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GIAN Course

Structural behaviour and design criteria of


Advanced concrete
bridge design
box-girderand construction
bridges

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Joan R. Casas
Professor of Bridge Engineering

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CONCEPT AND APPLICABILITY

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge
UPPER SLAB design and construction
WEBS: Drive load to bearings
movilizing shear
- Platfform

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


- Drives loads to webs BOTOM SLAB
- Compression flange - Closes torsion flux
- Compression flange
- “stores” precompression
due to post-tensioning
ADVANTAGES: Structural efficiency
Light cross-section
DRAWBACKS: Difficult construction
- At least 2 pouring phases
- High amount of formwork 2
- Low efficiency of concreting team
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR: MOVEMENTS

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Transverse bending (local)


Longitudinal bending
Torsion
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Distortion
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR: INTERNAL FORCES

1.- LTB (CANTILEVER)

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian2.- Institute
LONG of Technology
1.LTB Madras
BENDING BOX

1.LTB
BOX
3+4.- TORSION+DISTORTION
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LOCAL TRANSVERSAL BENDING (LTB)

PUNTUAL LOAD

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction


STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR: SPATIAL (INFLUENCE ZONE)

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


ANALYSIS: 3D MODEL (INFLUENCE ZONE)
- FEM (SLABS)
- 3D FRAME
2 D MODEL (INFLUENCE ZONE, ONLY
WHERE THE LOAD IS APPLIED
- FEM (2D)
- GRILLAGE
- THEORY OF SLAB (ANALYTICAL)
- INFLUENCE SURFACES
* PÜCHER CHARTS 5
* HOMBERG CHARTS
LTB (CONT.)
2.- DISTRIBUTED LOADS

Longitudinal equilibrium

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction


Real behaviour

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

ANALYSIS: Slice of 1 m
length modelled as plane box 6
LONGITUDINAL BENDING

Thin walled beam


Real behaviour

GIAN Course

Advanced
ANALYSIS bridge design and construction
EXACT: 3D structure
- FEM, shell
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
- Spatial frame
- Folded plate

SIMPLIFIED: Concept of effective flange width


Depends on:
- Shear internal force
* Load type: Q,q
* simply-supported, continuous
- flange width 7
- ratio b´/L
TORSION
- Antisymmetric part of loading

REAL BEHAVIOUR: THIN-WALLED BEAM


GIAN Course
1.- Saint Venant torsion

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


2.- Warping torsion
Cross-sections: no warping (circular tube)
warping: longitudinal deformation

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DISTORTION
Let us look deeper into the antisymetric part

Longitudinal equilibrium

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Equilibrium:
- In red: actions
- In green: reactions 9
- (internal forces
DISTORTION (CONT´)

To be in
equilibrium
is lacking
GIAN Course
Previous

State IV

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


No external action is resisted, but deformation and
Internal forces appear !!
IV- DISTORTION

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DISTORTION (Cont´)
Diaphragm

GIAN Course
Longitudinal stressess

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

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DIAPHRAGMS
- JUSTIFICATION

1.- To resist the difference between the real


anti-symetric state and the uniform torsion
(St. Venant)

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design


2.- To transfer and(upper
horizontal actions construction
slab to bearings
3.- To transfer vertical actions ( from the webs to bearings

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

WARNINGS !!
- To leave passage for personnel
- To leave passage to internal formwork
- To leave passage to the post-tensioning equipment 12
BOX-GIRDER
Summary of structural behaviour
Shear Trans.
Response Long.stress
stress bending
Action
LTB

GIAN Course
Long.
bending

Torsion
Advanced bridge design and construction
Distortion

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Checking criteria
- Long. Stress

- Shear stress

- Trans. bending

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DESIGN CRITERIA

- Critical appraisal of the different parts (structural)

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


ALSO TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT:
- Minimum construction thickness
(flanges > 15 cm )

- Space for:
- longitudinal ducts
- transversal ducts ( if any)
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- anchorages and couplers
DIVISION OF PLATFFORM INTO BOXES (Informative)

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Alpha < 20º not counter-form required

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DESIGN PARAMETERS
Highway bridges with constant depth

GIAN Course

Advanced bridge design and construction

Indian Institute
Scaffolding
Span-by-span
of Technology Madras
Launching
cantilever

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