Civil Engineering Department

2 Marks Question and Answer





2 Marks

1. Define a boiler and distinguish between fire tube boiler and water tube boiler

Boiler is equipment used to convert water into steam under high pressure with the help of heat. It is otherwise called as steam generator and works at a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. In fire tube boiler, the water surrounds the tubes through which the hot gases are passed. In water tube boiler the hot gases surround the tubes through which the water is passed. In fire tube boiler the output is low. In water tube boiler the output is high.

2. How does fusible plug work is a boiler? Fusible plug is a device fixed at the surface of the boiler close to the fine chamber. This device is made up of a gun metal which has low melting point than the metal of the boiler shell. Under normal working conditions of the cotroller the water in the boiler will be at the safe level and fusible plug will be immersed is the water. When the controller fails the water lend comes down and due to

overheating of boilers the fusible plug melts the steam in the boiler flows to the fine chamber and puts-off the fine. Thus a major explosion of boiler and its accessories is prevented by fusible plug.

3. Distinguish between lift and escalator Elevators or lifts are generally provided for multi-storeyed buildings. Lifts are the only mode of transport which are moving truly vertical

Escalators are otherwise known as powered steps Escalators are very useful to carry more number of people between one floor to the other at any instant. Usually escalators are operated continuously. 4. What is a buffer and bumper in lift terminologies? Buffer: - This is placed at the pit to absorb the shock of either the cab or the counterweight when it lands on it. Oil buffer and spring buffer are generally wed extensively. Bumper: - This is a device which works similar to buffer and replaces buffer if required. 5. Write at least three special features required at lifts and escalators for physically handicapped and elderly persons. 1) Lifts should be at the entrance level and should have sufficient space atleast to a dimension of 1.1 x 15m allowing maneuvering and turning of a wheel chair 2) Internal lift control buttons should be at a height between 900mm and from the floor. 3) Buttons should be easily operated light touch type with visual and tactile indication of floor selection. 6) What is a hold back in a conveyor? A holdback is a mechanical device which allows the pullet to matte in only one direction. This is used when the belt is moved is an inclined position and during this type of movement whenever the power fails the load in the belt tends to move it is the reverse direction if the holdback is not provided.

. State Fleming’s left hand rule Fleming’s left hand rule states that if the left hand is held in a way that the forefinger. They are (i) Internal vibrator (Needle vibrator) (ii) Formwork vibrator (External vibrator) (iii) Table vibrator 8. List the different types of vibrators. What is a batch mixer? What are its types? The batch mixer is used mostly commonly for ordinary buildings. middle finger and the thumb are at right angles and if the fore finger represents the direction of magnetic field and the middle finger represents the direction of current. There are several types of vibrations available for compacting the connect. then the thumb represents the direction of motion of conductor under the influence of the force experienced.7. The batch mixers are of the following three types (i) Tilting mixers (ii) Non-tilting mixers (iii) Reversing mixers 9.

Motor: A motor is a machine which converts electrical energy in to mechanical energy. it is termed as DC motor. Difference between a motor and a generator.Motor. .C) supply.C Motor and A. 12.10.C Motor: When a motor works with a Direct current (DC) supply.C. 11. when a motor works with Alternate current (AC) supply it is termed as AC motor. When a motor works with a Director current (D. Generator. it is termed as D. Generator: A Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy in to electrical energy.C. AC Generator and AC generator: When a generator produces a direct current is called DC generator. When Alternating current is produced from a generator. whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic flux. What is electromagnetic induction? According to this principle.C? D. it is called alternator (or) AC generator. When it produces a direct current is called D.C and D. an emf is induced in the conductor causing a current to flow through it when the circuit is closed. The direction of emf is given by Flemings right handrule. What is the difference between .

ash disposal problem. 15. radiation hazard. 14.13. Explain the concept of flow of wind on earth Flow of wind is the effect of solar heat. . 2. This change is temperature results is change in pressure and thus wind starts flowing from higher pressure zone to low pressure zone. As the earth rotates about its own axis and also revolves around the surface of the earth is subjected to alternate heating and cooling. What do you mean by Escalators? Escalators are used to carry more number of people between one floor to the other at any instant. 1. 16. 3. There is no air pollution. Mention atleast two advantages of hydro electric power plant. Water is a cheap and renewable source of energy where as the fuel used in other plants is expensive and exhaustible. Cost of maintenance is less. The energy form the sun heats up the earth surface. What is a vibrator? Vibrator is an electric device used to compact the concrete by expelling the entrapped air. Thus the earth atmosphere is a marvelous solar driven heat engine that can generate about 10 million MW of power.

What is a conveyor? Conveyor are used to transfer the materials from one place to the other over a short distance 19. Vibratory Roller 18. Platform vibrator 5. What is a concrete mixer? Concrete mixer is a machine used to mix the ingredients of concrete so as to prepare a fresh mixture of concrete. What are the types of concrete mixers? 1. Batch mixers or Drum mixers . Internal vibrator (needle vibrator) 2. Surface vibrator 6. 20. Table vibrator 4. What are the classification of vibrator? 1.17. Continuous mixers 2. Formwork vibrator (External vibrator) 3.

Compare of contrast a Cochran boiler with a Wilcox boiler 3. Explain in detail about construction of working of Hydroelectric power plants 6. of D. Write short notes on:1) Lift of Escalators 2) Conveyors 3) Vibrators of concrete mixers 4.C.Part-B 1. Write short notes on: 1) Gas of electrical 2) Air & Electricity . Give an account on construction of working of A. What are the various accessories used in Boilers? Explain in detail with necessary sketches 2.C Generators 5.

Define power give its units Power is defined as the rate at which the work is done.Resistance is the property of any substance that opposes the flow of current in it.An A. 3.Unit-2 2 Marks 1. Three pin socket . Ceiling fan Lamp Ceiling Fan 2. Single tube tight 4. Source of AC supply:. Draw the circuit symbols for the following 1. Differentiate between conductance and existence Conductance: It is the property of any substance that allows the flow of current in it.C generator Source of DC supply: Batteries. It is denoted by the symbol ' Ω ' and is measured in ohms. It is measured in mho Resistance:. It is denoted by the letter ‘p’ and is measured in ‘watts’. Lamp 3. DC generators 4. Quote some examples for the sources of AC supply and DC supply. 2.

The pull switches work with the strong mechanical action.Mho ( ) 2. Write the SI units for the following electrical quantities 1. It is usually operated by a single pull both for ON and OFF. Differentiate between pull switch and push switch Pull switch:. Mention any two locations in a residential building where two way switch is frequently used 1. It consists of a single blade with the insulated cover which is pushed for bath ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ alternatively. Current density 3.Volt (V) . Susceptance 6. Potential drop Ans:Current density Electric flux Potential drop Susceptance . This switch is installed on the ceiling and a chord is made to hang from the top for operating it. Electric flux 4.Ampere / met .Coulomb (C) .5. . Lights at staircases 7. Lights at bed rooms 2. Push Button switch: This switch is used for calling bells and buzzers.

What is the role of fuse in an electrical installation? The function of a fuse is to protect the electrical appliances from heavy current. i) Series circuit connection ii) Parallel circuit connection 12. Define earting in an electrical wiring Earthing is connecting the electrical appliances to the ground so that any unforeseen current such as leakages. Thus whenever a high voltage is passed through a fuse wire it automatically melts and breaks the circuits. The Principle is “Mutual Induction Principle” Accourding to this. Fuse is always provided in live wires and not on neutral and earth. Mention at least two wiring systems that are commonly adopted.8. faults etc is immediately discharged to the earth. What is the principle on which the transformer works. whenever a current carrying conductor is wounded (primary) on one side of a laminated core . 10. Define Electricity It is defined as the flow of electrons in any conductor 9. 11. The pursose of earthing is to ensure all parts of the system other than live parts are at earth potential at all times (or) the purpose is to avoid electric shock to human body.

transmission. Television and Telephone circuits iii) Step up and step down requirements iv) Measuring current using current transformer and measuring voltage using voltage transformer (v) Special application like furnace transformers and welding transformers. Define conductance:It is the reciprocal of resistance of it is measured in mho 14. Transformers are used in. distribution and conversion of electrical energy. i) Transmission and distribution of electric power. Write at least two applications of a transformer. Define switchgear Switchgear refers to a suitable combination cassembly of switching of devices for use in connection with generation. 16. Define magnetic flux:It is defined as the amount of magnetic field produced by a magnetic source. 15. 13. . ii) emf is induced on the conductor wounded (secondary) on the other side of the laminated core provided the secondary coils lies within the magnetic field of the primary.

What are the types of iorn clad switch? 1. Double pole iron clad switch (DPIC) 2. especially along with main switch and at distribution fuse board. faults etc are immediately discharged to the earth. What do you mean by earthing? Earthing is connecting the electrical appliances to the ground so that any unforeseen current such as leakages. Triple pole iron clad switch (TPIC) 3. 20. Alternating current (AC) supply 18. What are the two types of electrical supply 1.17. Triple pole iron clad switch with neutral link (TPNIC) 19. Direct current (DC) supply 2. What is a fuse? Fuse is provided at many places in electrical installations. .

What are the various wiring systems adopted in a building? Explain in detail 4. Give an account on Transformer of its applications 6. Why is earthing important for any building? Draw neat sketches for various types of earthing of explain in detail 3. What are the various features that have to be ensured in locating? Substation in a building as per NBC? . 2. List the various protective devices used in electrical installation of explain each one in detail.Part-B 1. Draw a neat sketch of layout of electrical feltings in a residential flat & Explain 5.

Discomfort glare 2. Types:1.Unit-3 2 Marks 1. Indirect Calorimetry . Types:1. The word calorimetry from latin word calor meaning heat. Calorimetry involves the use of calorimeter. diffraction and polarization. A bright area in the field of vision reduces the ability to perceive visual information needed for task performance. Disability glare 3. Direct glare 4. partial refraction and other phenomena such as interference. What are the drawbacks of corpuscular theory? Corpuscular theory failed to explain partial reflection. Define Glare least its types Bright light which interferes with visual perception is called glare. Direct calorimetry 2. 3. What is Calorimetry? Calorimetry is the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes. Indirect glare 2.

IR radiation IR radiation has wavelength slightly grater than those of red light . lesser will be the wavelength and relationship between frequency and wavelength is given by. 3. The higher the frequency. UV radiation 1. What is the frequency and wavelength of FM waves? The frequency of an FM radio wave is about 100MHZ = 100 x106Hz. This means about that the wavelength is about 3m long. UV radiation has wavelength slightly less than those of violet light 2.4. These radiation helps to keep the body healthy but excessive amounts can cause damage to the skin and eyes and can be used to kill harmful bacteria on kitchens and hospitals It can be felt as heat radiation from the sun and from other heated bodies It is made use of radiant heating devices for detecting patterns of heat emesis ions for seeing in dark for communication links. Differentiate between UV radiation and IR radiation. It is emitted by the sun and also by other objects at high temperature. Define the relationship between frequency and wavelength. 5. λ= 1 γ Where λ → Wavelength γ → frequency 6.

P then it is called as mean hemispherical candle power which is abbreviated as M. Consider an area ‘A’ which is a segment of a sphere of radices ' γ ' .S.P = flux emitted in a hemisphere 2π 9. What is M. It is denoted by ‘w’.P M.H. What is a social angle? How is it measured? It is defined as the angle subtended at the centre of the sphere between the lines joining the opposite edges of a segment of a sphere with the centre.P? If the average of the candle power is taken over a hemisphere instead of a sphere like in M.C.7. A. ω= A r2 steradian 8.H.C.S.H.S. Eα 1 r2 . Let ‘C’ be the centre point of the sphere which is joined to every point on the edges of area.C. Now he solid angle w subtended by this area at the centre of the sphere is given by.S.C. Define inverse square law for illumination The illumination of a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the source.

Colour rendering Colour rendering describes how a light source makes the colour of an object appear to human eyes. This ability is measured by comparing the appearance of objects under the light source with their appearance under a reference source such as daylight.10. 11. It is measured by colour rendering index. . The scale has value from 0 to 1000 percent. The colour temperature of a lamp describes how the light appears when human eye looks directly at the illuminated bulb. What is called as spectrum? Whenever a beam of light passes through a prism it get dispersed into its component colours of all wavelengths called spectrum which include wavelengths of visible light. A theoretically perfect radiator called a black body is used as the standard of comparison. It is measured by a unit called kelvin(K) 3. 2. The scale that starts at ab zero (-1273 degrees C) 4. Distinguish between colour temperature and colour rendering Colour temperature 1.

They are also perfect for study or home office as the light going upwards avoids glare. 13. For example when light energy comes from sun. (ii) The second mode of transportation may be considered that the light energy moves by wave motion where the actual matter does not travel. Distinguish between down lighters and uplighters Down lighters:Down lighters cast distinct pools of light onto the surface below. Up lighters:Up lighters throw light onto ceiling where it bounces off to create a soft eight they work best in rooms where ceiling is painted white or a light shade. Sometimes it behaves like a particle or corpuscle. Explain how the propagation of light is perceived? Modern theory proposes that light has a dual character. (i) This energy may be carried by small material particles travelling with finite velocity. This process requires some intervening medium for transfer of energy. . This interpretation was further supplemented by wave theory of light given by Huygens. there are two model of transportation.12. and each particle possesses kinetic energy = MV2 and no material medium is required for propagation of these particles. This is the basic form of Newton’s corpuscular theory.

colour television and in colour printing They are widely used for paint pigments. colour photographs and colour printing. When the three primary additive colours are combined in equal proportions they add to produce white light 3. 2. What are the factors affecting visual tasks? 1. Size . Differentiate between additive colour and subtractive colour. They are used for stage lighting. Subtractive colour If colours are subtracted from white light then other colours will be produced. 15. Contrast. 4. Cyan subtracts Red Magenta subtracts Green yellow subtracts Blue These pairs are formed as complementary colours When the three primary subtractive colours are combined in equal propotions they subtract components of white light to produce darkness. Glare . Additive colour 1. 3. If coloured lights are added together then they will produce other colours 2. What is a visual task? Visual tasks are the tasks (work) that are carried out with the help of vision. 16. Luminance. Eg:Red + Green = Yellow Green + Blue = cyan Red + blue = Magenta Red + Green + Blue = White 4.14.

Disability glare 3. i) State and explain the factors affecting visual tasks ii) Write short notes on synthesis of light 2. Ware theory 3. Direct glare 4. What are the modern theory of light? 1. Discomfort glare 2.B 1. Corpuscular theory 2. 18.17. What are the types of glare 1. What is glare? Bright light which interferes with visual perception is called glare. Electromagnetic theory 4. Quantum Theory 20. Give a detailed account of modern theory of light and colour . What are the two types of visual tasks? i) Paper based tasks ii) Computer based tasks 19. Indirect glare PART .

Write in detail about lighting requirements in various building types. .3. Explain in detail about artificial light source. Write short notes on i) Synthesis of colour ii) Illumination iii) Utilization and depreciation factor 4. 5. 6. What are the special features to be considered in lighting for physically. handicapped and elderly people.

ii) For example water exists as ice at ii) For example the water which is in 0oc. 2. temperature. when it starts melting it is liquid form starts evaporating (converts After reaching converted in to water but the ice to steam) at 100oc. Therme means heat and dynamics means power. Distinguish between latent heat of fusion and latent heat of evaporation? latent heat of fusion latent heat of evaporation i) Latent heat of fusion is defined as the i) The latent heat of evaporation (or) amount of heat required to convert unit vaporization is defined as the amount of mass of the substance from solid to heat required to convert unit mass of the liquid at its melting point without any liquid into its vapour state at the same rise in temperature.Unit-4 2 marks 1. . in temperature. temperature (0oc) is maintained for 100oc more the water is heated more the some amount of time till all the ice steam is generated without the change melts totally. The term of thermodynamics is a branch of science that deals the study of heat which is in motion. Define Thermodynamics? The term Thermodynamics stem from Greekwords.

The system can accommodate upto 100% outside air capability. 6. Define refrigeration what is the principle refrigeration? Refrigeration is defined as the process of cooling and maintaining a temperature well below that of the surrounding atmospheric temperature. Figure representation given below Heat Cold Body Heat → Re frigerator  → Hot Body    4. Zones can be individually controlled.3. 2. Principle of refrigeration The principle of refrigeration is governed by the second law of thermodynanics which states that heat cannot flow from a cold body to a hot body unless an external force acts on it. Write at least two advantages of fan coil systems. 1. Cooling towers are used for controlling the temperature of water usually in big plants of above 100 tons capacity. 5. Why is air conditioning in hospital more significant? Air conditioning in hospitals assume greater significance. Define cooling towers? The cooling towers in an air conditioning system is the means by which the heat from the condenser of the refrigeration system is rejected to the atmosphere. In many cases proper air conditioning can be a factor in the therapy of the patient and insome instances part of the major treatment. .

8. 9. How is chilled water plant different from other system? Chilled water plant is a centrally located plant which has several quantifiable advantage over decentralized equipment. ii) iii) The water velocity in the pipe are normally in the range of 1m/s to 3m/s. lift lobbies etc should not be used as return air passage. Write at least two precautions to prevent fire caused AC system? • Escape routes like staircase common corridors. The advantage of having centralized water plant over individual units in each building includes improved efficiency.7. Write atleast three design consideration on water piping? i) The material used for pipes are generally steel with welded or flanged joints as other materials are more prone to corrosion. . Main headers in the plant room are designed fro very low velocity around 1 m/s. ability to cycle easily between alternate energy resources reduced maintenance and long term capital cost reduction. • Some dampers should be provided fro buildings with more than 24m height. This is suitable for organization (or) institutions having several buildings across the campus. • The air handling unit room should not be used for storage of any combustible materials.

Voltage starting relay 4. Convection 3. What is a Starter? Starters are used to establish the starting circuit for starting the motor. Radiation 13. The extent to which the desired interior conditions can be economically maintained is one important measure of success of a building design. Define cooling loads? Buildings are built to provide a safe and comfortable internal environment despite variations in external conditions. . Current starting relay 2. It is U shaped 12. Differentiate between condenser and evaporation Condenser Evaporator The condenser is attached to one out of It is the component which is actually two leads (pipes) fixed to the fitted at the cooling portiong of the refrigerator (freezer) because is actual cooling device. 11. Solid state starting relay. Since the control of inside conditions is usually to the active heating and cooling system they have to be designed based on the proper ovalution of the thermal characteristics of the surroundings. Conduction 2. Hot wire starting relay 3. 14.10. compressor. What are the types of starter 1. What are the various modes of heat transfer? It can happen in three forms 1.

Induced draft cooling tower. Forced draft cooling tower. 3. 2. 4. Natural draft atmospheric spray tower. Double or dual duct units 17. What do you mean by far coil systems? It is an air conditioning system used in buildings. Single duct units 2. What are the two basic piping arrangements that are widely practiced? 1. What are the classification of a cooling towers? 1. What do you mean by air handling units? Air heading units are the equipments that deals with the hot and cold air which air used to condition the air inside a room. Direct return plan 2. . Reversed return plan 20. 16.15. What are the two types of air handling units 1. 18. What do you mean by hydronic system? Piping systems for water & pumps for inducing the flow of water is called hydronic systems. Natural draft deck type tower. 19.

Define temperature. c) Packaged air conditioners. Write short notes on a) Air handling units b) Cooling towers. 4. 2. 3. 6. Explain he construction and working of a refrigerator. Give a detailed account on electric motors and starters. 5. . Explain in detail it measurements. Write short notes on a)Window air conditioner b) Chilled water plant c) Fan coil systems.PART-B 1. Give an account on air conditioning systems suitable for various types of buildings.

How can be timber made fire resistant? The structural elements made of timber ignite and rapidly destroyed in case of fire. More over it acts as the fuel to the fire. . 1. ammonium sulphate. 2. borax. List the significant toxic gases that are produced during fire a) Carbon monoxide b) Carbon dioxide c) Hydrogen sulphide d) Nitrogen dioxide 2. The use of timber cannot be totally avoided as a construction material. the surface of the timber is coated with paints and / or certain chemicals such as a ammonium phosphate. A building or portion of the building may be occupied only if all means of exit and fire protection measures are in place and continuously maintained for the occupied part of the building.UNIT 5 2 Marks 1. boric acid. zinc chloride etc to make if fire resistant. 3. Give at least two recommendations of NBC with respect to fire safety. Lifts and escalators should not be considered as fire exit.

The concrete offers a much higher resistance to a fire than any other material. The actual behaviour of concrete in case of a fire depends on the quality of cement and type of aggregate forming the concrete and in case of reinforced and prestressed structures is also depends on the position of steel in concrete. 5. Flashing lights can be activated simultaneously with an audible alarm system to alert persons with hearing impairments. 1. Every tall building should have a minimum of 2 staircases. 2. . Old age and disabled person need to be included in all fire drills.4. 2. 3. The lifts and escalators should not be considered as exits. Write at least three special design considerations to be considered for physically handicapped and elderly people with respect to fire safety. List at least three fire escape elements in buildings 1. 3. A separate fire life should be provided for use of fire bridge in the event of fire. Describe the quality of concrete with respect of fire resistance. Flashing lights vibrating beds or variable velocity fans can alert deaf and blind people. This material is a bad conductor of heat and ti si an effective material for fire resisting construction. 6.

What is smoke detector? Give example It is a device that’s detects smoke commercial.7. It is almost similar to dry riser except It is not changed with pressurized that the riser is always charged with supply of water. What are the various fire alarm systems? The fire alarm systems are of two types a) Automatic Alarm Systems b) Manual Alarm Systems. pressurized supply of water . Distinguish between dry riser and wet riser Wet riser Dry riser 1. industrial and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system while household detectors. • Escape lighting should be capable of indicating clearly and unambiguously the escape routes. Explain the significance of fire lighting. 8. in the range of 18-40m. generally issue a local audible and/or visual alarm from the detector itself. 2. It is also called wet hydrant riser It is also called dry hydrant riser which which is installed in building of is installed in a building with the height maximum height 60m. 9. 10. • Emergency lighting should be powered from a source independent of that supply the normal lighting. Example : optical smoke detector. known as smoke alarms.

Shopping malls 4. Multi strayed buildings 3. List the various types of sprinkler heads that are commonly used a) Fusible link b) Chemical Head c) Glass Bulb d) Open Sprinkle Heads (Debug System) 13. Residential sprinkler system 2. Commercial sprinkler system 14. High rise buildings 2. Theatres . List the various structures where automatic sprinkler systems are commonly installed. Define sprinkler head In the automatic sprinklers the heat actuated devices known as the sprinkler heads are fitted at regular usually 3m along the pipes. List the various types of sprinkler systems Three types of sprinkler system 1. Domestic sprinkler system 3. 1. 12.11.

17. What are the structural elements that should be given due considerations for design? 1. .15. What is a dry riser? It is an arrangement of fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains not less than 100mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor which is dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping from fire service appliances. What is a visible smoke detector? A source of light is directed at a receiving photocell. 19. 2. What do you mean by a lobby? Lobby is an open area inside the entrance of a public building. Wall openings 4. The pipes should be fitted on the ceiling of the room at a height not more than 4 meters. Walls & Column 2. the arrangement should be made to cause an automatic alarm in case of a fire. In order to make the system more effective. 18. What are the various precautions to be taken in the arrangement of automatic sprinkler system? 1. Building fire escape element staircase. What is a wet riser? The riser is always charged with pressurized supply of water. 20. Floors & roofs 3. smoke scatters the light and an alarm is triggered. In case of fire. 16.

Describe in detail about the causes and effects of fire. 2. 5. Write short notes on • Fire alarm systems • Smoke Detector • Fire lightings • Water storage and pumps 6. Describe the characteristics of materials and technology of construction with respect to fire safety. . Write short notes on • Fire lifts and lobbies • AC system and means of fire escape • Special features for physically handicapped and elderly people with respect to fire safety. 3. List out the various recommendations of National Building code with respect to fire safety.Part-B 1. 4. Give an account on automatic sprinkler systems.

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