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Roofing Profiles

for Roofing Large Areas

Prof. D.S.R. Murty, Professor of Civil Engg. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam,

S.V.N. Suryanarayana Raju, Senior Structural Engineer,

D.V. Trinadha Rao, Junior Engineer, Vijay Nirman Co Pvt. Ltd

C

urrently the sustained efforts The present paper fulfills the elements are assumed tubular in

of designers, manufacturers objective, with the comparison of section.

of materials and builders to three different truss profiles currently Triangular and triangular arch

innovate and incorporate unmatched being used. The trusses trusses are commonly used in a

excellence in the construction of roof investigated include conventional variety of truss roofed structures;

trusses of large areas have resulted triangular truss, triangular truss with these configurations of steel roof

in highly functional, economical and vertical members at supports and trusses with three different spans

pleasing structures. Function halls, triangular arch truss. The study are investigated. The truss profiles

theaters, huge gathering areas and concludes, highlighting various of different spans varying from 20m

warehouses are housing units with advantages associated with each to 30m are illustrated in Fig 1, Fig

roofs and enclosing walls, but with type of the compared trusses. The 2 and Fig 3. The spacing of trusses

no further floors above. The study further materialises that the adopted in this study is at 6m centre

characteristics of such units are traditionally used triangular truss is to centre. Truss top chord slope, is

long span storage area, column more economical than the arched 1 in 3 and the corresponding top

free space for uninterrupted view triangular truss, though it offers chord angle is 18.4° in all the

and movement of vehicular traffic lesser volume of space below the trusses. The parallel distance

for loading and unloading of bottom chord than the latter. In this between the chords in arch

material and goods. The most comparison, only trusses are triangular truss is 1.5 m for 25 m

suited roof for such structures is involved; purlin weights, roof and 30 m spans and 1.25 m for 20

steel trusses. For functional utility sheeting, truss supports, m span.

and economy, identification of the foundations, walling and flooring are The analysis and design is

best truss is the aim of a designer. excluded. All the truss member performed using SAP2000

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Roofing Profiles

Wind Load

The wind pressure is taken as 2

kN/m2. External wind pressure acting

on the top chord on the windward

side works out to -0.5256 P (from

tables of IS 875 (Part III)-1987). On

A. Triangular Truss the leeward side, the pressure is -

0.4 P, where P is 2 kN/m2; ignoring

the increased wind pressure in the

corner and edges. Internal wind

pressure depends on the

permeability of the structure. It is

taken here as ±0.5 P, assuming 5

to 20 % of wall area as opening

B. Triangular Truss With Vertical Members at Supports area.

Earthquake Load

Action of earthquake forces on the

truss is not considered.

Triangular Truss

Triangular truss is the most

frequently used one, since antiquity.

Top and bottom chords resist the

C. Triangular Arch Truss moment coming on the truss at

Figure 1: Truss Profiles for 20 M Span every section along the span, and

the diagonal and vertical members

programme, and the code followed Loads on the Truss in the web resist shear force. The

is IS 800-1984. However, the slope of the top chord normally

The various loads the truss is

permitted increase in allowable used, is in the range of 1:3 to 1:5.

subjected to are

stress by 33% due to wind is not Higher slope 1:3 consumes less

1. Dead load

implemented. The total truss is steel in the top and bottom chords

2. Live load

analysed assigning hinge support and more steel in the vertical and

3. Wind load

at one end and roller support at the the diagonals. As per the moment

other end. Support conditions Dead Load resistance requirement, the

chosen for the trusses reflect the Dead load on the truss includes distance between the top and

actual situation of seating of the self weight of truss, purlins, truss bottom chords is the maximum at

truss in practice, on the columns wind bracing, false ceiling and roof the mid span where moment on

that are generally flexible. The truss sheeting. the truss is the maximum. The only

elements between the joints are With the input of these details disadvantage is the zero lever arm

treated as rigid and capable of of truss members in the distance between top and bottom

transferring moment and shear in programme, the self weight of the chords at the supports. This

addition to membrane force. Top truss is automatically taken into invariably shoots up the forces in

and bottom chord members are account in the analysis by computer the top and bottom chords to higher

designed for their respective forces programme SAP 2000. The weight levels, than those in the highest

optimally; similarly diagonal and of roof sheet, purlins, and other bending moment region, rendering

vertical members are designed services are fed in the analysis as the truss uneconomical if same

individually. However, one method input data at 0.15 kN/m2. member size is used throughout

in normal practice is to adopt a the bottom chord and similarly in

uniform section throughout the Live Load the top chord. To remedy this

chord length in the top and bottom As per IS 875-1987, the live load situation, one vertical member of

chords. But in the present depends on the slope angle of small height may be provided at

investigation each member in the truss top chord. For the slope of both the supports, to lower forces

chord is designed for the level of 18.4° in the present case, the live in the vicinity of supports both in

its force in the top and bottom load works out as 0.582 kN/m2. the top and bottom chords.

chords.

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Roofing Profiles

Vertical and diagonal members dead and live load forces. This economy in top and bottom chords

of the truss provide the needed situation does not allow fixing is slightly nullified by small

separation between top and bottom diagonal inclination uniquely, increases in lengths of vertical and

chords besides resisting the shear however, if the designer is particular, diagonal members. All other items

force at every section along the the inclination can be decided applicable to triangular truss equally

span. Inclination of diagonal depending on the direction of the apply to this truss as well. The

members and the direction of higher vertical force, among the vertical members are kept at about

external forces acting on the truss, external vertical loads due to dead, 0.5m height arbitrarily. Increase in

decide the nature of force either as live and wind. this height reduces chord forces in

compression or tension in the The truss vertical supports are the triangular truss; at the same

diagonal members. Creation of subjected to mainly vertical forces time, it increases lengths of the

tensile forces rather than and small horizontal force which is web members slightly.

compressive force is desirable in a equivalent to the difference of

slender steel member. For forces horizontal component of external Triangular Arch Truss

acting vertically downwards like dead inclined wind forces on the two top This truss is very commonly used

and live loads in trusses, inclination chords. Geometry of the truss does in ware houses, storage sheds,

of a diagonal towards the nearer not create any horizontal force on industries for large storage space

support induces tensile force in it. the two supporting columns of the near ports. Triangular arch truss

In a truss, all external forces acting truss having triangular configuration. provides more storage space than

on it are not of same direction. a triangular truss below the bottom

While dead and live loads act Triangular Truss with chord.

vertically downwards, wind load Availability of this space for

generally acts perpendicular to the

Vertical Members at

storage is highly valuable for

inclined top chord, the force is Supports commercial purposes. The slope

equivalent to large vertical force Vertical members are located on of the top chord in this truss also

upward in direction and a horizontal the supports with the only objective can be in the range of 1:5 to 1:3.

force towards nearer support. The of reducing the forces in the top The distance between top and

direction of vertical force due to wind and bottom chords in the vicinity of bottom chord is part of design

is in opposite direction to that of supports. The resulting significant criteria. Obviously as the distance

between the chords increases, the

forces in the chords decrease.

Based on a small analysis, it is

qualitatively established that 20 %

increase in the distance between

the chords results in about 20%

decrease in the chord forces. The

A. Triangular Truss

slope of the both chords induces

horizontal forces on the junction of

truss bottom and column tops. The

forces create moment in the

support columns. Due to geometry

of the truss, additional moments

are induced in supporting columns

unlike in the case of triangular

truss. Columns in such structures

B. Triangular Truss With Vertical Members At Supports

ranging in height from 6 to 15m

become more expensive than the

columns under companion

triangular trusses.

Supports to trusses are

columns. These can be of structural

steel or reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete columns are

maintenance free, cheaper, but more

C. Triangular Arch Truss

time consuming in construction than

Figure 2: Truss Profiles for 25 M Span

steel columns. The foundations for

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Roofing Profiles

combination yields highest forces

in the members that have to be

considered for member design.

These forces are listed in Tables 1

through 3 for all the trusses and

A. Triangular Truss spans.

The resulting member forces

in the top and bottom chords

depend on the geometry of the

truss and influence the magnitude

of forces. The distance between the

top and bottom chords or the lever

arm is the needed geometry. Due

B. Triangular Truss With Vertical Members At Supports to near zero or very small lever

arm, the forces in the top chord

from support to quarter span are

highest and nearly same despite

lower bending moments. The forces

keep on reducing up to centre of

truss from the quarter span due to

increasing lever arm. Same trend

can be noticed in the bottom chord;

C. Triangular Arch Truss adopting uniform section if needed

Figure 3: Truss Profiles for 30 M Span in the top chord can be done, only

with small economy loss. In the

the columns depend on type of soil 550 MPa is used in different shapes diagonals closest to the mid span

encountered. In sandy and gravely of sections such as C and Z. Use maximum force occurs in the web.

soils, cheaper shallow foundations of this material reduces the weight The total weight of the truss comes

can be adopted. In loose and of purlins, but increases the unit to 7.78 kN. The split of truss weight

marine clay soils, expensive deep cost. between various members is

foundations such as piles are worked out. Both the chords weigh

Roof Sheet

needed. Under-reamed pile is the 6.60 kN and the web members

Asbestos sheet commonly used in

solution in black cotton soils. weigh 1.18 kN which is 15.2 % of

the past is now very rarely utilised

Cheaper wooden piles can be tried the total truss weight.

because of health hazards. Currently,

in place of expensive conventional

GALVALUME ® metallic sheet is Triangular Truss with

reinforced concrete piles, for

frequently used for roofing material.

substantial economy.

The unit weight of GALVALUME® Vertical Members at

Purlins and Roof sheet is far less than that of

Supports

asbestos. Same material is used

Cover Sheet for cladding large truss roofed There is slight variation in the

areas. geometry of the truss from triangular

Purlins

truss. It is only inclusion of vertical

The only flexural members in

trusses are purlins. Conventionally, Discussion of Results members at the supports,

eliminating zero lever arm between

purlins adopted are in mild steel The trusses are designed with

top and bottom chords and creating

with shapes such as, I beam, tubular sections having yield stress

some lever arm equal to newly

channels, angles (tubular sections equal to 250 Mpa. Joinery of truss

placed vertical member height. The

are uneconomical when subjected members is not touched in this

geometry change helps reduction

to bending). Depending on purlin study.

in chord member forces, bringing

span, sag rods are used. For larger

spans, built up steel sections such SPAN: 20 m, closer to the forces in the remaining

part of chord. Highest force in the

as triangular sections, used in Triangular Truss chord member in the triangular

railway platforms are economical.

The analysis is carried out truss with zero lever arm near the

Currently, cold formed steel with

separately for dead, live and wind support 285.30 kN, has come down

yield stress ranging from 450 to

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Roofing Profiles

of a short vertical member on the appears at quarter span from the

support. The forces in all the support. From this location, the

members in the top chord have forces decrease more towards

become nearly equal, differing only support than towards apex. The total

by a small percent of 19. The weight of the truss is 8.68 kN. The truss with vertical members at

bottom chord force distribution along maximum force in the bottom chord supports. Highest weight is

the span is nearly same as that of occurs at a distance of 1/4 th of recorded by arch truss. Arch truss

top chord. span from the centre. The forces is 11.6% higher than triangular truss

As for forces in web members, decrease to near zero value at the in total weight and 13.4% higher

maximum force occurs in the support. The decrease in forces than triangular truss with vertical

vertical member on the support. towards mid span is small. The members at support. Highest weight

Forces in other verticals are small. weights of top and bottom chords is consumed by chords in the

In the diagonals maximum forces are 3.33 kN and 3.18 kN, triangular truss and lowest weight

occur in the diagonal closest to the respectively. The weight of web by triangular truss with vertical

mid span of truss. The total weight members is 2.17 kN which members at supports. While web

of the truss comes to 7.66 kN while constitutes 25 % of total height of members consume 25% total

top and bottom chords contribute a truss. weight of truss in triangular arch

weight of 6.13 kN, and the web truss, minimum weight of web

members contribute a weight of Comparison of members occurs in triangular truss

1.53 kN. The weight of web

members is 20 % of the total weight

Trusses, 20 m span (15% of total weight). The web

members consume 20% of total

The total weight of truss is least at

of truss. weight in triangle truss with vertical

7.66 kN for triangular truss with

members at supports. Overall

Triangular Arch Truss vertical member supports. Next

maximum economy occurs in

higher truss is triangular truss with

In the triangular arch truss top and triangle truss with vertical members

1.6 % higher truss weight than the

bottom chords are separated by a at supports. Maximum utility space

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Roofing Profiles

truss with 11.6% higher weight than The weight of top chord is slightly

the conventional triangular truss. more than that of bottom chord.

The total weight of web members

25m Span, is 3.52kN. The total weight of truss

works out to 12.33kN. For 20m

Triangular Truss triangular truss, the weight of truss

With zero or near zero lever-arm at

is 7.78kN. An increase of 5m in

and in the vicinity of support similar to those of triangular truss.

span increases the weight of truss

respectively, the forces in the The total weight of the truss comes

by about 60%.

members close to support in the to 11.81kN. The weight of top chord

members is 5.22kN. In the bottom

top chord are maximum in two- Triangular Truss with chord the forces in the two end

thirds of half-span from support. In

the remaining one-third of half-span Vertical Members at members in the half-span are small

from truss centre, the forces are compared to those in the remaining

Support members. The top chord and

comparatively smaller (about 80%

In top chord, provision of vertical bottom chord exhibit nearly same

of maximum forces). Similarly, the

members at supports and magnitude of forces. The weight of

magnitude of forces in the top chord

consequent availability of some bottom chord members is 4.6kN. In

is maximum in the three-fourth of

lever arm between chords reduce the verticals, the members at the

half-span from support. Forces in

forces in the two members closest support exhibit several times more

both the chords are nearly same.

to support. However, forces in the force than in the remaining

While the weight of top chord

remaining top chord members are members. Moreover, diagonals

members equals 5.22kN, the weight

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Roofing Profiles

closest to the support and the one nearly same. The total weight of

closest to centre exhibit maximum the truss is 14.40kN. The force

forces. The weight of web members variation in bottom chord members

is 3.3kN, which is about 28% of the is nearly same as in the case of

total truss weight. The weight top chord. The weight of top chord

increase in comparison with the and bottom chord are 4.88kN and

companion 20m span truss is 5.76kN, respectively. Vertical web

4.15kN. It is observed that the members except one member at

truss by 5.72kN. A 5m increase in

weight of truss increases by 54% two-third of half span from the

span increases the weight of the

for a 5m increase in span. support exhibit nearly same force.

truss by 66%.

In diagonals, maximum forces occur

Triangular Arch Truss closest to the support and at truss

30m Span,

The forces are maximum in the two centre. The weight of the web

members close to the support and members is 3.74kN, which works Triangular Truss

one member close to the centre of out 26% of total weight of the truss. 30m truss is fairly on a big span.

span of the top chord. In the Total weight of this truss differs The variation in magnitude of forces

remaining members the forces are from the companion 20m span in the top chord is within 16% in

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Roofing Profiles

the first quarter span from support. 42% compared to 20m and 25m at support and centre of span. In

However, the forces in the second spans, respectively. the other members, the forces are

quarter span are about 75% of varying arbitrarily. The weight of web

those in first quarter span. Similarly, Triangular Truss with works out to 5.96kN, which is

the maximum forces in the bottom 35%of total weight of truss. This

chord occur in the first quarter span

Verticals at Support truss weight is 125% and 45%

Incorporation of vertical members

from the support. In addition, the more than those of its companion

at supports, unlike in triangular

forces in the second quarter span 20m span and 25m span,

truss facilitates the forces in the

for bottom chord are about 85% of respectively.

two or three members in the top

the maximum forces in the first

quarter span. The total weight of

chord nearest to the support to be Triangular Arch

reduced significantly in tune with

truss comes to 17.52kN. The weight

of top chord and bottom chord are

the small bending moments near Truss

the supports. Also, in the bottom In the top chord members, the

7.2kN and 6.1kN, respectively. In

chord, two members nearest to the forces increase gradually from

the web members, forces are

support and at centre, register support to truss centre. The forces

minimum in first vertical nearest to

minimum forces, because of in bottom chord follow the same

the support and two verticals near

smallest bending moment at the trend. The weights of top chord and

the mid-span. The forces in the

support and maximum lever arm, bottom chord are 10.34kN and

remaining members do not vary

in spite of maximum bending 8.62kN, respectively. In the web, the

significantly. In the diagonals, the

moment at the centre of the span. forces in the verticals gradually

forces increase gradually from a

The total weight of the truss works decrease up to quarter span and

minimum to a maximum value from

out to 17.18kN. The weights of top again increase up to mid-span of

support to mid-span, with small

chord and bottom chord are 6.04kN truss. The forces in the diagonals

values in a couple of members.

and 5.18kN, respectively. In the web, decrease from support to mid-span

The weight of web members is

the forces are maximum at support except in the two members closes

4.21kN which is 24% of total weight

and minimum at centre of span for to the mid-span of truss. The weight

of truss. The weight of truss for

obvious reasons. Forces in the of web members is 4.55kN which

this span increases by 125% and

diagonal members are maximum is 19.3% of total weight of truss.

This truss with 30m span

weighs 170% and 57%

more than its companion

trusses of 20m span and

25m span, respectively.

Table 4 illustrates

comparison of truss

member weighs for different

truss profiles and spans

Conclusion

Based on the investigation

undertaken, the following

conclusions can be drawn

for steel roof trusses. The

items investigated relate to

functional utility, total weight

of truss and the resulting

economy. Commonly used

three types of trusses are

studied. They are triangular

truss, triangular truss with

vertical members at

supports and triangular arch

truss.

1. Conventional triangular

trusses are most suited

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Roofing Profiles

with column free space to be 4. For a given span, triangular truss to 0.131kN for spans 20m to 30m.

used in auditoriums, cinema with vertical members at the 7. Use of uniform section for the

halls, function halls and large supports weighs least and maximum force in the top and

gathering areas facilitating triangular arch truss weights bottom chords instead of

provision of false ceiling and air- highest. individual sections for the

conditioning. 5. Weights of web members in corresponding forces does not

2. Triangular trusses can be these trusses constitute 15 to result in minimum amount of steel

rendered more economical with 35% of total weight of truss in all and economical advantage in a

the location of two vertical truss profiles and spans; the truss.

members of small height on the highest percentage occurring in 8. Though purlins have not been

supports. triangular trusses with the vertical part of the present study, in the

3. Triangular arch truss affords more members at supports, except in total truss roof, the weight of steel

space below the bottom chord for the lowest span, 20m. purlins constitute a major

storage purposes than both 6. Steel consumption of trusses per percentage of truss weight and

triangular truss and triangular sq. meter of built-up area of truss hence deserve special attention

truss with vertical members on increases with the area covered in their selection and adoption.

supports. by truss and varies from 0.064kN

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