a consequence)(4) Y/N
2. Synonyms
Which of the expressions in each group is not a synonym of the others?
 Program curriculum class
 Unfortunate unavoidable inevitable
 Sedentary uncooperative inactive
 Overweight lazy obese fat
3. Scrambled phrases
Rewrite theses scrambled word groups from the sample answer:
 True is that it… (para 1) …………………………………………
 Education is ground physical losing...(1)
 Shift inevitable see as this many…(1)
 Argue I that would…(1) …………………………………………
 Is concern growing a there…(3)
 Sport in enjoy participating… (4)
Answers: 1 N/ N/ Y/ N/ Y/ Y/ N
2 class / unfortunate/ uncooperative/ lazy
3 see sample answer

It is true that there is increasing pressure on schools today to prepare their
students for work in the twenty-first century. As a result, physical education
is losing ground on the school curriculum to employment- related subjects
like business. While many see this shift as inevitable. I would argue that
physical education is a vital part of the school program and should be
maintained. Sport and PE add variety to the curriculum, broaden the
students’ experience and teach essential life skills.
Within the school day, students need physical activity to balance the long
hours spent sitting at desks. PE provides a break from the mental focus of
academic subjects. A good PE program should include a variety of sports plus
non-competitive activities like dance and aerobics so that students can
experience exercise as both challenging and fun.
There is a growing concern among parents and educators about obesity in
children. Many young people have a sedentary lifestyle that revolves around
TV, computers and being driven in cars. Physical education ensures that all
students get some form of regular exercise during the school day. In addition
they learn about the importance of liking after their bodies.


In conclusion, physical education programs in schools are not only worth
maintaining, they should be developed. The result will be students who are
happier, healthier and more productive in class. They will grow into adults
who value fitness and enjoy participating in sport. These are lessons for a
lifetime, as important as any subject on the school curriculum.

 The ‘thesis statement’ acknowledges the counter argument: ‘…many

see this shift as inevitable. It also indicates the position of the writer ‘I
would argue that’ and answers the question. ’How important?’ ‘ …
physical education is a vital part of the curriculum and should be
 Both paragraphs of the body of the essay begin by stating a problem
and showing how physical education helps to solve that problem,
thereby demonstrating its value.
 The conclusion re-states the writer’s opinion and reinforces the
evaluation, answering the question ‘How important?’
 The essay is concise- just over the minimum number of words, but
fulfills the task requirements.

 The IELTS Speaking Test
 Fast Track Speaking
 Instructions for Test Practice
 Speaking Test 1 ( CD1)
Questions and activities
 Speaking Test 2 ( CD2)
Questions and activities
 More Practice Questions


Structure of the Speaking test
The IELTS Speaking Test was revised in 2001. The format was changed and
the way instructions and questions are given was standardized.
Your Speaking Test is with one interviewer. This interviewer also assesses
your performance.


The test takes from 11-14 minutes and has THREE parts.
PART 1 4-5 minutes
Your name and ID are checked and then you answer set
questions on 3 familiar topics.
In more detail…..
The interviewer will introduce her/ himself and check your name, country and
ID (passport or student card). A cassette recorder will be switched on to
record your interview in case it needs to be checked. The test begins with
the interviewer asking set questions on three topics. There are about 4
questions per topic, which means an average of 25 seconds per question. Try
to say more than ‘yes’ or ‘no’ by extending your answers a little.
PART 2 3-4 minutes
You are given a topic, which you have to talk about for 1-2
minutes. You have 1 minute to plan your talk. The interviewer
asks 1 or 2 follow-up questions.
In more detail…
The interviewer gives you a card with your topic on it. Be sure to read the 3
or 4 details on the card carefully and answer all of them in your talk. If you
take longer than two minutes, the interviewer will stop you, and then will ask
one or two questions to finish off this part. Just answer them briefly.

Part 3 4-5 minutes

You have a discussion with the interviewer about issues related
to the topic of the talk in Part 2.
In more detail…
The questions in Part 3 are, more challenging but the interaction is more
natural. The interviewer will respond to what you say but is testing your
ability to use more complex language and express your ideas clearly and
appropriately. When the test comes to an end, the interviewer is not
permitted to discuss your performance or your score, so don’t ask.


Assessment In other words….
Fluency and coherence Can you speak without pausing or hesitating?
Can you use idiomatic expressions and develop your
ideas using good connecting language?
Vocabulary Can you use a good range of appropriate expressions
to keep talking about and extending different topics
Grammatical range and
Accuracy What range of grammar and verb forms can you use
flexibly, appropriately and accurately.


Pronunciation How clearly can you be understood and how
effectively can you use English stress and intonation?
Amira’s tip:
While I was waiting outside the room, I had a snack and a drink to keep my
energy up.
I tried to relax by breathing slowly and doing some stretches. My interview
was a little late.
We had been told not to knock on the door so I just stayed nearby until I was
called into the room by the examiner.
Natalya’s tip:
I’m quite shy so I got my identification ready to show the assessor before the
test started and
when I gave it to her I made eye contact and smiled. She smiled back so I
felt more relaxed when I started to answer the

Here are some typical problems and questions that come up when students
prepare for the Speaking Test, along with suggestions for improvement.
What happen if…?
... I don't understand a question.

... I don't understand even after the question has been repeated.

... I understand the question but don't know how to answer.

... I have prepared some answers in advance and memorized them.

...I can't think of enough to say to keep talking in Part 2.


Don't remain silent. Ask the interviewer politely to repeat the question. It's
fine to say, 'Sorry?' or 'Pardon?' or 'Could you repeat the question, please?'
These are good speaking strategies.

You can just say Tm sorry, I still don't understand'. The interviewer will move
on to another question.

Don't be worried that there is a correct answer to a question. The interviewer

is just asking your opinion and basically wants to hear you speak. You can
talk about the situation in your country or your personal experience.

It will be obvious to the interviewer if you have learned answers by memory

and you will lose marks. Practice lots but don't memorize. It is important to
interact naturally and to be spontaneous.

Practicerecording yourself making little speeches. Start with easy, familiar

topics and a short time limit. Gradually increase your time and choose topics
that are more difficult.


Hiroshi's tip: 'My problem was that I spoke slowly and had too many pauses.
So, to practice, I recorded my answer to one question again and again until I
could do it without pausing. I also practiced several times with a clock, trying
to give the same answer in fewer seconds. It worked. I got a 7 for Speaking!

There are
2 sample


Speaking Test 1 (Zsuzso)

Before you listen, look at the interview questions. (pl86)
Listen to the whole interview first.
Listen and do the activities one part at a time. (pp!87-189)

Go back to the interview questions for Test 1.
Record your answers.
If possible, get a friend to ask you the questions and record the whole

Speaking Test 2 (Wen)

Follow the same steps.

Want more practice?

Use the additional practice questions on page 194.
Read the ‘Quick Guide’ pages 205-208 for detailed guidance on how to
improve your score in the Speaking test.

[1] Set questions
Topic 1: FAMILY
Do you come from a large or a small family? Do all your family live in the
same town or city? How often do you see your brothers and sisters? (or your
family?) Do you have a lot in common with them?


Topic 2: FRIENDS
Do you have lots of friends or just a few special friends? Can you say
something about one or two of them? What kinds of things do you and your
friends like to do together? Are you a person who enjoys spending time

Describe a favorite shop or store. You should say: where it is and what it
looks like what it sells what you like to buy there and say why you like the
shop so much.

Topic 3: TRAVEL
Which other countries have you visited? Which other countries are you
interested in visiting? Why? What are some of the things you don't like about

Discussion questions related to Shopping.

What do you think of shopping on the Internet? How do you think the use of
the Internet will affect shopping in the future? Why do you think that
shopping has become such a popular activity for young people these days?
In what ways are your parents' shopping habits different from yours? Can you
give some examples of differences? Do you think in wealthy countries people
buy too many things they don't need? Is that the case in your home country?

SPEAKING TEST 1: Zsuzso immigrated to

Australia from

ZSUZSO Hungary 5 years ago. She is

Listening Activities teacher, working with
disabled children.

First read through the activities for Part 1

of the interview. Then listen and complete each task.
Do the same for Parts 2 and 3.
Finally, check your answers in the transcript

PART 1 Study the activities. Then answer as you listen

Topic 1: FAMILY

• Write the missing information.

Number of people in Zsuzso's family ……………………..

Where she lives ……………………..
Where they live ……………………..
How often they see each other ……………………..
What they have in common ……………………..


 Which 4 of the following does Zsuzso mention? Circle the answers.
South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia
• Write the missing information.
She is interested in visiting any country that has………………………..
and……………………………. Two things she doesn't like about travelling are
taking……………………………………. and living out of………………………

Study the activities. Then answer as you listen.

 Listen to the interviewer’s instructions. Circle True or False.

The interviewer gives you a piece of paper. T/F

You choose a topic. T/F
You talk about the topic for 1 minute. T/F
You can plan for 1 minute. T/F
You can make notes. T/F

 Here is Zsuzso’s topic card. Imagine you are being interviewed. Write your
notes for each part of the topic during the 1-minute planning time on CD 1.

TOPIC CARD Your notes

Describe a favorite shop or store.
You should say:
Where it is and what it looks like ________________
What it sells ________________
What you like to buy there ________________
And say why you like the shop so much ________________

 Listen to Zsuzos’s talk. Match her vocabulary with the appropriate meaning.
Vocabulary Meaning

Shopaholic a person who has an illness OR a person who loves to shop

Treasure hunt look for great things to buy OR look for expensive antiques

Elegant good value OR attractive

Browse shop for something special OR look usually without buying

Touches my heart makes me feel emotional OR makes me feel a bit ill

Transform change something a little OR change something a lot

PART 3 Study the activities. Then answer as you listen.

Complete the missing information

__________. Later she

Zsuzso didn’t like internet shopping at first because it took away the
realized the advantages of internet shopping. What example does she give?
She thinks shopping has become a __________ activity for young people.

 Circle the 3 activities Zsuzso mentions.
Buy presents / try on clothes / listen to pop music / go to the mall / have coffee

 Write the missing information

Zsuzso’s parents shopped ____________whereas she shops ____________

 Underline the‘Filler language’Zsuzso uses in(A)while she is thinking about what to say. Then
complete the shorter version (B)which makes her expression more direct.
 ‘So it wasn’t a luxury to sort of shop every day it was a necessary sort of making choices I
suppose was very hard but we had to’.
 ‘So it wasn’t a _______________ to shop every day. It was ______________ to make choices. It was
____________ but we had to do it’.

Now check all your answers in the transcript

An IELTS teacher’s comments on Zsuzso’s interview

Zsuzso demonstrates a good level of speaking ability overall.

Her fluency is good. She has no difficulty understanding questions or

answering them quickly. She seems comfortable with the intentions
behind each question. She uses connecting expressions easily to join
different parts of her answers and to make her talk flow. She uses
‘filler’ language to give herself time to organize her thoughts. In Part 1
of the interview, her answer were a bit short. Because there was so
little hesitation in her reply, she would have had time to develop her
answers a little more.

Zsuzso’s pronunciation is clear, though she has slight interference from

her native language (some vowel sounds). Generally speaking, she
pronounces words clearly with appropriate stress and has quite good

Her grammatical range and accuracy are good but probably her
weakest feature. She still has a number of slight errors in her speech
and over-relies on certain forms (e.g. however). On the other hand, she
uses a good range of grammatical forms with ease and can move
between formal and less formal expression without a problem.

Her vocabulary is also generally good. She uses a wide range of

expressions including idioms and colloquialisms (e.g. touches my
heart, browsing, shopaholic, pop into, transform, festive season).

I think Zsuzso has demonstrated a level of speaking ability that is high

enough for successful entry to an English-speaking university
anywhere in the world. She has clearly benefited from several years
living in an English-speaking community. She is stronger in speaking
and listening than in writing, which is often the case with students of
European background.

Part 1 Set questions
Topic 1: FAMILY
Do you come from a large or a small family? Do all your family live in
the same town or city? How often do you see your brothers and
sisters? (Or your family?) Do you have a lot in common with them?

Are your weekends generally busy or relaxed? What kind of things do
you usually do at the weekend? What would you like to do in your time
off if you could choose? Do you ever go away on your days off?

What kind of outdoor activities or exercise do you like? Are there any
sports you don’t like? Why? Do you think it’s important to keep fit?
What are the best ways to keep fit?

Part 2 Short talk TOPIC CARD

Describe an important year in your life.
You should say:
How old you were
What important things you remember from
That year
Where these things happened
And say why you think that year was so important.

Part 3 Discussion questions related to memory and the past

How important is it to know your family history?
What are the best ways to keep family history alive?
Do you think it is important to study and understand the history of one’s country?
Why do you think studying history has become less popular these days?
How could we encourage young people to become interested in history? For example?

p. 190

WEN Wen (Wayne) comes from Taiwan. He is
on study leave from his job in
banking. And is working
Towards a PhD in International
Listening Activities
First, read through the activities for Part 1 of the interview.
Then listen and complete each task. Do the same for parts
2 and 3. Finally, check your answers in the transcript.

Part 1 Study the activities. Then answer as you listen.

Topic 1: FAMILY
 Write the missing information:
Number of members: _______________
Where they live: ___________________
How often they see each other
Brother: ____________
Sister: _____________ ______________
What they have in common: ___________________ ________________

 Complete the missing information.

Wen’s activities:

1__________________________ ______________



What he would like to do_______________ because ____________________

What he does on days of

 Which words has Wen left out?

‘____most of _______ time I just go to _____ city center or I just go to ____ beach’.

Part 3 Study the activities. Then answer as you listen.

Important of family history

1. In Wen’s view the importance of family history is mainly to do with…
a) Understanding the way the family has changed and its origins.
b) Practical things connected to his occupation.
c) Finding out more about the past and his ancestors.
d) Passing stories on to the next generation.

Best ways to keep family history alive

2. According to Wen, it is important to…
a) Focus on the present.
b) Look to the future rather than the past.
c) Know the past to understand the present.
d) Forget the past.

Importance of studying the history of your country

3. Wen talks about…
a) The continuing conflict between China and Taiwan.
b) Improved relations between China and Taiwan.
c) Changes over the years in the relationship between China and Taiwan.
d) The future unification of China and Taiwan.

Why studying history has become less popular these days

 Complete the information.

4. Wen says this is because of the ___________ which ____________ so ___________.

How to encourage young people to become interested in

5. According to Wen it is mainly the responsibility of…
a) Parents.
b) The government.
c) Teachers.
d) The media.

Now check all your answers in the transcript

An IELTS teacher’s comments on

Wen’s interview

Wen demonstrates a reasonable level of speaking overall. His ideas are complex and
interesting but his speaking is affected by his first language and culture.

His fluency is quite good – he responds quickly and can use filler language. But, he also
hesitates occasionally and his explanations sometimes lack the development expected
by an assessor (e.g. in Part 1, talking about his siblings, ‘…we are quite different
because one of my brothers is businessman’).

Wen’s pronunciations is reasonably effective but weaknesses like final consonant

sounds cause problems for the listener (e.g. Hull). His stress and intonation are
serviceable, though affected by his first language.

Grammar is Wen’s greatest weakness. Regular inaccuracy with articles and tenses
reduces speaking effectiveness and causes strain for the listener. Also, he lacks range
and flexibility of expression.

Wen’s vocabulary is interesting. He can use complex expressions (e.g. culture shock,
dynasty, evaluate) but sometimes struggles to find the right form of a word (e.g.
‘makes me health’ for healthy).

I think Wen has demonstrated a level of performance that is somewhat typical of

students from that regions. His skills at listening, reading and writing have been strong
enough to compensate for a slight weakness in speaking. Given more time on his post-
graduate studies, his spoken English should develop further.

P. 194


Part 1 Set questions

Topic: music
What kinds of music do you enjoy listening to?
When do you listen to music?

Have you ever learned to play a musical instrument? (Which one? / Why not? )

What is your favorite musical instrument? (Why?)

Topic: using the phone

How often do you use a mobile phone (cell phone)?

Do you ever send text messages? (Why? / Why not? )

Are phone calls expensive in your country?

Do you find it easy to talk on the phone in another language? (Why? / Why not?)

Topic: a favorite food

What is your favorite food? (Why?)

When did you first eat it?

Can you cook it yourself? (Why not?)

What things can you cook?

Topic: public transport

How often do you use the bus or train? (Why? / Why not?)

Is it easy to travel by bus or train in your town or city?

Is it expensive to use public transport in your country?

Is public transport in your country getting better? (Why?)


Describe a favorite item of clothing:

You should say:

What it is (color, style, material)

Where and when you bought it:

How often you wear it

And say why it is one of your favorite items of clothing

Talk about something you have made or created.

You should say:

What is was

Why you decided to make it

What steps you took to complete it and say how you felt about making it.

Describe a market that you like.

You should say:

Where it is and when it’s open

What sort of things are sold in the market

What you like to look at and do there

And say why that market is important in the town or city.


Part 3 discussion questions

Is chasing a fashionable image a waste of time and money?

What do you think of designer clothes for small children?

Describe the importance of traditional costume in your country.

Are school uniforms better than free choice of clothes for school?
What should people do with their old clothes to prevent waste?

Do you think creativity is encouraged enough in school?

What is more important – being original or being able to follow instructions well?

What are the best was to develop creativity?

To what extent are artists and creative people important to society?

Will people in the future have more opportunities for creative pursuits or less?

Will markets be replaced more and more by huge shopping malls and big supermarkets?

Are markets good for preserving community spirit?

Is the trend towards huge supermarkets a bad thing for smaller towns and cities?

Are people too concerned about buying and not concerned enough about caring?

Is shopping becoming a disease?

Part 2 short talk

Talk about an interesting journey you made by plane. You should say:

Where you flew to and how long it took

What you enjoyed about the flight

What you didn’t enjoy about the flight and say why you found the journey interesting

And say why you found the journey interesting

Talk about a book that you liked when you were a child.

You should say:

What is it and who wrote it

What it is about

When you are it

And say why you remember that particular book.

Part 3 discussion questions

Is plane travel helping people to be more tolerant of cultural differences?

Should airline security be increased further?

How would you improve air travel in your country?

Does travel broaden the mind or is it just an excuse for buying souvenirs, sightseeing and status

When do you think there will be possibilities to travel to the moon or mars?

To what extent are people’s reading habits changing?

Are libraries going to become less or more popular in the future?

Do you think people read more often to learn things or to escape?

In what ways are books preferable to movies?

Have any books changed your view of life in a deep way?

Find topics from newspapers.
Check EFL online discussion groups.
Make up 1-2 minute impromptu talks and record them.

Remember! USE IT OR LOSE IT!




 Managing your test performance

 Quick guide to a higher score in the
4 IELTS subtests:



Managing your test performance
THE PROBLEM: IELTS test takers often say, ‘I need a higher score!’
Increasing numbers of IELTS candidates are taking the IELTS test for the second, third, fourth… or
even tenth time! They need a higher score but don’t achieve it.

THE SOLUTION: become your own ‘professional test manager’

It is vital to create a many-sided role for yourself that involves becoming a ‘professional test
manager’, not a frustrated and powerless ‘test victim’.

To manage your test performance efectively:

 Accept the responsibility for maximizing your score.
 Analyze your unique profile-your strengths and weaknesses in each subtest (e.g. time
management, certain task types, relating to the interviewer).
 Carry out targeted test practice to reduce your weaknesses.
 Manage your performance systematically and professionally on test day.
 Switch roles flexibly to maximize your performance-time keeper, planner, editor, answer
decision maker, emergency officer, public relations manager, and psychologist.
 Manager your psychological state so you remain focused and calm.
 Look for opportunities to demonstrate your full language ability-for example, in the areas of
speaking and writing (self-empowerment).

1) Quick Guide to a higher score in IELTS LISTENING

BEFORE listening—6 tips for getting ready to listen.

You are given some time (15 to 20 seconds) to look at each group of around 4 or 5 questions before
listening to each corresponding part of the recording. Use this time well.

language (more formal or less formal) and

TIP 1 being aware of this helps you to anticipate
Identify the situation in which the possible types of synonym (either a more
speakers are talking and their conversational one, or a more formal one).
(Is it students in a classroom?…someone
talking to a colleague in an office? Are they TIP 2
strangers? …friends? …colleagues?). Check the task.
Relationship affects a speaker’s choice of
Are you expected to: …complete a form? …fill TIP 2
in some missing words? …choose from 3
multiple choice options A/B/C? …select words Don’t get left behind.
or items from a list? Be clear about the rules
of the task --- for example, the maximum This is a golden rule of the IELTS Listening test.
number of words you can write; which box or Keep up with the recording! How can you stop
column to focus on; kinds of word or yourself from getting left behind?
information needed.
-Focus on what the questions require.
Practice before the test so that you get used to
TIP 3 linking what you hear on the recording to
Look for key words or headings that might typical task completions, and then you will
have a synonym on the recording (using become more and more confident to let some
different words of similar meaning is a very words pass by without getting anxious.
common way of writing test questions).
-Find the ‘rhythm’ of the IELTS Listening
test. After on question’s key information or
TIP 4 word has been heard, there is usually some
Be clear about categories and headings time before the next question’s key input, so
in any table, map or diagram. If it is a you know that words needed for two or three
map, check where you are located at the consecutive answers often occur after time
start, before the recording tells you where to gaps.
move to.
-Don’t leave an answer ‘empty’. Instead,
leave a ‘holding answer’ on the question
TIP 5 paper and mark the question for more
Look at any examples that may be given as attention later, then come back to it.
sample answers and remind yourself not to
choose the example answer for any of your Transferring answers to the
own answers. Answer Sheet

TIP 6 You have 10minutes after the end of the

Listening test to transfer your answers from the
Note any answers that look completely Question paper to an Answer Sheet. Stay
unlikely choices, before listening, if the focused and manage this time
task is a multiple choice type task, or a systematically.
task type with a list, for example.

To summarize: your main management job 1) Avoid the ‘worst disaster’!

in the time BEFORE listening to each
section is to reduce uncertainty about The worst disaster is when you transfer your
each answer task type and its sheet but put most of your answers next to the
requirements—this aids prediction, wrong question numbers without realizing it!
which reduces the likelihood of panic, So, always check that each answer is
and helps good answer selection. being transferred to the correct question
number on the Answer Sheet. An ‘empty’
p.199 answer can cause this problem of putting an
answer in the wrong place, so an answer to
each of the 40 questions is helpful.

What can you do if you have transferred

WHILE Listening—2 KEY TIPS all your answers and suddenly find that
some of the answers are next to the
TIP 1 wrong numbers?
Stay on task -Don’t panic! Don’t start crossing things out
and making a mess!
As you listen to the audio recording for each
section, remain active, but try to ‘listen -Draw an arrow from the answer to the correct
out for’ key expressions; don’t try to follow question number so that it is clear that the
every word. Listening is always a process of answer is pointing to the question number you
selection and sampling of input; listening want it to belong to.
should mirror your listening purpose.
2) ‘Mind the Gaps’! 7 Spell Correctly. Incorrect spelling can
sometimes cause loss of marks. The good news
In IELTS Listening, we could reasonably say, is that both American and British forms of
‘Mind the Gaps’! This means that during the spelling are usually accepted.
transferring of answers you must finally
fill in an answer to any question you left 8 Copy words accurately—especially words
blank while you were actually listening to the in your answer that are also in the question.
recording. Don’t leave empty answers. Even a
guess has more chance than an empty 9 Keep an eye on the time. 10 minutes to
space. Also, if you have left two possible transfer your answers seems generous but if
answers on your question paper, you have to you are not systematic or focused then you
decide which one to choose. Don’t spend too may have a problem.
long on these final choices because you
You can’t escape PRACTICE—6 ‘fitness’
only have 10minutes’ total transfer time.
tips for listening test

The only real way to get better at IELTS

9 TIPS FOR TRANSFERRING HYOUR Listening is to practice. You need to:
ANSWERS ACCURATELY. TIP 1 Practice every listening task type so
that you know exactly how each task type
1 Write clearly. operates and how to manage and respond to
each type optimally and calmly.
Often answers require letters of the alphabet. It
can sometimes be difficult for markers to tell TIP 2 Practice complete tests so that you
the difference, for example between an ‘A’ and learn how to be flexible and how to deal with
an ‘H’, or ‘D’ and ‘O’, or numbers like ‘1’ and unexpected situations calmly across a
‘7’. complete test event. Panic is the enemy of
performance in the Listening test!
2 Change answers cleanly and clearly
TIP 3 Do the same IELTS practice test
If you decide to change an answer do it clearly.
several times with a day or two in between
Erase the answer you no longer want and write
repeats. This repeating of tests reduces input
the new answer clearly. Avoid any messy
pressure (i.e. pressure of the amount of all the
crossing out which may leave doubt.
new spoken input on the recording) and
3 Don’t use abbreviations unless they are enables you to focus on other aspects of test
common ones performance. (E.g. task types and test tricks,
building test management strategies)
Nearly everybody knows ‘kg’ or ‘$’ but some
abbreviated forms are not well known and may TIP 4 Practice IELTS ‘trick spotting’. The
not be accepted as a correct answer. Be IELTS listening test often contains little spoken
cautious and, if in doubt. ‘tricks’ to catch you out. A common example is
the changing of address information. Practice
4 Use correct word forms enables you to identify the tricks quickly and
learn how to manage them.
It is very easy either to write a singular when a
plural is needed in the answer or vice versa, or TIP 5 Practice to become sensitive to little
to write a verb form without the ‘s’ at the end. changes in the speaker’s voice tone, pitch
or emphasis, as these can sometimes signal
5 use correct word order the use of answer information.
With answers requiring 2 or more words use TIP 6 Practice building predictive skills.
correct order as meaning can change. Listening usually involves predicting what
Example: ‘answer key’ (list of answers) but might be said next, based on what you have
‘key answer’ (main answer). already heard and what you have come to
expect from your previous experience of what
6 Check the maximum number of words
is said in similar situations.
you can use in an answer.

If the question says ‘NO MORE THAN 2

WORDS’, your answer should not have 3 words.

2) Quick Guide to a higher score in IELTS READING

7 tips for becoming a better manager of your Academic Reading test
TIP 1 BEFORE the test—make a time TIP 3 Start with the questions, then move
management plan It’s poor strategy to ‘go to the text—this helps focused searching.
with the flow’ in the reading test—have a time
management plan. As with the listening test you need to stay ‘on
task’. There is no time to read the whole
To make a time management plan, you need to passage slowly, so you need to know in
decide on: advance what you are trying to find in the
- A maximum time for quickly ‘over-
viewing’ the whole paper—2-3 minutes TIP 4 Analyze the structure of each
perhaps passage. As you begin to move from question
- A period of time to spend on each test to text and back, you need to take control of
section or on each passage. Some the passage by analyzing it, or marking it.
candidates prefer a ‘sliding scale’ of How?
time allocation, such as:
15-16 minutes (passage 1) - By dividing the passage into sections
19-20 minutes (passage 2) based on paragraphs and topic
22-24 minutes (passage 3) sentences (usually the first sentence in
each paragraph)
This sliding scale may suit the general training - By circling people’s names, numbers,
reading test a little more than the Academic key words
Reading test as the increase in difficulty is - Scanning the passage for synonyms
more marked. (remember that test questions are
often created by using an expression in
- A time strategy for tricky questions. the question which is different from the
Perhaps no more than 1-2 minutes on on in the passage but is a synonym of
any tricky question ( Remember, you it (has a similar meaning).
may be able to come back to it)
- An amount of time to save at the end TIP 5 Remember common test patterns.
to ‘quick check’ the accuracy of your Earlier questions often relate to material in the
answers on the Answer Sheet (1-2 earlier paragraphs of the text; later test
minutes perhaps). questions relate to material in the later parts of
- An emergency strategy if you get into the text. Be aware of such patterns to save
difficulties (for example, when you searching time.
have only 5 minutes left but 10
questions still to answer). TIP 6 Guess meaning from context.
Guessing is necessary when reading complex
TIP 2 DURING the test—first, overview the texts. If you need to know the meaning of
test contents (questions and passages) unknown words to help you choose particular
answers, using the surrounding words helps
‘Overviewing’ here means getting a general you to make informed guesses.
impression. It’s part of the progressive buildup
of meaning as you go from general TIP 7 Leave no empty answers, even if you
understanding to specific meanings. It helps to are running out of time and may not finish all
know what the topics are for each passage, the the 40 questions. Leave a minute at the end to
subtopics of paragraphs and the type and focus make quick guesses. Maximize your chances.
of each question group. This is done by a form
of quick reading called ‘skimming &
scanning’—letting your eyes run freely across
particular locations in texts and questions.

BUILD FITNESS For the reading test—a weekly program for busy test takers:

Days 1, 2, 3 Choose one different passage from a full practice IELTS Academic test each day for three

- Answer all the questions and check the time it took each day (max. 20 minutes).
- Then check the answers each day and work out why incorrect answer was wrong.
Day 4 On day 4 repeat the process using the same text from Day 1 but this time complete your
answers in 5 minutes less time that the first time. This repeat practice helps you to get the feeling of
doing a test section faster and more easily—this will motivate you and increase your confidence to
manage & complete things under time pressure.

Day 5, 6 on days 5 and 6, repeat, using passages 2 and 3 from days 2 and 3.

Day 7 Do the whole Reading test, 60 minutes maximum—using passages 1,2 and 3 of the academic
test that you used on days 1-6.

The following week-Start a new sequence of practice with new test material and gradually remove
the repeat element until finally you do a previously unseen, complete reading test in 60 minutes with
no break. Practice and understand all the major reading task types. Test practice books like this
one will include examples of most of these. Work out how each task type functions, what each task
type demands and its difficult aspects. Take control and manage your IELTS ‘fitness training’.

3) Quick Guide to a higher score in IELTS WRITING

Planning is essential to a professional approach
in many jobs. The same is true in IELTS.
A ‘clock victim’ is a writing test candidate
who is always anxious about time. What - Often candidates receive their IELTS
happens to a ‘clock victim’? Candidates who writing test paper and begin writing an
spend too much time either counting words or answer almost immediately—they are
clock watching, may lose focus and develop a so scared of time. A professional
sense of panic linked to time. You need to see person, in contrast, learns how to
yourself in a positive way and maximize your manage time in the most effective way
control of the situation. in order to achieve their goals. In IELTS,
planning time (even just 2-3 minutes)
Don’t count words all the time helps to create a more systematic
and well organized answer, which
Instead, work out the average number of words impresses the assessor.
you seem to write on a line, count the number - Candidates who don’t plan may stop to
of lines written and multiply them together. A think or stop to cross something out
full IELTS Answer sheet page has 20 lines. more often during the twenty minutes
than the candidates with a plan. It
Create a suitable ‘persona’ for the IELTS may be an unhelpful form of panic
writing test to think that every second has to
It is important for you to create a suitable be used as writing time. It’s also a
‘persona’ (a sort of test identity) with which mistake to think that the best
both to manage your test performance, build candidates are writing non-stop for 20
confidence, and make a positive impression on minutes.
the assessor. What might be a suitable - Someone who organizes well and
‘persona’? is systematic cares about what
they are writing and cares about
A ‘Professional person’ is a suitable one for the person who will be reading
you to imagine yourself as. It helps to make a their work. This important valuing of
stronger relationship between the writer (you) the reader-writer relationship is a
and your writing assessor. Remember, worthwhile goal in IELTS.
everything you write to another person carries
an impression of YOU within it. If, for example,
your writing is disorganized, looks messy, is off
the point, and offers inaccurate information, IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING—
then all of these features say something TASK 1
negative about you.
7 Tips for increasing your score
The reader starts to imagine what YOU
are like from how and what you write. So, TIP 1 Write accurate information
your writing has the power to influence
Usually for task 1 you are presented with
the impression you make.
some statistical information in the form of
Plan before you write a graph, or a table or a pie chart. Whatever
the material, study it carefully and look
at each category carefully so that you - Repetition—this is too boring and
report on it accurately (Accuracy makes the writer sound very limited. To
creates a good impression of you as a avoid repeating nouns, use appropriate
professional report writer). synonyms or referencing language.
Examples: ‘this’, ‘it’, ‘the same
TIP 2 Write about the most important trend…’, ‘a similar pattern…’
patterns and trends not about - Over-use of general expressions
everything (good selection shows that lack precision.
evaluation skills—again, more professional) Examples: ‘thing’, ‘do’, ‘is’, ‘big’, ‘nice’
TIP 3 Avoid overuse of ‘shopping lists’
TIP 7 Reduce simple grammar
(just listing information one fact after
another). Instead, identify key trends
Of course, anyone taking the IELTS test
and compare and contrast patterns
is likely to make numerous grammar
(comparing/contrasting shows more
mistakes. However, some mistakes
mature evaluation of material). Use
create a more negative impression
sentence connectors at the beginning of
than others when read by a native
sentences to signal this evaluative type of
speaker. If you can reduce the number
of these you can spread a positive
Examples: ‘Similarly’;’Conversely’;’an impression to other parts of your
exception to this trend is…’’This pattern writing.
changed from…’
4 Grammar errors that really
TIP 4 don’t make personal comments annoy an assessor in Writing task
about the statistical material (being 1
professional, and reporting on data
requires you to be factual and objective). VERB TENSE mistakes
- Talking about the data
TIP 5 Use a systematic layout
Usually IELTS Task 1s use data from
- Write an introductionto your report particular year dates. You must use the
on the data and include in it perhaps a PAST tense when describing
very general statement (overview) information from the past; if the
about the most dominant trend in the information is about the future, use
data. appropriate FUTURE tense forms)
- Create and arrange other - Talking about the visual/data you
paragraphs logically(In professional can see on the Writing test paper
report writing, colleagues have limited You use the PRESENT tense forms to
time to read a report and need to say, the graph/chart/table shows… /
access information easily). …indicates… / …lists…

TIP 6 Use a professional writing style SUBJECT/VERB agreement errors

and tone In English we say, the graph
shows… but, the data show…; the
It is possible to shape your ‘tone’ (the population of the three Asian countries
feeling of your ‘voice’ that the reader gets ischanging…; the number of people
from your words and how appropriate they who sit IELTS isincreasing… (Head
are to the style of document). nouns ‘population’ and ‘number’
control the verb agreement);
To achieve an appropriate, formal,
business-like tone, avoid:
WORD FORMS—Adjective / Noun /
- Lazy language expressions—these Adverb confusion
are not professional, are used more in Candidates need to control and
spoken language, and suggest that the manage effectively the English word
writer doesn’t care enough to finish a forms they use.
sentence properly. Look at these 3 examples:
Examples: ‘…etc.’ or’…and so on’ - There is some doubtful about the
- Informal expressions-such data.
expressions are not professional (Wrong – noun’doubt’ needed)
enough for a formal report style. - The accuracy of the figures is doubt.
Examples: ‘a lot’; ‘was OK’ (Wrong – adjective ‘doubtful’
- The population increase rapidduring you have to give your view on. This
2000. will help your answer to be
(Wrong – adverb ‘rapidly’ needed) relevant.

EXAMPLE: imagine this is an IELTS

Task 2 question.
Errors from Basic English grammar leave
‘Many people keep pets in small
a more negative impression than other
apartments. To what extent is this
kinds of mistakes because it is assumed that
you learnt about these basic rules when
The topic is keeping pets. To be
younger and have had time to master them
relevant, you would focus your
and use them correctly.
discussion of pets on:
SENTENCE BOUNDARY and SENTENCE - Types of pet( The expression ‘pets’
OMISSION problems covers many types of living creature)
- Where the pets are kept(specifically
Candidates need to build sentences carefully in this essay, in small apartments)
and respect what a sentence is and what the - how cruel this is(you need to offer a
parts of a sentence are, otherwise the assessor clear, precise point of view)
has to keep reading and re-reading the 2. Decide upon a clear, precise and
sentences to try to understand them. This relevant point of view
leaves a negative impression. This can be achieved by offering
enough detail to explain why you have
Look at 2 inaccurate examples: that opinion.
In the Task 2 essay, having a clear
1) The figures show the food preferences and precise point of view on the
of men and women they are in two task topic enables the assessor to
tables. feel more connected to the strength
2) The table shows the population. In the of your writing ‘voice’.
Asian countries up a lot in the ten-year. Example A: An unclear and not very
It is difficult not to re-read each of them precise point of view might be:
because they don’t communicate clearly or ‘It is sometimes cruel to keep pets in
effectively. Now look at these improved apartments but sometimes it is not
versions: cruel’.
This point of view sounds as though
Example 1: The two tables show the food the writer doesn’t clearly know what
preferences of men and women. their point of view is about cruelty, and
so it is less convincing, less powerful.
Example 2:According tothe table, the Example B: A clearer and more
population in the Asian countries rose precise point of view might be:
significantly in the ten-year period. ‘It is cruel to keep pets in small
apartments if the pets are large and
need more space, more attention of a
different environment in order to be
IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING— happy and healthy’.
TASK 2 This point of view is clearer because
it gives the precise conditions in which
The second task involves writing about a social the writer thinks it is cruel (that is, the
issues. Again, adopt a ‘professional person’ by writer says it is cruel, if pets are large
imagining you are presenting a formal and and if they can’t be healthy and happy
reasoned viewpoint on the issue to an in small apartments)
academic colleague. Don’t view yourself 3. Make a quick plan of the
negatively as just a person taking a difficult paragraphs and the topic of each
test. paragraph.
Remember that the first sentence of
3 STEPS BEFORE writing each paragraph (often called the ‘topic
sentence’) tells the reader what the
1. Study the words in your IELTS
paragraph is about so if the topic
Writing Task 2
sentence is clear, it gives a
The same issues apply to Task 2 as to
positive impression to the
Task 1. You need to read the task
assessor, because it means the
carefully, know clearly what the topic is
assessor can predict the content of
and what precise aspect of the topic
the rest of the paragraph more The linking words in bold type show
easily. An important aspect of reading how writers can direct their thoughts
an easy easily is predicting what will and express relationships between the
come next. content as they move from sentence to
sentence. This also helps the assessor
In your Task 2 plan: to connect with the point of view that is
- Show an introduction which contains a developing. Test candidates who list
relevant viewpoint on the essay task one point after another without any
- List 2 or 3 paragraph headings each development, and without relevant,
with a key reason connected to your considered linking expressions may
own viewpoint, plus one or two seem less natural and less mature
examples to support that reason writers in the mind of the assessor.
- Show a concluding paragraph that will
summarize what your essay has 3. Leave a line between each of your
shown. paragraphs when you write your
essay, so that the assessor can easily
NOTE:If you write a plan in the IELTS Answer see the way your essay is organized.
book, just put a line through it and underline it
to show that it is not your actual answer. Then
begin the actual essay.
8 KEY GUIDELINES for language
What was said about Task 1 is also important use to achieve a higher score in
here. A few minutes spent planning your task 2
Task 2 response helps you to write
systematically and smoothly, and in clear 1. Avoid generalizations that are
paragraphs—it is not wasted time. simplistic and thus too strong
(simple generalizations seem unsubtle
or strong, and often don’t reflect a
mature viewpoint)
WHILE Writing –Organizing Example: Compare these 2
paragraphs & sentences for a generalizations:
higher score 1) Alldogs like people.
2) Most dogs are sociable and seem
1. Develop each paragraph by linking to enjoy human companionship.
each supporting point to the next
point. Which example above seems less
Don’t just state on point and then simplistic and more considered? ANSER:
move on to an entirely new point as No. 2
this seems mechanical and prevents
you from developing your opinion in A more considered general view usually needs
more detail. to be expressed in a sentence that is:
2. Use a variety of linking words
- Longer
between sentences, rather than just
- More grammatically complex.
the simpler, ‘shopping list’ style links
- More detailed and therefore more
such as: firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally
- Written using ‘cautious’ language
Read this mini paragraph:
forms (e.g.
Keeping pets such as large dogs in
small apartments can easily lead to
2. Avoid using idioms or sayings which
unintended cruelty. An obvious
state the obvious or seem out of place
example of this is that limited space
in an essay where a formal viewpoint is
makes large animals frustrated
being systematically developed.
because they can’t use enough of their
Examples: ‘Every coin has two sides’.
physical energy. This may result in
‘Every cloud has a silver lining’.
possible aggression. Linked to this
3. Avoid using clichés, as they can
lack of exercise is the issue of health.
communicate too much informality.
A dog that has insufficient space and
Example: With most pets, what you
lacks exercise can easily become
see is what you get.
obese which, in turn, may shorten
4. Avoid using informal expressions
the pet’s life.
in this formal type of writing.
Less formal more formal 7. In the final paragraph, come to a
Keeping pets is a very Keeping pets is conclusion about the point of view
a in your essay
Hot topic This helps to round off your answer.
significant issue Here are one or two examples of how
to begin:
Petrol-driven cars ….are ‘Overall then, the point of view
fast developed in this response is
Past their sell by date that…..? ?’
becoming obsolete Or, for a different type of essay
5. Avoid using lazy or vague To sum up, the solution to this problem
expressions to complete might best involve….’
sentences, especially ones that
belong more to spoken conversation. 8. Make a quick check of your
Examples: ….’etc.’;’…and so on’;’…and grammar and spelling
things like that’;’…that sort of thing’ In the last minute or two read your
6. Avoid imprecise, general essay quickly and try to find those
expressions that make views elementary grammar or spelling
sound too simple. mistakes which do not impress
Example: Compare these expressions assessors
in a) and b) Examples: ‘Pet are…’ (Should be, ‘Pets
a) Walking a dog is a good thing are ….) Or, ‘Keep pets in small
and… apartments is sometime cruelty’.
b) Walking a dog is a necessary, (‘Keeping pets in small apartments is
daily activity and ….. sometimes cruel’)

Example b) offers more precision

(necessary, daily) than example a)

4). Quick Guide to a higher score in IELTS SPEAKING

The main social task in the IELTS speaking test is to bring both the assessor and
candidate closer together, in a sense of ‘cooperative connection’. This means
that each helps the other to make the situation friendly and mutually successful.

Music: The assessor will feel comfortable, the more your spoken English echoes
the music of the language that native speakers are used to hearing, which
- Appropriate rises and falls in your voice,
- Good stress on the right sounds
- Not too fast, not too slow
- Appropriate pausing
- Very little hesitation or self-correction
- Neither too loud nor too soft
- Good rhythm and flow of sound
- Clear and accurate, individual sounds
- Good grouping of ‘chunks of meaning.

Silence is NOT golden!

In the IELTS Speaking test, silence is NOT golden. Why?
- Natural pauses are fine, but long silences cause strain for the assessor, and
break flow and connection.
- It is a sign of either: trouble finding the right word, or trouble trying to
understand what is required, or trouble trying to explain something
- In Western cultures, silence is often experienced as more threatening than it
is in some other cultures.
- Silence takes up a lot of time and puts pressure on the assessor to fit the
many questions into a small amount of remaining time, especially in part 1 of
the test.
- In the speaking test, you can’t get a good score for what you don’t say! BUT
variety is more rewarded than monotony or repetition. Quality beats

The ‘dance’ of the Speaking test

The interviewer knows the 3-section ‘dance’ of the Speaking test better than you do
but you can help your assessor by being ‘a god dance partner’. How?
- Moving through each section or question in the test in an appropriate time
- Being sensitive to your assessor as they lead you through the dance’s moves
- Showing yourself in a positive, cooperative light, thus…
- Making your assessor happy to have you as their 11-14 minute dance
As a ’dance partner’ you need to be responsive, which means not trying to
dominate your partner by talking too much or too repetitively. Instead be a
cooperative equal. Aim for balance. ‘Dance’ in step with the test’s rhythm, timing
and structure.
Finding the appropriate way to relate to your assessor
Another important aspect of ‘cooperative connection’ in this short Speaking test is
to feed the brief relationship between yourself and the assessor, so that it is
friendly, balanced, and productive. Mutually appropriate and mutually respectful.
For your 11-14 minutes with the assessor, act like ‘an equal’ who is:
- Offering yourself as a memorable, unique and listening person
- Informing a new friend about your life and culture, with a real interest in
doing so
- Using body language and eye contact to communicate interest and
connection but not frustration, aggression or tiredness)
- Treating the relationship with sensitivity, char, pride, respect and friendliness
- Trying to make the assessor’s task easier
- Using language that is not too distant (too forma) or too familiar (too
informal) – your aim is to use language that is polite but friendly at all times.
- Listening carefully and politely to everything the assessor tells you or asks
- Reacting and responding with every good energy and motivation

How to connect with the assessor at each stage of the Speaking Test
1) Connecting during the introduction
- When the assessor invites you into the room, it’s useful to put your passport
or test ID on the table so that it is ready.
- Don’t try to say much while getting seated, just smile and look pleasant
and respond to anything the assessor asks or says (Sometimes test
candidates try to chat to the assessor by saying things like, ‘How are you
today?’ at this point but really the assessor just wants to get on with the
interview efficiently).
- The assessor isn’t a police officer, so say your name in a friendly way. If
your name is really difficult for assessors to identify or repeat properly, give
them a short or simple first name to call you during the interview.
- While seated, look interested and connected, not nervous or tired. Make
friendly eye contact, smile and be polite when asked for your passport or
other ID.

2) Connecting in PART 1 of the Speaking test

Keep in step and keep in time with the first 12 questions (3 topics)
On average about 15 seconds is an appropriate length for each of your answers in
order to ‘keep in step’ with the rhythm of this section.
- If you take a long time answering (either because of hesitation or going into
too much detail) then the assessor feels pressure because there is not
enough time to ask all the other questions.
- Similarly, if your answers are too short, the assessor will get to the end of the
questions before the minimum time is up for the 3 topics (4 minutes).
So, keep in step with the time boundaries and make the assessor more
Don’t use memorized answers or memorized material at any stage. Why
It is very easy for the assessor to recognize memorized answers and they:
- Often take up too much time
- Frustrate the assessor
- Create a bad impression—you are not conversing in a real way, you are being
Don’t be frightened to ask for a question to be repeated
The assessor has to read the questions from a printed page so if you don’t
understand the question the assessor can’t explain it to you. You can ask for the
questions to be repeated, however. This is much better than remaining silent.
You can say:
“Sorry, I didn’t quite catch that. Could you repeat the question, please?’
If you still don’t understand the question after it is read to you again, just say:
‘I’m sorry but I still don’t quite follow the question’.
Try to extend your answers a little to use the 15 seconds or so.
Why? This makes you seem more interesting, friendlier, and less robotic.
Assessor’s question: Were you a good student at school?
Answer A: Yes I was a good student at school. (too brief, repeats question words)
Answer B:Most of the time I was, yes …especially at primary school …. But at high
school… I had a period when I was a bit rebellious… and occasionally I got into
trouble for not doing my homework and arriving late.

(Much better as it sounds natural, is extended fluently, is personalized, is in

‘chunks’, that is, ‘blocks of meaning’ each with a tiny pause before the next block, is
in polite, conversational style and is about the seconds long)
“Sing the same song’
As native speakers, assessors will probably ‘sing the song’ of English by using rising
and falling intonation to add interest and show a positive attitude.
- Remember to try to mirror or echo this by using rising and falling
intonation in a natural and appropriate way to show how you feel about the
answers you are offering. If you are talking about something exciting or
interesting let your intonation show this. If you are surprised, show this.
- Add ‘personality’ to your language.Flatness of spoken English suggests
to the assessor that you are not interested, and maybe not interesting!
- Don’t speak to quietly, nor too loudly. Try to ‘engage’ the assessor when
you speak both by voice and gentle eye contact (this means keep the
assessor’s attention and interest in what you are saying)

Be yourself
The interview is testing your ability at spoken English but that English is
spoken at YOU, so don’t forget to be yourself and not be too
frightened or too ‘hidden’

3) Connecting in PART 2 of the Speaking test

As part 1 finishes, your assessor gives you a topic card and you have one
minute to plan a 1-2 minute talk on the topic
- During the one minute planning/ note-making time make sure you go
through ALL the points listed on the topic card. Use the listed points
to structure your notes or thoughts.
- If you want to start before the one minute has finished just politely
‘I think I’m ready to start now, if that’s OK’
- During your talk, talk about each of the points on the topic card—many
talks lack structure and are disorganized; the candidate ends up trying to fill
the time and is often repetitive or goes off the point. Plan systematically to
avoid this. Being systematic connects with the assessor’s expectations.
- Make your talk fluent, personal and varied
Your talk is a chance for connection, not just for using English. Connection is
improved by adding variety and personal comment. Use your voice’s ‘music’
to add interest and for extra connection with the assessor.
- Use eye contact to connect with the assessor
The little talk is great opportunity to connect with your eyes and to build the
relationship with the assessor. Don’t stare at your notes—it seems a bit rude
or shy.
- Signal to the assessor if you finish before the two minute period ends,
with a simple phrase like, ‘I think that’s all’. Don’t let silence create doubt.
- The assessor will ask a ‘rounding of’ question connected to your talk,
just answer this fairly briefly as the assessor will want to move into the
final part of the interview. Don’t go on for too long or the assessor may get a
little impatient.

4) Connecting in PART 3 of the Speaking test

The assessor will move the test into the final stage using general questions
connected to the topic of your talk.

- You should see this part as a more natural type of interaction

because the assessor may react to your responses and share the discussion a
little, not just move from one question to the next like in part 1 of the
Speaking test; however, the assessor will be careful not to take up too much
time talking as the aim is to assess your spoken abilities in this part.
- Remember, you are an ‘equal’.Imagine you are having a discussion in a
coffee shop with a colleague who is interested in your detailed views on
certain things.
- Develop your answers using varied sentence connectors to build
flow; don’t talk in short, staccato sentences as this gives the impression
that you don’t want to engage in or enjoy a discussion, but just want to finish
the test quickly.

Assessor’s question: ‘Do you think weddings are really necessary?’
Answer A: (too short, not flowing) ‘Weddings are necessary. Weddings are a
tradition; they make parents happy’.
Answer B (longer, but still too staccato); ‘Yes. They are necessary. Your
family needs to follow traditions. It is a bad thing not to get married. It brings
shame. It shows you are not serious about your life. You need to please your
parents. Weddings help you do this’.
Answer C (longer and more fluent): They seem to be important even
though they may not be completely necessary, because, for a start, they
enable a couple to show a public commitment to each other in front of their
family and friends, which helps them to feel supported when making a big
decision, and besides that, the couple can feel they are part of a long and
honorable tradition in their society, while at the same time pleasing their

If you can’t quickly think of a response to a question, there are various

strategies you can use to give yourself more thinking time:
--you can use ‘holding’ expressions
Examples: ‘Mm that’s an interesting question but not easy to answer
quickly…’ or There are different ways of responding to that question, it
depends on how you…’
--you can ask the assessor to paraphrase the question by seeking
Example: ‘Do you mean, are weddings legally necessary or just socially
necessary? I’m not sure exactly what that question is getting at’.

- It can be useful and adds variety to give examples from your own life
occasionally if that makes it easier for you to communicate your
Example: ‘I’ll give you an example from my own experience. One of my close
friends and his partner are not married and have never had a wedding, and
because of this, I don’t think they feel as connected to their family’.

 Don’t be either too formal or too informal during this part of the
interview. You should be a little more relaxed now because you know the
assessor just a little better. It’s the part of the test in which you can be a little
friendlier and allow your fluency and intonation to communicate this. Avoid
ling silence or long hesitations.
 Build precision into your explanation of words or ideas. How?
- Put some variety into your choice of sentence types and vocabulary use.
- Avoid repetition as this rarely adds anything new and doesn’t build variety
- Build precision by using expressions which enable you to paraphrase and
extend an idea or viewpoint.

Example: ‘I’m a bit anti-weddings. By this I suppose I mean that I’ve seen many of
my friends’ marriages fail so I’m a little pessimistic about expensive, ‘showy’
ceremonies and what they seem to represent. In other words, today there seems to
be too much emphasis on display and perhaps not enough attention to deep

 Use ‘vague’ language occasionally as this can sound more natural.

i) ‘… that sort of thing’; ‘… and things like that: (These are used at the end of
spoken sentences, very occasionally)
ii) ‘She’s some sort of…..; I’m not sure exactly, but I think he’s….; ‘ I have a
feeling that it’s something to do with…; (These are used at the front end of
sentences, perhaps a little more often)
 If your assessor ofers a comment, respond to it naturally - this
increase the sense of mutual connection. Here’s an example :
Assessor: ‘It sounds as though the idea of marriage is changing in your
Candidate:‘Does it? Maybe you’re right. I think it’s definitely true that
marriage seems more risky these days, as in many societies people appear to
be more selfish, more independent and perhaps less respectful of traditional

Disconnecting at the end of the Speaking test

 When the interview ends, just thank the assessor and say goodbye
politely and briefly. Don’t be ‘too polite’ – the interviewer may sense
that you are trying to leave a favourable impression and are being false. So,
be polite, but genuine.
Be brief- assessors are busy, and under pressure to complete their
candidate list.

 Don’t ask questions about your performance after the interview has
finished. The assessor cannot discuss this and will not be impressed by your
question, but embarrassed, as it seems inappropriate. It may damage the
cooperative connection you have built up in the previous 11-14 minutes.


Each question answered correctly score 1 mark.

Note: Slash ‘/’ indicate alternative answers. Brackets ‘(…)’ indicate optional details
Section 1
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. Advertise
7. Donate
8. (a) quote
9. Charity

TEST 2Section 1
2. 126
3. 0414 847 749
4. (about) 10
5. (Uncle’s) shop (work)
6. C
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. E
11. C

Holds over 55 people, and our highly qualified and trained staff can advise you as
to which class might suit you. We are inviting you to a free one week trial period
when you can come and try any of the classes or activities before you make the
decision to join. By the way there is also a large and very well equipped gym, where
we offer free fitness assessments and you can have an individual program designed
just for you. Also cardio vascular room has the latest range of machines which help
you burn fat, increase your fitness or just warm up. They’re very popular as you can
forget all about the calorie burning by watching your favorite music videos on TV
while you exercise! Right now we have a very special new member joining fee offer,
which allows two memberships for the price of one, a real bargain! So if you can,
bring along a friend who’d like to get fit as well, in time for summer. Come along
and try us out. You can meet the staff, try out some of the classes for a week,
absolutely free, and then if you like us sign up for only $110 each for six months.
Thanks for taking the time to learn about the Centre and I hope we’ll see you there
soon. Heidi. I’ll put one of our brochures in the mail for you right now. Bye for now…
Two business studies students, Evelyn and Mark, preparing for a seminar
E Well I think the marketing of food would be a good topic. I read a very interesting
article other day about the Canadian food market.
M Mm I suppose everybody’s interested in food, even if it’s trying NOT to eat. Why
Canada? I know that’s where you come from, but isn’t just all North America really?
E No, that’s why I thought this article was interesting. Although lots of US
companies are well established in Canada, and vice versa, there are still subtle
differences between the two markets, It says here ‘the Canadian market is definitely
not a northern clone of the US’ I like that. And it says that if you understand these
differences, it can have a big impact on successful food marketing.
M So I know that Canada has a big French-speaking population in Quebec, is this
what they’re referring to?
E Not only French and English speakers, they are many different ethnic groups in
Canada. It’s really quite multicultural. For example Toronto has large Asian and
Italian populations, and Vancouver’s got a large Asian population too. And because
Canada’s population is small, these groups make quite and impact, introducing new
styles of cooking,. So you can see lots of unfamiliar vegetables and things in the
markets and new restaurants are opening every day. It’s great if you love trying out
new foods, as many people do!
M Which kinds of food are becoming popular?
E Well some Asian food I’d say has been popular for quite a while like Chinese. But
now South East Asian restaurants are becoming very fashionable, Then there’s
Mediterranean of course, Such as greek, Italian and so on, but Caribbean and
Mexican food is really taking off among young people these days.
M So are the supermarkets starting to stock the ingredients that are needed to
prepare these foods at home, you know, all those unusual condiments and sauces?
E Yes, that’s right, it’s quite interesting going to the supermarket isn’t it, and
noticing how they’re introducing sections for foods or different nationalities – you
can buy quite exotic products locally these days. The article mentioned that 80% of
the Canadian retail market is controlled by eight major national supermarket chains,
so that when they introduce changes they can happen quite rapidly.
M Ok well how are we going to organize this seminar then?
E I made some notes on the trends in the Canadian market, about changing tastes
and also patterns for where food is consumed. I thought maybe we could summaries
it into a chart or table and maybe use the overhead projector to present it.
M Good idea. Maybe I could have a look for similar trends and tastes in Australia
and the UK for comparison. Let’s have a look at what you found.
E The most significant trend it seemed to me, was Canadians are definitely
interested in healthy food. For example, did you know hat salads are the third most
commonly eaten food in Canadian restaurant?
M Really! What about organic food then, is that becoming more popular?
E Yes, it’s definitely moving into the mainstream, compared to a few years ago.
And, a recent survey showed that 4 out of 5 shoppers said that they check the fat
and nutritional information on the packet when they are deciding what to buy.
M What other trends did you find out?
E There’s one change I noticed straight away when I was home last year, in the
meat department. You know here the meat packaging says ‘rump steak’ or
‘forequarter chops’ and so on? Well they discovered that most consumers these
days didn’t know what to do with these roasts. And pounds and ribs, so the
government approved a new naming system for cuts of meat, which is related ti the
required cooking technique.
M What a good idea. I’ve never really understood the difference between sirloin,
rump, round and all those names. So how many categories are there?
E Eight. There are three kinds of steak – for grilling, for marinating and for
simmering, and then there’s what they call ‘quick serve’ beef, for stir fries I
suppose, and premium oven roast, oven roast, pot roast and stewing beef. It’s a
great idea isn’t it? I hope it catches on here.
M I agree! Any other trends that you thought were significant?
E Well what’s really interesting is what the article called ‘mobile meals’. In other
words more and more Canadians are eating meals away from home, but NOT just
eating more junk food. They are projecting a 40% increase in snack food sales over
the next three years and the growth is coming from healthy snacks- you know the
ones that have less cholesterol and fat, such as muesli bars, health food bars are
those types of products. Apparently in the food marketing jargon they are called
“nutritious portable foods” which means healthy snacks! The other major trend is
that young people are doing more of the food shopping these days so marketing has
to be aimed more at them, as well as more conventionally at the mother.
M Thanks Evelyn, I think we’ll have an interesting discussion about these trends
and the comparisons with other English speaking countries. I’ll see if I can get some
information about them to compare with yours, and meet you on Friday to put it
E See you then, bye.
A talk given by Doctor Miranda James and introduced by the President of Overseas
Students’ Association
Good afternoon everybody and welcome to the first series of talks we have
arranged for the Overseas Students’ Association this semester. Doctor James has
very kindly agreed to speak to us today on the topic of public speaking, and judging
from the large numbers of you here it is clearly a subject of great interest and
relevance. Dr james
Section 2
An Overseas Student Officer talking to some new students about arrangements for
an excursion to Ironbridge, in England.

Hello everyone, my name is Pamela Sutcliffe and most of you already know that Fro
the Overseas Student Officer here at Salopian Technical College. Next Tuesday, the
28th September, we have arranged an excursion for all new students, to the
important historical town of Ir<-' - We are hoping yoi'" -me because nly is thejustory
of Ironbaitge very importdiu ana interesting, but also an excursion like this is a
relaxed and fun way to get' °ach other. Ironbridge is abont«fiftv-five^itometres
froiB^we and we'll be travelling by the college bus which holds 40 people. If there
are more than that well bring a couple of staff cars as well, though 1 might ask you
to indicate on the list if you have a car and would be willing to take a couple of
passengers. The list Fm referring to is up there on the student notice board, and if
you would like to come on Tuesday would vou please add vnnr name as soon as
possible. Bv the way could vou please print your name clearly • I tow some people
have wonderful ^nature? but often Fm afraid I Can't ffad them which cai\ caUSQ
pratto, Sp if we reed extra transport and vou could bring vour car, can you tick the
'car' column next to vour name? Could you also add vour student number and vour
telephone number, just in case there are any last minute changes and we have to
contact you. The other information I need to give you is about lunch. There's a very
nice little restaurant in Ironbridge, which gives a 15% discount to the college when
we bring groups. That means lunch is only about £4, and thev do good vegetarian
meals too, so ifs usually no problem for those of you on special diets. But if you
prefer to eat your own food that's fine too, either on the bus or in the park. But Td
encourage you to try the restaurant. Now talking of costs I should tell you that the
bus will only cost you £10, and if you bring your car well pay for the petrol, so you
get a free trip in return for driving there. Will you please sign up by Saturday at 6pm
at the latest, the list is closed after that We will depart at 9.30am sham on Tuesday
morning, so please make sure that vou arrive at least 15 minutes before so that you
can find a seat and get settled on the bus, (Pause) The college bus garage is behind
the engineering workshop. Ifs quite easy to find. If vow come hre to the Student
Union building, then walk east down the Avenue until vou get to the Childcare
centre pn your left, and then turn left and nalk PflSt the sports centre and the tennis
courts, which are both on your left-Cross over Central Square and opposite von is
the engineering workshop. Walk around to the back and youll see the bus. Please
wear comfortable shoes as well be walking around Ironbridge and be on our feet for
most of the day. Wear a warm jacket and vou might like to bring an umbrella and a
backpack to put them in if the weather's warn and sunny, which we hope it will be,
but of course we can't guarantee that! Certainly bring your cameras and any snacks
or drinks for the bus journey there and back, which should take about an hour and a
half each way. You should all check the notice board on Monday and well also put a
note in your mailbox to confirm arrangements, so don't forget to check it Now why
are we visiting Ironbridge? Well Ironbridge (as the name suggests) has got the
original iron bridge - that is the first ever iron bridge in the world! It was the
birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, and for 40 years it led the world - as Britain
changed from an agricultural society into an industrial one. It's hard to imagine
today that this pretty, sleepy little tourist town was one of the most important
places in England for over a century. Just imagine, 209 years ago, people from all
over Europe and even North America came to Ironbridge to learn about what was
then the latest technology! Today it is listed as a World Heritage Site fcy the United
Nations, as they consider the unique collection of industrial monuments rank it
alongside the Grand Canvon. the Pyramids and the Great Barrier Reef. One place
that's fun to visit is Blist Hill, which is a reconstruction of a small Victorian industrial
town, where people are working and living as they did a hundred years ago. I hope
you'll enjoy the day - ifs been a very popular excursion in previous years, so Fm
looking foiward to going again next Tuesday. Now don't forget to put your name on
the list as soon as possible
Section 3
a group of students, Henry, Jo, Nancy and Gordon, discussing changes to their work
experience placement arrangements.
H Look there's the notice that Professor Jones told us he'd be putting up
confirming the details of our work experience placements.
J But I thought that was already arranged.
H No, he said he'd have to check wilh the companies that the days we preferred
we OK for them - let's see if any have changed. Theresa's not here today, but her
name's first - it says the Uni Bookshop, Friday aranungs, starting on the 23rd March,
so nothing's changed. IH let her know.
Jo What about Manuel? He's not here either. Is he still going to the music store in
the High St?
H If ifs Mainly Music, yes he's still down for that, on Friday afternoons, starting on
the 9th.
Jo Um.. the day's different - ifs changed from Tuesday mornings, but that's OK, Til
tell him. Hell really enjoy listening to music all day!
H Now where's my it is....I'm going to The Beauty Shop, and
I said I preferred Thursday afternoons...oh good, that seems OK and mv start date
hasn't changed either. Jo, what day did you opt for?
Jo Fm going to Highway Hotels on Monday mornings.
J Oh has that been changed? OK I was scheduled to start the rrcri; tafrre. HI just
mate a nf?tp nf tM.
N What about me, Henry? Have I still got the Explore Travel Service on
Wednesday mornings?
H Just a minute, where's your name? Uh let's see Nancy. OK here it is. Explore
Travel on Wednesdays, ves ...but afternoons and starting date is Wednesday 14th
March. Has the date charmed?
N No not the date, iust the time, which is fine - III get to sleep in! You lazy thing
Nancy! Chris's name is next on the list. Gorgeous Gowns Fashions, what a name!
Yes it sounds good, doesn't it? Tra hoping hell bring me some free samples! So has
he still got Wednesday mornings?
H Yes, Wednesday mornings, starting op the 14th March.
N OK, Fll tell him when I see him tonight that his arrangements haven't changed.
J Gordon, what about you?
G I chose that software company that makes computer games, I can't remember
its name, but I asked for Tuesday afternoons.
J Oh yes, here it is Games to Go on Wednesday mornings...there's a note here
saving thev have their weekly staff meetings on Tuesday afternoons, so that
wouldn't be much use to vou. That's whv they've changed it to Wednesdays,
starting on 21st March, so you can see their working set up.

G OK Tm glad they've changed it. I don't think I'd want to sit through a meeting
every week!
Can someone remind me what time we have to get to our tit in the afternoons?
J It says here "mornings start at 9am and afternoon sessions at
G Oh thafs a shame. I thought Professor Jones was going to change it to 9.30am
and 1.30pm.
J Yes he did say that he'd try to make it later, but obviously that wasn't possible.
G By the way, just in case, what happens if we're ill or something and can't make
it? Do we phone the college or the place we're going to?
N I think we have to phone the company first and then the college. Didn't you get
the information sheet about work experience at our last seminar? |
G No I missed it because I had to go to the dentist. What else did it say?
N Well we have to do a total of 24 hours altogether, so if we miss one of the
arranged sessions we have to organise another time to make up the hours. And he
gave us details of the presentation we haw to give, about our work experience.
G Oh really, whit dp we have to do?
J In week 10 we each have to give a presentation to the class about the company
we've been with. Ifs 30% of o\u final mark for this subject, so ifs going to be a lot of
N Yes he's expecting us to do a lot of research while we're there, so that we can
outline the history of the company, its management structure, number of
employees, other branches etc,
J And he said we should use lots of visuals such as diagrams and flow charts
during the presentation.
H Yes, and we should also include what we did each week, the different
departments of the company or positions that we observed, and try to relate what
we saw to our studies so far. He gave examples like management style, accounting
systems, information technology, and so on.
G You were right. It sounds like lots of work!

Section 4
A talk from a member of the Conservation Society about 'green cleaning'

Good morning everyone. Ifs a pleasure to be here as a representative of the

Conservation Society, to talk to you about "Green Cleaning", in other words about
ways you can help to save the environment at the same time as savin? money. Fll
start with saving money - as we're all interested in that, especially students who are
living on a tight budget. Probably none of you has sat down and calculated how
much you spend on cleaning products each year - everything from dishwashing
detergent, window cleaners and so on through to shampoos and conditioners for
your hair, and then those disasters - products to get stains out of carpets, or to
rescue burnt saucepans. I can see some nods of agreement, even if vou don't spend
a lot of time on housework you'd end up spending quite a lot of money over a
period of time, wouldn't you? We can save money on products and also use
products which are cheap, biodegradable and harmless to the environment - these I
will call 'green' products. Unfortunately most cleaning products on sale
commercially are none of these, and many of our waterways and oceans are
polluted with bleach, dioxins, phosphates and artificial colourings and perfumes.
Also, think how mapy plastic frptfe each household throws away over a year - thgyll
still be vmA in land-fill when you are grandparents: So we often feel there's nothing
we can do to make a difference, but we can. The actual 'recipes' are on handouts
you can take at the end of the talk: The sorts of ingredients I'm referring to are
things like bicarbonate of soda, eucalyptus oil, ammonia, vinegar, lemons, pure
soap. Lastly many people find they're allergic to modern Nothing in these recipes
should cause vou any problems, an end to itching and wheezino! (Pause) So lets
start with spills and stains. Soda water is wonderful as an immediate stain remover:
mop up the excess spilL don't rub but apply soda water immediately - its great for
tea, coffee, wire-beer and milk - as is salt or bicarbonate of soda, which will While
we are talking about disasters lets quickly look at some others that can be avoided.
Bicarbonate of soda is wonderful for removing smells, especially in the fridge - an
open box in the fridge will eliminate smells for up to three months. And those
terrible burnt saucepans? Either sprinkle with OUT good friend hicaib again, and
leave it to stand, or cover with vinegar and a laver of cool. Much cheaper than a
new saucepan! Then there are heat rings on wooden furniture. Simply nib with a
mixture of salt and olive oil, or for scratched furniture use olive oil and vinegar. Now
lets look at general cleaning - first the floors. If your floor covering is made of slate,
cork or ceramic tiles or lino it probably only needs a mop or a scrub with vinegar in
a bucket of water. Carpets can be shampooed using a combination of pure soap,
washing soda, cloudy ammonia and some boiling water. You put a small amount of
this mixture onto the mark on the carpet, rub with a cloth until it lathers and then
wipe off the excess. A smelly carpet can be deodorized by sprinkling bicarbonate of
soda on the surface, leaving overnight and vacuuming off the next day. Cleaning in
the kitchen, bathroom and toilet, is the next section
Section 1
A conversation between two students about buying a used car
E Hello.
J Hello. Can I speak to Elena please.
E This is Elena speaking. 3 Hi. My name is Jan. I'm calling about the car that was
advertised on the notice board in the student union building. Is it still for sale?
E Yes it is.
J Your ad says it's a 1985 Celica, in good condition.
E It's old but it has been well looked after. My family has had the car for ten years.
I'm just the third owner and my mother had it before me, so we know its history.
We've got all the receipts and records. It's had regular maintenance and the brakes
were done last year. It runs really well, but it looks its age.
J Why are you selling it, by the way?
E Well rm Qoinq overseas next month to study. HI be away for at lea.?* o I have to
sell it, u *ely. Its been a good
J You want S1500? Is tw right?
E I wasking 52000 but since l^teed to sell it quickly, reduced the price. Would you
like to come and take it drive? I don't live fai from the university.
J Yes I'd like to have a look. What time would suit you?

E Any time this evening is fine.

J Well I finish classes at 6 o'clock. How about straight after that? Sav 6:30?
E Great! Fll give you directions. When you leave the main gate of the university,
turn (eft on South Road arid keep going until you get to the Grand Cinema. Take the
first right. Thafs Princess St. I'm at number 88, on the right. 3
J So it's 80 Princess St.?
E it's 88 Princess St. and the suburb is Parkwood. 11 see the car parked in front.
It's the red one with the 'for ' sign on it
J Thanks, Hena. HI see you lata.
E Bye.
Later that day, at the university, Jan meets up with her friend, Sam and tells him
about the car.
J Hi Sam!
S Hi Jan! Whafs happening?

J I'm glad I ran into you. I've decided I have to get a car. S You're going to buy a car?
Do you really need one? I'd probably still be driving except that my car broke down
last year. Instead of getting another one, I just moved closer to the university and
went back to riding a bike - better for the environment, better for my health and I
save a lot of money.
J Did it really cost that much?
S Well when you think of registration, insurance, rising petrol costs, parking, plus
maintenance and repairs, it adds up.
JI know it's going to be expensive but I really need my own transportation. It takes a
half an hour by bus each way to university as it is. But now I'm There's no way 1
want to hang at night then walk 3 blocks home alone.
S Hey, I think you've got a point there. So what kind of car are you looking at?
J Ifs an 85 Celica, same Jrind as I used to have. The owner's asking $1500.
S Thafs pretty old. How many kilometres has it done?
J You know, I forgot to ask. HI have to check tonight when I go to see it. Would you
be able to come with me to have a look? At about 6:30?
S Sure Til come, but I don't know a lot about cars. I do know one thing, though. I
wouldn't buy an old car without having a mechanic look at it first.
J Thafs a good idea but won't it cost a lot?
S Not really. You can get a check done through the Automobile Association for $80
and it comes with a report on the condition of the car. It can save you a lot of money
in the bng run.
J I’ll keep that in mind. So we have to get to Parkwood at 6:30. Do you want to take
the bus? It goes straight down South Road every fifteen minutes. Or maybe we
could walk. I don't think ifs that far.
S Actually I could borrow my room mate's motorbike for an hour or so. He's
working all evening in the library.
J Do you think he'd mind?
S No way. He owes me a favour or two.
J OK. Great! See you at six, outside the Student Centre.


Hello everyone. Glad to see so many happy faces on this wild and windy day. Are
you all ready to go looking for whales? I'm Tony and our other guide today is Dale.
We'll be using these two rubber boats you see here and our trip today will take 3
hours. In a few minutes, well be heading into part of the largest temperate
rainforest of the Pacific Northwest, fll show you our route on the map here. This is
where we are now. Well be leaving the sheltered bay and heading out across the
mouth of the bay toward the open water. As you know, last night there were strong
winds in the area so we can't go out into the ocean as we had planned. Near the
mouth, the water will be quite rough, That's where we are most likely to spot orcas
or killer whales as they are also called. After crossing the where vou took for ipw
whate. Then we will continue up this narrow inlet dose to the shore. You will have a
great view of giant fir and cedar trees that have never been logged- Here is the
place to watch for wildlife. You are likely to see bears along the shore and eagles in
the sky overhead. Right at the back of the inlet, here, are the hot springs where we
will be stopping for an hour. You can have a soothing soak in bubbling hot water
before the return trip. Ill tell you a little bit about the whales now because with the
noise of the wind and the engine you won't be able to hear much out there. As we
head out in the boat, we will probably see dolphins first They are a grey colour and
quite small -1-2 metres long. They will swim right beside the boat, racing along and
sometime jumping out of the water just ahead of us. They swim very fast, and thev
are playful and curious. They're really fun to watch. The next ones we'll see are
orcas or killer whales, which are actually members of the dolphin family. They are 7-
8 metres long, very fast and they have sharp teeth. Some stay in these waters all
year round. We identify them by the distinctive hlarlr and white colour. They feed
mainly on salmon in these waters, but the orca diet can include seabirds, seals,
dolphins and other mammals. They can be fierce hunters and this is why they are
called "killer whales'. We should start watching for them as soon as we get out
towards open water. We're likely to spot the orcas from a considerable distance.
Watch for the black and white marking and mist spouting from the blow holes on
top of their heads. Just outside the inlet is where we will probably see grey whales.
The greys are migratory. They pass through here twice a year, moving from far in
the north where they feed, to the warm southern waters where they breed. You're
very lucky today because several have been reported in the area. Unlike the orcas,
greys are solitary, except when you see a mother with a calf. The grey whales are
much longer and heavier than the orcas -14 metres long and weighing up to 30
tonnes. The grey whales are filter feeders, gathering tiny ghost shrimp from the
sand at the bottom. We recognize greys from their tail fins, because each one is
different. Once we find the whales, well come up as close as we can safely. We are
allowed to approach the whales no closer than 50 meters but that feels pretty close
when you are in the presence of animals this big. Youll see mist coming out of the
blowholes when they breathe out and youll hear a loud hiss. If we are downwind, we
might even be able to smell them - a strong fishy smell (Pause) Now for just a few
words of caution. It will quite bouncy out there, especially in the front of the boat. If
you want a smoother ride, stay in the middle of the boat, close to the engine. Hold
onto the ropes and keep an eye on any big waves. Be alert so you don't get thrown
out of the boat. In case of an emergency, you are all wearing survival suits. They'll
keep you warm and dry in or out of the water. They are bright orange for visibility.
The water temperature is around 8 degrees. Without these suits you would only last
a few minutes in this cold water. With these suits your survival time is increased
dramatically. They will keep you upright in the water even if you can't swim. But we
don't expect anybody to end up in the water so don't worry.

Now, are there any questions?

S I'm afraid of getting seasick.
Right I was just coming to that. If you think yeu might get seasick, take one of these
patches and put it on vour aim, at the wrist, like this. It works on pressure points of
the body and will relieve seasickness without the drowsiness you can get from pills.
Are there any other questions? Alright then,Jtf» start loading up the boats. We leave
in 5 minutes.
Section 3
A student. Penny, talking to two friends. Pay and Louise, about a television
competition Ray has entered, called Travel Documentary'
P Hi. Haven't seen you two in ages. What have you been up to?
L Hi Penny. Ray is really excited. He has just been shortlisted for Travel
Documentary'. He could be off travelling around the world for 3 months.
P Travel Documentary'. Whafs that?
L You've never heard of it? Don't you watch TV?
R Well actually no, hardly ever. Especially since I've started working on my thesis.
1 don't have time to breathe, let alone watch TV. So whafs this all about, Ray?
R Well actually its a competition run by Public TV. It involves my two great loves,
travel and film making.
P Is it that program where people are sent around the world making documentary
videos? I have heard of it. Fantastic! So you've been chosen?
R Not yet. I'm one of 34 selected for an interview next week so I've made it
through the first cut
L Yeah, there were over 200 applicants from around the country. Pretty amazing
R Well, I've been lucky so tar.
P What is the next stage?
R Thirteen are chosen from the interview to do a 4 week training course in
documentary film-making. Then, the 8 finalists get sent off with a video camera to
travel around the world.
P Sounds incredible. Whafs the catch?
R The catch is that every 2 weeks you have to send in a minute video from a
different part of the world. Ifs broadcast on TV along with the work of three of the
other competitors and judged by a panel of experts and the TV audience. So you're
under a lot of pressure.
P Wow, I guess so. You mean, you're on television every two weeks?
R Yep thafs tight But first I have to be selected.
L Do you have to have arty film-making experience to apply?
R Some background in photography or video-making helps but ou're not supposed
to be an expert In fact you can't apply you have already worked in film-making. We
all get the same 4 week course so we start with the same skills.
P Can you go anywhere in the world you want?
R Each competitor makes up his or her own travel plans and has to get them
L Have you talked with anyone else who has done it?
R As a matter of fact just last week I met Sarah Price, a girl from here who did it
last year.
L What did she have to say about it?
R She said it was the most amazing experience of her life but it was really tough at
L I think you'd have to be really brave to take off like that alone with so much
responsibility. Ifs not like going on a holiday, is it?
R No. Two weeks in a country, often where yoa can't speak the language to find a
story, film it, organise all the editing. Then you're off to a completely different part
of the world to start all over again. Pretty exhausting, but exciting too!
P What a way to see the world! I What about Sarah Price? Did she have any bad
R She said the worst part was when she fever in Mongolia and thought she might
have to be sent home. Fortunately it got better but she said it was scary to feel
really ill when you're alone so for away.
P So what made you want to apply?
R When I saw the program on TV a while ago, I thought, this is for me. I've always
wanted to travel but needed to work for a year before I could even think about it.
Then, a new series started up. I thought now's my chance.
L Don't you think youH be lonely?
R I don't think ITl have time to be homesick. I'm more worried about having too
much to do and not enough time to get things organised.
P So we might be watching you on television in the next few months.
R I hope so. If Tm lucky!
L When will you know for sure?
R They choose the final eight in March. A month later vou'ie on your way.
L So do you have to pay anything?
R Nothing. It's all paid for - course, camera, flights, accommodation and in-country
travel. The budget is pretty tight though. No extras.
P I sure hope you get it. Then ITl be finding time to watch at least one program on
television every week.
Section 4
A talk given by Kate Tomlin on the history of technology, Our talk today in this
history of technology series is about a feat of anti-engineering from the late 19th
and early 20th century that is still very much with us today and that is linked with
the history of the typewriter. It's the QWERTY keyboard. What, you might ask is
QWERTY? Well, have a look at the nearest typewriter or computer keyboard. If you
look at the top row, vou will see that QWERTY are the first 6 letters. Did you ever
think, when you were learning to type, about why the letters on the keyboard are
distributed the way thev are? re's the storyJUUh, io with the histor Typewrite1"
-nsted since the early l7'"v- but the first commerciaUy piacfoal system came into
1873. The typewriter is one of America's greatest unsung inventions. While the
telephone, automobile and airplane sped up communications and transportation,
the typewriter did the same thing for the written word. But few people paid much
attention, possibly because they were too busy reading what the typewriter had
written about all the other inventions. The first typewriters had the keys laid out in
alphabetical order, but this system had problems. Some keys that tended to be
typed together were physically close. This made the typebars hit each other and get
stuck, typewriters in 1873 jammed or got stuck if the keys next to each other were
hit in quick succession. To solve this problem, in 1878, the QWERTY keyboard was
developed, spacing frequent letters away from each other, and Jt was not
specifically designed to slow down typists, as is generally believed, but the
keyboard did create a built-in inefficiency for typists. The most common keys are
scattered all over the keyboard rows, many on the left side. Right-handed

people have to use their left hand, which is the weaker hand. Typewriter technology
improved, doing away with the original rationale for the QWERTY distribution, but
the keyboard remained. In spite of its inefficiency, it is the keyboard we all use
today. (Pause) Already, back in 1932, there was a solution to the problem. Efficiency
expert August Dvorak came up with a new keyboard layout. His home row consisted
of AOEUIDHTNS- which includes all of the vowels as well as the most commonly
used letters. On this keyboard, over three thousand words can be typed using only
the home row. In fact, 70% of all the work can be done on the home row, 22% on
the row above, and 8% on the row below. The QWERTY keyboard allows only about
fifty words to be typed without reaching for other rows. In addition, on Dvorak's
keyboard, the right band handles 56% of the work load and the left handles 44%,
just about the opposite of the division on the QWERTY keyboard. This is an
advantage for most right banders. The Dvorak keyboard, increased accuracy in
typing by almost 50 percent and speed by 15 percent to 20 percent. How much
labour did this Dvorak layout save? In one study, a group of typists was evaluated in
the use of both keyboards. Those using the Dvorak keyboard moved their fingers
just about one mile on an average day, while those who used the QWERTY keyboard
moved their fingers an average of twelve to twenty mite?! The superiority of the
Dvorak keyboard was clearly established. However, it has never been adopted as
the keyboard of choice. Why? First or all, bad luck and bad timing on the part of the
Dvorak team. First there was the Depression, not a good time for introducing
change. But the main factor that worked against the Dvorak system was habit
People were used to the QWERTY keyboard. Computers today could easily switch
the arrangement of letters to the Dvorak layout, but it seems that because of habit,
the QWERTY layout remains dominant. People felt comfortable with the keyboard
they learned on so it was the established patterns of hundreds of millions of typists,
manufacturers, typing teachers and typewriter salespeople that have crushed all
moves toward keyboard efficiency for over 70 years. It looks like QWERTY keyboard
may be with us for a long time yet.
Section 1
A comersation m an international airport between a newly student, Jenny Lee, and
an agent at the lost luggage counter
A Ok, who's next, please?
J I think I am.
A How can I help you?
J I just came in on flight 372 from Singapore at 11:30 and my luggage hasn't
arrived, Tve been waiting at the baggage claim for about a half an hour now and
everything seems to have come off the plane. The conveyor belt has stopped and
all the passengers have gone. So I came here to find out what has happened to my
A Can I see your ticket please? . .
J Here it is.
A So you came from Honp Kong today and changed planes in Singapore, right?
J Yes the connection in Singapore was a tight one. The plane got in late and I had
to rush to to next flight.
A Thafs the problem right there. There wasn't enough time to get your bags onto
the connecting flight Normally Singapore airport is very efficient. Now, I need you to
fill in these forms. Your name?
J Jenny Lee
A Address?
J I guess you want ray address here. I'm staying with relatives. Just a minute, IH
have to look it up. It looks like 583, no its 533 East 67th St. in Riverside.
A Do you have the phone number there?
J Yes I do. Ifs -Lini 93014269.
A So you came in on Qantas Flight 392. Do you know the number of the flight out
of Hong Kong?
J Let me see. I think it was Cathay Pacific 900 or something. Oh yes, it says here
A Right. Now, I need a description of the luggage. How many pieces did you check
J Just one.
A Can you describe it for me? Here is a picture to help you.
J OK. It's a big bag like this one. Rectangular - not hard shell but soft covered and
it has a zipper around the front.
A Is it black?
J No, sort of a grey colour.
A Any identification?
J Just a tag with my name on it.
A Any other features?
J Well, it has wheels, and a retractable handle on the end so you can pull it, as well
as the handle in the middle.
A OK thafs fine. Now, if your bag missed the connection, Tm sure ifll be put on the
next flight. TU email Singapore as soon as I finish here. The next flight comes in at
17:50. thafs ten to six this evening. You can pick it up then.
J Ten to six. Thafs too long to wait. Can I get my uncle to pick up the bag on his
way home from work?
A Sony. You have to be here yourself to clear customs.
J Of course. I almost forgot. Will the bag come here, to this desk?
A Yes. You pick it up here, then take it over to the customs area. By the way, don't
forget to bring your passport. You will also need to have the key plus your ticket
vrith the baggage claim ~

Section 2
A recorded message about buying tickets from a booking agency

Thank you for calling ATS Advanced Ticketing System, the call system for all your
entertainment needs. Our automated telephone service is designed to answer your
questions quickly and easily. The ATS office in the Regency Theatre is open Monday
to Thursdays from lQam-5 pm and on Friday and Saturday till 8 pm. For online
bookings and detailed program Listings check ouj \ website at That's
spelled A-T-S-T-I-X. Please listen to the choices available. You may press vour choice
as" soon as you hear it to get more information. For sporting events including the
Weston International Tennis Classic, press 1. < For the Formula 1 Grand Prix, press
2. For classical music including the upcoming Philharmonic Orchestra series, press
3. For theatre and dance press 4. For other enquiries, please hold the line. (Pause)

Ticket prices for the Formula 3 Grand Prix on the 10th-14th March are asfollows:
General Admission
Thursday $27 Concession $10
Friday $37 Concession $15
Saturday $55 Concession $35
Sunday $70 Concession $65
Concession rates apply to children under 14 and to students, seniors and pensioners
on presentation of a valid card. Grandstand seating Four-day tickets covering the 6
main grandstands cost $299. However, Pit Straight tickets are $350 and seats at the
Chicane cost $450 each. Children under 3 are admitted free to the general
admission area and children under 14 are eligible for concession prices. Gates open
at Sam Thursday and Friday and 7:30 Saturday and Sunday. Events begin at 9:00.
Alcohol, ice boxes, cans, bottles and animals are not allowed on site. There are no
refunds or exchanges. On each ticket a $2.50 booking fee applies. To make a
booking you must have a valid credit card. To listen again press l. To make a booking
or to talk to a ticket agent, press 2. You call is in our queue. You can expect to wait
about 3 minutes.

Section 3
A discussion among three students, who are organising an international film festival
at their college
C Thanks for coming to this meeting on such short notice, Anna and Veronica. It
looks like we have just become the organising committee for this year's
international film festival. We've all just met so perhaps we should start by an
introduction with a bit of background from each of us.
A OK. Tm Anna. I finished three years of a Languages degree in Sweden, where I
come from. This year I decided to study overseas to get to know a different part of
the world. Tm also a big fan of European cinema, especially French and Italian.
Those are the languages I majored in along with English. To me, film is a great way
to learn about the rest of the world. I was in the film club at my university so when I
saw the notice asking for volunteers, I thought it would be a good way to meet
people and get involved in something I really enjoy.
V Thanks, Anna. My name is Veronica and I come from Italy. Fm doing graduate
studies in English Literature. I went to some of the films in the festival last year and
enjoyed them. I especially liked the video interviews. That was when I decided to
get involved. I used to do film reviews for our student newspaper back home
C Hi Tm Chris from Scotland and Tm in 4th year Journalism. Cinema is my hobby.
Last year I joined the organising committee, just like you have now, and somehow,
this year I've ended up in chaige. Tm actually able to use mv coordinating work on
the festival towards a credit for one of mv courses. I have to write up a report on the
festival with recommendations so that's an extra motivation for me. So I hope this is
going to be a good experience for us all. OK. Where would you like to start?
A How about a general overview of the festival? I don't really know much about it.
C Well, the film festival was started by International Students' Society five years ago
and has grown every year. It is held over 4 nights during study break. Wednesday to
Saturday. Normally we show 3 films a night. Last year we tried to choose films from
different parts of the world that fit together in some way. Maybe a similar theme. Or
we could feature a type of film like action films or science fiction.
A Who picks the films?
C It's UP to us. on the committee, to decide.
V You mean we get to pick all the films ourselves? What a hard decision! There are
so many to choose from.
C Well that's the fun part. We have this catalogue of independent distributors. The
films are listed by language and have a short summary. We just have to go through
it to find a good combination of films that will attract an audience.
A Veronica mentioned something about interviews. How does that fit in?
C We set up cameras in the foyer of the theatre and did Uve interviews before,
during intermission and after the screening. Anyone from the audience could come
up and talk about the film. The broadcasting and journalism school set it up and ran
the interviews. They were shown on big screens around the lobby and in the
theatre. It went over really well. We had a long line up of students waiting to be
interviewed on TV. Everybody wanted their minute of feme.
A Great idea!
C Yeah, it worked really well. We should certainly do something similar again.
V Maybe even develop the idea further. Like a website with audience reviews and
discussion so we can get as much participation and involvement as possible.
C Hey thafs « 7^4 ideal
A Can I ? n, None of the fi "nalish, right? Are they dubbed or subtitled?
C r """-H, we do occasional^ * se. a film in Engb'sh but only from usualwhere Hfl
uialect i^o strong they sometimes need subtitles- tifcTthe Caribbean or even
Scotland! The majority of films in the festival are foreign language, dubbed in
English. We've learned from experience that students don't like reading subtitles.
Maybe they read too much already. Whatever the reason the subtitled films get
smaller audiences so we avoid them as much as possible. V So how large an
audience can we expect and how much does it cost to get in?
C It costs $5 per film or a $20 pass for the whole event * all 12 films for the real
movie fan. We would have broken even last year except for a bad storm on the
Friday night - we almost had to cancel the whole thing. But overall we had a good
turnout -more than 2000 people in 4 days.
V Thafs what I was wondering about - the financial part. Where does the funding
come ftom? What kind of budget do we have?
C The festival is subsidised by the student council. We generate money through
advertising and through admission charges. We'll go over the budget in detail a little
later. But we've got lots of work to do in the meantime.
A I guess we have to start pretty soon.
C Well, I think by the first of March at the latest, we need to select all the films. Then
we have to find some advertisers to sponsor the event - that shouldn't be too hard.
Well just start with last year's list. Our deadline for that should be the middle of
March. By the end of March we need to design the program. Then we can get
posters made up and distributed in ApriL
V Like you said, we need some clever promotion - something to generate interest
and get people talking. We have 4 months to get ready. It should be enough time.
C OK where do we start?
A Let's start by talking about films - since that is the best part - and see what we
come up with. What was the best film you saw last year?

Section 4
A talk given by a lecturer to a group of avil engineering students on the reed bed
system for sewage treatment

Thank you for inviting me to speak to you today about what is now called the reed
bed sewage treatment system. This system uses naturally occurring reeds to treat
domestic and industrial waste. Ifs an environmentally friendly alternative to normal
systems. You all know what reeds are like don't you? - those tall plants with hollow
stems that grow in wet places... like marshes, for example. Here's how the system
works. First of all, an artificial marsh is created. To do this, holes are dug about 1
metre deep and usually rectangular in shape. They are then lined with day or plastic
and the liner is covered with gravel. After that, a system of tubing is laid, with holes
in it and more gravel is added to cover that. Finally reeds are planted in the bed.
The sewage is brought to settling tanks. From there it is distributed to the roots of
the reeds through the tubing. Note that the waste material enters the beds
underground and remains underground. The reeds conduct oxygen very effidently
through their stems to the roots system. Here, bacteria work to reduce the waste
material to basic elements. What comes out of the artificial marsh is water that has
been cleaned through a| natural process. The purified water leaves the reed. a
simple outflow pipe. The water that comes out has to b« tested. Sometimes it is he
in a pond until it evaporates or soaks into the gr Sometimes, after testing, the water
is discharged streams and rivers. (Pause) The reed bed system originated in
Germany in the 1970s and installations have been built in a number of countries
throughout the world. To give you an idea of the size and appearance of a reed bed
installation, an area of 3 by 5 metres approximately would be adequate for a single
house. It would look lite a pond overgrown with reeds. There are tities with 150,000
people in Germany whose entire sewage treatment requirements are served by reed
bed installations which extend for 10-20 hectares. There are two wonderful
environmental advantages. First of. reed bed systems are natural composters. As
time passes grade soil builds up in the beds. The soil can be removed used for
agricultural purposes. Soil produced from waste containing heavy metals would, of
course, have to be test the toxic material removed by chemical processes.
An additional advantage is that the reed bed can function exactly as a marsh,
providing a healthy natural home or habitat for waterfowl and other birds, insects,
reptiles and mammals. But there are practical advantages to a reed bed system
over existing sewage treatment plants as well At all levels the cost is lower than for
normal systems. Labour costs are a fraction of the costs of a conventional system.
Typically a large scale reed bed installation will cost 10% less than a mechanical
system. They require little maintenance and unlike mechanical systems, the
effidencv of reed beds increases over time. But before we go any further, you must
have some questions? Maybe this sounds too good to be true.
S1 Thafs exactly what I wanted to ask. If these systems have so many benefits,
why aren't they more popular? Why don't we see them everywhere?
L As I said, the technology is now almost 40 years old. Demonstration projects of
all types have been built and monitored and are slowly convincing regulators of the
advantages of the system. But you have to understand that regulating authorities
are by nature conservative and resist change. Typically there is a lot of opposition to
these systems - by manufacturers, and by everyone involved in maintaining the
conventional systems. Feed bed systems require fewer staff to operate so there
would be a decline in the workforce. Therefore unions would resist the change as
S2 What happens to reed beds in winter? Does the efficiency decrease?
L The above ground part of the plants die back in cold weather but the roots
remain alive and active and the system continues to work just as effectively in
winter. As soon as the weather warms up new reeds appear and grow quickly.
S3 Is there a problem with mosquitoes in these ponds?
L Well, they are not exactly ponds, with standing water. The beds look more like
a field, covered with long grass. The soil is moist but not like a swamp so there
would be no more mosquitoes than in any other field. Remember, the effluent
enters the beds underground and remains underground. Ok let's get into some of
the technical details now and III answer questions as they come up.


I: Hellp. I’m Jessie, and your name is….?
W: Zsuzso
Zsuzso. And you're from?
From Hungary.
Hungary. And ... ii this your identification?
Here it is.
OIL Thank yen.

OK, flat then, a few questions about you and your Ufa. Left talk about your family:
Do you Mine from a Urge or a smaa faulty? A relatively large family, five members.
Sight And do all your family live in the same town or city? No, I live in Australia and
my family Uve in Hungary. Mm light So how often do you see your brothers and
sisters? Probably once a year. Do you have a lot In common with them? Well we look
the same, urn I suppose our lives are little bit different however. OK. Is it alright to
talk about your frieads? Thafs OK. Do you have lots of friends or just a few special
friends? I've got a few very spedal friends but er I do have lots of people I can call
friends. Oh huh and can you say something about one or two of your friends? Well
I've got a spedal friend called Pat er she always helps me through rough times. I've
got another special friend, Gordon, who is also wonderful and we share lots of
activities together. What kinds of things do yon and your frieads do together? We
like hiking, going outdoors and visiting places and I suppose just even just go
shopping. Mm, are you a person who enjoys spending time alone? Definitely not.
No? Not at alL OK Let's move on to talk about travelling to other countries. What
other countries have you visited? I have visited a few ... I came from Hungary then
um I went to visit um most of the countries in Europe, America um some countries
in Asia and Australia thafs all.

Which other countries are you interested in visiting? I suppose every country has
got a lot to offer, um if a country has got good food and good people, Fm happy to
go there. Uh huh and what are some of the things that you don't like about
travelling? I don't like the inconvenience of the travelling itself, going, taking
aeroplanes, and living out of suitcases. Probably these are the big 'no-nos' about
travel. OK.
Part 2
Now I'm going to give you a piece of paper with a topic on it Please talk about the
topic for 1-2 minutes, but before you talk you have about I minute to plan. You can
write notes if you want to. Is that OK? Yes thafs fine. Here's some paper for your
notes and this & the topic: Please describe a favourite shop or store.

Describe a favourite shop or store.
Yon should say:
where it is and what it looks like
what it sells
what you like to buy there and

say why you like the shop so much.

OK. Don't forget you only have 1 to 2 minutes for your talk so I might stop you when
the time's up. Thafs all right. Ready to start? Yes. Yeah, I have to describe my
favourite shop. It is very hard because tm a 'shopaholic', so I've got many favourite
shops. Amongst the many er favourites there is one special store, ifs a department
store called David Jones. I like shopping there because of the quality and variety of
goods in the store. It is always an experience to shop there ifs almost like a treasure
hunt. I like shopping in an elegant and sophisticated environment um ... I can
browse for hours in a depai..a different level in the department store, in the food
store, at the book store, at the fashion departments, er they're just all wonderful.
During the Festive Season the shop transform into something magical, urn which
touches my heart even as an adult so I definitely have to say that 1 love shopping
there. OK. Thank you. Um do your friends like to shop there too? I think so, I
converted them. OK. All right

Part 3
Now you talked about a shop that you liked, so lef s talk now about some other
aspects of shopping. First, electronic shopping. What do yon think of shopping on
the Internet? Firstly I didn't like shopping on the Internet it somehow er took away
the personal um touch from shopping; however I had to realise later on of the
conveniences of electronic shopping um such as um if I want to buy a book which is
available in America on-line, I can order it and within a week I can have it and read
it and use it which is quite convenient. Yes and how do you think that using the
Internet is going to affect shopping in the future? Um I suppose lots and lots of
people nowadays working with the Internet or using Internet daily ... so it is
convenient to shop on line, so probably more and more people going to use that.
However, I think that might be just sort of convenient shopping because I believe
for example to buy a chocolate bar is probably easier to pop into the comer store
rather than order it on the Internet and wait for it for days. For sure, for sure. Why
do you think that shopping has become so popular with young people now? •funk
the meaning abmo has changed i4' oast decatos... raths^than having rmt of a
gathering experience taking th* necessary goods, I think it- became a social
activi™. It is popij 1... to go with hip' M to try a couple of rrSw clothes on, pop into
the mall to see whafs-new and in the same time have a cup of coffee. Yes, so talking
about consumer habits in general um how are your parents' shopping habits, for
example, different from your own? I should say very different. My father used to
own a little deli in Hungary. They shopped every day, that was part of their lives.
And um my time is so precious for me, I have to manage ray time so I don't have
time for shopping every day, so I go shopping every two weeks and I suppose ifs
helping my wallet as well, saving some money. Kmm. And speaking of wallets do
you think in wealthy countries people buy too many things that they don't need? Is
that the case in your country as well? I can't really speak about what...or talk about
whafs happening now in Hungary, as I left the country five years ago. However, um
five years ago and earlier than that we used to buy just necessary things... we had
to make our mind up whether we would like to buy a pair of shoes or do we huy a
microwave so it wasn't a luxury to sort of shop every day, it was a necessary sort of
making choices. I suppose was very hard but we had to. Right OK. Well, thafs the
end of the interview. Thanks very much for talking with me and good luck. Thank
you very much.


I: Hello. I'm Claire, and your name is —.?
W: Wen (Wayne).
OK, fine. And you're from ...?
Is that your identification?
Yes, please.
Thank yon.

Part 1

OK, first then a few questions about you and your life. Yeah. Lefs talk about your
family. Bo you come from a large or a smalt family? Well ifs not large or... ifs not a
small but ifs just a medium one. We got six members in my family. OK and um do all
your family live in the same town or city? No, no they separate. Right How often do
you see your brothers and sisters? Well, usually I meet my brother three times a
year and then I meet my sister once a year because of one of my sister now is living
in Canada.

Oh I see. Do you have a lot in common with them?

Oh no I don’t think so, especially in in personality we are quite different, because
one of my brothers is a business man.
Right. Is it OK to talk about your weekends?
Are your weekends generally busy or relaxed?
Oh, relaxed, Sometimes busy … for my paper submission.
Umm. What kind of things do you usually do at the weekend?
Well, Watching TV, because that will help me to improve my English, and er.. I play
gold.. and er jogging.
And what would you like to do in your time off if you could choose?
I would like to play golf because here it’s quite cheap to play golf.
Do you ever go away on your days off?
Sometimes, but most of time I just go to city centre or I just go to beach.
Right. Let’s continue by talking about exercise and fitness
(OK) What kind of outdoor activities or exercise do you like?
Well I like er tennis I like to play golf and jogging.
Are there any sports you don’t like?
No, I appreciate all kind of sports. For example, cricket. (yeah) then, for example,
Do you think it’s important to keep fit?
Yes, of course it’s very important to give me energy and to make me health.
What are the best ways to keep fit?
I think the best way is to make a specific time… every day in for example in 6pm
you have to go jogging and if it’s long time, that would become a habbit.

OK. Now I’m going to give you a piece of paper with a topic on it. Please talk about
the topic for 1-2 minutes, but before you talk you can have 1 minute to plan. You
can write notes if you want to. Is that OK?
Here’s some paper for your notes and this is the topic: Please describe an important
year in your life.

Describe an important year in your life.
You should say:
How old you were
What important things you remember from that year
Where these things happened and say why you think that year is so

OK. Don’t forget you only have 1-2 minutes for your talk so I might stop you when
the time is up. Ready to start?
Yeah. Well’ I think the most important year in my life is when I study IMBA degree in
the univerth.. in the university of Hull U.. in UK. That experience give me culture
schock, a real culture shock. I… noticed that um Mexican people speak Spanish and
one of, I remember, one of my Spanish classmates she can’t differentiation..
differentiate Thailand and Taiwan. And another experience is when I went to a
British family in the Christmas holiday and that family.. didn’t know where the
location of Taiwan is and the family. They didn’t have an idea about Taiwan. That
give me a real sh.. culture shock because from the American point of view, most of
American or Canadian people they know the Taiwan situation. But form the west
from the European or from a British point of view they are not have the same idea.
That.. so that really give me a culture shock. So I noticed that if we evaluate
different issues we have to judge from the international point of view. That’s very
important for me right now. Thank you. Did you keep a diary, or something in
writing, to remember that year?
Oh, I didn’t. That was very pity.

OK. You talked about things you remember from an important year la year Ufa. Now
I d like to talk about some general questions connected te memory and the past.
How important do you think It Is to know your family history? Well I don't think ifs mf
important. Well... this, this probably because... my expetknce. U em family, one
family is their history is doing business that would be important for the... for the
other family, the othff members of the family to learn how to doing business but for
mt the.,, the thi study on... in the academic field is just work by myself so I don't
think (he family history would be very important for me. Umm. ITA; i are the smi
ways to keep a family history alive for...piopler for ftihue members of your family, do
you think? Well you say the best way, (MI) oh w*ll if this family has a glory history of
coursi it should be IlirtU hut rr I have two academic vocabulary have to msntlon
heie, Iho i>in> is 1earo'/the other one is
OK. You talked about things you remember from an important year in your life. Now
I’d like to talk about some general questions connected to memory and the past.
How important do you think it is to know you family History?
Well I don’t think it’s very important, Well.. this, this probably because.. my
experience. If one family, one family is their history is doing business that would be
important for the.. for the other family, the other members of the family to learn
how to doing business but for me the.. the the study .. in the academic field is just
work by myself so I don’t think the family history would be very important to me.
Umm. What are the best ways to keep a family history alive for.. people, for future
members of your family, do you think?
Well'unlearn', which mean to learn a new things and unlearn the past success
because the family history ifs... ifs a kind of past tense (mm} so people should learn
new things and unlearn the past success thafs would be better. And are you not
curious about yonr history? Mo I don't think so because family came from
China but er most of my family didn't haven't ...gone to China so ifs a. it's a not a
big image for me to... to learn and or to learn something from that history Uhuh. Do
you think it is important to study and understand the history of one's country? Yes
of course,... because history give us a lesson that um make us the same situation
won't happen again. Yeah? What, for example? Well ura ..for example,... in now
there's a conflict you know between Taiwan and China. The separation is just only
40 years but um from that long term of view ... they are two very longest long
period of separation in China. Each has four hundred years separation but finally the
dynasty of China has been united. Ah. And why do you think studying history has
become less popular these days? Well I think this is probably because of the
education system, because most of the teacher they just ...cram knowledge into the
brain of the students so they, students don't like history. Ifs because ifs very boring.
How do you think we could encourage young people to become interested in
history? I think the teachers should ... teach the student from the longitudinal
perspective to compare with the different dynasty, to compare with the different
countries, that would be more interesting. And should they only learn abont Chinese
history? No, no of course not, it should learn all the history in the world, for example
Af.. the present, the United States against Afghanistan. Most of people don't realise
the history of, of the. .Afghanistan. Uhuh, well it sounds very interesting but the
interview has ended now so thank you very much for talking to me. You're welcome.