Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics: 27 Chapters

Angelica Jean M. Buyson De La Salle ± College of Saint Benilde

This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Philippines License

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Preface

This is a collection of reflections from The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics: 27 Chapter. These reflections discuss today¶s most important most important problems. These 27 chapters helped me understand more about ethics.

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Dedication

I would like to dedicate this book to my parents, relatives and friends who gave me the motivation to finish this book and especially God who make all things possible.

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Table of Contents

Chapter 1................................................................................................................7 Chapter 2................................................................................................................8 Chapter 3................................................................................................................9 Chapter 4................................................................................................................10 Chapter 5................................................................................................................11 Chapter 6................................................................................................................12 Chapter 7................................................................................................................13 Chapter 8................................................................................................................14 Chapter 9................................................................................................................15 Chapter 10..............................................................................................................16 Chapter 11..............................................................................................................17 Chapter 12..............................................................................................................18 Chapter 13..............................................................................................................19 Chapter 14..............................................................................................................20 Chapter 15..............................................................................................................21 Chapter 16..............................................................................................................22 Chapter 17..............................................................................................................23 Chapter 18..............................................................................................................24 Chapter 19..............................................................................................................25 Chapter 20..............................................................................................................26 Chapter 21..............................................................................................................27

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Chapter 22.............................................................................................................28 Chapter 23.............................................................................................................29 Chapter 24.............................................................................................................30 Chapter 25.............................................................................................................31 Chapter 26.............................................................................................................32 Chapter 27.............................................................................................................33

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

27 Chapters

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 1: Foundation of Information Ethics Quote: ³We call our society ³the information society´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about foundation of information ethics. Review: Information Ethics is one of the newest fields in the field of applied ethics, in the sense that applied ethics deals with and tries to resolve the conflicts between advances in technology and people's life in the modern society. The remarkable development of computer and network technology has given rise to so unprecedented and so diversified a set of ethical and moral problems that attempts at solving these problems undoubtedly will take philosophically focused and technologically well-informed intellectual efforts. The problems we are facing include the ethical status of "unauthorized" uses of computers and networks, the cultural and economic imbalance between groups with different historical, regional backgrounds in the globalized information infrastructure, the new dimensions of human rights like privacy and copyright in the digitized world, and the moral obligations and duties as professionals in information technology. The researchers working on the project are well aware of the urgency and imminence of the tasks and decided to collaborate. Here is a part of the chapter that explained library profession involves not only books but also consideration of its drawbacks with the actual retrieving of information related to it: But one drawback of the list approach is that it fails to explain how these different values are related to each other. This is particularly problematic given that it is possible that pursuing some values, such as confidentiality or preservation, may conflict with others, such as access. Infosphere is a neologism composed of information and sphere. What I learned: y Information ethics y Meaning of Infosphere Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. How did information ethics founded? What is infosphere? What name do we call our society? What ethics usually grounds its analysis of the moral standing?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 2: Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics Quote: ³Cybernetics takes the view that the structure of machine or of the organism is an index of the performance that maybe expected from it.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about history of Information and Computer Ethics Review: The more specific term ³computer ethics´ has been used to refer to applications by professional philosophers of traditional Western theories like utilitarianism, Kantianism, or virtue ethics, to ethical cases that significantly involve computers and computer networks. ³Computer ethics´ also has been used to refer to a kind of professional ethics in which computer professionals apply codes of ethics and standards of good practice within their profession. In addition, other more specific names, like ³Cybernetics´ and ³Internet ethics´, have been used to refer to aspects of computer ethics associated with the Internet. During the past several decades, the robust and rapidly growing field of computer and information ethics has generated new university courses, research professorships, research centers, conferences, workshops, professional organizations, curriculum materials, books and journals. Given the physiology of human beings, it is possible for them to take in a wide diversity of information from the external world, access information about conditions and events within their own bodies, and process all that information in ways that constitute reasoning, calculating, wondering, deliberating, deciding and many other intellectual activities. What I learned: y History of Information and Computer Ethics Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is Cybernetics? Who is Deborah Johnson? Who is Walter Manner?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 3: Moral Methodology and Information Quote: ³The commonalities in the moral questions pertaining to these topics are more important than the differences between them.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about moral methodology and information. Review: This chapter talks about cyber ethics with a computer concept. In short, this is called the computer ethics. From the moral questions mixed up with computer related topic through development, and application. Professionals and other people who are involved in computer technology have many questions on what is right and what is wrong on particular ethical issues or ethical questions. It is hard to identify which is which and specifically it is hard if there are no references justifying the ethical or moral values. If you are an I.T person, it is hard to identify your point of view. Even you cannot identify it. Justifying answers is hard to formulate because you must know also the basis of a particular topic is. In the field of IT, it is everywhere. Information technology department is a must for a company today in order to survive simply because we are in the 21st century and companies must be innovative as much as possible. As we review this chapter, we will learn how moral methodology and information technology works. Moral methodology is hard to define one by one but it will eventually result to a more broad discussion on how it can be related to information technology. Let us first think of ways how to surely define morality because once that is done, then it is all a matter of time before you figure out and relate why information technology has something to do with it. As mentioned in the quotation, there are a lot of concepts that we need to understand about piracy and other zealous actions towards information technology and as technology continue to grow not only in a single part of the world but universally affect us, more and more ways are determined to prevent moral contradictions against information technology. What I learned: y Moral Methodology and Information Integrative Questions: 1. What is applied ethics? 2. What is generalism? 3. What is particularism? 4. Explain the concept of reflective equilibrium.

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 4: Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems Quote: ³Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about value sensitive design and information systems. Review: In this chapter, value sensitive design is said to be the approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process. In products, tangible or intangible, design is known to be an important aspect. It is because customers and buyers not only look for its value but also with the design. Every product must be designed carefully and makers of the product should know the basic demands of the users. Nowadays, all our wants and needs are made of different brands. You just have to choose wisely. In my experience, I major factor is the design because I think it is catchy to the eyes of the market. Same thing goes in the IT world. Value and the design of the product are sensitive to the eyes of the consumers. When we say value, it simply refers to the economic worth of an object. For example, a laptop costs $3000. However, the word ³value´ in this chapter is defined different. In this chapter, the word ³value´ is defined as to something that we consider important in our life. An example that I can give is the internet. I value greatly the internet because it helps me in so many ways. I can use the internet for communication with friends far away from me. It also gives me information on different things and I can also use it for researches. It also gives intangible benefit like enjoyment with social networking. As a student, internet helps me to gain new knowledge because of the resources it gives me. I have a lot of resources to choose from when I use the internet. So in this way, I value the internet so much that I feel incomplete when I have not used the internet for a day. What I learned: y Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems Integrative Questions: 1. What is value? 2. What does value sensitive design? 3. What things do we consider as valuable to us?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 5: Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property Quote: ³Personality theorists maintain that intellectual property is an extension of individual personality.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about personality-based, rule-utilitarianism, and lockean justifications of intellectual property. Review: In this chapter Intellectual property is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based upon some idea or collection. As I interpret intellectual property, the idea that goes into my mind is that each one of us has a property that is intangible and only ourselves own it. It can¶t be taken by others because it is our own minds that work to produce an output. In my opinion, every individual have different ways of having an intellectual property. For example, one is good at coding and he/she considers it as his intellectual property but he/she does cannot design a web properly. On the other hand, a web designer is good at designing webs so he/she can consider it as their intellectual property. Because of our intellectual property, we are able to produce different outputs of our own. An example that I can give is the authors of a book. These authors used their special skills and talents to produce a book. Therefore it is copyrighted so no one can copy or duplicate it. Music is also copyrighted. Composers of music should have their own unique ways and styles on how to make a good composition. I think that composers should not copy even a little idea or thought from other composers because they can be sued for stealing. Every one of us has our own ways of intellectual property so we should make good use of it. What I learned: y Personality-Based y Rule-Utilitarian Integrative Questions: 1. What is intellectual property? 2. What is rule-utilitarian?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 6: Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies Quote: ³We demand recognition of our right to privacy, we complain when privacy is invaded, yet we encounter difficulties immediately.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about information privacy of concepts, theories, and controversies Review: Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude them or information about themselves and thereby reveal them selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share basic common themes. Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed or unidentified in the public realm. When something is private to a person, it usually means there is something within them that is considered inherently special or personally sensitive. The degree to which private information is exposed therefore depends on how the public will receive this information, which differs between places and over time. Privacy can be seen as an aspect of security ² one in which trade-offs between the interests of one group and another can become particularly clear. For me, I define privacy as when it is only I who can touch my things and stuffs. Only selected people are allowed to see the private things because I consider it special to my life. In my experience, I don¶t want other people to invade my things every time I have visitors in my room. It is because I consider it as a norm for other people not to touch all the things that they can see in my room. I feel pissed off when other people don¶t think about others privacy. It is like they don¶t care at all on what I will feel towards them if I see them touching my stuffs.

What I learned: y Privacy Integrative Questions: 1. What is privacy? 2. What is the importance of privacy?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 7: Online Anonymity Quote: ³Anonymity is namelessness, detachment and lack of recognition.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about online anonymity. Review: Anonymity is an effect of not having recognizing individualities disclosed. This can occur from a lack of interest in learning the nature of such characteristics, or through intentional efforts to hide these characteristics. An example of the former would include a brief encounter with a stranger, when learning the other person's name is not deemed necessary. An example of the latter would include someone hiding behind clothing that covers identifying features like hair color, scars, or tattoos, in order to avoid identification. In some cases, anonymity is reached unintentionally, as is often the case with victims of crimes or war battles, when a body is discovered in such a state that the physical features used to identify someone are no longer present. Anonymity is not always found in such morbid situations, however. As an example, a winner of a lottery jackpot is until that person turns in the winning lottery ticket. There are many reasons why a person might choose to obscure their identity and become anonymous. Several of these reasons are legal, legitimate and socially approved of - many acts of charity are performed anonymously, as benefactors do not wish, for whatever reason, to be acknowledged for their action. Someone who feels threatened by someone else might attempt to hide from the threat behind various means of anonymity; a witness to a crime can seek to avoid retribution, for example, by anonymously calling a crime tip line. There are also many illegal reasons to hide behind anonymity. Criminals typically try to keep themselves anonymous either to conceal the fact that a crime has been committed, or to avoid capture. Anonymity may also be created through a gradual eroding of ownership information. What I learned: ‡ Online anonymity Integrative Question: 1. What is online anonymity? 2. How can you relate anonymity to IT? 3. How can you relate anonymity to ethics?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Chapter 8: Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counter hacking Quote: ³´Hacking can cause death to a person.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn what the concepts behind hacking are. Review: The word "hack" was originated from US University computing centre staff in the mid1960s. The context determined whether the complimentary or derogatory meanings were implied. Phrases such as "ugly hack" or "quick hack" generally referred to the latter meaning; phrases such as "cool hack" or "neat hack", to the former. In modern computer programming, a "hack" can refer to a solution or method which functions correctly but which is "ugly" in its concept, which works outside the accepted structures and norms of the environment, or which is not easily extendable or maintainable. The programmer keeps beating on it until a solution is found. The jargon used by hackers is called "Hackish". This should not be confused with "1337" or "leetspeak." In a similar vein, a "hack" may refer to works outside of computer programming. For example, a math hack means a clever solution to a mathematical problem. The GNU General Public License has been described as a copyright hack because it cleverly uses the copyright laws for a purpose the lawmakers did not foresee. All of these uses now also seem to be spreading beyond MIT as well. On many internet websites and in everyday language the word "hack" can be slang for "copy", "imitation" or "rip-off."A DIY musician probes the circuit board of a synthesizer for "bends" using a jeweller¶s screwdriver and alligator clips. The term has since acquired an additional and now more common meaning, since approximately the 1980s; this more modern definition was initially associated with crackers. This growing use of the term "hack" is to refer to a program that (sometimes illegally) modifies another program, often a computer game, giving the user access to features otherwise inaccessible to them. What I learned: ‡ Hacking Integrative Question: 1. What is hacking? 2. What is ethical hacking? 3. What are the concepts behind hacking?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Chapter 9: Information Ethics and the Library Profession Quote: ³IE is related to CE.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about information ethics and library profession. Review: In orientation work many ethical mysteries are faced every day, and depending upon how they are dealt with, they can have some serious repercussions for individuals and for society overall. Robert Hauptman brought some of these issues to the forefront when he undertook his experiment to obtain information on the ways reference librarians respond to questions of an ethical manner. In 1975 he visited thirteen libraries, asking the reference librarians to provide him with information for building a bomb that would enable him to blow up a suburban home. Not one librarian refused to help fulfil his request. Herein lays the dilemma for the women and men who work the reference desks of our libraries: do they blindly serve clients, discounting any moral obligation, or is it their primary duty to think of the collective 'good'? If a librarian's code of ethics has clear-cut guidelines stipulated, any information query can be denied with justification. In Information Ethics: Freedom, Democracy, Responsibility, Martha M. Smith observes that from the early years of the Library Journal, ethical dilemmas ranging from how librarians should answer legal questions, to wartime issues regarding information about the 'enemy', were the subject of controversial debate. There will always be perplexities for reference librarians to work their way through, and decisions made to establish to whom reference librarians are accountable. What I learned: ‡ Relationship between Ethics and the Library Profession Integrative Question: 1. What is ethics? 2. What is library? 3. What are the relationships between the two?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 10: Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software Quote: ³Ethical interest can be found in everyday life.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about ethical interest in free and open source software. Review: Ethical interest is the normative ethical situation that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people do only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds merely that it is rational to act in one's self-interest. These doctrines may, though, be combined with ethical egoism. Ethical interest contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents have an obligation to help and serve others. Egoism and altruism both contrast with ethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat one's self with no higher regard than one has for others but that one also should not sacrifice one's own interests to help others' interests, so long as one's own interests are substantially-equivalent to the others' interests and wellbeing. Egoism, utilitarianism, and altruism are all forms of consequentialism, but egoism and altruism contrast with utilitarianism, in that egoism and altruism are both agent-focused forms of consequentialism, but utilitarianism is called agent-neutral as it does not treat the subject's interests as being more or less important than if the same interests, desires, or well-being were anyone else's. What I learned: ‡ Ethical interest Integrative Question: 1. What is ethical interest? 2. What is ethics? 3. What is interest?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 11: Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues Quote: ³This is ethics in internet.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about internet research ethics. Review: The arena of ethics involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Are they merely social inventions? Do they involve more than expressions of our individual emotions? Metaethical answers to these questions focus on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical judgments, and the meaning of ethical terms themselves. Normative ethics takes on a more practical task, which is to arrive at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. This may involve articulating the good habits that we should acquire, the duties that we should follow, or the consequences of our behaviour on others. Finally, applied ethics involves examining specific controversial issues, such as abortion, infanticide, animal rights, environmental concerns, homosexuality, capital punishment, or nuclear war. By using the conceptual tools of metaethics and normative ethics, discussions in applied ethics try to resolve these controversial issues. The lines of distinction between metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics are often blurry. For example, the issue of abortion is an applied ethical topic since it involves a specific type of controversial behaviour. But it also depends on more general normative principles, such as the right of self-rule and the right to life, which are litmus tests for determining the morality of that procedure. What I learned: ‡ Internet research ethics Integrative Question: 1. What is ethics? 2. What is internet?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 12: Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty Quote: ³Heath can relay in IT.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn all about health information technology. Review: Heath merits learning as a model of uncommon development. The 50-years 1861-1911 covers a complete transformation from isolated rural outpost to integrated metropolitan suburb. In 1862, a new railway station sited in the eastern farmlands of Thornton Heath enabled that area to evolve into a railway suburb. In the late nineteenth century, the western part of Thornton Heath, which lay directly on the main London-Sussex road, demonstrated a classic form of suburban ribbon development. It also became the final piece of an unbroken urban chain linking two major centres, London and Croydon. Meanwhile, the aspiring middle-class enclave was switching to host a working-class population. So, in its infant phase, Thornton Heath demonstrated a split-personality in elements of suburban growth that have been defined as typically singular: ribbon development alongside railway development; a dual urban dependency; working-class enclaves alongside middle-class. There were also exceptional aspects regarding location and space that don¶t quite fit the generic mould of suburban development. Location fostered a linkage pattern untypical of the standard relationship between urban centre and suburb. Thornton Heath lies due north of Croydon, at a distance of only two miles, and due south of the City of London, at just 7.5 miles. As Daniel Defoe¶s London µmonster¶ slithered along the Sussex road, swallowing the villages of Kennington, Brixton and Streatham in the process, it smacked its lips towards Croydon: µlarge and full of citizens from London, which makes it so populous. What I learned: y Health Information Technology Integrative Question: 1. What is health? 2. What is IT? 3. What are the concepts behind it?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 13: Ethical Issues of Information and Business Quote: ³Businesses and the economic system they work in have an important influence on ethical issues arising from information and information and communication technology.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about ethical issues of information and business. Review: A business is a lawfully documented group designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generations of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative enterprises and state-owned enterprises. Businesses can also be formed not-for-profit or be state-owned. The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope ² the singular usage (above) to mean a particular company or corporation, the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the music business" and compound forms such as agribusiness, or the broadest meaning to include all activity by the community of suppliers of goods and services. Most profitable contact are governed by a very detailed and well-established body of rules that have evolved over a very long period of time, it being the case that governing trade and commerce was a strong driving force in the creation of law and courts in Western civilization. As for other laws that regulate or impact businesses, in many countries it is all but impossible to chronicle them all in a single reference source. There are laws governing treatment of labor and generally relations with employees, safety and protection issues, anti-discrimination laws, minimum wage laws, union laws, workers compensation laws, and annual vacation or working hour¶s time. What I learned: ‡ Ethics in business Integrative Questions: 1. What is business? 2. How it is related to ethics?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics

Chapter 14: Responsibilities for Information on the Internet Quote: ³According to Friedman, if they were to have these responsibilities, then these responsibilities might easily conflict with their obligations to make profits for the stockholders´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about responsibilities for information on the internet. Review: There has been widespread hard work at both national and international levels to revise copyright laws to address the challenges of digitalization and the Internet. Internet service providers (ISPs) have been active in these debates to ensure that revisions in copyright law do not create untenable liabilities for ISPs. Copyright laws that can be construed to hold ISPs liable for any content that is accessed will threaten not only the ISP industry but the Internet as we know it. ISPs transmit more than half a billion messages each day, and cannot realistically be expected to monitor the content of those transmissions. Moreover, the instantaneous nature of digital communications precludes access providers from viewing, judging, monitoring, or editing the content of most messages posted or accessed by their subscribers. Finally, ISPs are similar to common carriers in that they have no control over which members of the public use their facilities, or the content members of the public choose to transmit. Requiring ISPs to monitor user transactions for copyright violations would not only violate the rights of users, but would fundamentally change the ISP business model. It would force ISPs to sell content, not access. Satisfied owners definitely have the right to receive compensation for the use and reproduction of their material. There are potential legal, contractual, and technical methods for ensuring that they do, even in the digital era. What must not be done is to create potential liability for ISPs for any copyrighted content that flows through their network. Effective copyright reform requires balancing ISP rights and responsibilities in regards to copyrighted material. What I learned: ‡ Responsibilities in internet info Integrative Questions: 1. What is responsibility? 2. What is the connection between ethics and internet? 3. What are the responsibilities behind internet info? 4. How can they affect each other?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 15: Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation Quote: ³Technologies raise important ethical questions about the way in which they represent reality and the misrepresentations, biased representations, and offensive representations that they may contain.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about virtual reality and computer simulation. Review: The endoscope is manoeuvred in the duodenum until the major duodenal papilla is identified. The papilla is a nodular protuberance on the medial wall of the duodenum through which the bile duct and pancreatic duct expel bile and pancreatic juice respectively into the duodenum to aid in the process of digestion. After the endoscope is positioned near the major duodenal papilla, a catheter is inserted through a channel of the endoscope and directed into the desired ductile system by changing the position of the flexible endoscope tip in relation to the papilla. An ³elevator´ apparatus at the tip of the endoscope can also be utilized to adjust the angle at which the catheter enters the papilla. To guide the catheter into the papilla, the physician relies on visual feedback from the endoscopic video display and tactile resistance encountered when advancing the catheter. In diagnostic ERCP, contrast dye is injected through the catheter while fluoroscopic images are observed and roentgenograms are obtained. How technology can do such wonders for our benefits and allows us to experience something more than what we should have experienced back then. What I learned: ‡ Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation Integrative Questions: 1. What is Virtual Reality? 2. What is Computer Simulation? 3. What is the difference between real and virtual?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 16: Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues Quote: ³The future of biology is strongly tied to that of bioinformatics, a field of research that collects all sort of biological data, tried to make sense of living organisms in their entirety and then make predictions.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn epistemological and ethics. Review: Identify an ethical question or case regarding the integration of information technology into society. Typically this focuses upon technology-generated possibilities that could affect (or are already affecting) life, health, security, happiness, freedom, knowledge, opportunities, or other key human values. Clarify any ambiguous or vague ideas or principles that may apply to the case or the issue in question. If possible, apply already existing, ethically acceptable principles, laws, rules, and practices that govern human behaviour in the given society. It was explained ³that genetic information is the genes containing an amount of information (the socalled TACG amino acids sequence) and able to build a human being up is today a seldom challenged triviality. This idea is fundamental to the so-called ³Central Dogma´ of genetics. The ³Central Dogma´, as originally formulated by Crick, is a negative hypothesis, which states that information cannot flow downward from protein to DNA.´ No, DNAs are not really my professional concern but I am aware that like DNAs, computers withhold an amazing degree of information no man can memorize but can definitely determine. What I learned: ‡ Epistemological Ethics Integrative Questions: 1. What is semantic theory? 2. 3. What is synthetic theory? What is genetic information?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 17: The Ethics of Cyber Conflict Quote: ³Besides cyber attacks conducted for pleasure or personal gain, the paper does not consider revenge attacks by insiders²all of which are generally regarded as unethical.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn more about ethics of cyber conflict. Review: The issue of law and cyber conflict is something that while relatively new, is something that people, nation states, and military organizations have been working on for the last 10 years at least. Many countries have robust cyber warfare rules of engagement, and the more interesting part about this is that any country with an internet connection can engage in cyber conflicts. Attribution (IE Knowing who is attacking you, and being able to act appropriately against the real place that is attacking you) has long been a problem. Zombies, bot nets, jump points, and the millions of compromised computers both Windows and Linux are the cannon fodder of cyber warfare. Attributing the attacker back to the point of origin is going to be difficult if not impossible without some smart people having unrestricted access to packets, and to compromise systems. Legally though, it gets more interesting as the state of cyber law is often well behind the state of cyber warfare tools. With the advancing technology, even internet can cause war to countries. It could be a silent war; no one would get hurt« physically. Cyber conflict may result to chaos to the concerned parties. Such as what happened in September 2000, wherein Israelite teenage hackers created a website that successfully jammed six websites in Lebanon, causing a huge turmoil in different websites in Israel, including those of the Palestinians and at least one U.S. site. They made two main types of attacks, the website defacement and distributed denial of service. What I learned: ‡ Ethics of Cyber Conflict Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is cyberspace? What is hacktivism? What happened in the law of war? What is the doctrine of self defense? What it is about hack back and force?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 18: A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment²A SoDIS Inspection Quote: ³The availability of high-quality software is critical for the effective use of information technology in organizations´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about Ethical Risk Assessment. Review: The quantitative nature of the tool allows a company to determine whether or not it has successfully decreased its ethical risk over time. But the qualitative aspect of the tool allows the organization to identify and address specific risk-prone areas by minimizing risks that can be controlled and by instigating effective measures to counteract unavoidable risks. In developing their tool, the pair looked at two existing measures of ethical risk that were ultimately found lacking: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Ethics Resource Center Ethics Quick Test. The GRI takes a broad look at social performance measures, looking at how a company adhered to multinational codes and standards in the past, Berman explained. ³It¶s really backwardlooking. It really says what we¶ve done and not what kinds of risks we have and how do we manage them. It doesn¶t help us manage the risk going forward, so unfortunately, we didn¶t find it super helpful.´ What I learned: y Ethical Risk Assessment

Integrative Questions: 1. What is SoDIS? 2. What is risk assessment? 3. Is risk assessment necessary?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 19: Regulation and Governance of the Internet Quote: ³Degrading Internet performance will not obviously harm many people very much, depending of course on the degradation.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about regulation and governance of the internet. Review: This technological, industrial and social innovation has risen to the very top of the major public policy priorities. As a result, the desire to correct certain inconsistencies, gaps or dangers in the current situation has become part of the international political agenda. A certain number of tensions have also resulted. Due to its UN framework, the Summit had as prerequisites the plurality of the actors and the equal acceptability of their viewpoints. The debates that resulted, whether formal or informal, whether included in the official program or led in parallel, emphasize the need to coordinate, if not harmonize, complex balances of power. To examine how the regulation of the Internet has emerged as an object of global governance in the context of the United Nations. Secondly, using a neo-Foucauldian govern mentality perspective, to explore and explain how these UN-initiated regulatory activities have been driven and shaped by a cluster of concerns, principals and imageries about technological features of the Internet and its relationship to socio-political transformations. This exploration gives important insights into the contemporary shape of Internet regulation and the principals and knowledge bases that have given momentum to and shaped this emergent object of global governance. In particular, the paper shows how technological features of the Internet have come to function as models for the shape of its regulation. What I learned: y Regulation and Governance of the Internet

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What What What What is Censorship? is Content Regulation? is Internet Govenrance? is IP address?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 20: Information Overload Quote: ³Some of these information goods are end-products while others are agents of control that help to manage the accelerating processes of production and consumption.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about information overload. Review: The most obvious locus of information inundation is the office: e-mail, voice mail, phone calls, meetings, business journals, faxes, memos, manuals, Web research. The list goes on. Far from bringing about the anticipated ³paperless office´ and reduced work load, technological innovations have increased both areas. Information technology, in fact, often diminishes workplace efficiency. Scientific American (³Taking Computers to Task,´ July 1997) pointed out that despite the $1 trillion spent annually across the globe, ³productivity growth measured in the seven richest nations has instead fallen precipitously in the last 30 years « Most of the economic growth can be explained by increased employment, trade and production capacity. Computers¶ contributions, in contrast, nearly vanish in the noise.´ Blame can be pinned on everything from sound cards to solitaire, that numbing front-desk babysitter. We can say that Data is like food. A good meal is served in reasonably-sized portions from several food groups. It leaves you satisfied but not stuffed. Likewise with information, we¶re best served when we can partake of reasonable, useful portions, exercising discretion in what data we digest and how often we seek it out. Unfortunately, we often do the opposite, ingesting information constantly to the point of choking on it. The risk of information asphyxiation touches all of us ² managers, Web surfers, even lazy couch tubers. That¶s the analogy of it. What I learned: y Information Overload

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What is Information Overload? What is Information? What are the causes of information overload? What is the consequence of information overload?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 21: Email Spam Quote: ³A fundamental problem with any philosophical discussion of email spam is definitional.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about email spam. Review: E-mail spam, also known as junk e-mail, is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. ³UCE´ refers specifically to unsolicited commercial e-mail. Furthermore, E-mail spam has steadily, even exponentially grown since the early 1990s to several billion messages a day. Spam has frustrated, confused, and annoyed e-mail users. Laws against spam have been sporadically implemented, with some being opt-out and others requiring opt in e-mail. The total volume of spam (over 100 billion emails per day as of April 2008[update]) has levelled off slightly in recent years, and is no longer growing exponentially. The amount received by most e-mail users has decreased, mostly because of better filtering. About 80% of all spam is sent by fewer than 200 spammers. Botnets, networks of virus-infected computers, are used to send about 80% of spam. Since the cost of the spam is borne mostly by the recipient, it is effectively postage due advertising. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk ³UCE´ refers specifically to unsolicited commercial e-mail. The total volume of spam (over 100 billion emails per day as of April 2008) has levelled off slightly in recent years, and is no longer growing exponentially. What I learned: y Email Spam

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What What What What is Email? is Email Spam? is Email Message? is Unsolicited Commercial Bulk Emails (UCBE)?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 22: The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If Quote: ³The emphasis on impropriety is important.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the matter of plagiarism: what, why, and if. Review: Plagiarism occurs when students fail to acknowledge that the ideas of others are being used. Specifically it occurs when: other people¶s work and/or ideas are paraphrased and presented without a reference; other students¶ work is copied or partly copied; other people¶s designs, codes or images are presented as the student¶s own work; phrases and passages are used verbatim without quotation marks and/or without a reference to the author or a web page; lecture notes are reproduced without due acknowledgement. By this, we can identify what¶s the meaning of this. When plagiarism is suspected, a staff member involved in unit assessment is required to put the matter to the student, identify the passages which are alleged to be plagiarised and their source and report the matter to the Chief Examiner (or nominee). If it is alleged that an internet site is the source of plagiarism, it would be advisable to print out the material in case the site is changed. According to the book, the present author believes that, in some contexts, new technology has tended to increase the importance we should place on acknowledgment and to lessen the importance that we should place on authorization. What I learned: y The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is plagiarism? Why is it very sensitive? The role of plagiarism to cybernetics?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 23: Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing Quote: ³Unauthorized downloading of copyrighted files constituted direct infringement.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the intellectual property of legal and moral challenges of online file sharing. Review: What is an intellectual property? According to this chapter, it is a property from original thought protected by law. An original creative work manifested in tangible form that can be legally protected. So that means that this property must be protected by laws at all cost. Many of us make a mistake about this topic because it¶s complicated and we don¶t understand which is which, and what is what. For beginners, they don¶t understand this topic well especially those beginners who will be creating something for them. They did it very well. But other people will just use it without permission to the owner. That is calling a copyright infringement. As stated here that all unauthorized property is against ethical values. For example, in downloading copyright files online can be considered as an infringement because the downloader doesn¶t have a permission to the owner to use it. Even if it is fair use, they don¶t have rights to download these files. The only key to download this to avoid copyright infringement is that pays for that property and makes a permission to use that thing.

What I learned: y Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. What is intellectual property? What is P2P? What is infringement?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 24: Censorship and Access to Expression Quote: ³No one wants to be censor. No one wants to be called a ³Censor´.´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the censorship and access to expression. Review: We are now in 21st century and we are now involved in technology. For ancient times, censorship was also applicable. Those who have an authority can order a restriction of a particular issue or event. We are now in the modern times, and we are still doing this act. Of course all of us need privacy. Each individual should be protected at all cost. In order to prevent the exposure of private, the censorship is applied. What is this censorship? Well basically, censorship role is to condemn person¶s action. In other words, condemn is considering something guilty about a particular act. So in order to avoid guiltiness, censorship is applied. Without getting clear on what we mean by censorship, this chapter tells us that it is very hard to know exactly what is wrong with a particular act and indeed, it is always wrong. We must find out the real truth about censorship. By finding it, of course, we don¶t know where to start because it was censored. There is no information about it. For example, there was an illegal transaction between a businessman and a group that sells drugs and it was recorded in the video, it was censored when it was first shown because they don¶t want to reveal that transaction. When a person who are in the authority who wants to reveal the truth, he/she must make information out of it and try to release this video at all cost. But, the problem is that it is censored. That¶s the main point of the problem. That¶s why it is difficult to release it even if it is an evidence for the case. Without getting clear on what we mean by censorship, it is difficult to get a grip on exactly what is wrong with it, and indeed, on whether it is always wrong. What I learned: y Censorship and Access to Expression

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is censorship? How do they define censorship and expression? How do they connect this two aspect through cybernetics? Is it really justifiable? What is restricting access to cybernetics?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 25: The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics Quote: ³Puts it, the job of feminist ethics is, to create a gender-equal ethics, a moral theory that generates non-exist moral principles, policies and practices´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the gender agenda in computer ethics. Review: At the first part of this particular chapter, noticed that the main topic is feminine. The question is that why do they need to focus on them? The answer to that is that woman is powerful also as man. It is much better than the abilities of man. As they discussed here, Woman¶s ethical values is the number one debates and issue for our world today. The world in reality can¶t accept the man¶s ability and other would tell that it is not good for woman because some abilities of man can¶t do it by woman. But then morality again is the issue here. Care cybernetics. It¶s the first time I heard that. According to this chapter, care ethics is a cornerstone of most difficult approaches towards feminist ethics. The main actor here again is the feminine. They are the main emphasis on this chapter. As we all know, the characteristics of woman is unique. They are the one who make things better not just only in society but especially on families. Mothers are considered the light of house. Their responsibilities are big therefore they should take these responsibilities for their family. In relating to computer ethics, it¶s the same, as stated on this chapter, they give more emphasis on feminine side, therefore, and they have big responsibilities in society. What I learned: y The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics

Integrative Questions: 1. Why is it related to Cyberethics? 2. Why they focus on feminine side? 3. What is care ethics?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 26: The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

Quote: ³The global distribution of material resources should bother any conscientious person´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the digital divide of a perspective for the future. Review: This chapter explains the role of Digital Divide for the people. Let us define first what is digital divide? As stated here on this particular chapter, Digital divide is a new term for right which means that it occupies the main component of global lingua franca. The word lingua franca is only for the internet which is accepted as a language from our language. Those words by lingua franca came from us but these words were modernized because of internet. These words defined by human and can understand by people who are into computers or internet enthusiasts. It¶s more on digital words I should say because; it is modernized by people to make it more attractable and meaningful. This is to signify that in essential terms, one thing: the fundamental disparity between information haves and have-nots. These words are too techy and I don¶t understand it either. It is stated here that these will depend upon who is on the sides of comparison. What do people expect from this topic? Again, it is a literature of words that is full of technical definition. There are many doubts about digital divide because people cannot easily detect in digital divide literature. The big problem of this topic is that it is hard to understand this particular language and more people will not and discourage them to understand this. It is a learning tool for us bet yet, no one in the world will try to understand and learn it. Only those people who are interested. It is stated here that this was too narrow to certainly understand the revolution. The network had to expand, by all means so that it will be accessible for people who like to use this as a primary tool. What I learned: y The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What people expect from this topic? Why is it different tool? How does it differ to the ordinary language? Why did they choose this tool?

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Running Head: 27 Chapters of Information and Computer Ethics Chapter 27: Intercultural Information Ethics

Quote: ³Present debate shows a variety of foundational perspectives as well as a preference for the narrow view that focuses IIE on ICT´ What I expect to learn: I am expecting to learn about the intercultural information ethics. Review: When we say intercultural it is within the culture. Combining this to ethics means a lot to the information ethics topic. We all know that information ethics is part of ethical values made by human. We all know that information is everywhere. It will go out somewhere just like water. But the problem of this is that information is very much sensitive. Once information is leaked, more people will know it and as a result, people will react and react about that issue. The information now turns out to issue. That¶s the informal way of knowing the information. Information must be in a good side wherein people must make use of it in a right and better way. Now, for uneducated people, they don¶t know how to handle the information, they keep leaking this and sometimes this particular information will go to some professionals. It¶s complicated in sharing information especially if that information is sensitive. As stated here on this chapter. IIE will not deal with the question of the impact of ICT on local cultures but explores also how specific ICT issues or, more generally, media issues can be analyzed from different IIE perspective. We are talking here again about the cultures and we all know that we have different cultures and at the same time, we have different beliefs. So this statement from this chapter proves that Intercultural Information of ethics is different and has different impact to ICT for local cultures.

What I learned: y Intercultural Information Ethics

Integrative Questions: 1. Why is it called emerging discipline? 2. What is the foundational perspective that focuses on IIE? 3. What is basically IIE?

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