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José Rizal

José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, widely

known as José Rizal (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse
riˈsal]; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was
a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of
the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.
An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a
writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda
Movement which advocated political reforms for the
colony under Spain.
He was executed by the Spanish colonial government
for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution,
inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was
not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he
ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led
to Philippine independence.
He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been
recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes
Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or
issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero. He was the
author of the novels Noli Me Tángere[9] and El filibusterismo, and a number of poems
and essays. In 1886 Rizal published his first novel, Noli me tangere (The Social Cancer), a
passionate exposure of the evils of Spanish rule in the Philippines. A sequel, El
filibusterismo (1891; The Reign of Greed), established his reputation as the leading
spokesman of the Philippine reform movement. He published an annotated edition
(1890; reprinted 1958) of Antonio Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, hoping to show
that the native people of the Philippines had a long history before the coming of the
Spaniards. He became the leader of the Propaganda Movement, contributing
numerous articles to its newspaper, La Solidaridad, published in Barcelona. Rizal’s
political program included integration of the Philippines as a province of Spain,
representation in the Cortes (the Spanish parliament), the replacement of Spanish friars
by Filipino priests, freedom of assembly and expression, and equality of Filipinos and
Spaniards before the law. Rizal returned to the Philippines in 1892. He founded a
nonviolent-reform society, the Liga Filipina, in Manila, and was deported to Dapitan in
northwest Mindanao. He remained in exile for the next four years. In 1896
the Katipunan, a Filipino nationalist secret society, revolted against Spain. Although he
had no connections with that organization and he had had no part in the insurrection,
Rizal was arrested and tried for sedition by the military. Found guilty, he was publicly
executed by a firing squad in Manila. His martyrdom convinced Filipinos that there was
no alternative to independence from Spain. On the eve of his execution, while
confined in Fort Santiago, Rizal wrote “Último adiós” (“Last Farewell”), a masterpiece of
19th-century Spanish verse.
Election - An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population
chooses an individual to hold public office.[1] Elections have been the usual mechanism
by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th
century.[1] Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in
the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also
used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary
associations and corporations.[2]
The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern
representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the
democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were considered
an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known
as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.[3]
Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they
are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing
systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections
(especially with a view to predicting future results).
Suffrage - Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public,
political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).[1][2][3] The
right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, and the combination of
both rights is sometimes called full suffrage.[4] In many languages, the right to vote is
called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to
vote. In English, these are sometimes called active suffrage and passive suffrage.
Plebiscite - A plebiscite or referendum is a type of voting, or of proposing laws.
Some definitions of 'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the
constitution or government of a country.[1] Others define it as the
opposite. Australia defines 'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution and
'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution.[2]
There are two types of result

 Mandatory - meaning the government must do what the result says

 Advisory - meaning the result of the vote is only to help the government make the
final choice.
Referendum - A referendum (plural referendums, see below) is a direct vote in which an
entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the
adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a plebiscite or a vote
on a ballot question.
Some definitions of 'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the
constitution or government of a country.[1] However, some other countries define it
differently. For example, Australia defines 'referendum' as a vote to change the
constitution, and 'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution.[2] In Ireland,
the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to
amend the constitution is called a 'referendum', and so is a poll of the electorate on a
non-constitutional bill.
Recall - A recall election (also called a recall referendum or representative recall) is a
procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct
vote before that official's term has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient
voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to ancient Athenian
democracy[1] and feature in several contemporary constitutions. In indirect
or representative democracy people's representatives are elected and these
representatives rule for a specific period of time. But if any representative comes to be
perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities, then they can be called
back with the written request of specific number or proportion of voters.
Initiative - In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens'
initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number
of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a
plebiscite). The initiative may take the form of a direct initiative or an indirect initiative.
In a direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a vote after being submitted by a
petition. In an indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, and then
put to a popular vote only if not enacted by the legislature. The vote may be on a
proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or local ordinance,
or to simply oblige the executive or legislature to consider the subject by submitting it to
the order of the day. It is a form of direct democracy.
Aung San Suu Kyi
born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat,
and author who is the first and incumbent State
Counsellor and Leader of the National League for
Democracy of Myanmar. She is widely recognized as
the de facto leader of Myanmar.[2] She is also the first
womanto serve as Minister of Foreign Affairs,
the Minister of the President's Office, the Minister of
Electric Power and Energy, and the Minister of
Education in President Htin Kyaw's Cabinet, and from
2012 to 2016 was an MP for Kawhmu Township to
the House of Representatives.
The youngest daughter of Aung San, Father of the
Nation of modern-day Myanmar, and Khin Kyi, Aung
San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon, British Burma. After
graduating from the University of Delhi in 1964 and
the University of Oxford in 1968, she worked at
the United Nations for three years. She
married Michael Aris in 1972, and gave birth to two children. Aung San Suu Kyi rose to
prominence in the 1988 Uprisings, and became the General Secretary of the National
League for Democracy (NLD), which she had newly formed with the help of several retired
army officials who criticized the military junta. In the 1990 elections, NLD won 81% of the
seats in Parliament, but the results were nullified, as the military refused to hand over power,
resulting in an international outcry. She had, however, already been detained under house
arrest before the elections. She remained under house arrest for almost 15 of the 21 years
from 1989 to 2010, becoming one of the world's most prominent political prisoners.
Her party boycotted the 2010 elections, resulting in a decisive victory for the military-
backed Union Solidarity and Development Party. Aung San Suu Kyi became a Pyithu
Hluttaw MP while her party won 43 of the 45 vacant seats in the 2012 by-elections. In
the 2015 elections, her party won a landslide victory, taking 86% of the seats in the Assembly
of the Union – well more than the 67 percent supermajority needed to ensure that its
preferred candidates were elected President and Second Vice President in the Presidential
Electoral College. Although she was prohibited from becoming the President due to a
clause in the constitution – her late husband and children are foreign citizens – she assumed
the newly created role of State Counsellor, a role akin to a Prime Minister or a head of
government. Aung San Suu Kyi's honours include the Nobel Peace Prize, which she won in
Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Metro Manila

Eighth Congress

Republic Act No. 7160 October 10, 1991

Setion 41(b) Amended by RA 8553
Setion 43 Amended by RA 8553


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress




The Code: Policy and Application

Section 1. Title. - This Act shall be known and cited as the "Local Government Code of 1991".

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. -

(a) It is hereby declared the policy of the State that the territorial and political subdivisions of
the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their
fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the
attainment of national goals. Toward this end, the State shall provide for a more responsive
and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization
whereby local government units shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and
resources. The process of decentralization shall proceed from the national government to the
local government units.

(b) It is also the policy of the State to ensure the accountability of local government units
through the institution of effective mechanisms of recall, initiative and referendum.

(c) It is likewise the policy of the State to require all national agencies and offices to conduct
periodic consultations with appropriate local government units, nongovernmental and
people's organizations, and other concerned sectors of the community before any project or
program is implemented in their respective jurisdictions.

Section 3. Operative Principles of Decentralization. - The formulation and implementation of policies

and measures on local autonomy shall be guided by the following operative principles:

(a) There shall be an effective allocation among the different local government units of their
respective powers, functions, responsibilities, and resources;
(b) There shall be established in every local government unit an accountable, efficient, and
dynamic organizational structure and operating mechanism that will meet the priority needs
and service requirements of its communities;

(c) Subject to civil service law, rules and regulations, local officials and employees paid
wholly or mainly from local funds shall be appointed or removed, according to merit and
fitness, by the appropriate appointing authority;

(d) The vesting of duty, responsibility, and accountability in local government units shall be
accompanied with provision for reasonably adequate resources to discharge their powers
and effectively carry out their functions: hence, they shall have the power to create and
broaden their own sources of revenue and the right to a just share in national taxes and an
equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth
within their respective areas;

(e) Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and
municipalities with respect to component barangays, shall ensure that the acts of their
component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions;

(f) Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts,
services, and resources commonly beneficial to them;

(g) The capabilities of local government units, especially the municipalities and barangays,
shall be enhanced by providing them with opportunities to participate actively in the
implementation of national programs and projects;

(h) There shall be a continuing mechanism to enhance local autonomy not only by legislative
enabling acts but also by administrative and organizational reforms;

(i) Local government units shall share with the national government the responsibility in the
management and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction,
subject to the provisions of this Code and national policies;

(j) Effective mechanisms for ensuring the accountability of local government units to their
respective constituents shall be strengthened in order to upgrade continually the quality of
local leadership;

(k) The realization of local autonomy shall be facilitated through improved coordination of
national government policies and programs an extension of adequate technical and material
assistance to less developed and deserving local government units;

(l) The participation of the private sector in local governance, particularly in the delivery of
basic services, shall be encouraged to ensure the viability of local autonomy as an
alternative strategy for sustainable development; and

(m) The national government shall ensure that decentralization contributes to the continuing
improvement of the performance of local government units and the quality of community life.

Section 4. Scope of Application. - This Code shall apply to all provinces, cities, municipalities,
barangays, and other political subdivisions as may be created by law, and, to the extent herein
provided, to officials, offices, or agencies of the national government.
Section 5. Rules of Interpretation. - In the interpretation of the provisions of this Code, the following
rules shall apply:

(a) Any provision on a power of a local government unit shall be liberally interpreted in its
favor, and in case of doubt, any question thereon shall be resolved in favor of devolution of
powers and of the lower local government unit. Any fair and reasonable doubt as to the
existence of the power shall be interpreted in favor of the local government unit concerned;

(b) In case of doubt, any tax ordinance or revenue measure shall be construed strictly
against the local government unit enacting it, and liberally in favor of the taxpayer. Any tax
exemption, incentive or relief granted by any local government unit pursuant to the provisions
of this Code shall be construed strictly against the person claiming it.

(c) The general welfare provisions in this Code shall be liberally interpreted to give more
powers to local government units in accelerating economic development and upgrading the
quality of life for the people in the community;

(d) Rights and obligations existing on the date of effectivity of this Code and arising out of
contracts or any other source of presentation involving a local government unit shall be
governed by the original terms and conditions of said contracts or the law in force at the time
such rights were vested; and

(e) In the resolution of controversies arising under this Code where no legal provision or
jurisprudence applies, resort may be had to the customs and traditions in the place where
the controversies take place.

General Powers and Attributes of Local Government Units

Section 6. Authority to Create Local Government Units. - A local government unit may be created,
divided, merged, abolished, or its boundaries substantially altered either by law enacted by
Congress in the case of a province, city, municipality, or any other political subdivision, or by
ordinance passed by the sangguniang panlalawigan or sangguniang panlungsod concerned in the
case of a barangay located within its territorial jurisdiction, subject to such limitations and
requirements prescribed in this Code.

Section 7. Creation and Conversion. - As a general rule, the creation of a local government unit or
its conversion from one level to another level shall be based on verifiable indicators of viability and
projected capacity to provide services, to wit:

(a) Income. - It must be sufficient, based on acceptable standards, to provide for all essential
government facilities and services and special functions commensurate with the size of its
population, as expected of the local government unit concerned;

(b) Population. - It shall be determined as the total number of inhabitants within the territorial
jurisdiction of the local government unit concerned; and

(c) Land Area. - It must be contiguous, unless it comprises two or more islands or is
separated by a local government unit independent of the others; properly identified by metes
and bounds with technical descriptions; and sufficient to provide for such basic services and
facilities to meet the requirements of its populace.
Compliance with the foregoing indicators shall be attested to by the Department of Finance
(DOF), the National Statistics Office (NSO), and the Lands Management Bureau (LMB) of
the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

Section 8. Division and Merger. - Division and merger of existing local government units shall
comply with the same requirements herein prescribed for their creation: Provided, however, That
such division shall not reduce the income, population, or land area of the local government unit or
units concerned to less than the minimum requirements prescribed in this Code: Provided, further,
That the income classification of the original local government unit or units shall not fall below its
current classification prior to such division.

The income classification of local government units shall be updated within six (6) months from the
effectivity of this Code to reflect the changes in their financial position resulting from the increased
revenues as provided herein.

Section 9. Abolition of Local Government Units. - A local government unit may be abolished when
its income, population, or land area has been irreversibly reduced to less than the minimum
standards prescribed for its creation under Book III of this Code, as certified by the national agencies
mentioned in Section 7 hereof to Congress or to the sangguniang concerned, as the case may be.

The law or ordinance abolishing a local government unit shall specify the province, city, municipality,
or barangay with which the local government unit sought to be abolished will be incorporated or

Section 10. Plebiscite Requirement. - No creation, division, merger, abolition, or substantial

alteration of boundaries of local government units shall take effect unless approved by a majority of
the votes cast in a plebiscite called for the purpose in the political unit or units directly affected. Said
plebiscite shall be conducted by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) within one hundred
twenty (120) days from the date of effectivity of the law or ordinance effecting such action, unless
said law or ordinance fixes another date.

Section 11. Selection and Transfer of Local Government Site, Offices and Facilities. -

(a) The law or ordinance creating or merging local government units shall specify the seat of
government from where governmental and corporate services shall be delivered. In selecting
said site, factors relating to geographical centrality, accessibility, availability of transportation
and communication facilities, drainage and sanitation, development and economic progress,
and other relevant considerations shall be taken into account.

(b) When conditions and developments in the local government unit concerned have
significantly changed subsequent to the establishment of the seat of government, its
sanggunian may, after public hearing and by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of all its members,
transfer the same to a site better suited to its needs. Provided, however, That no such
transfer shall be made outside the territorial boundaries of the local government unit

The old site, together with the improvements thereon, may be disposed of by the sale or
lease or converted to such other use as the sangguniang concerned may deem beneficial to
the local government unit concerned and its inhabitants.
(c) Local government offices and facilities shall not be transferred, relocated, or converted to
other uses unless public hearings are first conducted for the purpose and the concurrence of
the majority of all the members of the sanggunian concerned is obtained.

Section 12. Government Centers. - Provinces, cities, and municipalities shall endeavor to establish
a government center where offices, agencies, or branches of the national government, local
government units, or government-owned or controlled corporations may, as far as practicable, be
located. In designating such a center, the local government unit concerned shall take into account
the existing facilities of national and local agencies and offices which may serve as the government
center as contemplated under this Section. The national government, local government unit or
government-owned or controlled corporation concerned shall bear the expenses for the construction
of its buildings and facilities in the government center.

Section 13. Naming of Local Government Units and Public Places, Streets and Structures. -

(a) The sangguniang panlalawigan may, in consultation with the Philippine Historical
Commission (PHC), change the name of the following within its territorial jurisdiction:

(1) Component cities and municipalities, upon the recommendation of the

sanggunian concerned;

(2) Provincial roads, avenues, boulevards, thoroughfares, and bridges;

(3) Public vocational or technical schools and other post-secondary and tertiary

(4) Provincial hospitals, health centers, and other health facilities; and

(5) Any other public place or building owned by the provincial government.

(b) The sanggunian of highly urbanized cities and of component cities whose charters
prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials, hereinafter referred to in this
Code as independent component cities, may, in consultation with the Philippine Historical
Commission, change the name of the following within its territorial jurisdiction:

(1) City barangays, upon the recommendation of the sangguniang barangay


(2) City roads, avenues, boulevards, thoroughfares, and bridges;

(3) Public elementary, secondary and vocational or technical schools, community

colleges and non-chartered colleges;

(4) City hospitals, health centers and other health facilities; and

(5) Any other public place or building owned by the city government.

(c) The sanggunians of component cities and municipalities may, in consultation with the
Philippine Historical Commission, change the name of the following within its territorial
(1) City and municipal barangays, upon recommendation of the sangguniang
barangay concerned;

(2) City, municipal and barangay roads, avenues, boulevards, thoroughfares, and

(3) City and municipal public elementary, secondary and vocational or technical
schools, post- secondary and other tertiary schools;

(4) City and municipal hospitals, health centers and other health facilities; and

(5) Any other public place or building owned by the municipal government.

(d) None of the foregoing local government units, institutions, places, or buildings shall be
named after a living person, nor may a change of name be made unless for a justifiable
reason and, in any case, not oftener than once every ten (10) years. The name of a local
government unit or a public place, street or structure with historical, cultural, or ethnic
significance shall not be changed, unless by a unanimous vote of the sanggunian concerned
and in consultation with the PHC.

(e) A change of name of a public school shall be made only upon the recommendation of the
local school board concerned.

(f) A change of name of public hospitals, health centers, and other health facilities shall be
made only upon the recommendation of the local health board concerned.

(g) The change of name of any local government unit shall be effective only upon ratification
in a plebiscite conducted for the purpose in the political unit directly affected.

(h) In any change of name, the Office of the President, the representative of the legislative
district concerned, and the Bureau of Posts shall be notified.

Section 14. Beginning of Corporate Existence. - When a new local government unit is created, its
corporate existence shall commence upon the election and qualification of its chief executive and a
majority of the members of its sanggunian, unless some other time is fixed therefor by the law or
ordinance creating it.

Section 15. Political and Corporate Nature of Local Government Units. - Every local government
unit created or recognized under this Code is a body politic and corporate endowed with powers to
be exercised by it in conformity with law. As such, it shall exercise powers as a political subdivision
of the national government and as a corporate entity representing the inhabitants of its territory.