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- Afloat, afraid, alike, alone, asleep – used only predicatively

- Some , - ing adj, can quality othen adj

- Some adj can follow nouns too – in expressions - Asia minor Govern general

Above – The above question ( question is an adverb, but can function as an inside – cover, the than
president attributive adj)



How + adj + article + noun



- Too polite a person, too expensive a car

- When we compare onlz 2 things, we use the comparative with the meaning of the superlative:
he’s the taller of the 2 brothers

The Adjective

- Part of speech which describes a noun

Central adjectives - has to meet 4 coditions:
- It can be used attributivelz in a noun phrase: old man
- It can be used modified by intensifiers: mz old, extremely old, too old
- I can be used predicatilz with a verb: he looks / is old
- They can compansative superlative forms: old-older-oldest

The adjective phrase – a phrase in which the head is adjective

A C O M P N the order of adjectives


Age color origin material preposition

We bought a new blue and white French steel and iron tennis racket

a) Adj+ y’ drops - ier + iest - busy, busier, busiest
b) Irregular -> - much – more – most
c) Adj+ more + most little – less – least
Pleasant – more pl – most pl ill – worse –worst
d) Beneath = nether – nethermost

In – inner – inneemost

Out – outer – outermost

Up – upper – uppermost

Lastern – more eastern – easternmost (eastmost)

e) Shy – shyer – shyest

Sly – slyer – slyest
Spry – spryer – spryest
f) Good-looking – better-looking- best-looking
Bad-tempered – worse- l - worst – l
g) Ill paid – worse paid – the worst paid
Low priced – lower priced – he lowest paid
Well known – better known – the bes known
Intelligen looking – more i.l – most i.l
Grey eyed – greyer eyed – the greyest eyed

Have their own meaning and presive it as distinct from the meaning of the other one so
the first one gets comparative element

h) Up-to-date - more – the most

Narrow minded – more – most element 1+2 form a unit
Short-sighted – more - most
Old fashioned – more - most
i) Double faced
Self- conscious more/most first element dosen’t have comparative-
Heartbroken -> more/most

- The head noun has been mentioned before, so it isn’t expressed in the next sintence too
- Head-noun expresser = building St Paul’s (cathedral)
- The head-noun occurs in a double positive (analzthical+synthetical genitive)
Ex> a description of John ; a description of John’s
John is described made by him
A bone of the dog , a bone of the dog’s
From his body beloging to him

2. Analythical/ prepositional of gentitive
- characteristic of neuter nouns (boh animate and inanimate)
Ex: the colour of the dress
The barking of the dog
-is prefered to the synthetical genitive; used with:
-proper and aimate nouns that occur in complex noun-phrase or in co-ordonate phrases
Ex: the pencil of the boy in the corner; the daughter of the mom who lives next door
- When go want phrase the head noun
Ex: the plays of Shakespeare
- The objective genitive: the murderer of Caesar

Gradable adjectives/ noun- gradable adjectives

Adjectives are gradable when we can modify them, when they have comperetive and superlative forms

Adj are non-gradable -> the opposite

Attributive adjectives – come before a noun and it’s part of the noun phrase: An old man -> head

determiner pre-modifier

Predicative adj: after verbs like BE, LOOK, SEEM, TASTE, SMELL- ex: the coffee tastes bitter -> adj

Adj orders: A C O M P / noun – basic guide

1. Articles
2. Posesives
3. Ordinal numers
4. Cardinal numbers
5. Size
6. Age
7. Shape
8. Colour
9. Origin
10. Material
11. Purpose

Ex: buildings, the, stone, city’s, Gothic, last, black, five, square, large, old

The city’s five last large old square black Gothic stone buildings

The companison of adj

Adj + -er + -est -cold – colder – coldest

Adj+ double last consonant –er + -est - big – bigger – biggest

Adj + last vowel drops –er + - est fine – finer – finest

The Noun – Case- possesion

Case- refers to the relation in which the state to a another word

Geniive – generally speaking of the idea of possesion

1. Possesive genitive – John’s can like John has a car

2. Possesive of origin – expresses authorship ( who the authior is)
Shakespeare’s Hamlet – Sh wrote Hamlet
3. Descriptive genitive
Describes the head noun

The noun phrase (NP)

1. Head alone : man, boy
2. Determiner +head : the/mz/this boy
3. Determiner+Modifier +Head : the young boy
- A determiner specifies how a reference of a noun is to be understood
- Determiners: articles, demonstratives, possesives, indefinites (some, many, any), wh- forms
(what, which) -> central determiners
- Predeterminers – that words which are used before central determiners ex: all, both, half,
double, twice, such, what
- Post determiners – used after central determiners ex: same, other, next, last
- A modifier is a word that affects the meaning of another word in the phrase, usually the head
ex: the young man; the man in the corner

This country Byron’s poems

Det. head premod. Head

Post modifier

The nature, of this part of Shakespeare’s Sonnet head

det head det. Head

pre modifier

NP. Determiner : pre det, central det, post det.

Premodifiers : adjm nouns, non- finite forms

Head –noun , pronouns, adjective

Post modifiers - relative clause

Non-finite forms

The English Noun

-the noun is a part of speech that manners beings things, objects that can be described by means of the
grammatical categories of numbers , gendre and case

- plato identified a class of words in greek that he called ‚onoma’ (name) (nomen in latin) = origin of the

- a noun can function as a subject, attribute, direct object, indirect object, subject complement ( John is
a doctor -> completes the meaning of the subject) object complement (we elected Joh president)

Clasification of the nouns:

1. According to form, nouns can be:

 Simple (dog, boy)
 Compound (bathroom, blackboard)
 Frasal nouns (mother-in-law, Alexander the Grea)

2. According to particular proprieties

 Common
 Proper

3. According to how reality is seen:

 Concrete (material things that are perviced by senses)
 Absract (things perviced by our mind)

4. According to the idea of numbers:

 Semantic criterion : contable nouns, uncountable nouns
 Formal critetion: invariable (singularium tantum, pluralia tantum), variable (sg form and
meaning, plural form +meaning)
Singularia tantum – substances, concepts, notions which cannot be counted
Pluralia tantum – have plural meaning

-includes summation plurals (nouns that denote objects made of .... ex: trousers,
sussois, shorts) + parts of the body, -ing verbal nouns, effects, nationalities etc.

The plural of English nouns. The plural of compounds

Ex: trade union – trade unions

1. Forget-me-not forget-me-nots
Knock out- knock outs

- Most compunds have a regular plural ( -s added to the last element), especially if the compound
has no noun in it; +ful compounds; + phrasel verbs used as nouns

2. Passer by – passes by
Coming-in - comings-in
Maid-of-honour - maids-of honour

- In some cases the first element is made plural ( when there’s an agent noun ending in ‚er’, a
verbal noun ending ‚ing’, a noun +preposition + noun)

3. Woman doctor – women doctors

Man singer – men singers
Man cater – men caters =the last element - plural

4. In-and-out - ins-and-outs = in compounds wih ‚and’ both

Up-and-down - ups-and-downs =element take the plural
Gin-and-tonic - gin-and tonics = exception - drink

Tooth (premodifier) brush (head) – toothbrushes

The plural of compounds (see the seminary)

The plural of proper nouns
The plural of numbers, letters, abbreviations : p-pp
4 – 4’s
I - i’s
1980 – 1980s
Nouns ending in –s

1. Regular plurals
- Pronountation: s, z, iz
- S after voiceless consonants (p –
- Z after voiced consonants ( b
- Iz after sibilants

2. Nouns ending in y
 Regular plural if the noun ends in vowel y (boys, days)
 Ies -> if the noun ends in consonant +y (stories, spies)
 Regular plurals if there’s a proper noun ( Marys, Lennedys)
 Sustentionsied part of speech -> regular plural

3. Noun ending in o
4. Mutation plurals: men, women feet, teeth
5. –en plurals = children, oxen
6. Nouns ending in f/ - fe : valves, halves, knifes, scarfes, cheffs
7. Zero plural : deer, sheep, japanese, speecies, swime
-fishes of the Atlantic because we are refering to multiple species
- 6 mile walk -> modifier a it doesn’t get the plural or six mile’s walk
-10 meters long because it’s followed by an adjective

8. Foreign plurals: latin: ending in us -> i, o, x, um

9. Foreign plurals: greek: ending in –is, -on, -ma, -x

10. Foreign plurals: french : ending in

Italian: - o + hebrew : cherub, seroph, kibbutz

Ex: children’s boys -> toys for children

Today’s newspaper

4.Subjective genitive

Ex: the doctor’s arrival -> the doctor arrived

The crying of the baby -> the baby cried
5. Objective genitive
Ex: the child’s education -> somebody educates the child

The translation of the paragrah -> somebody translates the paragraph
John’s beating - subjective : John did the beating
Objective : somebody else beat John

Partitive genitive
Ex: loaf of bread, slice of.., five of my books, part of the audition

Genitive of gradation
Ex: king of kings, song of songs

According to form, genitives are classified in 2categories:

Synthetical/saxm/inflected/ s genitive
- Is used with:
Nouns denoting persons: the teacher’s book
Nouns of persons: John’s book
Collection nouns: the nation’s development
Nouns denoting beings and their names other than persons: cat’s tail, dog’s barking
Nouns denoting measurements in time/space/ : a week’s holiday, today’s newspaper, a 2
Inanimate nouns that can be refered as ‚he’ or ‚she’: London’s briges
used frequently with inanimate nouns because of its conciesion ex: one of the city’s streets

elliptical genitive: a: Is this your car? B: no, it’s John’s