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MANUAL ON SUB-STATION

~R

Chapter
on
DESIGN OF EARTHING MAT FOR HIGH VOLTAGE
SUB-STATION

PUBLICATION No. 223

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NEW DELHI
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CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER


,
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi-l10021. 1Iif.)

New Delhi January 1992

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AMENDMENT NO.1 FOR CBI&P PUBLICATION NO.223
(JANUARY 1992) ON ~DESIGN OF EARTHING MAT FOR
HIGH VOLTAGE SUB-STATION.

.
1. Page 6, line 19, read
'IG' for 'IG'
2. Page 8, line 3 under figure 4, delete
line 4 under figure 4, delete 'determined as follows'
'Cs'
3. Page 9, line 8, delete
'following'.
4. line 21,
t. In
Km= id+2h)2
~Jt [(~: h.d + 8 D.d' - L\ 4 d) + Kii'
Kh I n. 8
5.' Page 10, line 21, insert JI:(2n-1) J
'increasing' before 'mat depth',
line 35, shift 'For ground mat depths
between J.25 and 2.5 meters' just
about th~ second equation and add the following
und~r the second equation;
Where 'h' = depth of ground mat in meter
6. Page 11 line 26 & 28, insert
'=' after 'R g ' and
'R '
7. Page 12, lines 1 & 2, insert 1
'=' after 'R2' and 'R12'
8. Page 14, line 1, read 'figure 8' for 'figure 2'
l~ne 25, insert
'transformers' after 'Y/Y'
9. Page 16, line 33, read 'part' for 'card'
1O. Page 17, line 1, insert '=' after '-2750'
3250
11. line 10, read (1.) 'figure 10' for (figure
3'
(ii) '+' for "(=) I between '7x76' & '7x69'
12. Page.21, disregard the design fi~ures giien in the sketch.
13. Page 22, Bd:i'
'*'q:{1.1:ifte
CT in the ligure and before
':nsulating
. point of enclosure'
14. Page 23, read (i) -4'
'1.6x10 for '1.6 x 10' in line 7 of
item 2 of the Example.
15. Page 29, read '5.21' for '5.51' as the value of
16. Page 17, read (+) for (-) before kii in the .IG'
equation
17. Page 18, h' should equal yd,h for Km.
r:;-r:- kh .

18. Page 16, Read 'E tou~h' for 'F touch' in last line.
19. Page 17, Read 'E touch' & 'E step' for 'F touch' & 'F step'
20. Page 18, Read 'E mesh' & 'E step' for 'F mesh' & 'F step'
21. Page 19, (i) Delete 'gh' in the first line, and 'h' in the
3rd line.
(ii) Read 'R12' for '~1 R2' in 19th line
(iii) Read '=' for 'I' in 9th line.
(iv) Read 'R2' for 'R ' in 15th line.
(v)
z
Read 2.2932 for 2,237 in 19th line
(vi) Read 2.2932 for 2.3222 in 25th line
(vii) Read 2.7518 for 2.70756 in 26th line
(viii) Read ?~932 for 3.5222 in ~6th line
(ix) Read ].3604 for 1.39524 in 26th line
(x) ReaJ 1.134 for 1.163 in 26th line
-"
(xi) Reaci 1.1996 for 1.1997 in 27th lin0.
1

CONTENTS

1. Earthing Page
1
2. Purpose of Sub-station Earthing System

3. Earthing System

4. Parameters Affecting the Design of Earthing Mat


1
5. Design Procedure
2
6. Construction and Installation of Earthing Mat
15
7. Earthing Mat and Perimeter Fence Connection
15
Annexure A : Estimation of Mesh and Step Potentials
by Graphical Method
25
Annexure B : Example Showing Division of Fault ,Current Between the
Overhead Earthwire and Earthing Grid
28

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\f Design of Earthing Mat for


I
,
!. High Voltage Substations
1. Earthing
Provision of adequate earthing in a substation is extremely important for the safety of operating personnel as well
as for proper system operation. By earthing we mean connecting the electrical equipment to the general mass of the earth
which has a very low resistance.
2. Purpose of Substation Earthin~ System
The object of an earthing system in a substationis to provide under ami around the suhstation II surface which
shall be at a uniform potential and near zero or absoluteearth potentialas possible.The provision of such a surfaceof
uniform potential under and around the substation ensures that no human being in the substation is subject to shock or
injury on the occurrence of a short circut or development of other abnormal condition,,>in the equipment inslalled in the
yard. The primary requirements of a good earthing system in a sub-station are:
(i) It should stabilise circuit potentials with respect to ground and limit the overall potential rise.
(ii) It should protect life and property from over-voltage.
(iii) It should provide low impedance path to fault currentS to ensure prompt and consistent operation of protective
I devices during ground faults.
(iv) It should keep the maximum voltage gradient along the surface inside and around the substation within safe
limits during ground faults.
!
3. Earthing System
I 3.1 The earthing system meeting the above requirements comprises an earthing mat buried horizontally at a depth of
about half-a metre below the surface of the ground and ground rods at suitable points. All the non-current carrying parts
of the electrical equipment in substation are connected to the earthing mat. Under the normal conditions, the ground rods
contribute little towards lowering the ground resistance. However, these are helpful in lowering mesh potentials and
maintaining low values of resistance under all weather conditions.
3.2 The earth mat is connected to the following in a substation:
(a) The neutral point of each system through its own independent earth.
(b) Equipment framework and other non-current carrying parts.
(c) All extraneous metallic framework not associated with equipment.
(d) The earth point of Lightning Arresters, Capactive Voltage Transformers, Voltage Transformers, Coupling
1 Capacitors and the lightning down conductors in the substation through their permanent independent earth
electrode.
(e) Substation fence.
3.3 The earthing system installation shall strictly comply with the requirements of latest edition of Indian Electricity
Rules. relevant Indian Standards and Applicable Codes of Practices.
4. Parameters Affecting the Design of Earthing Mat
Several variable factors are involved in the design of earthing mat conductor. Therefore, earthing '!1at for each
substation has to be designed individually usually. The earthing mat has to be designed for the site conditions to have
a low overall impedance and a current ca.-rying capacity consistent with the fault current magnitude. The parameters listed
below influence the design of earthing mat:
(a) Magnitude of fault current; (e) Shock duration;
(b) Duration of fault; (f) Material of earthing mat conductor and
(c) Soil resistivity; (g) Earthing mat geometry.

, (d) Resistivity of surface material;

I
iI
i
1
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-'-' ~

5. Design Procedure
The following steps are involved in the design of earthing mat:
(i) The substation layout plan should be finalised before the design of earthing mat is taken up. From the proposed
layout of the substation, detennine the area to be covered by the eanhing mat. '

'
(ii) Detennine the soil resistivity at the substation site. The resistivity of the earth varies within extremely wide
limits, between 1 and 10,000 ohm-metres. The resistivity of the soil at many station sites has been found to
be non-unifonn. Variation of the resistivity of 'the soil with depth is more predominant as compared to the
variation with horizontal distances. Wide variation of resistivity with depth is due to stratification of eanh
layers. In some sites, the resistivity variation may be gradual, where stratification is not abrupt. Highly refined
techniques for the determination of resistivity of homogeneous soil is available. To design the most economical
and technically sound grounding system for large stations, it is necessary to obtain accurate data on the soil
resistivity and on its variation at the station site. Resistivity measurements at the site will reveal whether the
soil is homogeneous or Ilon-unifonn. In case the soil is found uniform, conventional methods. are appli~ble
for the computation of earth resistivity. When the soil is found non-unifonn, either a gradual variation or a
two-layer model may be adopted for the computation of earth resistivity.
I ,

The resistivity of earth varies overa wide range depending on its moisture content. It is, therefore, advi~able to
conduct earth resistivity tests during the dry season in order to, get conservative results. .
Measurement of Earth Resistivity
Tcst Locations
,

In the evaluation of earth resistivity for substations and generating stations, at least eight test directions shall be
chosen from the centre of the station to cover the whole site. This number shall be increased for very large station sites
of it, the test results obtained at various locations show a significant difference, indicating variations in soil fonnation.
Principle of Tests
Wenner's four electrode method is recommended for these types of field investigations. In this method, four
electrodes arc driven imo the earth along a straight line at equal intervals. A CUffem J is passed through the two outer
electrodes and the eanh as shown in Figure ~
and the,voltage difference V, observed between the two inner electrodes.
The current J Oowing into the eanh produces an electric field proponional to its density and to the resistivity of the soil.
The voltage V measured between the inner electrodes is, therefore, proponional to the field. Consequently, the resistivity
will be proportional to the ratio of the voltage LOcurrent, i.e., R. The following equation holds for:
4SnR
p =
2 5 5
I +
P1 '1 Me er
~ S! ~ -I c' ~ S' I,
("
( I)
where (1 (~
p resistivity of soil ill olllll-lllelre,
Potential
S = distance between two successive //
electroqe ..
electrodes ill metres,
I{ Ratio of voll:II'.,' to (,111'1\'11101
l'1\'('(I\Hk 1l'.\I:;I:lII\\' III \Ililll:;, ;1I1l1
e depth or burial of electrode in lIletres,
If the depth of burial of the electrodes in ~
~s "'I- s S --I
the ground is negligible compared to the spacing "I-
betwecn the electrodes, then
p=2n5R , (2) Figure 1: Connections for a Four- Terminal Megger

Test Procedure
At the selected test site, in the chosen direction, four electrodes arc driven into the eanh along a straight line at equal
intervals, 5, The depth of the electrodes in the ground shall be of the order of IO to 15 em. The megger is placed on
a steady and approximately level base, the link between terminals PI and CI opened and the four electrodes connected

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to the instrument terminals as shown in Figure 1. An appropriate range on the instrument is thus selected to obtain clear
readings avoiding the two ends of the scale as far as possible. The readings are taken while turning the crank at about
135 rev/min. Resistivity is calculated by substituting the value of R thus obtained in the Equation (2). In case where
depth of burial is more than 1120th of spacing, Equation (1) should be used instead of (2).
Correction for Potential Electrode Resistance
In case where the resistance of the potential electrodes (the two inner electrodes) is comparatively high a correction
of the test results would be necessary depending on its value. For this purpose, the instrument is connected to the electrodes
as shown in Figure 2. The readings are taken as before. The correction is then effected as follows:
Let the readings of the megger be Rp with pI the
andconnections as shown
the resistance of the in Figurecircuit
voltage 2 andofthethe
electrode spacing
instrument usedintometres.
obtain
If the uncorrected value of soil resistivity is
R (as indicated inside the scale cover of the meter) is Rv, the corrected value of the earth resistivity would be:
p = pi x (Rv + Rp)/Rv

(i) Testing of Soil Uniformity


During the course of above tests, it would be desirable to get information about the horizontal and vertical variations
1 earth resistivity over the site under consideration for the correct computation of the resistivity to be used in the design
calculations. The vertical variations may be detected by repeating the tests at a given location in a choosen direction
with a number of different electrode spacings increasing from 2 to 250 metres or more, preferably in the steps 2,5,10,15,25
and 50 metres or more. If the resistivity variations are within 20 to 30 percent, the soil in the vicinity of the test location
maybe considered uniform. Otherwise a curve of resistivity versus electrode spacing shall be plotted and this curve further
I ~alyz7d to deduce stratification of soil into two or more layers of appropriate thickness or a soil of gradual resistivity
t 'variation. The horizontal variations are studied by taking measurements iQvarious directions from the centre of the station.
!~ (ii) Computation of Earth Resistivity of Uniform Soil
When the earth resistivity readings for different electrode spacings in a direction are within 20 to 30 percent, the
soil is considered to be uniform.

P, P2
l' Megger

1-- s -+-S ...


\ It s --1

Figure 2: Test Connection to Measure the Sum of


The Potential Electrode Resistances
Figure 3: Polar Curve

3
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I

When the spacing is increased gradually from low values, at a stage, it may be found that the resistivity readings
is more or less constant irrespective of the increase in the electrode spacing. The resistivity for this spacing is noted and
taken as the resistivity for that direction. In a similar manner, resistivities for at least eight equally spaced directions from
the centre of the site are measured. These resistivities are plotted on a graph sheet in the appropriate directions choosing
a scale. A closed curve is ploued on the graph sheets jointing all the resistivity points plotted to get the polar resistivity
curve. The area inside the polar resistivity, curve i~ measured and equivalent circle of the same area is found out. The
radius of this equivalent circle is the average resistivity of the site \'Oder consideration. The average resistivity thus obtained
may be used for the design of the earthing grid and other computations and the results will be reasonably accurate when
the soil is t.omogeneous (see Figure 3).
f
-
The methodology for non-homogeneous soil is dealt with in '6',(xiii).
(iii) Determine the Maximum Ground Fault Current
Fault current at the substation is determined from the system studies. A correction factor is 2lpplied to the fault current
thus determined to take care of the future growth of the system. Value of this correction factor is usually of the order
of 1.2 to 1.5. However, in practice 40 KA for 400 kV system and 31.5 KA for 220/132 kV systems are generally adopted
for design purposes.
(iv) Duration of Fault
For the design of earthing mat, the practices regarding assumption of duration of fault differ from country to country.
Thus in the USSR, the duration of fault is assumed as 0.2 second. In the USA, it is assumed as 4.0 seconds which is
equal to the duration on which the short time rating of the switchgear is based. In India, the short time rating of most
of the equipment is based on 1.0 second duration of fault. Therefore, 1.0 second may be adopted as the duration of fault
in the calculations to determine the size of conductorfor earthingmat. For the purposeof determining,the safe step and
mesh potentials a duration of 0.5 second may be adopted. However, it may be ensured on the basis of the protective
gear and protective schemes provided in each case that fault is cleared in the period not exceeding of 0.5 seconds. Where
the fault clearing time exceeds 0.5 seconds, this duration may be taken equal to fault clearing time.
(v) Determine the size of Conductor for Earthing Mat
(a) Size of conductor based on Thermal Stability: The size of conductor for earthing mat based on thermal stability is
determined with the help of the approximate formula as per IEEE 80-1986 given below:
I

:I( ~Cf~,l0~
c ex r Pr
)
In
( Ko
Ko
+ 'Tin
+ Ta ,)
Where, A = Conductor cross = section in mm2
I
.;,.,
= rms value of current in kilo amps. (KA)
t::l r = thermal co-efficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr
pr = resistivity of earthing mat conductor at reference temperature Tr, in ,~cm3
I
...

Ko =~ -'I' r
ar I
I
I

.-
tc = time of current flow, in second
Tm = maximum allowable temperature in degrees celcius (CO)
T. = ambient temperature in degrees celcius (CO)
Tr = reference temperature for material constants in degrees celcius (CO)
TCAP = Thermal capacity factor in j/cm3fC
= 4.184 SH. SW
Where SH is specific heat in caIlgm;oc, and SW is specific weight in gm/cm3 of conductor material

4
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The values of the various constents in the above equation applicable to steel are given below.
cif
., .
= 0.00423 at 20°C
t. = 1.0 second

1
K 0 = -- 20 = 216
0.004'23
SH = 0.1 14
SW = 7.86
TCAP = 3.749
Pre = 15 micro-ohm/cm3
Tm = 620°C for welded joinLs
= 310°C for boILedjoints ..'
~'.
= 40°C . .' bo A f Idcd k
I th
the above va ue In e equauon given a ve
subsututiOn 0f
I

0n or we JOInts wor s-out as


I x 12.30 ~
or 12.30 I mm2'
I x 15.13~
and A for bolted joints works-out as
or 15.13 I mm2
Mechanical Ruggedness of Conductor
From the consideration of mechanical ruggedness. and easy installation. The maximum width to thickness ratio of
steel flats for ground mat conductor should be 7.5 such that thickness of the flat is not less than 3 mm. Ground mat
conductor comprising steel rod having a diameter not less than 5 mm. The standard sizes of conductor as per IS : 1730-
1989 are as follows:
(ii) 20 x 6 mm2
(i) 10 x 6 mm2
(iv) 40 x 6 mmi
(iii) 30 x 6 mm2
(vi) 60 x 6 mm2
(v) 50 X 6 mm2
(viii) 65 x 8 mm2
(vii) 50 x 8 mm2
(ix) 75 x. 12 mm2
(c) Corrosion: On an average steel corrodes about six time as fast as copper when placed in soil. The extent of corrosion
depends upon the properties of soil. Many a time, soils have conflicting properties. some of which indicate that the soil
is corrosive and others indicate the opposits. Despite this, a very fair degree of correlation has been found between electrical
resistivity of soil and corrosion. The generally accepted correlation between the electrical resistivity'of soil and its
corrosivity is as indicated in the Table below:

TABLE
Soil Resistivity and Corrosion

(Class of soil)
Range of soil resistivity
(Ohm-metre)
Severely corrosive
Less than 25 Moderately corrosive
25-50 Mildly corrosive
50-100 Very mildly corrosive
Above 100

5
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The following methods are available to safeguard conductor against excessive corrosion:-
(a) Provide cathodic protection.
(b) Use current conducting, corrosion resistant coating on steel (e.g. zinc coating).
(c) Use steel conductor with large cross-section having allowance for corrosion.
The first two methods are expensive and find application in special cases. The third method is much simpler and
relatively less costly and therefore finds wide application. Based on the'results of the field studies on rates of corrosion,
the following allowances in cross-sectional area of the earthing- conductor are retommanded (Refer CBI&P Publication
Technical Report no 5) to take the effect of corrosion into account:
(a) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity greater than 100 Ohm-metre~-No allowance.
(b) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity from 25 to 100 Ohm-metre-15 percent allowance.
(c) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity lower than 25 Ohm-metre or where treatment of
soil around electrodes is carried out --30 percent allowance.
For the purpose of detcnnining the allowance to be made for corrosion, the minimum resistivity of the soil encountered
at the location of grounding electrodes should be considered. The resistivity will be the minimum in wet and hot weather.
Thus, for very mildly corrosive soils, steel conduct(}fs meeting the thermal stability and mechanical requirements are
adequate. However, the steel conductors in the soils of other types, should be atleast 6 mm thick if steel flat and have
a diameter of atlcast 16 mm if in the form of steel round.
(vi) Determine the Maximum Grid Current
The design value of the maximum grid current (10) is given by the following equation:
10 = Cp.Dr I.
Where = Maximum grid current in Amperes
Ie;
Df = Decrement factor for the entire duration of fault
Typical values of Df are given in the following table.

Fault duration Decrement factor


(S)
Dc

0.008 1.65
0.1 1.25
0.25 1.10
0.5 or more 1.0

Cp = Corrective projection factor for the relative incrcase of fault currents during the station. life span. For
zero future growth of the system, C p =1 An example showing the method for determining the value of
10 as a ratio of the maximum fault current is given in Annexure-B
I& = Sf ( 3 10)
Where I& = rms value of the symmetrical grid current in Amp.
Sf = Curn~nt divisioll factor relatillg to the magnitudc of faull currcllt to that of its portion flowing between
thc t~anhillg mal and surrounding earth.
Sf is dependent on the following parameters:
(i) Location of fault.
(ii) Magnitude of station earthing mat resistance.
(iii) Buried pipes and cables in the vicinity of or directly connected, or both, to the station earthing system.
(iv) Overhead ground wires or neutral conductors.
Sf is computed by deriving an equivalent representation of the overhead ground wires, neutrals, etc., connected to the
earthing mat and then solving the equivalent to determine the fractions of the total fault current which flow between

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the mat and eanh and through the ground wire or neutrals.
For calculating Sf' the following formula is used:
Sf = Combinedeq. resistanceof overheadstatic wire networkas seen from fault point
Combined eq. resistance of overhead static ground wire network(as seen from fauItpoint) + stltion ground
resistance to remote earth.
10 = . Zero sequence fault current
For line to line ground and line to ground faults, the values of 10are given by the relations given ~Iow.

E~
10 for line to line-ground fault =
X1(Xo +X2)+X2. Xo

E
10 for line to ground fault =
X1+~+Xo

Where E = phase
to neutral voltage in volts.
The values of Xl' X2, Xo' the sequence reactances are computed looking into the system from the point of fault.
(vii) Resistivity of Surface Layer (p)
Crushed rock is used as a surface layer in substations for the following reasons:
(a) It provides high resistivity surface layer. . ,
(b) It serves as impedment to the movement of reptiles and thereby helps in minimising the hazards which can
be caused by them.
(c) It prevents the formation of pools of oil in the event of leakage of oil from oil insulated and oil cooled electrical
equipment.
. (d) It discouragesthe growth of weeds.
.
(e) It helps retention of moisture in the underlying soil and thus helps in maintaining the resistivity of the sub-
soil at lower value.
(f) It discourages running of persons in the switchyard and saves them from the risk of being subjected to possible
high step potentials.
In tropical countries like India. where the population of reptiles is large, it is advantageous to surround the electrical
equipment and the structures supporting conductors by a surface layer of about 1.Pcm of crushed rock up to a distance
of about two metres in all directions. Such surface layer around the metallic equipment and structures. besides minimising
the hazards caused by reptiles. provides a high resistivity layer below the feet of human beings approaching the equipment!
structures and enables them to withstand higher touch potentials. If step potential without crushed rock is well within
safe limits, it is not necessary to spread crushed rock over the complete switt>hyardarea. However, if it exceeds the safe
limits crushed rock of 15 to 20 mm size may be spread to cover the earth in the entire switchyard area.
The resistivity of rock depends on the types of rocks, as wi1\be seen from the table (Refer CBI&P Publication Review
No.1) given below:

Type of rock Range of resistivity Average vaulue of


(Ohm-metre) resistivity (Ohm-metre)

Morain gravel 1000 to 10,000 3,000


Boulder gravel 3000 to 30,000 15,000
Lime stone 5,000
Primary Rock (Griess, Granite etc.) 10,000 to 50,000 25,000
-<I""':

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7

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-,""''''...
If the type of rock to be used is known the lower value of resistivity for that type of rock may be adopted in the
design. Otherwise, in conformity with the design practicesfollowed by most of the electric utilities, an average resistivity
yalue of 3,000 Ohm-metre may be adopted for the purpose of earthing mat design.
(viii) Determine the Tolerable To'uch and Step Potentials
The values of these potentials depend on,the bodylweights, thickness and resistivity of surface layer,and duration of shock
current. The relations between the above factors for persons with average weight of 50.kg are given below.
+ 1.5 Cs (hs' K) ps) 0.116
E touch = (1000
~
E step
= (1000 + 6Css (h, K) PS) 0.116

-Jt s

Where Cs = 1 for crushed rock having resistivity equal to that of soil. If crushed rock resistivity does not equal that"of
soil, reference may be made to Figure 4 for obtaining the value of C
s
.
Ps = resistivity of surface layer in Ohm-metre.
p = resistivity of soil in Ohm-metre.
K = P - Ps .
P+ Ps'
t. = Duration of shock current flow in seconds.
h. = Surface layer thickness in metre.
"
k=O

1.0

0.8

(,

Lh.
0
0 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.21.
hs (Mltlrs)

Figure 4 : Reduction factor C, as a Function of Reduction Factor K and


Crushed Rock Layer Thickness h ,
s
where C, = reduction factor for derating the normal value of surface layer resistivity determined as follows
C, = 1 for crushed stone resistivity equal to soil resistivity

8
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(ix) Develop Preliminary Arrangement of Earthing Mat


A prelim~nary earthing mat arrangement is developed on the basis of an assumed spacing between two parallel
conductors. In this arrangement a continuous conductor should be assumed as surrounding the switchyard and the conductor
within it should be located at reasonably uniform spacing parallel to each other along the rows of the structures, equipments
etc. From the arrangement so arrived at the number of parallel and cross conductors and the total length of conductor
constituting ;he earthing mat are determined for use in the further design calculations.
(x) Determine the LikEly Mesh and Step Potentials
The values of the expected maximum mesh and step potentials are calculated with the help of the following formulae
given below. Several simplifying assumptions are made in derivation of these formulae. These assumptions may result
in incorrect results for comparison with the results obtained by computer analysis, for some cases. For determining the
inaccuracies for practical purposes, these formulae may be used with the following limits for square grids or for rectangu!ar
grids having the same numtcr of conductors in both directions:

(i) n ~ 25 (ii) 0.25 m ~ h ~ 2.5 m


(iii) d < 0.25h (iv) D > 2.5 m

These symbols are defined below


Mesh potential on the earth's surface above the centre of a corner mesh:
p. Km' Kj' 10
Em = volts
L
Where, K.I = Corrective factor which accounts for the increase in current density in the grid extremities.
= 0.656 + 0.172 n
10 = Maximum grid current in Amperes.

D2 K.. 8
1
[In ( +
(d+2W h
) +K"h - In ]
Km = 2;t 16 h.d 8 D.d 4 d" 7t (2n-l)

K..II = 1 for grids with earthing rods along the perimeter or for rods in the mat comers as well as along
the parimeter and throughout the grid area,

1 for grids without earthing rous or for grids with only a few earthing rods, none located
=
(2n) 1Jn on the perimeter or in the comers.

Kh =,/1~ +~ h
0

P = Soil resistivity in ohm-metre.


h0 = 1 metre (reference depth of earthing mat)
D = Spacing between parallel conductors, in metres.

n = --lnA . nB for calculating Em

nA = The number of parallel. conductors in transverse direction


nB = The number of parallel conductors in longitudinal direction

9
h = depth of earthing mat conductor in metres.
d = diameter of earthing mat conductor in metres
L = L. + L, for eanhing mat without earthing rods or with only a few rods located within the mat,
but away from the perimeter.
= Lc + 1.15 L, for earthing mat with ground rods predominantly along the perimeter.
Lc = Total earthing mat conductor length, in matres; and
L, = Total earthing rod length, in metres.
Step potential E
step
= p. Ks. K. lJL volts I

Where K, = 0.656 + 0.172 n

I ]
and K, =
~
-
[ 2h -+-
I
(l-0.5n.2) ]
D+h D
L, hand D being the same as defined earlier and n being larger of nA and nB for calculating E..
The value of expected mesh voltage and step voltage should be determined for the following conditions in the order
indicated below:
- without ground rods
- with uniformly distributed ground rods
- with ground rods only in the perimeter
If the computed value of mesh voltage is less than the tolerable touch voltage, the design of earthing mat is completed.
However, if the computed mesh voltage is found to exceed the tolerable touch voltage the design will require inclusion
of ground rods or revision. Similarly, the computed step voltage should also be less than the tolerable step voltage. If
either the step or touch voltage are found to exceed the tolerable voltages, the eanhing mat design will have to be revised
.by including additional earthing rods, mat depth reducing spacing, etc. Additional earthing rods should be provided at
the base of lightning arresters and transformers neutrals.
In order to facilitate checking of the mesh and step potential the graphical method for estimation of mesh and step
potential is given in Appendix
'A'.
(xi) Determine the Station Ground Resistance
For ground mat depths less than 0.25 metres; The value of the substation grounding resistance in uniform soil can
be estimated by means of the following formula.

Rg = -;-
.J++~

where R = station ground resistance in Ohm (.0)


p = average earth resistivity in .o-m
A = area under earthing mat in square metres (m2)
L = [he [olal lengrh of huried conductors in metre (m)
R, = Starion ground resistance in ohm (.0)

Rg = P [~+ -L{l+
L ./2OA l+~}]
A
The station ground resistance for ground mat with £round rods
For ground mat depths between 0.25 and 2.5 metres:
is determined with the use of Schwarz formula given bel()w .

10

'-

--.--
.Ii;.~;;.... .~\ii~W,f""~1t;,g;~i.i;...t:"~;;;'''';
"

-.

R& =
RI R" -R 12
RI + R" 2RI2 -
Where
RI = resistance of ground mat conductors

~ = resistance of all ground rods.


RI2 :::.: mutual resistance between the group of grid conductors and group of ground rods.
The value of RI' R2' and RI2 can be determined with help of the formulae given in (xiii) with the assumption that
for the uniform soil PI - P.
(xii) Determine the Ground Potential Rise
The value of the likely ground potential rise is given by the product of the maximum grid current, 10 (see item 5
(vi) and the estimated station ground resistance, RI . If the value of this prOlluct is below the tolerable touch voltage,
no further analysis is necessary and only thc additional conductor required to connect the mat to equipmcnt grounds has
to be provided. Otherwise the earthing mat arrangement will require revision till the above condition is met.
(xi' Design Philosophyfor Non-homogeneousSoil ,
fhe methodology covered under Clause x, xi and xii pertains to uniform soil conditions. Normally the apparent
resistivity values obtained by Wenner's 4 probe method with a probe spacing of 10 m is sufficient for earthing system
design but in cases where a multilayer earth is clearly indicated, two layer model system can be resorted to. The resiSUlnce
of such a model can be evaluated as explained below.
However, for potential (step & touch) calculations, solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equations for a
point curret source. Since this involves infinite series of terms, computer usage is inevitable. Alternatively the earthing
grid (from potentials point of view) can be designed based on the resistivity of the upper layer where the grid is laid.
Inaccuracies can sometime creep up with this assumption but the same can be verified by making a few measurements
of gradients after installation of the grid. In case of unsatisfactory results, special meshes etc. can be buried, around
structures/equipment normally accessible to persons standing on the ground or by providing adequate layer thickness of
crushed rock/g-ravel.
Evaluation of Resistance

//~/~ Earth grid of area


tA) & dimension axb...... /~~~~ 1
P,
~_l
Pt

Figure 5

The resistance for a non-uniform soil strata (two layer) can be evaluated as under:
2
RI
RI R" - RI2

RI + R" - 2R 12

where
RI ( :\) [In (21/h') + kl (1/$) -KJ

11
Pia
R2 ( 2n 7t 12 ) [In (81!d) -1 + 2 kl (JI/JA (-.;;:-. 1)2]

R12 (~) [In (21/1) + KI (I/[A) -K2 + 1]


7t II

P. = 12(PI, p) (P2. H + PI ( 12 - H)) where Rod's top is flushed with earth surface.

P. = 12(PI, P2) (P2 (H-h) + PI (12 + h - H) where Rod top is in the same depth as the grid.

The various parameters arc as given below:


PI == soil resistivity encountered by grid conductors buried at depth h in n-m
P. = apparent soil resistivityas seen by a ground rod in n-m
H = thickness of the upper layer soil in m
P2 soil resistivity from depth H downward Q-m
11 = total length of grid conductors in m
12 == average length of a ground rod in m
h depth of grid burial in m
hI
== ~ for conductors buried at depth h, or 0.5 dl for conductors at
h = a (on earth's surface)
A = area covered by a grid of dimensions a.b in m2
n = number of ground rods placed in area A
KI' K2 = constants related to the geometry of the system (Figures 6 (a) and (b))
dl = diameter of grid conductor in m
d2 = diameter of ground rods in m
a = short-side grid length in m
b == long-side length in m

(xiv) Lowering of Earthing Impedance


The solution to the other problem of achieving low impedance earthing in smaller area can be achieved by employing
anyone or combination of the following methods. These methods can also be employed to coventional substations where
soil resistivity is high
1. Connection of substation grid with remote ground grids and adjacent grounding facilities if available.
2. Use of deep driven ground rods or use of longer ground rods and more number of such rods along the perimeter
of the grid.
3. Use of foundation rods where feasible as auxiliary grids.
4. Wherever practical, a nearby deposit of low resistivity material of sufficient value is available, it is ideal to
form an extra grid at such locations and connect it to the substation grid. such extra grids are also known
as satellite grids.
.
5. The maximum touch (mesh) potential occurs in the comer mesh of the grid. Normally no equipment are placed
in this area. In such cases, the touch (mesh) potential even if greater than permissible values can be accepted,
if s.tep potential in the corner mesh are within permissible limits.
When equipment are placed near the comer mesh, it may not be necessary to change the e~tire grid design
to reduce the corner mesh potentials within the maximum permissible values. Instead it would be econ6mical
to form auxiliary grids in the corner mesh to reduce the touch (mesh) potentials. Figure-7 shows a grid without
any conductors in the comer mesh. Figure-8 shows grid with auxiliary grid in comer mesh. It has been observed

12

-"_.~----
~-'~.,-.:..w,~~ ~. Iflit , ..
c_"''''''\::(~;'~M'>, '<,I/'.-;-"-'"N,,1I1 ~
---::..

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u
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"0
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II
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t0
~.&.
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i
"0
.&.
....
a.o
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),£
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~~c
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'w
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~II!~,~ +
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c.. -~-~-~
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1\ N ....I ~°
W 1/1
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0
. a c:

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--...,.---",--U'"\
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0
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~..n CD. II C\/ ..


1/ « I I W I

I .
vi / >-
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0 ,., ~~ N
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'"
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~ ~ ~ ..z 0 0

')I ~U~J7)O)'

13

,
that addition of auxiliary grid as shown in Figure 2 reduces the comer mesh potentials to about 2/3 of the
value of comer mesh potential without auxiliary grid.

1.31.3 1.0 1.0 0.9~.9 to to ~.9Io.9h.o to t3 t3


1.31.3to to 0.910.9 to to 0.910.9to to 1.3t3
to to
1.0
- to to t1
- 1.0 t1 1.1 1.1 to to to to
to to
0.90.9
~.9-
~~- t1 1.1 to 1.0 t1 1.1
1.9 1.6 1.4 1.2 t2 0.9 D.9 0.9
1.4 t6 t9
1.6 1.2 1.1 1.1 t1 1.1 t2 1.6 to to 1.1 to to to to t1 1.0 to
1.1. t1 1..1 1.0 to 1.1 t1 1.1.
to to t1 to to to to 1.1 to 1,0
1.2 1.1 to 1.0 1.0 to 1.1 t2
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
,-
t2 1.' 1.0 1.0 to to t1 1.2 - -
0.9 0.9
1,1 1,1 1.0 to ",. 1,1
0) 0.9
1.1. t1 1.1 to to 1.1 t1 1.1. ~to 1.0 to
to -1.0 to to t1 .11 t1 t1 to 1,0- -
t6 1.2 t1 1.1 t1 1.1 1.2 1.6 to to
t3 t3 to to ~.9Io.9to to 0.910.9to to 1.3t3
1.9 U tit 12 t2 tit 1.6 1.9 1.3t3 h.o to ~.910J to to 10.91°.9to to t3 t3

Figure 7 Figure 8
(xv) Check up for Transferred Potential
Where a possibility of the places outside the eant.ing mat area being subjected to the earthing mat potential exists,
the communication and signal circuits, low voltage wiring, conduits, pipes, rails, metallic fences etc. should be checked
for transferred potential and adequate protection against transferred potential should be provided where necessary. If this
is not conveniently possible, the resistance of the earthing system should be further lowered by increasing the earthing
conductor lengths or by increasing the substation area under the earthing mat till the desired voltage is attained.
For further information Transferred Potentials and Solutions, CBI&P Technical Report No. 49 on "Earthing
Parameters ~f HV, EHV and UHV Sub-Stations" may be referred.
(xvi) Earthing of Gas Insulated Substations
GIS is a compact, multi-component, assembly enclosed in a earthed metallic housing in which the primary insulating
medium is a compressed gas and it normally consists of buses, switchgear and associated ec:uipment. GIS are subjected
to same magnitude of fault current and require low impedance earthing as in case of coventional substation. But GIS
installation require only about 25% of land area of conventional S/S,thus making design of system more difficult. Another
area required allention in GIS stations is earthing of metallic -enclosures. The metallic enclosure of GIS have induced
currents and specially during an internal earths fault the inductive voltage drop occurring with the GIS assembly must
be taken into account for design to touch potential in GIS station. The touch voltages criteria of GIS station is

/ (FA)2 + (Eo)2 < Er (max.)

Where FA = The actual calculated touch voltage (Calculated in a manner similar to conventional 5/S).
Eo =Maximum value of metal to metal voltage difference on and between GIS enclosures or between GIS enclosure
and the supponing structures. Refer Annexure for sample calculation.
S (max) = Maximum permissible touch voltage.
The mel<dlic enclosure of GIS may be continuous or non-continuous. In both these enclosures providing frequent
eanh bonds is the best solution to minimize hazards of touch voltage in the GIS area. Additional measures such as earthing
of GIS structures and service platforms at frequent intervals, prevention of induced current establishing loops via other.
sta'jon equipment such as transformers, switchgears etc.

14

-'_._'-' -
' ~
--=-""",-_"""",~,,,,"~CJ:",,~~:..., ,..::'_'_'.'-:",:-:,:.:--:;:.~;:--.""

6. Construction and Installation of Earthing Mat


All joints in the steel earthing system should be made by welding except those where earthing mat may have to
be separated from equipment, cable sheath etc., for testing. These joints should be accessible and frequently supervised.
All exposed steel conductors should be protected with bituminous paint. For protection against rusting, the welds should
be treated with Berium chromate. Welded surfaces should then be painted with red load and aluminium paint in turn
and afterwards coated with bituminous paint. The joints in the earthing conductor between the switchgear units and cable
sheaths and such other points which may require to be opened subsequently for testing should be bolted.
7. Earthing Mat and Perimeter Fence Connection
Whether the earthing mat and perimeter fence should be connc:ctedor not should be decided on the basis of study/
analysis of individual cases as indicated below:
(a) If the design of earthing mat permits termination of the mat more than 1.5 metres inside the perimeter fence and
electrical isolation between the fence and earthing mat can be ensured, the unc1imbable fence should be kept isolated
ftom the earthing mat and the fence should be independently and effectively earthed by running on earthing conductor
''''rIer the boundary and connecting it to the fence at frequent intervals.
\ If the design of earthing mat requires extension of the mat upto the perimeter fence or where electrical isolation between
/

the earthing mat and fence cannot be ensured, but the design calculations reveal that the values of touch potentials both
within and outside the fenced - in area arc within safe limits, the fence should be connected to the earthing mat at frequent
intervals.
(c) If the design of earthing mat requires extension of the mat upto the fence and calculation reveal that touch potential
at the fence exceeds the tolerable limit, the earthing mat should be tenninated about 1.5 metre or more within the boundary
line of the fence and the fence electrically isolated and independently earthed by running earthing conductor under the
fence and bounded with the fence at frequent intervals or by means of adequate number of earthing electrodes.
Example for the design of Earthing Mat for a substation with high resistivity
Let a 132 kV line AB feed a substation B at a distance of 32 km. Let the fault level at Bus A be 975 MV A and
the resistivity of the soil of the switch yard at B be 250 ohm metre. At substation B, a 15 MV A, 132/66 /ykY,transformers
Y/y steps
down the received power to 66 kY level from where it is further stepped down by 3x2.5 MY A, 66133 K~ti
to 33 kY as shown in Figure 2.
Calculation of fault current
Fault level at 132 kY Bus A = 975 MV A
100
Xpu at Bus A on 100 MVA base 975 =
0.1026 pu =
T ~ngth of 132 kV line AB 32 km =
0.422x32
Xl = X2 for the 132 kV line = 174.24
= 0.0775 pu
1.47x32
Xo for the 132 kY line = 174.24
= 0.26997 pu
Xpu at bus B = 0.1026 + 0.0775 + 0.0775
+ 0.26997 = 0.5276
Phase to ground fault current 3xl00xl000
at 132 kV Bus B = = 2487.11 Amp.
.J3.'(132xO.5276

Impedance of 15 MVA, 132/66 KV transformer = 7.5%


7.5xl00
Xl. = X2 for transformer = l00xl5
= 0.5pu

15
Xo = 0.8xO.5 = 0.4 pu
As this transformeris Y/Y connected
X at 66 kV bus at station B =
0.5276+0.5+0.5+0.4
= 1.9276 pu
Phase to ground fault current
3.x1oox1000
at 66 kVbus at station B - = 1361 Amp
../3.;: 66 x 1.9276
Impedance of 3x2.5 MV A, 66/33 kV transformer @8% per transformer
8x100
Xl = X2 for the transformers = 3x2.5x1oo =
1.067 pu
As these transformers are MY connected, zero sequence reactance will not come in the circuit. Therefore X at 33 kV
bus at station B = 1.9276+1.067+1.067 .
\
= 4.0616 pu
3.x1oox1ooo
Phase to ground fault currenl at 33 kV bus
=~ 33.x 4.0616
= 1292 Amp.
From the above. it is seen that the faull current is the maximum on 132 kV Bus B. However, it is less than the short
time current rating of the switchgear. Therefore the earthing mat will be designed on the basis of fault currents of 20
kA.
Area of ear/hing mat conductor
Area of steel conductor = 12.30I
12.30x20000
1000
= 246 mm2
Resistivity of soil of station B=250 ohm metre. Since the resistivity of soil is higher than 100 ohm metre, no allowance
is necessary for corrosion.
The nearest standard steel section in the form of mild steel flat that can be used will be 6 mmx50 mm giving on area
of 300 mm2.
Maximum Grid Current
IG = Cpo DrIg
- As expansion factor has been taken as 1.5.
Cp = 1.0
- For the duration of flow of fault current equal to 1.0 sec.
Df= 1.0
I. = Sf (3 IJ
3 10= 20000 Amp.
In the absence of full details regarding exact system configuration of which the substation form a card, at the design
singe, il will be. fairly accurate 10 adopt a vuluc of 0.5 for Sf to dctcrmine the fault current that flows through the grid
to rcmote carlh.' .
Thus IG = 0.5 x 1.0 x 20000 = 10000 Amps
Surface Layer
In conformity with the normal design practice, it will be assumed that a 10 cm thick layer of stones with an average
resistivity of 3000 ohm metre will be provided around all the metallic structures.
Tolerable Values of Touch and Step Potentials
F touch = [1000 + 1.5 C.. (h, K) p]I 0.116
rt I

16

'-
- ,---~,--

K =
250 - 3000
250 + 3000 =- 3250
2750
- 0.8462
h, = 20 cm = 0.2 metre
C, from figure 1 = 0.77
t, = 0.5 second
. 0.116
F touch = [1000 + 1.5 x 0.77 x 3000] r::-::-
v 0.5
= 732 Volts

0.116
F step = [1000 + 6C (h, K) P2, r::-::-
" '/ 0.5

0.116
= [1000+ 6 x 0.77x 3000] v r::-::-
0.5
=2438 Volts
Arrangement of Earthing Mat
Let L = Length of Earthing mat conductor in metres
. 69+36
Frnm Figure 3, L
. =8 x 100 + 7 x 76 =7
x 69+ 8 x- 2 + 9 x 22
53.5+74
+ 2 x 38.5 + 14 x + 15 x 74
2

= 4513 metre 38+73


A = . 104 x 24 + 80 x 18.5 + 73 x15 + 20.5 x - 2
m2
= 2496 +
1480 + 1095+ 1137.75 = 6208
Estimated Values of Mesh and Step Potentials
p.km. kj 10
F mesh = Volts
L 0+ 1.15 L r
Ki = 0.656 + 0.172 n
35
Where n = vn A . n B = ../30x 40 = 34.64 ~

K. I = 0.656 + 0.172 x 35 = 6.676


(d+2h)2 h Kii
Km =~21t [In ( ~16 hd' + 8 Dd
-
4d
) -
Kh
In
1t (:n-1)
]

Let D = 2.5 m
h = 0.5 m

Kh =..J 1 + h = ...;1+ 0.5 = JC5 = 1.2247


-ho - 1.0
Kii = 1.0 (Assuming that the earthing mat will be provided with ground rods along the parimeter).
d ==Equivalent Diameter of earthing mat conductor, in metres
For earthing mat conductor consisting of rectangular flat d = VI/2
Where, W = width of flat
0.050
=~ =0.025 metres

17
(2.5)2 (2.5+2xO.5)2 0.5
km - [ In + -
21t 16xO. 5xO.025 8x2.5xO.25 4xO.025

1 8.0
+- In
1.2247 1t (2x35-1)]
1
= '2;l1n (31.25 + 24.5 --5) + 0.81653 In 0.0369054]

= 0.15915 (3.9269-2.694) = 0.1962


Lc = 4513 m Lr = 136 x 1 m = 136 m
F = 250 x 0.1962 x 6.676 x 10000
me'"
4513 + 136 x 1.15
= 701.3 vo~ which is less than E Ioucb
of 732 V
E llep = p. IG. K. . Ki
Volts
LC + 1.15 Lr
Ki = 0.656 + 0.172 n
Where n = 40
KI = 0.656 + 0.172 x 40 = 7.536
K . = 1t
[ - 1 +-
2 h D+h
I
+
1
D
(1--0.5n..2)]

I 1 1
= -1t [-2xO.5 + 2.5+0.5 +
2.5
(1--0.5(40-.2»)]
:v;

= 1t [ 1 + 0.3334 + 0.4 (1)]

= 0.55176
250 x 10000 x 0.55176 x 7.536
F 'lep = 4513 +136 x1.15
= 2226.2 volts which is less than the pennissible value of E ItI:p of 2438 V
Thus the values of mesh and step potentials likely to be experienced are less than those of the tolerable touch ang
step potentials. .
Ground Resistance
RI R2- RI/
R& = RI+Rl-2 RI2

. = RI =(p/1tI)
.
21
(In -=..:L + K,
hi
.
l/F - k2)

r:;;;;;;o
dI = conductor dia =
~ ---n- = 19.54 mm = 0.01954 m.

h = 0.5 metre

hi
= -/d.h =0.09885
A = 6208 m2

18

~-----
-
0.1
for k =
1
- -78.79 gh = 0.0012 L : W ratio = 102 : 76
105 = 1.34 : 1
but h = 0.5 m > 0.0012
,0.167
for k =
1
6
=
5
-78.79 h =0.0021

but h = 0.5 > 0.0021.


KI & K2 have to be taken from curves falling below 'c' since such curves are not available using curve c.
KI = 1.07, K2 = 4.5
4513
=
250 (1n 2 ~ 4513 + 1.07 x -4.5
Rl
1t X 4513 0.09885 -fiiii
= 0.017633 (In 91310 + 61.288 - 4.5)
= 0.017633 (11.422 + 61.288-4.5) :t 0.0176 x 68.21 = 1.20
81 (L2)
R2 = ~ [In --1- -1 +2 K:y-A
- (...r;- -1 )2]
2n n12 d2
Let pa = PI = 250 ohm metre
12 = 1 metre
=
d2 0.0254 m
n =J36
8xl
R . =
250
2x136 1t xl
[1 n
0.0254
-1 + 2 x 1.07 x -L
.J 6208
(J136-1)2]

= 0.2925[In 314.96- 1 + 3.0875]


= 0.2925 (5.7524 -- 1 + 3.0875)
= 2.2937
pa (II)
Rl R2 = [ 1n -211 + kl r:-" - k2 + 1]
VA A
1tl1 12
250 2 x 4513. 4513.
[In + 1.07 .. 4,5 + 1]
= 1tx4513 1 78.79

= 0.01763 (9.1079 + 61.288 - 3.5)


= 0.01763 X 66.896 = 1.1796
2
Rl R2 - Rl2 '
Rg = RI+R2 - 2RI2

1.2x2.3222 - 1.17962
=
1.2+2.3222 - 2 X 1.1796

2.70756 - 1.3914 1.39524


= =
3.5222 - 2.3592 1.163

= 1.1997 = 1.2 ohms

19
Rise in ground potential
=
1.2 x 10000 12000 Volts
This is very high, obviously on account of the high soil resistivity. Addition of more conductor or rods is not helpful
in this case. In such cases, chemical treatment of soil is called for.

Station 'A'

132kV bus 'A'

r -- - - - c'""
;.
1
.
.
I ..

I 15 HVA,132/~V
132kY
bu'
,\"

I
I
I trll'llfor I
"
I I
I 3x2:5HVA, 66IcVbus I
f 66/33kV
:
I transtOl"ll8rs
33kV bus I
I . r
L ;
!
J
Station '8'

Figure 9: Line Diagr;m

20

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..."." ,,....,".,".'-.-'.
1__-
--'::'~;;;;4~--' ~ ,"","<~ -~ ~- ---.--..------

e !=
, ...
~ .I~
.,
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1
E
oJ ,
N
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e E
,..,
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0'"
N .~ ,..,

) -.
t- ()

Te
N
N

"I.'" :"::':!
, :':~, I

, '...
01)
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<:
t c
.9
I'ien
n .9c' .6
I~ - NE ::s
en
I~ ~ I ~
1.0 :;:-1 ;;
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21
Determination of Potential rise in CIS enclosures under short circuit current.

5.5..
r-- 13.50 --i
ToTR

t
/!-,I
L --.J
GCB

~j
I
I!:
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E
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1
N

-::-
Structure
Structure - -1
";"

Insulating point of enclosure

Figure 11: 2ltSkV GIS Grounding System


The short circuit current flows in GIS enclosure and Structures from a earth fault point of the enclosure to the
grounding points, the potential rise at fault point can be calculated from the following formula:
V = I Z I . I. (1)
I, = Short circuit current (A)
IZ I = Ze + Zs Where Ze : impedance of enclosure (D)
Z. : impedanceof structure(D)
Ze = Re + j x Lo
Re Resistance of enclosure (D)
Xl"" Inductive reactance of enclosure (D)
Zs Rs + j x u
Rs Resistance of structure(D)
xl~ Inductive reactance of slruclurc(D)

Rc k1
A (2)
Here p Resistivity (D-m)
Mild sleel . 14.SxlO.8 D-m
Aluminimum : 2.9x 10-8 D-m
A Cross sectional area (102)
A = 1t (r22-rI2)
r1 Inner radius in m
r2 Outer radius in m

22

------------
I length in m
Rs Depends on the type of H-beam and Characteristics have to be obtained for this purpose.
(3)
~ = 2 1t f L.l
Where f Frequency in HZ
L Inductance in Him

Le 2 IJ.S ( 1
r2 -r2
) (r/--3rI2
\: 4 +
r14
2'"'""2
r 2-r 1
.In -
r2
rI
) x 10
2 1

J.lS Specific permeability


Mild steel 600
Aluminium: I
LS, : Inductance of struclure in HIm. Depends on the type of II-beam and
characteristic have to be obtained for this purpose.
Example:
Refer Fig A,the 245 kV GIS potential rise for fault at PI and P2 can be calculated as follows:
A. For earth-fault point "PI"
1. GCB
Enclosure Mild steel r1 = 0.30 m, r2 = 0.306 m, I =1.5m, f = 50 Hz
Structure Four (4) pil1ars I = 1.3 m
From formula (2) and (3),
Re (CB) = 1.9xl0"
(0)
XLe (CB) = 3.69xlO-4(0)
Rs and Ls
Rs = (390 J.LOImx 1.3 m)/4 pillars = 1.27x10-40
Ls = 650nH/m, X Ls :;: 21t fx 650 x 1O-9x1.3/4=6.64x10" 0
2. GIS(expect GCB)
Enclosure Aluminium rl = 0.1675 m, r2 = 0.1742m, I = 3.5 m
From formula (2) and (3),
Re (GIS) = 1.4lx 10"(0)
XLe (GIS)--2.83x 10.6(0)
Z=Ze (CB)+Zs(CB)+Ze(GIS)
= 1.6xl0 + j4. 38xl0-4 0
I Z I = 4.66xlO-4 0
EG= V= I Z I .1= 18.6V
B. For earth-fault point "P2"
1. GIS
Enclosure Aluminium r1 = O.l675m, r2 = O.l742m, I = 5.5 + 0.4=5.9m
Structure Two (2) pil1arsI = 204m
From formula (2) and (3)
Re (GIS) = 2.38xlO" (0)
XLe(GIS) = 4.76xlO.6 (0)

23
Rs and Ls
Rs = (3901lOlm x 2.4m)12 pillars = 4.68xlQ4.Q
Ls = 650 mnH/m, XLs = 2 f x 650x IO x2.4/2=2.45xIO-4.Q
Z = Zc(GIS) + Zs(GIS)
= 4.92xIO-4+j2.5xIO-4.Q
IZ I = 5.52xIOo4 .Q
Eo =V =I Z I .I = 22.1V

24

n___-
,,' ,"--.' .,-.--
-" ~-

ANNEXURE --A

Estimation of Mesh and Step Potentials by


Graphical Method

The calculated values of mesh and step potentials for the design square, ground mat without ground rods in uniform
soils can be given a quick check with the help of graphs developed by the Georgia lnstitute of Technology and included
in the EPRI Final Report EL 2682, VoL I. The graphs applicable to square grids without ground rods and with uniform
conductor spacings in both directions are incorporated in this chapter.
The terms applicable in the use of these graphs and method of the using the graphs are explained below to facilitate
checking of the values of mesh and, step voltages.
Corner Mesh Voltage
The corner mesh voltages (Em) is calculated by multiplying the ground potential rise (GPR) by the comer Mesh
Voltage percentage obtained from Figure 13. Thus, the Comer Mesh Voltage:
percentage value of Comer Mesh Voltage as per graph
Em = GPR x
100
Figure 13 gives the Corner Mesh Voltage percentage of GPR for a grid depth of 0.5 metre and conductor diameter
of 0.01 metre. The grid depth and conductor diameter have been found to have negligible effect on Em for grid depths
from 0.25 metre to 0.5 metre and for diameter from 2.5 mm to 10.0 mm.
Corner Step Voltage
The Comer Step Voltage (Es) is determined by multiplying the ground potential rise (GPR) by Corner Step Voltage
percentage obtained from Figures 14 to 16 which gives the percentage values for three grid depths viz. 0.25 m, 0.5 m
and 1.0 m.
The conductor diameter has been found to have negligible influence on step voltage for conductor diameters from
2.5 mm to 10.0 mm.
percentage value of Comer Step Voll2ge as per graph
ES = GPR x 100
Grid Resistance
The value of grid resistance (Rg) is given by Figure 12 as follows:
Soil resistivity (Ohm metre) value as per graph
Rg = Ohm
1000
The graph for grid resistance (Figure 12) is also for grid depth of 0.5 m and conductor diameter of 10 mm. It
has been found that grid depth between 0.25 metre and 0.5 metre and conductor diameter between 2.5 mm and 10 mm
have negligible effects on value of grid resistance.
Ground Potential Rise
The Ground Potential Rise (GPR) is given by the current 10 injected into the grid and the grid resistance Rg.
GPR = 10' Rg volts.
Application of the Graphical Method
For applying the Graphical method, the length of the side of square grid in metres, number of meshes on the side
of square, the value; of soil resistivity in ohm metres, and the magnitude fault current injected into grid in Amperes should
be known.

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27
ANNEXURE -- B
Example showing Division of Fault current
Between the Overhead Earthwire and Earthing Grid

Let two 132 kV D/C lines feed subst:J.tionB from subst:J.tionA. Let length of the line AB be 77 kIn with an
average span between tower of 250 m and tower footing resist:J.nceof 10 ohms. At substation B, there are.four 15 MYA,
132/66 kV transformers to step down the received power which is further stepped down to 11 kV by 6 X 5 MVA, 66/
11 kV transformers. TI1emaximum S-L-G fault current of 10 kA is at 132 kV bus. The ground resistance of station B
is assumed as 0.9 ohm. For a typical 132 kV D/C tower with one ground wire.
1. Mutual impedance between phase cond.uctors and the ground wire (Zgm)
= 0.294 fjoo ohms/km.
2. Self Impedance of ground wire with ground return (Zg)
Calculation of Division of Current
= 2.30/].0.830 ohms/km.
The fault current supplied by the four circuits of 132 kV line (i.e., 10 KA) will not completely flow into the ground
as part of the current will be diverted by ground wires due to induction and conduction.
Diversion of current due to induction
Fault current flowing in a line conductor (Ir) will induce current in the overhead ground wires (I) of the same
line.
Ii = /m/If
Zgm 0.294 L80
.where,m =- =
Zg 2.3 L 20.83
/m/ = 0.128
. That is 12.8% of fault current flowing in the line will be induced in its earth wire. The fault current If supplied
by both double circuit line together is 10 KA.
.

Therefore current induced in both earth wire


(I) = 0.128 x 10 = 1.28 KA
Diversion of Current due to conduction
Overhead ground wires and tower footing resist:J.nceform a ladder network. As the number of towers is more than
20, the length of line can be considered as infinite for purpose of determining the admittance (y) of the ladder network
which is given by

y=
Z span +..j Z span x R,
2
Where, Z span = Self impedance of one span of ground wire with ground return in ohms/km
R, = Average tower footing resisulnce for first 20 towers in ohms.
S pall bet ween towers = 250 III

.z span = 250x2.3 = 0.575 ohms


1000

I
y
= 0.575
-
+VO.575xlO
= = 0.372 mho.
2.685
2

28

, "", "-
,,-~~.-'--'--""~W_"-'. "',~"-"'~' - ._-~---~---' ~~
Z = Impedance of ladder network = 1/Y = 2.685 ohms
Zl = Resultant impedance of ground wires due to two double Ckt lines (Le., Z(2)
= 1.34 ohms
The current discharged to the ground from the station will be given by

Zl
IG = IG1
I .x
I Rg + Zl

Where IGI = Total fault current minus the current diverted by the ground wires due to induction
= Ir -I t

= 10-1.28 = 8.72 KA
Zl = Resultant impcndancc of ground wires due to two double ckt lines
= 1.34 o~ms
Rg =Groundl resistance = 0.9 ohm
1.34
IG = 8.72 x
1.34 + 0.9
1.34
= 8.72 x
2.24
=8.72 x 0.598
= 5.51 KA .
Thus out of a total of 10 KA supplied by the two lines only 5.21 KA flows into the ground. i.e., only 52.1% of
the total fault current flows to the ground.

References
(1) "Guide for Safety in Alternating Current Sub-Station Grounding" ANSI-IEEE Standard 80-1986.
(2) Indian Standards: IS : 1730-1989 Steel Plates, Sheets and Flats for Structural and General Engineering Purpqses
- Dimensions"
(3) "Review on Corrosion in Earthing Equipment" Review No.1, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, 1973.
(4) "Steel Grounding Systems - Where Grounding Mat is not Needed' - Technical Report No.5, Central Board of
Irrigation and Power, July 1976, Reprinted March, 1985.
(5) Indian Standards, IS 3043-1987 "Code of Practice for Earthing First Revision.
(6) Current for Design of Grounding Systems - B.Thapar& Sunil K. Madan IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol -103 No.9
September, 1984.

29

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