y Import and Export scenarios of Agri-products

Since Independence, India has made a lot of progress in agriculture in terms of growth in output, yields and area under crops. It has gone through a y Green Revolution (food grains) y White Revolution (milk) y Yellow Revolution (oilseeds) and y Blue Revolution (aquaculture). Today, India is one of the largest producers of milk, fruits, cashew nuts, coconuts and tea in the world. It is also well known for the production of wheat, vegetables, sugar, fish, tobacco and rice. Certain types of agriculture such as horticulture, organic farming, floriculture, genetic engineering, packaging and food processing have the potential to see a surge in revenues through exports. Over the past few years, the government has stressed on the development of horticulture and floriculture by creating vital infrastructure for cold storage, refrigerated transportation, packaging, processing and quality control. If India wishes to optimize the production and export potential of these commodities, then it is essential to improve these facilities, marketing and export networks much further. In recent years, the Central Government has offered different fiscal incentives for bettering storage facilities in rural areas. It also provides financial assistance to the State Governments for acquiring and distributing food grains at subsidized rates, especially to families with annual income below the poverty line. Today, the improved availability of bank credit through priority lending, favorable terms of trade and liberalized domestic and external trade for agricultural commodities have also encouraged private players to invest in agriculture. The major thrust of the policies and programmes of the Government of India relating to livestock and fisheries is in the areas of rapid genetic upgradation of milch animals, improvement in the delivery mechanism of breeding inputs, control of animal diseases, creation of disease free zones, increased availability of nutritious feed, development of dairy activities and backyard poultry, development of processing and marketing facilities and enhancement of production and profitability of livestock.

y Agricultural Exports
Agricultural exports have shown an increase from around Rs. 60 billion in 1990 - 91 to Rs. 398 billion in 2005-06. The Government's special efforts to encourage export of food grains in recent years through grant of World Trade Organization or WTO compatible subsidies has lead to India becoming one of the leading exporters of food grains in the international market.

y Agricultural Imports
The imports of agricultural products improved from Rs. 12 billion in 1990 91 to Rs. 220 billion in 2005- 06. The share of Agri-imports to total merchandise imports in 2005-06 was 4.59 percent. Edible oil is the single largest agricultural product imported into the country and accounts for around two-thirds of the total agricultural imports.

Table: Total agriculture vis-à-vis total national Import/Export (Value: million Rs) Import Agriculture Year Value 199091 199192 199293 199394 199495 Export

Total % Agriculture Total % (National) Agriculture (National) Agriculture to total to total Value Value Value (National) (National) 2.79 3.09 4.54 3.18 6.60 60127.60 325272.80 78380.40 440418.10 90403.00 536882.60 125865.50 697488.50 132227.60 826734.00 18.49 17.80 16.84 18.05 15.99

12058.60 431708.20 14782.70 478508.40 28762.50 633745.20 23273.30 731010.10 59372.10 899707.00

20 1998.58 12.40 255106.09 18.70 346539.20 2933667.59 203977.120862.63 5.70 2013564. Ministry of Agriculture. Directorate of Economics and Statistics.40 01 2001.88 19.22 13.50 1301006.80 4.70 11.12 4. of India.50 297286. Govt.90 4810641. 2005.80 372665.30 2283066.60 1590952.10 3560688. .33 19.17 7.220574.80 3591076.90 1188173.76 5.30 2972058.199596 199697 199798 58901.80 1783316.25 15.162566.30 2155285.70 253136.20 02 2002.90 1541762.10 2451997.40 66126.23 14.91 14.20 248324.50 241612.18 20.45 5.00 1389198.60 04 2004.10 2090179.40 1063533.92 6.40 2551372.90 99 1999.30 00 2000.70 8.40 1397517.00 1226781.145664.50 398633.00 286573.90 4.219726.160667.80 87841.70 03 2003.176088.29 6.10 05 Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance.

then will have to register the same with the Registrar of Companies. Negotiate with buyers for a good deal. Send export letters to targeted companies with information about the company. pricing and other services offered. The first thing one need to do is to set up a business organization depending on the specific export needs. marketing requirements. as every intermediary needs a percentage for his share in his business. . product. The fewer intermediaries a person have the better. at a bank that is authorized to deal in foreign exchange. find out about the import regulations of the commodity in the importing countries.who manufactures the goods he exports. This leads to fewer profits. If one decides to incorporate a private limited company. Manufacturer exporter . The second thing one need to do is to open a current account in the name of the organization in whose name you intend to export. Merchant exporters . shipping and insurance must be drawn out.who buy goods from the market or from manufacturers and sell them to foreign buyers and 2. There are two types of exporters ± 1. arbitration. Once an export order is received it must be processed and a contract that lists item specifications. payment conditions. Carefully select the products which he wishes to export and study current export trends.y Export Procedure A successful exporter should thoroughly research the markets. Also.

To get benefits and concessions under the export-import policy. 1963. packaged. All goods should be labelled. fishery.y Exporters face risks such as credit risk. products that has an ISI Certification Mark orAgmark do not need to be inspected by any agency. Reviewed on: 13-062008) . Under the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act. jute products and coir are subject to compulsory pre-shipment inspection. currency risk. exporters should register with an appropriate export promotion agency by obtaining a registration-cum-membership certificate. rubber products. These can be countered through steps like insisting upon an irrevocable letter of credit from the overseas buyer and taking out a marine insurance policy. you should get yourself registered with the Sales Tax Authority of your State. However.000 commodities under the major groups of food and agriculture. y Agricultural products have to go through quality control and pre-shipment inspections before export. packed and marked before export. minerals. All exporters have to register with a regional licensing authority that provides them with an Import Export Code (IEC) number. For this purpose. carriage risk and country risk. about 1. Goods that are exported are eligible for exemption from both Sales Tax and Central Sales Tax. (Source: National Portal Content Management Team. organic and inorganic chemicals.

means the authority specified in. 22 of 1963) . It was enacted by Parliament in the Fourteenth Year of the Republic of India as follows:(1) This Act may be called the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act. means any commodity notified under clause (a) of section 6. extent and commencement. 1. means the Export Inspection Council established under section 3. in relation to a commodity. (d)"Notified commodity". means the Appellate authority referred to in section 10 M. or under section 10K. (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may.y THE EXPORT (QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION) ACT. (c)"Inspection".As amended by Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Amendment Act. with its grammatical variations and related expressions. means taking out of India to be a place outside India. (2)"Appellate authority". . (No. 1984 (No. (3)"Council". appoint. means the process of determining whether a batch of goods in that commodity complies with the standard specifications applicable to it or any other specifications stipulated in the export contract generally by inspecting either the whole batch or a selected sample or samples which purport to represent the whole batch. Definitions In this Act. Short title. by notification in the Official Gazette. (2) It extends to the whole of India. 2. 40 of 1984) An Act to provide for the sound development of the export trade of India through quality control and inspection and for matters connected therewith. (b)"Export". unless the context otherwise requires:(a)(1)"Adjudicating authority". 1963. 1963.

or any defect in the constitution of the Council. 3. (5) Subject to such rules as may be made by the Central Government in this behalf. with power to acquire. (e) The Director-General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics. (3) The term of office of. (f) Fifteen other members nominated by the Central Government three of whom shall be persons representing the agencies referred to in section 7. having perpetual succession and a common seal. hold and dispose of property and to contract. ex officio. ex officio. who shall be the Secretary. establish with effect from such date as may be specified in the notification a Council to be known as the Export Inspection Council which shall consist of:(a) A Chairman to be appointed by the Central Government. (d) The Agricultural marketing Adviser to the Government of India ex officio. the Council may appoint such officers and other employees as it . means prescribed by rules made under this Act. means any activity having for its object the determination of the quality of a commodity whether during the process of manufacture or production or subsequently) in order to ascertain whether it satisfies the standard specifications applicable to it or any other specifications stipulated in the export contract and whether it may be accepted for purposes of export. (2) The Council shall be a body corporate by the name aforesaid. (b) The Director of Inspection and Quality Control. by notification in the Official Gazette. ex officio.section (1) and the travelling and daily allowances payable to the members of the Council and the procedure to be followed in the discharge of its functions by the Council shall be such as may be prescribed. (4) No act or proceeding of the Council shall be invalidated merely by reason of any vacancy in. and shall by the said name sue and be sued.(e)"Prescribed". and the manner of filling casual vacancies among the members of the Council referred to in clauses (a) and (f) of sub. (f)"quality control". (c) The Honorary Adviser on Standardization to the Government of India and Director of Indian Standards Institution. Establishment of Export Inspection Council (1) The Central Government may.

4. Functions of the Council (1) The functions of the Council shall generally be to advise the Central Government regarding measures for the enforcement of quality control and inspection in relation to commodities intended for export and to draw up programmes thereof. the Council shall be bounded by such directions as the Central Government may give to it in writing from time to time. (4) In the performance of its functions under this Act. (3) The Council may also constitute specialist committees for conducting investigations on special problems connected with its functions. 5. the Council may co-opt as members such number of persons as it thinks fit who have special knowledge and practical experience in matters relating to any commodity or trade therein and any such person shall have the right to take part in the discussions of the Council but shall not have the right to vote and shall not be a member for any other purpose.considers necessary for the purpose of discharging its functions under this Act. with the concurrence of the Central Government. Director of Inspection of Quality Control: The Central Government shall appoint a Director of Inspection and Quality Control to exercise such powers and perform such duties under this Act as may be prescribed. . (2) For the purpose of performing its functions. grants-in-aid to the agencies established or recognized under section 7 and to perform such other functions as may be assigned to it by or under this Act. to make.

such commodity being in conformity with the standard specifications applicable to it under this Act. by notification in the Official Gazette. or it has affixed or applied to it a mark or seal recognised by the Central Government as indicating that it conforms to the standard specifications applicable to it under clause(c). (b) Specify the type of quality control or inspection which will be applied to a notified commodity. recognize or establish any mark or seal in relation to a notified commodity for the purpose of denoting that such commodity conforms to a standard specification applicable to it. adopt or recognize one or more standard specifications for a notified commodity. 7. after consulting the Council. (d) prohibit the export in the course of international trade of a notified commodity unless it is accompanied by a certificate issued under section 7 that the commodity satisfies the conditions relating to quality control or inspection.6. or label attached to. Powers to recognize or establish marks to denote conformity with standard specifications (1) The Central Government may. Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall prevent any officer or customs from examining any consignment of a notified commodity intended for export if he has reason to believe that the seal or mark is not genuine or has been affixed or applied fraudulently or if such an examination is necessary for the purpose of any other law for the time being in force. it may. by order published in the Official Gazette (a) Notify commodities which shall be subject to quality control or inspection or both prior to export. Powers of the Central Government in regard to quality control and inspection If the Central Government. (2) Any such mark or seal affixed or applied to a notified commodity or to any covering containing. is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient so to do for the development of the export trade of India. . (c) Establish.

dealing in or exporting notified commodities.8. to furnish any information. and (ii) Such other persons as may be prescribed. require(i) Persons manufacturing. by notice published in the Official Gazette. Power to obtain information from exporters etc. return or report which the Central Government or such officer or authority may consider necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. The Central Government or any officer or authority authorized by it in this behalf may. .

imports of all goods are free except for the items regulated by the policy or any other law in force. animal rennet and wild animals including their parts and products and ivory cannot be imported. Customs officials will not permit clearance of goods unless the importer gets an Import Export Code (IEC) number from the regional licensing authority. Under this Act. sheep and goats No livestock product may be imported into India without a valid sanitary import permit. Imports of items that are enumerated in the canalized list of items are permitted to be imported through canalizing Agencies. Registration with a regional licensing authority is a precondition for the import of goods. Items on the 'Prohibited' list like tallow. Import Procedure for Livestock Products Livestock products includes y y y y y y Meat and meat products of different types that comprise fresh. This policy is announced once every five years with annual supplements coming out every year. sheep and goat It also consists of egg and egg powder Milk and milk goods Pet foods of animal origin and embryos Ova or semen of cows. The present. foreign trade arrangements for different commodities are stated in the EXIM Policy of 2004-2009. chilled and frozen meat Tissue or organs of poultry. pig.y Import Procedure Imports to India are governed by the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act 1992. For import of items that appear in the 'Restricted' list you need secure an import license. fat or oils of any animal origin. It is also known as the Foreign Trade Policy or Export Import Policy. All other products can be freely imported. .

All livestock products with valid sanitary import permits may be brought into India only through seaports or airports where Animal Quarantine and Certification Services Stations are situated. there is no quantitative restriction on import of spices into the country except for items such as 'seed quality' spices and garlic. The tariffs for import have also been steadily brought down. Import Procedure for Horticulture According to the Foreign Trade Policy. This is useful for value addition and re-exportation. These stations are located in the cities of Delhi. they will be checked by the Officer-in-charge of the Animal Quarantine and Certification Services Station or any other veterinary officer duly approved by the Department Of Animal Husbandry and Dairying. When livestock products arrive at the checkpoint. Under a bilateral agreement with Sri Lanka. Import of five groups of live fish is permitted under Restricted Policy. Kolkata and Chennai. crustaceans. . Import of Whale Shark (Rhincodon types) and parts and products of the species is restricted. Import Procedure for the Fisheries Sector License under EXIM policy is not required for the import of 125 species/groups of fish. duty free import of spices is permitted. molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates covered under FREE policy under the EXIM policy. Mumbai.

subsection (1) of section 15. 178 (h) "Order" means any Order made by the Central Government under section 3. (c) "Conveyance" means any vehicle. unless the context otherwise requires. [7th August. (d) "Director General" means the Director General of Foreign Trade appointed under section 6. and (i) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act. sea or air. A augmenting exports from.y THE FOREIGN TRADE (DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION) ACT. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows: CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY (1) Short title and commencement. 1992 ACT NO. India any goods by land. (b) "Appellate Authority" means the authority specified in. or under.-(a) "Adjudicating Authority" means the authority specified in. vessel. or under. (f) "Importer-exporter Code Number" means the Code Number granted under section 7. a. India and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. (2) Definitions. 22 OF 1992. 1992. Sections 11 to 14 shall come into force at once and the remaining provisions of this Act shall be deemed to have come into force on the 19th day of June. aircraft or any other means of transport including any animal. . 1992. In this Act. This Act may be called the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act. (g) "License" means a license to import or export and includes a customs clearance permit and any other permission issued or granted under this Act. 1992. (e) "Import" and `export" means respectively bringing into. section 13. or taking out of.] An Act to provide for the development and regulation of foreign trade by facilitating imports into.

All Orders made under the Imports and Exports (Control) Act. in such cases and subject to such conditions. 1962 (52 of 1962) and all the provisions of that Act shall have effect accordingly. (3) All goods to which any Order under sub-section (2) applies shall be deemed to be goods the import or export of which has been prohibited under section 11 of the Customs Act. by Order published in the Official Gazette. The Central Government may. amend that policy. (3) The Central Government may. (1) The Central Government may appoint any person to be the Director General of Foreign Trade for the purposes of this Act. by Order published in the Official Gazette. by the Director General or such other officer subordinate to the Director General. Export and import policy. in like manner.CHAPTER II POWER OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO MAKE ORDER AND ANNOUNCE EXPORT AND IMPORT POLICY 3. 1947 (18 of 1947). 6. from time to time. 16 and 19) may also be exercised. Continuance of existing Orders. . make provision for the development and regulation of foreign trade by facilitating imports and increasing exports. Appointment of Director General and his functions. 5. if any. the import or export of goods. as may be made by or under the Order. by Order published in the Official Gazette. Powers to make provisions relating to imports and exports. and in force immediately before the commencement of this Act shall. 4. to be in force and shall be deemed to have been made under this Act. (1) The Central Government may. make provision for prohibiting. so far as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. the export and import policy and may also. 15. as may be specified in the Order. direct that any power exercisable by it under this Act (other than the powers under sections 3. restricting or otherwise regulating. (2) The Central Government may also. (2) The Director General shall advise the Central Government in the formulation of the export and import policy and shall be responsible for carrying out that policy. 5. formulate and announce by notification in the Official Gazette. in all cases or in specified classes of cases and subject to such exceptions.

179 8. (2) Where any Importer-exporter Code Number granted to a person has been suspended or cancelled under sub-section (1). if that person so desires.CHAPTER III IMPORTER-EXPORTER CODE NUMBER AND LICENCE 7. in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed. as may be specified in the order. granted. Importer-exporter Code Number. suspend for a period. or cancel the Importer-exporter Code Number granted to that person. No person shall make any import or export except under an Importerexporter Code Number granted by the Director General or the officer authorised by the Director General in this behalf. that person shall not be entitled to import or export any goods except under a special license. Suspension and cancellation of Importer-exporter Code Number. (1) Where-(a) any person has contravened any law relating to Central excise or customs or foreign exchange or has committed any other economic offence under any other law for the time being in force as may be specified by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette. in accordance with the procedure specified in this behalf by the Director General. by the Director General to that person. . of being heard. after giving to that person a notice in writing informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to suspend or cancel the Importer-exporter Code Number and giving him a reasonable opportunity of making a representation in writing within such reasonable time as may be specified in the notice and. or (b) the Director General has reason to believe that any person has made an export or import in a manner gravely prejudicial to the trade relations of India with any foreign country or to the interests of other persons engaged in imports or exports or has brought disrepute to the credit or the goods of the country. the Director General may call for the record or any other information from that person and may.

documents.section (2) may. conditions and restrictions so prescribed. (2) The provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure. 180 (5) An appeal against an order refusing to grant. (1) The Central Government may levy fees. or renew or suspending or cancelling. (3) A license granted or renewed under this section shall(a) be in such form as may be prescribed. subject to such requirements and conditions. subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.(1)The Central Government may. (b) be valid for such period as may be specified therein. subject to such exceptions.9. apply to every search and seizure made under this section. on an application and after making such inquiry as he may think fit. CHAPTER IV SEARCH. . suspend or cancel any license granted under this Act: Provided that no such suspension or cancellation shall be made except after giving the holder of the license a reasonable opportunity of being heard. conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed or as specified in the license with reference to the terms.Power relating to search and seizure. SEIZURE. Issue. (2) The Director General or an officer authorized by him may. and (c) be subject to such terms. suspension and cancellation of license. by notification in the Official Gazette. to be recorded in writing. things and conveyances. after recording in writing his reasons for such refusal. a license shall lie in like manner as an appeal against an order would lie under section 15. so far as may be. for good and sufficient reasons. PENALTY AND CONFISCATION 10. grant or renew or refuse to grant or renew a license to import or export such class or classes of goods as may be prescribed. 1973 (2 of 1974) relating to searches and seizures shall. as may be prescribed. inspecting and seizing of such goods. authorise any person for the purposes of exercising such powers with respect to entering such premises and searching. in respect of such person or class of persons making an application for license of in respect of any license granted or renewed in such manner as may be prescribed. (4) The Director General or the officer authorized under sub.

etc. an amount to be paid by that person. 181 13. in such class or classes of cases and in such manner as may be prescribed. or other person concerned. subject to such requirements and conditions as may be prescribed. as the case may be. may. on a notice to him by the Adjudicating Authority. by way of settlement.11. subject to such limits as may be specified. or is attempted to be. covering or receptacle and any conveyances shall. orders and export and import policy. No order imposing a penalty or of adjudication of confiscation shall be made unless the owner of the goods or conveyance. by such other officer as the Central Government may.subject to such conditions as may be prescribed. No penalty imposed or confiscation made under this Act shall prevent the imposition of any other punishment to which the person affected thereby is liable under any other law for the time being in force. be liable to confiscation by the Adjudicating Authority. the rules and orders made thereunder and the export and import policy for the time being in force. whichever is more. 14. authorise in this behalf'. (1) No export or import shall be made by any person except in accordance with the provisions of this Act. Contravention of provisions of this Act. be suspended by the Adjudicating Authority till the penalty is paid. in such manner and . on failure to pay the penalty by him.(a) informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to impose a penalty or to confiscate such goods or conveyance. admits any contravention. by notification in the Official Gazette. (5) Where any contravention of any provision of this Act or any rules or orders made thereunder or the export and import policy has been. is being. Adjudicating Authority. the goods together with any package. (3) Where any person. be recovered as an arrear of land revenue and the Importer-exporter Code Number of the person concerned. the Adjudicating Authority may. . has been given a notice in writing. made. determine. (6) The goods or the conveyance confiscated under sub-section (5) may be released by the Adjudicating Authority. Penalty or confiscation not to interfere with other punishments. if it is not paid. 12. he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding one thousand rupees or five times the value of the goods in respect of which any contravention is made or attempted to be made. (4) A penalty imposed under this Act may. (2) Where any person makes or abets or attempts to make any export or import in contravention of any provision of this Act or any rules or orders made thereunder or the export and import policy. Giving of opportunity to the owner of the goods. Any penalty may be imposed or any confiscation may be adjudged under this Act by the Director General or. rules. on payment by the person concerned of the redemption charges equivalent to the market value of the goods or conveyance.

(3) The order made in appeal by the Appellate Authority shall be final. if necessary:.(a) where the decision or order has been made by the Director General. if any. of being heard in the matter. as It may think fit. if he so desires. in the case of any decision or order. and after making such further inquiries. The Central Government.tunity of making a representation. allow such appeal to be preferred within a further period of thirty days: Provided further that in the case of an appeal against a decision or order imposing a penalty or redemption charges. and. if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from preferring the appeal within the aforesaid period. confirming. at its discretion. 16. or the Director General in the case of any decision or order made by any officer subordinate to him. dispense with such deposit either unconditionally or subject to such conditions as it may impose. as the case may be. after taking additional evidence. of being heard in his defence. call for and examine the records of any proceeding in which a decision or an order imposing a penalty or redemption charges or adjudicating confiscation has been made and against which no appeal has .and (b) to make a representation in writing within such reasonable time as may be specified in the notice against the imposition of penalty or confiscation mentioned therein. after giving to the appellant a reasonable opportunity of being heard. it may. where the Appellate Authority is of opinion that the deposit to be made will cause undue hardship to the appellant. not being a decision or order made in an appeal. (b) where the decision or order has been made by an officer subordinate to the Director General. 182 Provided that an order enhancing or imposing a penalty or redemp. Revision. (2) The Appellate Authority may. within a period of forty-five days from the date on which the decision or order is served on such person: Provided that the Appellate Authority may.-. modifying or reversing the decision or order appealed against. or may send back the case with such directions. Appeal. to the Director General or to any officer superior to the Adjudicating Authority authorised by the Director General to hear the appeal. as it may consider necessary. and. for a fresh adjudication or decision. to the Central Government.tion charges or confiscating goods of a greater value shall not be made under this section unless the appellant has been given an oppor. made by the Director General. if he so desires. CHAPTER V APPEAL AIM REVISION 15. may on its or his own motion or otherwise. if he so desires. make such orders as it thinks fit. (1) Any person aggrieved by any decision or order made by the Adjudicating Authority under this Act may prefer an appeal. no such appeal shall be entertained unless the amount of the penalty or redemption charges has been deposited by the appellant: Provided also that.

for the purpose of satisfying itself or himself. prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act or any order made or deemed to have been made thereunder. while trying a suit. (3) Every authority making any adjudication or hearing any appeal or exercising any powers of revision under this Act shall have the power to make such -orders of an interim nature as it may think fit and may also. and (e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents. received a notice to show cause why such decision or order shall not be varied. as the case may be. (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document. (d) receiving evidence on affidavits. Protection of action taken in good faith. order the stay of operation of any decision or order. of being heard in his defence. and no suit. (c) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office. as to the correctness. namely:-. 17. (1) Every authority making any.(a) has. within a period of two years from the date of such decision or order. 1993 (2 of 1974). and (b) has been given a reasonable opportunity of making representation and. legality or propriety of such decision or order and make such orders thereon as may be deemed fit: Provided that no decision or order shall be varied under this section so as to prejudicially affect any person unless such person. (2) Every authority making any adjudication or hearing any appeal or exercising any powers of revision under this Act shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Powers of Adjudicating and other Authorities. (4) Clerical or arithmetical mistakes in any decision or order or errors arising therein from any accidental slip or omission may at any time be corrected by the authority by which the decision or order was made. in respect of the following matters. for sufficient cause. no such correction shall be made except after giving to that person a reasonable opportunity of making a representation in the matter and no such correction shall be made after the expiry of two years from the date on which such decision or order was made. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 18. either on its own motion or on the application of any of the parties: 183 Provided that where any correction proposed to be made under this sub-section will have the effect of prejudicially affecting any person.been preferred. No order made or deemed to have been made under this Act shall be called in question in any court. . 1908 (5 of 1908).(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of witnesses. adjudication or hearing any appeal or exercising any powers of revision 'under this Act shall have all the powers of a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure. if he so desires.

namely:. made by rules. while it is in session. 184 (3) Every rule and every Order made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid. and without prejudice to the generality of the forgoing power. Power to make rules. prescribed. the rule or the Order.. as the case may be. (d) the form in which and the terms. and if. make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act. 1947 (18 of 1947) and the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Ordinance. by way of settlement. goods. shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect. 1947 (18 of 1947) shall. obligation or . or (b) any right. (f) the premises. 20. things and conveyances in respect of which and the requirements and conditions subject to which power of entry. and (j) any other matter which is to be. both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or the Order or both Houses agree that the rule or the Order should not be made.section (5) of section 11. privilege. as soon as may be after it is made.(a) the previous operation of the Act so repealed or anything duly done or suffered thereunder.19. or may be. (e) the conditions subject to which a licence may be suspended or cancelled under sub-section (4) of section 9. 11 of 1992) are hereby repealed. inspection and seizure may be exercised under sub-section (1) of section 10. for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions. (2) In particular. (1) The Central Government may. before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid. (g) the class or classes of cases for which and the manner in which an amount. conditions and restrictions subject to which licence may be granted under sub-section (3) of section 9. Repeal and savings. 1992 (Ord. or may be. documents.(a) the manner in which and the conditions subject to which a special licence may be issued under sub-section (2) of section 8. (i) the manner in which and the conditions subject to which goods and conveyances may be released on payment of redemption charges under sub-section (6) of section 11. before each House of Parliament. may be determined under sub-section (3) of section 11. or in respect of which provision is to be. so. (h) the requirements and conditions subject to which goods and conveyances shall be liable to confiscation under sub. (1) The Imports and Exports (Control) Act. not affect. that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or the Order. (2) The repeal of the Imports and Exports (Control) Act. however. by notification in the Official Gazette. such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters. search. (b) the exceptions subject to which and the person or class of persons in respect of whom fees may be levied and the manner in which a licence may be granted or renewed under sub-section (1) of section 9. as the case may be. (c) the class or classes of goods for which a licence may be granted under sub-section (2) of section 9. however.

(3) Notwithstanding the repeal of the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Ordinance. anything done or any action taken under the said Ordinance shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act. obligation. liability. . and any such penalty. and any such proceeding or remedy may be instituted. 1992 (Ord. 11 of 1992). accrued or incurred under the Act so repealed. or (d) any proceeding or remedy in respect of any such right. continued or enforced.liability acquired. or (c) any penalty. privilege. confiscation or punishment incurred in respect of any contravention under the Act so repealed. penalty. confiscation or punishment as aforesaid. confiscation or punishment may be imposed or made as if that Act had not been repealed.

23 MT are presently exploited.3% of a fishery production of 6. contributing more than 54% in terms of the value.2 million MT from both sources is ranked 3rd among the largest fish 19th among the sea-food exporting countries of the In aqua-culture India is the largest producer after China. The share of marine product in the total exports of the country is 1. Shrimp continued to be the mainstay of sea-food exports.853 mn. During the year 2006-07 the export of marine products from the country stood at over 6.000 MT with a value of US$ 1. Turbhe . Chirag International.12.9 million MT. The fisheries in India for India¶s GDP. of which only 3.4%. the year 2006-07 has accounted to nearly 1.5 million of continental shelf area is estimated to have exploitable fisheries resources to the tune of 3. 0. India with captured and cultured production countries and world.Overview of Indian Sea-Food Export India is having a vast coastline of over 8129kms.

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