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CO 7

Chapter 7
Photosynthesis

Name a plant you have


seen recently.
Nutrition Patterns
Autotrophs (producers)
Photosynthesis: plants, algae and some
prokaryotes
Chemosynthesis - rare - some bacteria
obtains organic food without
eating other organisms

Heterotrophs (consumers/
decomposers)
-obtains organic food by eating other organisms or their
by-products
Oxidation: partial or
complete loss of electrons
-exergonic (release
energy)
Reduction: partial or
complete gain of
electrons -endergonic
(absorb energy)
A. Photosynthetic Reaction
1. In 1930 C. B. van Niel showed that O2 given off by
photosynthesis comes from water and not from CO2.
2. The net equation reads:

light
6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon
Water + dioxide Glucose + oxygen

in the chloroplast
How  are  they  connected?  
Heterotrophs
making energy & organic molecules from ingesting organic molecules

glucose + oxygen → carbon + water + energy


dioxide
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
oxidation = exergonic
Autotrophs Where’s
making energy & organic molecules from light energy the ATP?

carbon + water + energy → glucose + oxygen


dioxide

6CO2 + 6H2O +light → C6H12O6 + 6O2


energy
reduction = endergonic
Photosynthetic Organisms
2. Photosynthesis
transforms solar energy
into chemical energy

Organic molecules
(carbs!) built by
photosynthesis provide
both the building blocks
and energy for cells.
Figure 7.1b

3. Plants use the raw materials:


carbon dioxide and water
4. Chloroplasts carry out
photosynthesis

-  Stoma: opening in
the leaf to exchange
gas
aka: stomata
Figure 7.1c

Chlorophylls
and other
pigments
involved in
absorption of
solar energy
reside within
thylakoid
membranes
of
chloroplasts
4.  The  chloroplast  
§ Stomata:  opening  in  leaf  for  gas  exchange      
§ Pigment:    chlorophyll  
§ Mesophyll:  Plant  cell  photosynthe>c  layer:      
 Sites  of  photosynthesis    (Double  membrane)  
granum  (stack)  
Thylakoids  (pancake)  contains:  
•  chlorophyll  molecules  
•  electron  transport  chain  
•  ATP  synthase  
-­‐  Loca>on  of  light  reac>on  

Stroma-­‐fluid-­‐filled  interior  
 (syrup)    
-­‐  Loca>on  of  dark  reac>on  
Quick Check - FIVE OR FEWER

1. Chloroplast

2. Thylakoid

3. Photosynthesis Two words that sound


alike but are not at all
similar:

Stroma: liquid in
chloroplast
4. Organic Molecules involved
Stoma: pore in
leaves
7.2 Plants as Solar Energy Converters

Solar Radiation - Only 42% of solar radiation that hits the


earth’s atmosphere reaches surface; most is visible light.
Sunlight has all
the colors
Objects only
reflect some
colors
A. Photosynthetic Pigments - Pigments found in
chlorophyll absorb various portions of visible light;
absorption spectrum.
1. Two major photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a and
chlorophyll b.
2. Both chlorophylls absorb violet, blue, and red wavelengths best.
- Most green is reflected back; this is why leaves appear green.
3. Carotenoids are
yellow-orange
pigments which
absorb light in violet,
blue, and green
regions.
4. When chlorophyll
breaks down in fall,
the yellow-orange
pigments in leaves
show through.
Chromatography
- Separation of
pigments based on
their size and
solubility
B. Absorption and
action spectrum - A
spectrophotometer
measures the amount
of light that passes
through a sample of
pigments.

1) As different
wavelengths are
passed through, some
are absorbed.
2) Graph of percent of
light absorbed at each
wavelength is
absorption spectrum
.
Absorption spectrum
3) Photosynthesis produces
oxygen; production of oxygen is
used to measure the rate of
photosynthesis.
4) Oxygen production and,
therefore, photosynthetic activity
is measured for plants under
each specific wavelength;
plotted on a graph, this action spectrum
produces an action spectrum.
5) Since the action spectrum
resembles absorption spectrum,
this indicates that chlorophylls
contribute to photosynthesis.
Checkpoint:
http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/
LS12/LS12.html

1.  What is the relationship between the absorption spectrum and the
action spectrum?

2. How can we measure the rate of photosynthesis?

3. How is the wavelength of light related to the rate of


photosynthesis?

4. A radish plant is grown


using lights of different
colors. Explain the chart.
light
6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon
Water + dioxide Glucose + oxygen

in the chloroplast
Inside a Chloroplast
H 2O CO2
Light

NADP+

ADP + P

Light- Calvin
Calvin Cycle
dependent

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cycle
reactions

Chloroplast

Hall
O2 Sugars
C6H12O6
1. Light reactions cannot take place unless light is present.
They are the energy-capturing reactions.
b. Chlorophyll within thylakoid membranes absorbs solar
energy and energizes electrons.
c. Energized electrons move down the electron transport
system; energy is captured and used for ATP production.
d. Energized electrons are also taken up by NADP+, becoming
NADPH.
2. Calvin Cycle
Reactions
a. These reactions take
place in the stroma; can
occur in either the light
or the dark.
b. These are synthesis
reactions that use
NADPH and ATP to
reduce CO2.

-- and make a
carbohydrate, sugar
What you should know by now..
1. The equation for photosynthesis. Write it!

2. The structure of a chloroplast. Sketch it!

3. The two reactions of photosynthesis.

**Things are about to get much more difficult**


The Light Reactions
1. PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION = ATP production
also called CHEMIOSMOSIS,
- occurs on thylakoid membrane
2. Two paths operate within the thylakoid membrane

noncyclic and cyclic

*straight line *in a circle

3. Both paths use ATP, but the noncyclic also produces


NADPH
1. Light hits photosystem II and excites an electron, H20
2. The primary electron acceptor passes the electron down the ETC and
generates ATP
3. Light is required for PSI, but not water, it generates NADPH
Light-­‐Dependent  Reac>ons  
 

Inside
thyloakoid

Thylakoid
membrane

Stroma
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Photosystems:  Light  harves>ng  units  of  the  
thylakoid  membrane  
 

§ Composed  mainly  of  protein  


and  pigment  antenna  
complexes  
§ Antenna  pigment  molecules  
are  struck  by  photons  
§ Energy  is  passed  to  reac>on  
centers  (redox  loca>on)  
§ Excited  e-­‐  from  chlorophyll  
is  trapped  by  a  primary  e-­‐  
acceptor  
Something trivial....

Photosystem I and Photosystem II are


named based on when they were
discovered, PSI was established first.
Light-Dependent Reactions
1. Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosystem II
absorb light, increasing their energy level.

Photosystem II

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Light-Dependent Reactions
These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport
chain.

Photosystem II

Electron
High-energy
carriers
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electron
Light-Dependent Reactions
2. Enzymes on the thylakoid membrane break water
molecules into:

Photosystem II

2H2O

Electron
High-energy
carriers
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
electron
Light-Dependent Reactions
-hydrogen ions
-oxygen atoms
-energized electrons

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

Electron
High-energy
carriers
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electron
Light-Dependent Reactions

(2)The energized electrons from water replace the


high-energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the
electron transport chain.

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

High-energy
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
electron
Light-Dependent Reactions

(2) As plants remove electrons from water, oxygen


is left behind and is released into the air.

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

High-energy
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electron
Light-Dependent Reactions

(2)The hydrogen ions left behind when water is


broken apart are released inside the thylakoid
membrane.

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

Pc
Pq

Cytochrome
High-energy complex
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
electron
Light-Dependent Reactions

3. Energy from the electrons is used to transport H


+ ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid

space.

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

Pc
Pq

Cytochrome complex:
catalyzing the transfer of
Cytochrome electrons from
complex
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall plastoquinol to
plastocyanin
Light-Dependent Reactions

3. High-energy electrons move through the


electron transport chain from photosystem II to
photosystem I.

Photosystem II

+ O2

2H2O

Pc
Pq Cytochrome
complex

Photosystem I
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Light-Dependent Reactions

4. Pigments in photosystem I use energy from


light to re-energize the electrons.

+ O2

2H2O

Cytochrome
complex

Photosystem I
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Light-Dependent Reactions

5. NADP+ then picks up these high-energy


electrons, along with H+ ions, and reduces to
NADPH.

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

5. As electrons are passed from chlorophyll to


NADP+, more H+ ions are pumped across the
membrane.

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

(5) Soon, the inside of the membrane fills up with


positively charged hydrogen ions, which makes
the outside of the membrane negatively charged.

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

6. The difference in charges across the membrane


provides the energy to make ATP

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

(6) H+ ions cannot cross the membrane directly.

ATP synthase

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

(6) The cell membrane contains a protein called


ATP synthase that allows H+ ions to pass through
it
ATP synthase

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

(6) As H+ ions pass through ATP synthase, the


protein rotates.

ATP synthase

+ O2

2H2O

2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
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Light-Dependent Reactions

(6) As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a


phosphate group together to produce ATP.

ATP synthase

+ O2

2H2O

ADP
2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Light-Dependent Reactions

Because of this system, light-dependent electron


transport produces not only high-energy electrons
but ATP as well.
ATP synthase

+ O2

2H2O

ADP
2 NADP+
2
2 NADPH
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Photosystems  of  photosynthesis    

2  photosystems  in  thylakoid  membrane  


collec>ons  of  chlorophyll  molecules    
Photosystem  II:  contains  chlorophyll  a  
P680  =  absorbs  680nm    
wavelength  red  light    
Photosystem  I:  contains     reaction
   chlorophyll  b   center
P700  =  absorbs  700nm    
wavelength  red  light    

antenna
pigments
1. Light hits photosystem II and excites an electron, H20
2. The primary electron acceptor passes the electron down the ETC and
generates ATP
3. Light is required for PSI, but not water, it generates NADPH
Figure 7.5
Indicate which system (PS1 or PS2 or BOTH)
____1.
PS2 Splits water
____2.
PS1 Produces NADPH
____3.
Both Has an electron transport chain
Both
____4. Requires light
Both
____5. Utilizes a primary electron acceptor
Both
____6. Occurs in the thylakoid
____7. Requires the input of H20
PS2
Both
____8. The cyclic path
Both
____9. Uses chlorophyll
PS2
____10. Releases oxygen
____11. chlorophyll a
PS2
PS1
____12. chlorophyll b
ETC of Photosynthesis
chlorophyll a
Photosystem II

chlorophyll b
Photosystem I
ETC of Photosynthesis

sun sun

H+ H+ H+
O H+ H+ H+
H+ + + H+ to Calvin Cycle
H+ H H

split H2O

ATP
ETC of Photosynthesis

sun sun

H+ H+ H+
O H+ H+ H+
H+ + + H+ to Calvin Cycle
H+ H H

split H2O

ATP
Two Pathways of Light Reactions
1. Noncyclic
2. Cyclic

ATP Production --> CHEMIOSMOSIS

When H20 is split, two H+ remain


These H+ are pumped from the stroma into the thylakoid
This creates a gradient used to produce ATP from ADP

ATP is the whole point of Photosystem II and will be


used to power the Light Independent Reactions (Calvin
Cycle)
Noncyclic  Photophosphoryla>on  
•  Light  reac>ons  elevate  
electrons  in    
2  steps  (PS  II  &  PS  I)    
–  PS  II  generates    
energy  as  ATP  
–  PS  I  generates    
reducing  power  as  NADPH  

ATP
Cyclic  photophosphoryla>on  
•  If  PS  I  can’t  pass  electron  to  
NADP…it  cycles  back  to  PS  II  
&  makes  more  ATP,  but  no  
NADPH   ✗
–  coordinates  light  reac>ons  to  
Calvin  cycle  
–  Calvin  cycle  uses  more  ATP  
than  NADPH   ATP

18 ATP +
12 NADPH → 1 C6H12O6
Photophosphoryla>on    
cyclic
photophosphorylation

NADP

NONcyclic
photophosphorylation

ATP
Are you still confused? This is pretty
hard to visualize, but through the magic
of technology, we can watch these
processes as animations
McGraw Hill Animation:
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072437316/
student_view0/chapter10/animations.html#

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g78utcLQrJ4
Figure 7.7
https://www.youtube.com/v/mYbMPwmwx88
Chemiosmosis is difficult to visualize.

So... you get to color it! Yay!


coloring!
Schedule:

Thurs Photosynthesis Lab


Tues : Photosynthesis Quiz
Start Cellular respiration

Thurs: Finish Cellular Respiration

Thurs Cellular Respiration lab


Relate a plants anatomy
to it’s function of
photosynthesis.

(how do roots, stem,


leaves, stoma all help
with photosynthesis)

- Stoma:
opening in
the leave to
exchange
gas
The  Calvin  Cycle  
1950s | 1961
Whoops! Wrong Calvin…
The Calvin Cycle
Also called

*The Light Independent Reactions


*The Dark Reactions

1. Named after Melvin Calvin, who


used a radioactive isotope of
carbon to trace the reactions.
2. Joseph Priestley
Experiment:
a.
a.  He put a dome over a candle, the
candle went out.
b.  He added a plant for a few days to
the dome, the candle stayed lit for a.
a while
Conclusion: The plant produced a
substance required for burning. b.

3.  Jan Ingenhousz: showed the effect


observed by Priestly occurred only b.
when the plant was exposed to
light
Conclusion: Light is necessary to
b
produce oxygen
The Calvin Cycle
is a series of reactions producing carbohydrates.

carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and


regeneration of RuBP.

Convert  solar  energy  to  chemical  energy  


ATP   → energy
NADPH   → reducing power
Fixation of Carbon Dioxide
1. CO2 fixation is the attachment of CO2 to an
organic compound called RuBP.
2. RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is a five-
carbon molecule that combines with carbon
dioxide.
3. The enzyme RuBP carboxylase (RuBisCo) speeds this
reaction; this enzyme comprises 20–50% of the protein
content of chloroplasts

Mainly this is a reshuffling of


Calvin Cycle Animation carbons using ATP and NADPH
as energy
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/calvin.htm
Fortunately....
AP Biology no longer requires the
memorization of every step of the Calvin
Cycle, but you should understand the
beginning and the end and what it's
purpose is.

Summary Statements:

What is the purpose of the Calvin Cycle?

Where does the cell get its energy to perform these reactions?

What are the main molecules involved in carbon fixation?

What is the final product?


Calvin cycle
C C
C

C C C C C
1C CO2
C C C C C 1. Carbon fixation
3. Regeneration
of RuBP C C C C C C C C C C C
RuBP 5C RuBisCo C C C C C C
ribulose bisphosphate
starch,
sucrose, 3 ATP ribulose
6C C C C C C C
cellulose bisphosphate
& more 3 ADP carboxylase

used
5C C C C
C C C
to make glyceraldehyde-3-P C C C
glucose PGA 3C C C C
G3P phosphoglycerate
C C C C C C C C C
C= C= C C C C 3C C C C
C C C
C C C 2. Reduction 6 ATP
H H H
| | | C C C 6 NADPH 6 ADP
|
H
C– C– C
|
H
|
H C C C 3C
6 NADP
Molecules of Calvin Cycle

•  RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is a five-


carbon molecule that combines with
carbon dioxide= carbon fixation
•  RuBisCo: the enzyme that fixes carbon
from the air
(most important enzyme in the world?)
•  G3P:  Glyceraldehyde-­‐3-­‐P:  end  product  of  
Calvin  cycle,  energy  rich  3  carbon  sugar  
 -­‐  2  G3P  combine  to  form  1  glucose  
G3P:  Glyceraldehyde-­‐3-­‐P:  end  product  of  
Calvin  cycle,  energy  rich  3  carbon  sugar  
 
This  is  called  “C3  photosynthesis”    (normal)  
G3P  is  an  important  intermediate  
G3P    →  →  glucose  →  →  carbohydrates  
   →  →  lipids  →  →  phospholipids,  fats,  waxes  
   →  →  amino  acids  →  →  proteins  
   →  →  nucleic  acids  →  →  DNA,  RNA  
G3P can be
converted into
other things
From  CO2  →  C6H12O6  
•  CO2  has  very  li_le  chemical  energy  
–  fully  oxidized  
•  C6H12O6  contains  a  lot  of  chemical  energy  
–  highly  reduced  (contains  energy  in  form  of  e-­‐)    
•  Synthesis  =  endergonic  process  
–  put  in  a  lot  of  energy    
•  Reduc>on  of  CO2  →  C6H12O6  proceeds  in  
many  small  uphill  steps  
–  each  catalyzed  by  a  specific  enzyme  
–  using  energy  stored  in  ATP  &  NADPH  
Photosynthesis  summary  

Light  reac>ons  
produced  ATP  
produced  NADPH  
consumed  H2O  
produced  O2  as  byproduct  
 
Calvin  cycle  
consumed  CO2  
produced  G3P  (sugar)  
regenerated  ADP  
regenerated  NADP   ADP NADP
Types of phosphorylation
Alternative Pathways
C3 PLANTS: use the normal Calvin Cycle exclusively to fix
carbon, the MOST Common Pathway

Adaptations: Plants in hot dry environments have a problem


with water loss, so they keep their stomata partly closed... this
results in:
CO2 deficit (Used in Calvin Cycle), and the level of O2
RISES (as Light reactions Split Water Molecules).
Some Plant Taxonomy

In order for photosynthesis to occur, plants must open tiny


pores on their leaves called STOMATA.

Opening these pores can lead to loss of water.


The problem: Calvin cycle when O2 is high
to
mitochondria
–––––––
lost as CO2
O2 without
making ATP
RuBP
5C RuBisCo
Hey Dude,
2C
are you high
on oxygen! 3C

It’s so Photorespiration: RuBisCo


sad to see a
good enzyme,
go BAD!
fixation of O2, lose carbon to
CO2 without making ATP,
makes photosynthesis less
efficient
Figure 7.10

C4 plants and
CAM plants use
an alternate
pathway to FIX
carbon dioxide
from the air.
Reducing  photorespira>on    

Alterna>ve  pathways:  Separate  carbon  


fixa>on  from  Calvin  cycle  
C4  plants:  PHYSICALLY  separate  carbon  fixa>on  from  
Calvin  cycle    (corn,  sugar  cane)  
•  different  cells  to  fix  carbon  vs.  where  
Calvin  cycle  occurs  
•  store  carbon  in  4C  compounds  
different  enzyme  to  capture  CO2  (fix  carbon)  
called  PEP  carboxylase  
different  leaf  structure  
CAM  plants:  separate  carbon  fixa>on  from  Calvin  cycle  
by  TIME  OF  DAY  (cactus,  pineapple)    
fix  carbon  during  night  
store  carbon  in  4C  compounds  
perform  Calvin  cycle  during  day  
C4  vs  CAM  Summary  
solves CO2 / O2 gas exchange vs. H2O loss challenge
Ex:
Ex:
•  Pineapple
•  Sugarcane
•  Cactus
•  Corn
•  Crabgrass

C4 plants CAM plants


separate 2 steps separate 2 steps
of C fixation of C fixation
anatomically in 2 temporally =
different cells 2 different times
night vs. day
Photophosphoryla>on    
cyclic
photophosphorylation

NADP

NONcyclic
photophosphorylation

ATP
First, finish the ETC coloring and questions

Then:
QOD:  Ch  7  “Test  Yourself”  
•  Answer  mul>ple  choice  ques>ons  “1-­‐22  on  
pg131-­‐132  
•  Finish  for  HW  (check  answers  in  back  of  book)  
Leave space for QOD: Ch 7 “Test Yourself” if needed
QOD: photosynthesis overview
copy and fill out this table as best you can.
Process Light? Location Reactant Product
(photosynt
hesis)
1. ETC
2. Calvin
Cycle

3. Relate a plants anatomy to it’s function of


photosynthesis.
(how do roots, stem, leaves, stoma all help with photosynthesis)
Process Light? Location Reactant Product
(photosynt Light Thylakoid Light ATP
hesis) dependent membrane H2O NADPH
1. ETC rxn O2
2. Calvin Light stroma ATP Glucose
Cycle Independent NADPH
rxn CO2
Quick Practice
Relate a plants anatomy
to it’s function of
photosynthesis.

Roots: collect water for


light rxn
Stem: transport water,
minerals,
Leaves: collect sun light,
stoma: collect CO2)

- Stoma:
opening in
the leave to
exchange
gas
Quick Practice

grana

thylakoid
stroma
O2
Summarize what is happening at 1, 2 ,and 3
C C
C

C C C C C
1C CO2
C C C C C 1. Carbon fixation
3. Regeneration
of RuBP C C C C C C C C C C C
RuBP 5C RuBisCo C C C C C C
ribulose bisphosphate
starch,
sucrose, 3 ATP ribulose
6C C C C C C C
cellulose bisphosphate
& more 3 ADP carboxylase

used
5C C C C
C C C
to make glyceraldehyde-3-P C C C
glucose PGA 3C C C C
G3P phosphoglycerate
C C C C C C C C C
C= C= C C C C 3C C C C
C C C
C C C 2. Reduction 6 ATP
H H H
| | | C C C 6 NADPH 6 ADP
|
H
C– C– C
|
H
|
H C C C 3C
6 NADP
What Factors the Affect Photosynthesis?

1. Light Quality (color/wavelength)


2. Light intensity Photosynthesis
Simulation
3. Carbon Dioxide Availability
4. Water Availability Waterweed
Simulator

*Using the photosynthesis simulation, design and test an


experiment to test light intensity and wavelength
Pg 129b

Light & H2O CO2

ADP

NADP

ATP

NADPH

O2 glucose
A = photosystem II AB = ATP
B = photosystem I AC = phospholipids
C = H20 AD = light (energy)
D = Electron Transport Chain
E = ATP Synthase
Photosynthesis Activities

Chromatography of a spinach leaf


Light intensity and color simulation:
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/biolink/j_explorations/
ch09expl.htm
Rate of photosynthesis LAB:
http://biologycorner.com/worksheets/
AP_Lab5_photosynthesis.html
Elodiea observation:
http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/
photosynthesis_virtual_lab.html
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is a reactant in the Calvin


cycle?
A. O2
B. CO2
C. H2O
D. C6H12O6
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

1. Which of the following is a reactant in the Calvin


cycle?
A. O2
B. CO2
C. H2O
D. C6H12O6
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

2. Which of the following statements is correct about


the carotenoid pigments?
F. Accessory pigments are not involved in
photosynthesis.
G. Accessory pigments add color to plants but do not
absorb light energy.
H. Accessory pigments absorb colors of light that
chlorophyll a cannot absorb.
J. Accessory pigments receive electrons from the
electron transport chain of photosystem I.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

2. Which of the following statements is correct about


the carotenoid pigments?
F. Accessory pigments are not involved in
photosynthesis.
G. Accessory pigments add color to plants but do not
absorb light energy.
H. Accessory pigments absorb colors of light that
chlorophyll a cannot absorb.
J. Accessory pigments receive electrons from the
electron transport chain of photosystem I.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

3. Oxygen is produced at what point during


photosynthesis?
A. when CO2 is fixed
B. when water is split
C. when ATP is converted into ADP
D. when 3-PGA is converted into G3P
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

3. Oxygen is produced at what point during


photosynthesis?
A. when CO2 is fixed
B. when water is split
C. when ATP is converted into ADP
D. when 3-PGA is converted into G3P
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6

Multiple Choice, continued


The diagram below shows 4. Which of the following
a portion of a chloroplast. correctly identifies the
Use the diagram to answer
structure marked X and the
the question that follows.

activities that take place

there?
F. stroma—Calvin cycle
G. stroma—light reactions
H. thylakoid—Calvin cycle
J. thylakoid—light
reactions
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6

Multiple Choice, continued


The diagram below shows 4. Which of the following
a portion of a chloroplast. correctly identifies the
Use the diagram to answer
structure marked X and the
the question that follows.

activities that take place

there?
F. stroma—Calvin cycle
G. stroma—light reactions
H. thylakoid—Calvin cycle
J. thylakoid—light
reactions
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

5. light reactions : ATP :: Calvin cycle :


A. H+
B. O2
C. G3P
D. H2O
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Multiple Choice, continued

5. light reactions : ATP :: Calvin cycle :


A. H+
B. O2
C. G3P
D. H2O
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6

Multiple Choice, continued


The diagram below shows a 6. What is the substance
step in the process of identified as Y in the
chemiosmosis. Use the
diagram to answer the question image?
that follows.
F. H+

G. NAD+
H. NADPH
J. ADP synthase
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6

Multiple Choice, continued


The diagram below shows a 6. What is the substance
step in the process of identified as Y in the
chemiosmosis. Use the
diagram to answer the question image?
that follows.
F. H+

G. NAD+
H. NADPH
J. ADP synthase
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Short Response

Chloroplasts are organelles with areas that conduct


different specialized activities.
Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions and
the Calvin cycle occur?
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Short Response, continued

Chloroplasts are organelles with areas that conduct


different specialized activities.
Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions and
the Calvin cycle occur?

Answer:
The light reactions of photosynthesis occur along the
thylakoid membrane. The Calvin cycle occurs in the
stroma, surrounding the thylakoids.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Extended Response

The reactions of photosynthesis make up a


biochemical pathway.
Part A What are the reactants and products for both
the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
Part B Explain how the biochemical pathway of
photosynthesis recycles many of its own
reactants, and identify the recycled reactants.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 6
Extended Response, continued

Answer:
Part A The reactants for the light reactions of
photosynthesis are sunlight, water, NADP+, and
ADP. The products are oxygen, ATP, and NADPH.
The reactants for the Calvin cycle are ATP, NADPH,
CO2, and RuBP. The products are NADP+, ADP, and
organic compounds.
Part B ADP/ATP, NADP+/NADPH, and electrons are
recycled during photosynthesis. RuBP, which reacts
with CO2 in the Calvin cycle, is regenerated at each
turn of the cycle.
Review of ETC of Photosynthesis

sun

e
e

Photosystem II
P680
chlorophyll a
Inhale, baby!
ETC of Photosynthesis
chloroplast thylakoid
+H+ H+ H+
H+ H+H
H+H H H H
+ + + +

+H+ H+ H+
H+ H+H
H+H H H H
+ + + +
ATP

Plants SPLIT water!


H H
1 O
2
e
e
O H
O H

+H
e- H+
e-
e e

fill the e– vacancy

Photosystem II
P680
chlorophyll a
ETC of Photosynthesis

chloroplast thylakoid
H +H+ H+ H+
H H + + H+H+ H+
+ +
H H
+H+ H+ H+
H+ H+H
H+H H H H
+ + + +
ATP

3
1
2
e H+
e

4 ATP
H+
H+
to Calvin Cycle
H+ H+ H+

H H
+
H+ + H+
energy to build
carbohydrates

Photosystem II
P680 ADP + Pi

chlorophyll a ATP
H+
ETC of Photosynthesis

e
e
sun

e e

Photosystem I
P700
Photosystem II
chlorophyll b
P680
chlorophyll a
ETC of Photosynthesis

electron carrier

e
e

5
sun

Photosystem I
P700
Photosystem II
chlorophyll b
P680 $$ in the bank…
chlorophyll a reducing power!