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5, 2010

**Hybrid Model of Texture Classification using 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform and Probablistic Neural Network
**

Reem Abd El-Salam El-Deeb

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Mansoura University, Egypt, P.O.BOX:35516 Reemm_db@yahoo.com

Taher. Hamza

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Mansoura University, Egypt, P.O.BOX:35516 Taher_hamza@yahoo.com

Elsayed Radwan

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Mansoura University, Egypt, P.O.BOX:35516 elsfradwan@yahoo.com

Abstractโ In this paper, we present a combinational approach for texture classification. The proposed method analyzes texture by 2D Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT); wavelet energy and some statistical features construct the features vector that characterizes texture. For improving accuracy the Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), which is considered as a good estimator to the probability density function, is used as a classifier that maps input features vectors to the most appropriate texture classes. Two comparative evaluations have been done in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of this model. Keywords- Texture classification, feature extraction, discrete wavelet transform, probabilistic neural network

I.

INTRODUCTION

Texture is the variation of data at scales smaller than the scales of interest [7]. Techniques for the analysis of texture in digital images are essential to a range of applications in areas as diverse as robotics, medicine and the geo-sciences. In biological vision, texture is an important cue allowing humans to discriminate objects. This is because the brain is able to decipher important variations in data at scales smaller than those of the viewed objects. Texture may be important as well in object recognition as it tells us something about the material from which the object is made. In order to deal with texture in digital data, many techniques have been developed by image processing researchers [14] [7]. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules by finding the best matched category for the given texture among existing textures. Two major issues are critical for texture classification: the texture feature extraction and texture classification algorithms [4]. Texture feature extraction is considered as the main base of the efficiency of the texture classification algorithm. In order to design an effective algorithm for texture classification, it is essential to find a set of texture features with good discriminating power. Unfortunately, because of scale dependency of texture, its feature extraction has become a difficult problem. There have been many studies in solving

texture classification problem based on various types of features and different methods of feature extraction. Most of the textural features are generally obtained from the application of a local operator, statistical analysis, or measurement in a transformed domain [14]. Generally, the features are estimated from Lawโs texture energy measures, Markov random field models, Gibbs distribution models and local linear transforms were found not to be robust enough to allow one-to-one mapping between patterns and parameter sets for many reasons: the parameters computed rely on the model assumed, the neighborhoods used must not be self-contradictory and they rely on the number of samples available for each combination of neighborhoods. In short, no model fits the observed textures perfectly, and so no model parameters are perfect in capturing all characteristics of a texture image [7][8]. Other studies used Fourier transform domain, fractals and co-occurrence matrices. The co-occurrence features such as contrast, homogeneity etc., were found to be the best of these features that they are popular due to the perceptual meaning they have. However, they are not adequate for texture and object discrimination as they throw away most of the information conveyed by the cooccurrence matrices [7]. In the recent years, wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for multi-resolution analysis. Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT) and Gabor Transform are extensively used for texture analysis. While the DWT uses fixed filter parameters for image decomposition across scales, the Gabor Transform requires proper tuning of filter parameters for different scales of decomposition. Further, Wavelet based methods are shown to be efficient in detection, classification and segmentation for many reasons: the wavelet transform is able to de-correlate the data and achieve the same goal as the linear transformation, it provides orientation sensitive information which is essential in texture analysis and the computational complexity is significantly reduced by considering the wavelet decomposition [11][14]. As denoted before the efficiency of any classification system depends on effective characterization as well as

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choosing the appropriate classifier. Some classifier algorithms such as support vector machines are used in some works which faced some problems because of high algorithmic complexity and extensive memory requirements [16]; the distance classifier is also used for measurement of similarity and consequent labeling but it suffered from some limitation in speed and adding parameters may cause the classifier to fail. [4]. In this study, a hybrid model based on the combinational approach is proposed, which combine 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for solving texture classification problem. In the hybrid configuration, the 2D DWT is used for texture analysis and constructing features vector that characterizes the texture image by capturing all essential information. The obtained features vectors are then fed into the PNN which is used as a good estimator to probability density function that help in mapping each texture feature vector to the best appropriate class with fast and efficient performance. For illustrating the effectiveness of this model, two comparative evaluations have been done. The first one was among variety of wavelet filters for finding the best features extractor that provides the best characterization. The other was between the PNN and Backpropagation Neural Network (NN) as a classifier according to the mean success rates. This paper is organized as follows; in section II, Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Wavelet energy are mentioned. The hybrid model of 2D DWT and PNN is described in section III. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model for classification of texture images and comparative evaluations are demonstrated in section IV .Finally, section V presents discussion and conclusion. II. PRELIMINARIES

continues until some final scale is reached. The values or transformed coefficients in approximation and detail images (sub-band images) are the essential features, which are shown here as useful for texture analysis and discrimination. As textures have non-uniform pixel value variations, they can be characterized by the values in the sub-band images or their combinations or derived features from these bands [11].

HL2

LL1

HL1

LL2 2 LH2

HH2

HL1

LH1

HH1

LH1

HH1

(a) One-Level

(b) Two-Level

Figure 1. Image decomposition

B. Energy Energy is one of the most commonly used features for texture analysis [4]. Wavelet energy reflects the distribution of energy along the frequency axis over scale and orientation and has proven to be very powerful for texture classification. The energy of sub-band ๐ถ containing N coefficients is defined as in equation (1) [5], ๐ธ๐๐๐๐๐ฆ =

1 ๐

โ ๐

๐,๐ ๐ถ

๐๐ , ๐๐

2

9

(1)

A. Discrete wavelet transform Wavelets are functions that satisfy certain mathematical requirements. They are used to cut up data into different frequency components and then study each component with a resolution matched to its scale. The basic idea of the wavelet transform is to represent any arbitrary function as a superposition of wavelets. Any such superposition decomposes the given function into different scale levels where each level is further decomposed with a resolution adapted to that level [12]. By applying DWT, the image is actually divided i.e., decomposed into four sub-bands and critically sub sampled as shown in Figure 1. (a). These four sub-bands arise from separable applications of vertical and horizontal filters. The sub-bands labeled LH1, HL1 and HH1 represent the finest scale wavelet coefficients, i.e., detail images while the sub band LL1 corresponds to coarse level coefficients, i.e., approximation image. To obtain the next coarse level of wavelet coefficients, the sub band LL1 alone is further decomposed and critically sampled. This result in two- level wavelet decomposition as shown in Figure 1. (b).This process

C. Probabilistic neural network It is shown that, by replacing the Sigmoid activation function often used in neural networks with an exponential function, a neural network can be formed which computes nonlinear decision boundaries. The resulted network is considered as an estimator to the probability density functions which can be used to map input patterns to output patterns and to classify patterns. This technique yields decision surfaces which approach the Bayes optimal under certain conditions [3]. PNN is a kind of these networks that called radial basis network. It is an artificial neural network with radial basis function (RBF) as a transfer function. RBF is a bell shape function that scales variable nonlinearly [15]. This network provides a general solution to pattern classification problems by following an approach developed in statistics, called Bayesian classifiers [6]. PNN is suitable for these kinds of classification problems for many advantages: Its training speed is many times faster than standard feed forward backprobagation network, it can approach a Bayes optimal result under certain easily met conditions and it is robust to noise examples. The most important advantage of PNN is that training is easy and instantaneous that weights are not โtrainedโ but assigned. Existing weights will never be alternated but only new vectors are inserted into weight matrices when training. So, it can be used in real-time. Since the training and running

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procedure can be implemented by matrix manipulation, the speed of PNN is very fast [15]. The probabilistic neural network uses a supervised training set to develop distribution functions within a pattern layer. These functions, in the recall mode, are used to estimate the likelihood of an input feature vector being part of a learned category, or class. The learned patterns can also be combined, or weighted, with the a priori probability, also called the relative frequency, of each category to determine the most likely class for a given input vector. If the relative frequency of the categories is unknown, then all categories can be assumed to be equally likely and the determination of category is solely based on the closeness of the input feature vector to the distribution function of a class [6][1]. Probabilistic neural networks can be used for classification problems. When an input is presented, the first layer computes distances from the input vector to the training input vectors and produces a vector whose elements indicate how close the input is to a training input. The second layer sums these contributions for each class of inputs to produce as its net output a vector of probabilities. Finally, a competed transfer function on the output of the second layer picks the maximum of these probabilities, and produces a 1 for that class and a 0 for the other classes. The architecture for this system is shown below in Figure 2. [6]. It is assumed that there are ๐ input vector/target vector pairs. Each target vector has ๐พ elements. One of these elements is 1 and the rest are 0. Thus, each input vector is associated with one of ๐พ classes. The first-layer input weights ๐ผ๐1 are set to the transpose of the matrix formed from the ๐ training pairs, ๐โฒ. When an input is presented, the || ๐๐๐ ๐ก || box produces a vector whose elements indicate how close the input is to the vectors of the training set. These elements are multiplied, element by element, by the bias and sent to the radial basis transfer function. An input vector close to a training vector is represented by a number close to 1 in the output vector a1. If an input is close to several training vectors of a single class, it is represented by several elements of a1 that are close to 1. The second-layer weights ๐ฟ๐2 are set to the matrix T of target vectors. Each vector has a 1 only in the row associated with that particular class of input, and 0โs elsewhere. The multiplication Ta1 sums the elements of a1 due to each of the ๐พ input classes. Finally, the second-layer transfer function, compete, produces a 1 corresponding to the largest element of n2, and 0โs elsewhere. Thus, the network classifies the input vector into a specific ๐พ class because that class has the maximum probability of being correct [9].

Figure 2. PNN Architecture

The bias b allows the sensitivity of the radial basis neuron to be adjusted. Each bias in the first layer is set to 0.8326/SPREAD. This determines the width of an area in the input space to which each neuron responds. SPREAD should be large enough that neurons respond strongly to overlapping regions of the input space [13]. The Probabilistic Neural Network is based on Bayesian classification and the estimation of probability density function that is necessary to classify the input vectors into one of the target classes approaching the Bayesian optimality [15]. III. HYBRID MODEL FOR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

The texture classification scheme is based on two principles, choosing features that provide the best characterization to the texture image and working with fast, easy and robust classifier in order to reach the best classification result. In this study a viable algorithm with high precision and low calculating load is proposed to classify texture images using wavelet transform and its combination with probabilistic neural network. In the proposed combinatory configuration the DWT and PNN function as black boxes in a complementary manner. The functionality manner involved can be combined in two phases: i. ii. Texture characterization phase and PNN classification phase.

The texture classification phase starts with taking the texture images as an input and with the help of the DWT, the texture images are analyzed and features vectors are constructed. The obtained features vectors are entered to the PNN for training which starting the PNN classification phase that continues with testing and ends with displaying the classification result as illustrated in Figure 3.

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Texture image

calculate the standard average of matrix elements that is computed as in equation (2), 1 ๐ฅ = โ ๐ |๐ถ(๐๐ , ๐๐ )| (2) ๐,๐ ๐

DWT

And the last four elements represent the standard deviation of the approximation and the detail coefficients matrices which measure the variability in matrix elements and are computed as the square root of variance as in equation (3), ๐ =

1 ๐โ1 ๐ ๐=1

**Calculate wavelet energy and wavelet statistical features for 1-level wavelet decomposed sub-bands.
**

LL
๐ฅ๐

โ ๐ฅ

2

(3)

Standard Deviation

HH LL LH HL HH

Wavelet Energy

LH HL HH LL

Mean

LH HL Figure 4. Features vector

Features vectors

Train PNN

Hence, at the end of this phase, each texture image has been well characterized by 12 elements features vector that captures all essential information needed for discrimination. B. PNN classification phase PNN is considered as a good estimator to probability density function that can be used to map input patterns to output patterns and to classify patterns efficiently with fast execution and ease implementation. PNN classification phase has two parts, training and testing. After constructing the features vectors that represent the texture images in the texture characterization phase, the network is trained with the features vectors and the corresponding texture images as described in the following steps: 1) 2) The input is of size ๐ ร ๐ with feature elements ๐ = 12 and training samples๐. Radial basis layer weight ๐ผ๐1 is set to the transpose of the ๐ ร ๐ matrix of training samples that ๐ผ๐1 is of size๐ ร 12. The dot product between the input vector ๐ with size 12 ร 1and the ๐ ๐กโ row of ๐ผ๐1 produces the ๐ ๐กโ element of the distance vector ||๐ผ๐1 โ ๐|| whose size๐ ร 1. The radial basis layer biases ๐ are all set to0.8326 โ ๐๐๐ ๐ธ๐ด๐ท, that ๐๐๐ ๐ธ๐ด๐ท is a constant chosen according to experiment. The net input ๐1 is obtained from element-by-element multiplication of the bias vector ๐ with the distance vector ||๐ผ๐1 โ ๐||that denoted as ๐1 = ||๐ผ๐1 โ ๐|| โโ ๐ 6) (4)

Test PNN

Display and compare the result

Figure 3. Structure of Hybrid Classification model

A. Texture characterization phase In order to overcome the obstacle of texture characterization due to its scale dependent property, the discrete wavelet transform is used as a powerful tool for multiresolution analysis. For wavelet decomposition of various texture images, the decomposition at 1-level is performed using different wavelet transform filters. Thus, the image is decomposed into one approximate image with one approximation coefficients LL and three detail images with horizontal LH, vertical HL and diagonal HH detail coefficients. Wavelet transform of an image measures light fluctuation in different scales. Therefore, the wavelet energy that reflects the distribution of energy along the frequency axis over scale and orientation is calculated for the approximation and the detail coefficients matrices. Also to increase sensitivity and precision, some wavelet statistical features are calculated such as the mean and the standard deviation of the approximation matrix as well as the mean and the standard deviation of the detail coefficients matrices; and then they are added to image features. The features obtained construct a feature vector with 12 elements organized as illustrated in Figure 4. The first four elements represent wavelet energy of the approximation and the detail coefficients matrices which is computed as in equation (1). The second four elements represent the arithmetic mean of the approximation and the detail coefficients matrices which

3)

4)

5)

The transfer function is the radial basis function that defined as in equation (5) and its shape is illustrated in Figure 5. ๐ = ๐๐๐๐๐๐ ๐ = ๐ โ๐

2

(5)

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success rates for each classifier. The obtained results are discussed below. The number of incorrect classifications of the PNN to the tested texture images using the wavelet filters mentioned before is tabulated in TABLE I. It is found that the wavelet filters db2, bior2.2 and db3 give the best characterization to texture images Bark.0000 and Paintings.11.0003, wavelet filters sym6, bior2.2 and coif2 give the best characterization to leaves.0008, wavelet filters db2, sym6 and bior2.2 give the best characterization to Metal.0004 and wavelet filters sym6, db5, coif2 and db3 give the best characterization to Flowers.0006.

TABLE I.THE NUMBER OF INCORRECT CLASSIFICATIONS WITH VARIOUS

WAVELET FEATURES

Figure 5. Radial basis function

If the input ๐ is identical to the ๐ ๐กโ row of ๐ผ๐1 , then the ๐ ๐กโ element of ๐1 is equal to 1 If the input ๐ is close to the ๐ ๐กโ row of ๐ผ๐1 , then the radial basis function produces a value near 1, else it produces a value far from 1. 7) Competitive layer weights matrix ๐ฟ๐2 is set to ๐พ ร ๐ matrix with target classes๐พ. 8) In competitive layer, the vector ๐1 is multiplied with matrix ๐ฟ๐2 producing the output vector ๐2 of size ๐พ ร 1. 9) The competitive function ๐ถ produces 1 corresponding to the largest value of ๐2 and 0 elsewhere. 10) For testing the network, an unknown features vector is entered as input and the network classifies it according to the class associated with the largest probability. IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

**Number of incorrect classifications No Texture images
**

(db2) (sym6) (db5) (bior2.2) (coif2) (db3)

In order to assess the discrimination capability of the proposed hybrid model, experiments are conducted with 14 Vision Texture (Vistex) images database, each of size 512ร512 which is divided into sub-images of size 64ร64 for totally 896 texture images with 14 texture classes. First, for applying texture characterization phase, one-level wavelet decomposition is applied to each texture image using db2, sym6, db5, bior2.2, coif2, db3 wavelet filters separately. After extracting the features, each texture image is characterized and represented with 12 elements features vector constructing totally 896ร12 features vectors for all texture images used. Then, before entering the second phase, the PNN classification phase, the features vectors obtained at the end of the texture characterization phase are divided into 756 features vectors for training and 140 for testing. Finally, the PNN is trained with 756ร12 input features vectors and 14 target classes. After training, the PNN is tested with 140ร12 features vectors. For illustrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this model, two comparative evaluations have been done. The first one was between features extracted by the chosen wavelet filters according to the corresponding success rate in order to evaluate the efficiency of characterization for each filter. And the other was between the PNN and Backpropagation NN as a classifier according to the mean

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Bark.0000.pgm Bark.0006.pgm Fabric.0015.pgm Flowers.0006.pgm Food.0000.pgm Leaves.0008.pgm Metal.0002.pgm Metal.0004.pgm Misc.0003.pgm Paintings.11.0003.pgm Water.0001.pgm Stone.0004.pgm Wood.0002.pgm Water.0005.pgm

1 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0

3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0

2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0

3 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 1 0 0

The mean success rates of the chosen wavelet filters are shown in Figure 6. It is found that the characterization of texture images using bior2.2 wavelet filter has the highest mean success rate (93.57%) and the lowest mean success rate (90.72%) was to the characterization using coif2 wavelet filter which is observed in Figure 7.

The Mean success rates (%) 93.57% 92.86%

91.43% 90.72%

91.43%

91.43%

db3

coif2

bior2.2

db5

sym6

db2

Figure 6. The mean success rates of various wavelet filters

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**

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

V.

CONCLUSION

Texture classification problem has become the business of a lot due to its great effect on many fields. As an attempt to solve this problem many studies have been done in spite of hindrances they suffered in the two sides, characterization and classification. As for characterization, researchers tried to choose features that provide the best representation of the texture images in the presence of texture scale dependent property. While they work on the use of the appropriate classifier algorithm to provide the best discrimination capability. In this work a hybrid model is presented to classify texture images. The 2D DWT is combined with the PNN constructing this hybrid model. The discrete wavelet transform is used as a powerful tool for multi-resolution analysis so it is used for texture analysis as an attempt to overcome the obstacle of texture scale dependent property. The PNN is a radial basis network that is considered as an estimator to the probability density functions which can be used to map input patterns to output patterns and to classify patterns. The PNN is suitable for these kinds of classification problems that it can approach a Bayes optimal result under certain easily met conditions; as well as the training is easy, fast and robust. The structure of the proposed hybrid model is divided into two phases. The first phase is the texture classification phase in which 1-level wavelet decomposition has been performed and 4 sub-bands have been obtained representing the approximation, vertical, horizontal and diagonal detail. As a way to select features that capture all the essential information needed to uniquely characterize the texture, wavelet energy that reflects the distribution of energy along the frequency axis over scale and orientation has been calculated for the approximation and the detail coefficients matrices. Also to increase sensitivity and precision, some wavelet statistical features are calculated such as the mean and the standard deviation of the approximation matrix as well as the mean and the standard deviation of the detail coefficients matrices; and then they are added to image features. The features obtained construct a feature vector with 12 elements which is fed with the corresponding target class as input to the PNN starting the second phase, the PNN classification phase. In the PNN classification phase, the PNN is trained with the input features vectors then it is tested with other features vectors for evaluating its discrimination capability. Experiments have been conducted for evaluating the performance of the proposed hybrid model. The model proved that the features derived from the approximation and detail coefficients, the wavelet energy and the statistical features, uniquely characterize a texture. In order to find the best features extractor a comparative evaluation has been done with features extracted by different wavelet filters and the corresponding correct classification rates. Another comparative evaluation with respect to classifiers has been performed between the PNN and Backpropagation NN which provided great evidence about the effectiveness of the PNN as

bior2.2

coif2

Figure 7. Comparison between the best and the worst characterization according to the corresponding correct classification rates of 14 texture classes.

The features vectors that have been obtained from bior2.2 wavelet filter which represent the best characterization of the texture images have been used to compare the performance of the PNN used in this model and the Backpropagation NN in classification. As illustrated in Figure 8, the mean success rate that has been obtained over the 14 texture classes using the PNN is far more than the other obtained using the Backpropagation NN. In addition to the great differences in speed and simplicity of the performance between the two classifiers prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the PNN that has been used in this model with respect to Backprobagation NN.

The Mean Success Rates of PNN vs. NN (%)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Probablistic Neural Network

Neural Network

Figure 8. Comparison between the mean success rates that have been obtained using the PNN verses the mean success rates that have been obtained using Backpropagation NN.

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a classifier for texture images with simple structure, fast execution and high performance. This hybrid classification model achieved a good progress in solving the texture classification problem by the proposed complementary manner of the 2D DWT and PPN. Compared with other methods, the system functionality is fast in execution, efficient in recognition and easy in implementation. We are still in a need of finding more features that capture more essential information of texture in order to provide the best characterization and achieve the optimal classification results. More extended efforts are under development in order to improve the efficiency of the system. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First of all, I thank my father, my mother, my sisters and my brother for their moral support I required in my life at all. I deeply thank my advisor, Dr. ElSayed Radwan, whose help, advice and supervision was invaluable. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to my friends and all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the paper. REFERENCES

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In this paper, we present a combinational approach for texture classification. The proposed method analyzes texture by 2D Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT); wavelet energy and some statistical feat...

In this paper, we present a combinational approach for texture classification. The proposed method analyzes texture by 2D Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT); wavelet energy and some statistical features construct the features vector that characterizes texture. For improving accuracy the Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), which is considered as a good estimator to the probability density function, is used as a classifier that maps input features vectors to the most appropriate texture classes. Two comparative evaluations have been done in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of this model.

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