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Basic Antenna Pairs with Equal

Antenna Currents

Civil Aviation Training Center


David Lee(DooHyun Lee) 1
Introduction
Objectives
Calculate total phase and intensity at points about the array, given 
values of “a” spacing and antennas of equal current magnitude 
and phase .

Calculate total phase and intensity at points about the array, given 
values of “a” spacing and antennas of equal current and unequal 
phase.

Calculate total phase and intensity at points about the array, given  
values of “a” spacing, antenna current phase, and antennas of 
unequal current magnitude. 

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
The Effect of Separation Between Antennas

FIGURE 4‐ 1.   The basic two element array.   The reference array of two isotropic radiators
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is shown in (a) and the resultant pattern is shown in (b).
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
The Effect of Separation Between Antennas
• In general, the effect of increasing the separation between 
antennas of an array is two‐fold: 
‐ the number of lobes in the pattern will increase, and 
‐ the major lobes will decrease in width.

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
The Effect of Separation Between Antennas
Phasor Rotation
Since these two antennas have equal current amplitudes and equal 
current phases of 0, it is apparent that the maximum resultant field 
intensity occurs on the reference line ( = 0).  In light of the 
preceding chapter, as the point of observation is moved from the 
reference line (a change in the angle ), the individual antenna 
phasors rotate in opposite directions by an amount given by the 
quantity (a sin ). 

a sin  = phasor rotation.

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
The Effect of Separation Between Antennas

FIGURE 4‐ 2.   A variation in the basic two element array.   The configuration of  (a) represents
an increased separation between the elements of Fig. 4‐ 1.
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The resultant pattern of the array is shown in (b).
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
The Effect of Separation Between Antennas

Example 4‐1

Refer to figure 4‐2. determine the critical points for an antenna 
pair separated by 720 with equal current magnitude and 
phase. 

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
Effect of Changing the Antenna Current Phase

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FIGURE  4‐ 3.   An antenna pair producing  a multi‐ lobe  radiation pattern.
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
Effect of Changing the Antenna Current Phase

Figure 4‐4 (a), (b), (c & (d):  Phasor Diagram for the Antenna Array of Figure 8‐3 as the angular 
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position is varied from 0 to 90.
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
Effect of Changing the Antenna Current Phase

Figure 4‐ 5.  Phasor diagrams for the antenna array of  FIG. 4‐3.  The


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diagrams are for angular positions for 0° to 270°.
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
Effect of Changing the Antenna Current Phase

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FIGURE  4‐ 6   Radiation pattern of array shown in FIG.  4‐ 3.
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
I1  I2
• Consider an antenna pair fed currents of unequal
amplitude and 180 out of phase.

• From the fact that the currents are of unequal amplitude, it


is known immediately that:
‐ nulls cannot exist.
‐ the phase of the combined field is dependent upon the 
angle of observation ().
‐ the pattern will be one of variable‐phase

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
I1  I2

Example 4‐2

The currents fed to an antenna pair are I1 = 10 and I2 = 218


0; and a = 60.  Sketch the pattern in polar coordinates.

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Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
I1  I2

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FIGURE  4‐ 7   Radiation Pattern
Multi-lobed Radiation Patterns from Two
Isotropic Antennas
I1  I2

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FIGURE  4‐ 8   Phasor Diagrams
Summary
Key Points

In general, an increase in separation between antennas of an


array results in production of more lobes. (If the separation
is sufficient to permit enough phasor rotation to produce a
null.)

Absolute maximums of an antenna array occur only when all


antenna signals add in-phase; otherwise relative maximums
result.

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Thank You
^.^

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