Model Tests on Sloshing of a Floating Roof in a Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tank Under Seismic Excitation

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Model Tests on Sloshing of a Floating Roof in a Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tank Under Seismic Excitation

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July 27-31, 2008, Chicago, Illinois, USA

PVP2008-61675

STORAGE TANK UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION

Takashi Nagaya, Tetsuya Matsui

and Takuo Wakasa

Nagoya 468-8502, Japan

E-mail: matsuite@ccmfs.meijo-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT e.g., during the 1964 Niigata earthquake and the 1983

Shaking table tests are carried out to validate the analytical Nihonkai-chubu earthquake, the sinking of the floating roof

solutions for the sloshing of a floating roof in a cylindrical caused by sloshing has never been experienced so far in Japan.

liquid storage tank under seismic excitation. The experimental It was a very dangerous situation that the oil surface was

tank is a 1/100 scaled model of typical oil-storage tank of directly exposed to the air.

100,000m3 capacity, made of acrylic tube of 800mm in After the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, the Fire and

diameter. The tests are performed using three types of floating Disaster Management Agency of Japan [3] has issued the

roof model: (1) a roof composed of a pontoon ring only, (2) a amended Notification of the Fire Defense Law, in which the

roof composed of uniform isotropic plate, and (3) a single-deck design spectrum for sloshing was increased to almost twice the

type roof composed of an inner deck and an outer pontoon. The spectrum in the past Notification. In addition, the standard for

motion capture system using high-speed micro cameras is the seismic design of floating roofs under long-period ground

employed to measure the roof displacement over the whole roof motion, which has never been included in the past Notification,

surface. The test results are compared with the analytical has been newly regulated. This requires the evaluation of

solutions based on linear potential theory. Overall agreement is earthquake-resistance capacity of the floating roof of many

confirmed between theory and experiment, while nonlinear bi- existing as well as newly designed tanks and raising it up to the

harmonic resonance oscillation is observed to occur in certain level requested by the amended Notification. Thus, there is a

cases. rapidly increasing demand for predicting the sloshing response

of floating roofs under long-period seismic excitation.

In the earlier papers by Matsui [4, 5], analytical solutions

Keywords: shaking table test, liquid storage tank, floating

have been presented for the sloshing of a floating roof in a

roof, sloshing, fluid-structure interaction, potential theory

cylindrical liquid storage tank under seismic excitation.

Explicit solutions have been obtained for two types of floating

INTRODUCTION

roof: (a) a floating roof composed of uniform isotropic plate,

Sloshing of contained liquid is one of the major

which may be a rational approximation to a double-deck type

considerations in the design of liquid storage tanks. In the past

floating roof, and (b) a single-deck type floating roof composed

major earthquakes many tanks have been subjected to serious

of an inner deck with relatively small bending stiffness and an

damages which may be attributed to liquid sloshing. Especially

outer pontoon with relatively large stiffness. The dynamic

during the September 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, seven oil-

interaction between the liquid and the floating roof was taken

storage tanks of floating-roof type located at Tomakomai,

into account exactly within the framework of linear potential

Hokkaido, Japan were seriously damaged (Hatayama et al. [1]).

theory.

Damages include the sinking of the floating roof, which led one

In the present paper, shaking table tests are carried out to

of the seven tanks to a whole surface fire, as observed also in

confirm the validity of the analytical solutions based on the

the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, Turkey (The Japan Society of

linear potential theory. The experimental tank is a 1/100 scaled

Civil Engineers [2]). Although the failure of the floating roof

model of typical oil-storage tank of 100,000m3 capacity, made

and the fire of oil-storage tanks have been observed frequently,

of acrylic tube of 800mm in diameter. The motion capture

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system using high-speed micro cameras is employed to Table 1 Principal Dimensions of Tank Model

measure the roof displacement over the whole roof surface. The Outer diameter of tank 800 mm

test results are compared with the analytical solutions to be Inside diameter of tank 780 mm

validated.

Liquid depth 400 mm

TEST PROCEDURE Mass density of liquid 1000 kg/m3

Diameter of floating roof 770 mm

Experimental Model Thickness of deck (double-deck) 2 mm

The principal dimensions of the experimental tank are Thickness of inner deck (single-deck) 0.1 mm

shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The tank is made of acrylic tube of

800mm in diameter, 10mm thick and 800mm high and filled Thickness of pontoon (single-deck) 2 mm

with water to a depth of 400mm. The tests are carried out using Width of pontoon (single-deck) 45 mm

three types of floating roof model: (1) a roof composed of a Mass density of deck (double-deck) 1244 kg/m3

pontoon ring only (which is referred to as “free surface” Mass density of inner deck (single-deck) 2836 kg/m3

hereafter), (2) a roof composed of uniform isotropic plate Mass density of pontoon (single-deck) 1206 kg/m3

(which is referred to as “double-deck type roof” hereafter), and

(3) a “single-deck type roof” composed of an inner deck and an Young's modulus of acrylite 2.90 Gpa

outer pontoon. The floating roofs are made of acrylic plate of

2mm thick except the inner deck of the single-deck type roof Measurement System of Roof Displacements

made of polyvinyl chloride sheet of 0.1mm thick. To provide Three high-speed micro cameras are set up at the top of

buoyancy a number of Styrofoam blocks of 1mm thick are tank as shown in Photo 2 to catch the 3D movement of the

attached to the lower surface of the double-deck type roof and targets marked by white-colored small circles on the black-

of the pontoon of the single-deck type roof, as shown in Photo painted surface of the floating roof. The motion capture system

1. Due to their light weight and low bending stiffness compared is employed to obtain the digitized time-series data of roof

with those of acrylic plates the effect of the Styrofoam blocks displacement over the whole roof surface, measured

on the response is ignored in the analysis later. simultaneously at the frame rate of an integral sub-multiple of

60fps (10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60fps) with the restriction of 262

frames in storage capacity. The arrangement of the measuring

800 mm

770 mm points is shown in Fig.2.

780 mm

2 mm

770 mm

2 mm

400 mm

0.1 mm

45 mm

Double-deck Type Roof Single-deck Type Roof

Fig. 1 Experimental Tank Photo 1 Floating Roof Models

θ r

Ground

motion

R

Photo2 Set Up of High-speed Free Surface Double-deck Type Roof Single-deck Type Roof

Micro Cameras Fig. 2 Arrangement of Measuring Points

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FREE-OSCILLATION TESTS Table 2 Test Conditions for Free-oscillation Tests

Free-oscillation tests have been carried out to measure the Frame rate (fps) Duration time (s)

natural period, damping ratio and free-oscillation mode of the 17.5

Test 1 / Test 4 15

floating roof models in liquid. The free-oscillation was

generated by pulling up and down the string attached to an Test 2 / Test 5 12 21.8

edge of the roof and releasing it after the oscillation was fully Test 3 / Test 6 10 26.2

developed. Six tests have been performed for each floating roof

type under the test conditions shown in Table 2. The frame rate Table 3 Natural Periods Evaluated from Free-

was determined to be an integral sub-multiple of 60fps by oscillation Tests (s)

taking into consideration the range of natural frequencies to be Free surface Double-deck Single-deck

measured and the storage capacity of the motion capture Test 1 0.950 0.951 0.951

system.

The measured time histories of free-oscillation y (t ) were Test 2 0.950 0.947 0.952

fitted by the least-square method to Test 3 0.951 0.950 0.951

y (t ) = exp(− β t ) { A cos(ωd t ) + B sin(ωd t )} (1) Test 4 0.951 0.953 0.953

Test 5 0.950 Failed 0.951

where t denotes the time, and ωd denotes the damped natural Test 6 0.950 0.950 0.951

circular frequency of the roof. The coefficients A , B , β and

ωd can be determined to minimize the error norms between the Average 0.950 0.950 0.952

measured and fitted time histories of oscillation. Once these Analysis 0.945 0.946 0.947

coefficients have been determined, the natural period T and

damping ratio h can be evaluated from Table 4 Damping Ratios Evaluated from Free-

oscillation Tests

T = 2π ωd , h = β ωd 2 + β 2 (2) Free surface Double-deck Single-deck

Test 1 0.00229 0.01130 0.00323

Test 2 0.00234 0.01060 0.00336

Test 3 0.00243 0.01070 0.00340

Test 4 0.00198 0.01180 0.00319

Test 5 0.00245 Failed 0.00368

Test 6 0.00199 0.01120 0.00342

Average 0.00225 0.01110 0.00338

Free Surface

The corresponding free-oscillation mode can be obtained from

the amplitude ratio of least-square fitted free-oscillation curve

at each measuring point.

Figure 3 shows examples of the measured and least-square

fitted time histories of free oscillation. Complete agreement is

observed between the measured and fitted oscillation curves,

illustrating the validity and high accuracy of the least-square

fitting.

Double-deck Type Roof The natural periods and damping ratios evaluated from

free-oscillation tests are shown in Tables 3 and 4. These are the

averages of those values obtained from the free-oscillation

curve of every measuring point. In Table 3 the fundamental

natural periods predicted by the analytical solutions (Matsui [4,

5]) are also shown for comparison. It can be observed that the

variance of the natural period of each test is quite small and

that the measured natural periods are very close to the

analytical solutions, confirming the validity of the linear

Single-deck Type Roof potential theory. The variance of damping ratios is also found

Fig. 3 Measured and Least-square Fitted Time to be small. It can be noted that the damping values depend

Histories of Free-oscillation strongly on the type of floating roof. They are lowest in the

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case of free surface, and the single-deck type roof provides

lower damping than the double-deck type roof.

The free-oscillation modes evaluated from free-oscillation

tests are plotted and compared with the analytical solutions in

Figs. 4 and 5, where r R and θ denote the radial coordinate

normalized by the radius R of the floating roof and the

circumferential coordinate, respectively. Again satisfactory

agreement is observed between theory and experiment,

confirming the validity of the linear potential theory.

Seismic oscillation tests were carried out to measure the

sloshing response of the floating roof models under seismic

ground motion. The earthquake wave recorded at the K-NET

Tomakomai station during the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake

(HKD1290309260450EW) was selected as an input ground

motion. Three tests have been performed for each floating roof

type under the test conditions shown in Table 5.

The experimental tank was designed to be a 1/100 scaled

model of typical oil-storage tank of 100,000m3 capacity (80m

in diameter), but it is possible to consider tanks of other size by

adjusting the time scale of ground motion. It is well-known that

Single-deck Type Roof the law of similarity is satisfied by t ' t = L ' L , where t and

L denote the time and characteristic dimension in real scale,

Fig.

Fig. 44 Radial

Radial Free-oscillation

Free-oscillation Modes

Modes while t ' and L ' denote the corresponding quantities in model

scale. In the present study two tank sizes, referred to as “model

L” and “model S” hereafter, are considered by reducing the

time scale as shown in Table 6.

Figure 6 shows an example of time histories and

corresponding velocity response spectra of the target and

generated ground motions in the case of free surface of model

L. It can be observed that the target wave is generated on the

shaking table with high accuracy over the whole range of

periods.

Frame rate (fps) Duration time (s)

Test 1 15 17.5

Double-deck Type Roof

Test 2 12 21.8

Test 3 10 26.2

Dimension Diameter/Liquid

Model Time scale

scale depth of real tank

Model L 1/10 1/100 80m/40m

Model S 1/7.91 1/62.5 50m/25m

Model Sampling period (s) Duration time (s)

Single-deck Type Roof Model L 1/160 51.2

Fig. 5 Circumferential Free-oscillation Modes Model S 1/187.5 43.7

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Table 8 Computed Natural Frequencies of Single-

deck Type Floating Roof Model (Hz)

Number of radial half Number of circumferential waves

waves n =0 n =1 n =2

1 1.56 1.06 1.39

2 2.11 1.84 2.07

3 2.55 2.33 2.52

has passed decays more slowly in the analytical curve than in

the experimental one. As a possible reason for these

discrepancies it can be considered that the damping ratio for

model S is higher than that evaluated by the free-oscillation

tests due to its amplitude-dependent nature. This may be

justified by the fact that the roof displacement of model S

amounts to 50mm, which is beyond the range of displacement

in the free-oscillation tests (see Fig. 3).

From the figures of the Fourier amplitude spectra shown in

Figs. 9 – 14, it can be observed that the contribution of the

fundamental mode is dominant in most cases. In these cases the

Fig. 6 Time Histories and Velocity Response difference between the Rayleigh damping and the stiffness-

Spectra of Target and Generated Ground Motions proportional damping cannot be recognized. However, in the

(Free Surface of Model L)

case of the free surface and the single-deck type roof of model

L, it can be noted that the contribution of the second mode can

Earthquake response analysis was performed by using the

never be ignored. In these cases the Rayleigh damping gives

table motions generated on the shaking table as input ground

better predictions than the stiffness-proportional damping.

motions. Newmark’s method (the average acceleration method)

Figure 15 show the time histories and corresponding

was adopted with the sampling period and the duration time

Fourier amplitude spectra of displacement measured at the

shown in Table 7. The Rayleigh damping as well as the

center of the single-deck type roof of Model S. According to

stiffness-proportional damping were assumed for each mode

the linear theory, the roof oscillates with only a component with

using the measured damping ratios shown in Table 4 for the

the number of circumferential waves 1, resulting in zero

fundamental and second modes in liquid. 6 free surface modes

displacement at the center of the roof. However, the measured

and 5 elastic vibration modes in air were adopted for the

displacement at the center of the roof is found to be as high as

double-deck type roof, while 30 free surface modes and 29

7mm which can never be ignored, and has the peak of Fourier

elastic vibration modes in air for the single-deck type roof. It

amplitude spectrum at 2.09Hz which is just twice the

should be noted that a larger number of modes are needed to

fundamental natural frequency (1.05Hz). This implies the

express the pressure and the bending moment in the deck of the

occurrence of nonlinear bi-harmonic resonance oscillation, as

single-deck type floating roof, which increase rapidly as

discussed by Ohmori, et al. [6] for the case of free surface. It is

approaching to the connection between the deck and the

well-known that the bi-harmonic resonance oscillation occurs

pontoon. For more details, see Matsui [4, 5].

when the natural frequencies of modes with the number of

Figures 7 and 8 show the comparison between the

circumferential waves 0 and/or 2 coincide with twice the

measured and simulated maximum amplitudes of roof

f u n damental natural frequency with the number of

displacement along the radius parallel to the direction of

circumferential waves 1. This is just the case in the singe-deck

ground motion. Quite good agreement is observed between

type floating roof model as shown in Table 8, where the natural

theory and experiment except the slight discrepancies along the

outer circumference. frequencies of modes with the number of circumferential waves

Figures 9 - 14 show the time histories and corresponding 0 and 2 and the number of radial half waves 2 are close to twice

Fourier amplitude spectra of roof displacement at the wave the fundamental natural frequency of mode with the number of

front, together with the natural frequencies evaluated from the circumferential waves 1 and the number of radial half waves 1.

analytical solutions. In the case of model L quite good In order to confirm the occurrence of bi-harmonic resonance

agreement is observed between analysis and experiment. On oscillation, Fig. 16 shows the Fourier coefficients of the roof

the other hand, in the case of Model S it can be observed that displacement expanded around the circumference. In addition

the analysis gives somewhat higher predictions than the to the linear component with the number of circumferential

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Double-deck Type Roof

Fig. 7 Maximum Amplitude of Displacement Fig. 9 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude

along the Radius Parallel to the Direction of Spectra of Displacement at the Wave Front

Ground Motion (Model L) (Free Surface of Model L)

Fig. 8 Maximum Amplitude of Displacement Fig. 10 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude

along the Radius Parallel to the Direction of Spectra of Displacement at Wave-front Edge

Ground Motion (Model S) (Free Surface of Model S)

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Fig.11 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude Fig. 13 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude

Spectra of Displacement at the Wave Front Spectra of Displacement at the Wave Front

(Double-deck Type Roof of Model L) (Single-deck Type Roof of Model L)

Fig. 12 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude Fig. 14 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude

Spectra of Displacement at the Wave Front Spectra of Displacement at the Wave Front

(Double-deck Type Roof of Model S) (Single-deck Type Roof of Model S)

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waves 1 which is dominant, the components with the number

of circumferential waves 0 and 2 can be recognized. The bi-

harmonic resonance oscillation mode can be observed clearly

in Fig. 17, showing the 3D plot of the measured roof

displacement band-pass filtered between the frequencies of 2.0

and 2.2Hz.Such a nonlinear oscillation mode can also be

observed in model L although not so significantly as in model

S.

CONCLUSIONS

Shaking table tests using a small-scale model have been

carried out to validate the analytical solutions for the sloshing

of a floating roof in a cylindrical liquid storage tank under

seismic excitation. The tests have been performed using three

types of floating roof model: (1) a roof composed of a pontoon

ring only, (2) a roof composed of uniform isotropic plate, and

(3) a single-deck type roof composed of an inner deck and an

outer pontoon. The test results were compared with the

analytical solutions based on linear potential theory. Overall

agreement was confirmed between theory and experiment,

while nonlinear bi-harmonic resonance oscillation was

observed to occur in certain cases. The theoretical prediction of

such nonlinear oscillations will be a matter of further research.

Fig. 15 Time Histories and Fourier Amplitude Finally, the conclusions obtained from the present

Spectra of Displacement at the Center of Roof experimental study can be summarized as follows:

(Single-deck Type Roof of Model S)

• The analytical solutions for the fundamental natural periods

and the corresponding free-oscillation modes coincide well

with those measured by the free-oscillation tests.

• The damping ratios evaluated from the free-oscillation tests

depend strongly on the type of floating roof. They are

lowest in the case of free surface, and the single-deck type

roof provides lower damping than the double-deck type

roof.

• The analytical solutions for the roof displacement also

coincide well with those measured by the seismic

oscillation tests if the damping ratios are properly assumed.

• To the roof displacement the contribution of the

fundamental mode is dominant in most cases. However, in

Fig. 16 Fourier Coefficients of Displacement

the case of the free surface and the single-deck type roof of

Expanded around the Circumference

larger diameter, the contribution of the second mode can

(Single-deck Type Roof of Model S)

never be ignored. In these cases the Rayleigh damping

gives better predictions than the stiffness-proportional

damping.

• As the roof displacement increases, the nonlinear bi-

harmonic resonance oscillation with the number of

circumferential waves 0 and 2 can occur at twice the

fundamental natural frequency with the number of

circumferential waves 1.

Resonance Oscillation Mode This work has been carried out as a part of research project

(Single-deck Type Roof of Model S) in the Advanced Research Center for Seismic Experiments and

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Computations, Meijo University. The financial support by the Civil Engineering Structures-, the Japan Society of Civil

Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society of Engineers, Tokyo.

Promotion of Science (through Grant No. 17360278) and from [3] The Fire and Disaster Management Agency, 2005, “On the

Meijo University Research Institute is also greatly Enforcement of the Ministerial Ordinance Which Amends

acknowledged. The strong motion data was provided by the K- a Part of the Rule Concerning the Control of Hazardous

NET of National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Materials,” Notification 14, in Japanese.

Prevention, Japan. [4] Matsui, T., 2007, “Sloshing in a Cylindrical Liquid

Storage Tank With a Floating Roof Under Seismic

REFERENCES Excitation,” Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology,

[1] Hatayama, K., Zama, S., Nishi, H., Yamada, M., Hirokawa, Transactions of the ASME, 129 (4), 557-566.

M., and Inoue, R., 2005, “The Damages of Oil Storage [5] Matsui, T., 2007, “Sloshing in a Cylindrical Liquid

Tanks during the 2003 Tokachi-oki Earthquake and the Storage Tank With a Single-deck Type Floating Roof

Long Period Ground Motions,” Proceedings of the JSCE- Under Seismic Excitation,” Proceedings of the ASME

AIJ Joint Symposium on Huge Subduction Earthquakes - Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, San

Wide Area Strong Ground Motion Prediction-, pp.7-18, in Antonio, Texas, PVP2007-26249.

Japanese. [6] Ohmori, H., Hibino, H., Kato, K., and Matsui, T., 1986,

[2] The Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 1999, The 1999 “Nonlinear Sloshing of Cylindrical Liquid Storages,”

Kocaeli Earthquake, Turkey -Investigation into Damage to Proceedings of the IASS Symposium on Shells,

Membranes and Space Frames, Osaka, Vol.1, pp. 97-104.

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