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Definition and purpose of research
Qualities of good researcher
Type of research
The research process
Characteristics of a good research project
Metodologi Penelitian
Konsep penelitian yang banyak digunakan dalam lingkup berbagai Bidang Ilmu, mulai dari mencari
masalah, membuat proposal, pengumpulan data, perumusan hipotesis, pembuatan model dan
perancangan eksperimen. Penulisan dan diseminasi hasil penelitian.

1. Jill Husey, Roger Husey,”Business Research”, MacMillan Press, Ltd., 1997.
2. Donald R. Cooper, Pamela S. Schindler,” Business Research Method” McGrawHil
3. Ronald C. Martella, Roland Nelbon, Nancy E.Marchand Martella, ”Research
Methods” , Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
4. Richard. H. McCuen,”The Elements of Academic Research”, ASCE Press, 1996.
1. Understanding research 5. Determining the research design •Measuring association
•Definition and purpose of research •Overview of research design •Measuring differences
•Qualities of a good researcher •Identifying a research problem •Forecasting
•Types of research •Determining the purpose of the research
•Characteristics of good research projects •Developing a theoretical framework 8. Analysing qualitative data
•Defining research questions or hypothesis •Overview of qualitative data analysis
2. Dealing with practical issues •Defining terms •Quantifying methods of q.d.a
•Course requirements •Identifying limitations and delimitations •Non-quantifying nethods of q.d.a.
•Choosing an academic institution •Deciding the methodology •Evaluating the analysis
•Funding •Determining the expected outcome
•Negotiating access •Writing the research proposal 9. Writing up the project
•Ethics •Planning the research report
•Managing the research 6. Collecting original data •Content of the report
•Overview of data collection
•Presenting qualitative & quantitative data
3. Dealing with conceptual issues •Variables
•Research paradigms •Eleventh-hour strategy
•Selecting a sample
•Paradigms and methodology •Standards
•Types of research methodology •The viva
•Data Collection Methods
•Positivistic methodologies •Writing papers and articles
•Designing questions
•Mixing methodologies •Coding for computer analysis 10. Trouble shooting
•Getting started
4. Searching the literatures •Recording data and observations
•Managing the research
•Generating a research topics 7. Analysing quantitative data •Identifying a research topic
•Overview of the literature search •Overview of quantitative data analysis •The research proposal
•Starting a literature search •Exploratory data analysis •Deciding the methodology
•Computerized databases •Presenting frequencies •Searching and reviewing the literature
•Recording references •Measuring location •Collecting and analyzing data
•The literature review •Measuring dispersion •Writing the research report
•Measuring change Achieving the standards
•Confirmatory data analysis
•Estimating from samples
I. What is Research ? – Definition and purpose

 R e – Search

A process of enquiry and investigation

It is systematic and methodical
Increases knowledge

To review and synthesise existing knowledge

To investigate some existing situation or problem
To provide solutions to a problem
To explore and analyse more general issues
To construct or create a new procedure or system
To explain a new phenomenon
To generate new knowledge
Reasearch is define as
 “systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific
problem that needs a solution” (Sekaran, 1992: 4)

 “how (process) to solve real problems (content)” (Gill and

Johnson, 1997).

 Research as “valid if it is seen to lead to practical outcomes

(Easterby-Smith et al., 1991).

Qualities of a good researcher
Communication Skills

Independence Intellectual skill

(Ketekunan dan
kekerasan hati)
Technology Skill

Organizational Skill
1. Communication Skills
Ability to Is Needed when :
communicate (written • applying for funding
•discussing your project with your supervisor
and verbally) your • negotiating access to sources of data
understanding of the • conducting interviews
research area • designing a questionnaire
• leading a locus group
• writing and presenting conference papers
• writing your report
• writing academic journal articles
2. Intellectual Skills
Knowledge: ability to recall facts, nomenclature, practical techniques, laws, theories, computation
Comprehension: ability to translate from one form to another; to interpret or deduce the significant
of data, to solve simple problems relying on those abilities
Application: ability to apply knowledge, experience, and skill to a new situation presented in a novel
Analysis: ability to break down information into its various parts
Synthesis: ability to build up information from other information
Evaluation: ability to make quantitative or qualitative judgment; to set out a reasoned argument
through a series of steps, usually of gradually increasing difficulty; to criticize constructively
3. Information technology skills
Access to computer
Ability of basic IT skills (word processing, excel, statistical packages, database
management, access to internet for references, End Note)
to design the page layout, including margin widths, page length, line spacing and
justification of text
to highlight text using different sized fonts, italics, bold and underline
IT Skills-Cont.
to move a section of text to another part of the document
to insert and delete text so that changes can easily be made
to search for and replace text
to spell check and grammar check text
to count the number of words in a selected piece of text or file
to merge print files.

4. Organizational skills
Time management -> time tables of research
◦ applying for funding,
◦ finding a supervisor,
◦ negotiating access to sources of data,
◦ investigating sources of information
◦ writing a research proposal
5. Motivation
Maintaining and increasing interest in your research
6. Independence
o Empowered
o Self motivated
o Highly independent
Personal strengths and weaknesses
o Awareness of own strengths, weakness and values
o Clarity of thought
o Sensitivity of events and feelings
o Emotional resilience
o Flexibility
o Creativity
Individual Assessment on
Qualities of Good researcher
Types of Research
Based on:
o Purpose = reason why
o Process = way in which you collect and analyze data
o Logic = general to specific or vice versa
o Outcome = solve particular problem or make contribution to
Research classifications
Basics of classifications Type of research
Purpose of research Exploratory, descriptive, analytical or
predictive research
Process of research Quantitative or qualitative research
Logic of research Deductive or inductive research
Outcome of research Applied or basic research

Purpose of research – (1)Exploratory:

o Conduct a research problem or issue where there are very few or no

earlier studies.
o Aim to look for pattern, ideas or hypotheses (not confirming or testing)
-> through cases studies, observation or experience
o Hypotheses: idea or proposition which can be tested for causality or
association by deducing logical consequences which can be tested
against empirical evidence (data)
Purpose of research (2) Descriptive

o Describe phenomena as they exist to identify or obtain information

on the characteristics of a particular issue or problem.
o Using quantitative or qualitative statistical techniques
o Goes further in examining a problem than exploratory research as
to ascertain and describe significant issue
Purpose of research
3. Analytical/explanatory
o To analyzing and explaining (variables) why or how it is happening
o To understand phenomena by discovering and measuring causal relations among them

4. Predictive
o Aim to generalize from the analysis by predicting certain phenomena on the basis of
hypothesized general relationships
o Provides how, why, and where answers to current events and also similar events in the future
Process of research
Objective in nature
Concentrates on measuring phenomena (collecting, analyzing numerical data and applying statistical

Subjective in nature
Examining, reflecting on perception to gain and understanding of social and human activities
Logic of research

a study which a conceptual and theoretical structure is developed and then tested by empirical
observation -> particular instances are deduced from general inferences (general to particular)
a study in which theory is developed from the observation of empirical reality -> general
inferences are induced from particular instances (specific to general)
Outcome of research
Fundamental/pure research
Research problem is less specific nature
Conducted to improve our understanding of general issues without emphasis on its
immediate application

Design to apply its findings to solving a specific, existing problem
What is Good Research?
Following the standards of the scientific method
◦ Purpose clearly defined
◦ Research process detailed
◦ Research design thoroughly planned
◦ High ethical standards applied
◦ Limitations frankly revealed
What is Good Research?-Cont.
Following the standards of the scientific method (cont.)
◦ Adequate analysis for decision-maker’s needs
◦ Findings presented unambiguously
◦ Conclusions justified
◦ Researcher’s experience reflected
More characteristics of a good research
Good literature review
Sound primary research
Logical structure
Theory integrated
Underpinned by conceptual framework
Integration between methodology, literature, analysis, conclusions, etc
The Research Process Identify research

Define research

Determine how to
conduct research

Collect research data

Analyse and interpret

research data

Table 1.4 Typical structure of a dissertation or thesis

Chapter/section Description

Introduction A precise explanation of what research is about, why it is important

and interesting; the research question or hypotheses should also be

A critical analysis of what other have said on the subject and where
Literature review
your project fits in

An explanation of why you collected certain data, what data you

Methodology collected, from where you collected it, when you collected it, how
you collected it and how you analysed it

Results A presentation of your research results

Analysis and discussion An analysis of your results showing the contribution to knowledge
and pointing out any weaknesses/limitations

Conclusions A description of the main lessons to be learnt from your study and
what future research should be conducted

References A detailed, alphabetical or numerical list of the sources from which

information has been obtained and which have been cited in the
Appendices Detailed data referred to but not shown elsewhere
2. Dealing With Practical Issues
 Course requirements

Bachelor’s – Master’s -- Doctoral degrees

 dissertation, thesis

Table 2.1 The main degree and associated research reports

Level and type of degree Research report

Undergraduate of first degrees
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) Dissertation
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Dissertation
Postgraduate or second degrees
Master of Arts (M.A.) Dissertation
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Dissertation
Master of Business Administration Dissertation
By research:
Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) Thesis

Doctoral degree
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Thesis
Table 2.3 Criteria to be satisfied by research reports
Level Research report Criteria
Bachelor’s degrees and some Dissertation A well-structured and convincing account of a
Master’s degrees which require study, the resolution of a problem or the
the completion of a project outcome of an experiment
Evidence of awareness of the literature
Taught Master’s degree Dissertation An ordered, critical and reasoned exposition
of knowledge gained throught the student’s
A comprehensive review of the literature
Master’s degree by research Thesis Evidence of an original investigation or the
testing of ideas
Competence in independent work or
An understanding of appropriate techniques
Ability to make critical use of published work
and source materials
Appreciation of the relationship of the special
theme to the wider field of knowledge

Worthy, in part, of publication

Doctoral degree Thesis As for Master’s degree by research,
Originality as shown by the topic researched
or the methodology employed
Distinct contribution to knowledge

Source: Adapted from Howard and Sharp (1994) p. 177.

Figure 2.2. Stages in the research process

Early enthusiasm

Increasing interest in the work

Transfer of dependence from

supervisor to information
resulting from effort

Generating own ideas

based on that information

Frustration at being unable

to develop these ideas

Boredom with original problem

Determination to finish
with original problem

Source: Adapted from Philips (1984) p. 16.

 Choosing an Academic institution
 Choosing a supervisor
 Ethics
 Managing the Research

Setting a timetable

Table 2.4 Approximate length of research degrees

Minimum Maximum

M.Phil. thesis
Full-time 18 months 36 months
Part-time 30 months 48 months
Ph.D. thesis (transfer)
Full-time 33 months 60 months
Part-time 45 months 72 months
Ph.D. thesis (direct)
Full-time 24 months 60 months
Part-time 36 months 72 months
Table 2.5 Approximate time allowances for main stages of research

Stage in research process Time required


Identifying topic 15
Identifying research problem 10
Determine how to conduct research 10
Collecting research data 20
Analysing and interpreting research data 20
Writing dissertation or thesis 25

Total 100

 Organising materials
 Networking
 Keeping records
Dealing With Conceptual Issues

Table 3.1 Alternative terms for the main research paradigms

Positivistic paradigm Phenomenological paradigm
Quantitative Qualitative
Objectivist Subjectivist
Scientific Humanistic
Experimentalist Interpretivist
Table 3.2 Assumptions of the two main paradigms
Assumption Question Quantitative Qualitative
Ontological What is the nature of Reality is objective Reality is subjective
reality? and singular, apart and multiple as seen
from the researcher by participants in a
Epistemological What is the Researcher is Researcher interacts
relationship of the independent from that with that being
researcher to that being researched researched
Axiological What is the role of Value-free and Value-laden and
values? unbiased biased
Rhetorical What is the language Formal Informal
of research? Based on set Evolving decisions
Impersonal voice Personal voice
Use of accepted Use of accepted
quantitative words qualitative words
Methodological What is the process of Deductive process Inductive process
research? Cause and effect Mutual imultaneous shaping of
Static design – categories Emerging design -categories
isolated before study identified during research
Context-free Context-bound
Generalisations leading to Patterns, theories developed for
prediction, explanation and understanding
Accurate and reliable Accurate and reliable throught
throught validity and verification
Table 3.3 Features of the two main paradigms
Positivistic paradigm Phenomenological paradigm
Tends to produce quantitative data Tends to produce qualitative data
Uses large samples Uses small samples
Concerned with hypothesis testing Concerned with generating theories
Data is highly specific and precise Data is rich and subjective
The location is artificial The location is natural
Reliability is high Reliability is low
Validity is low Validity is high
Generalises from sample to population Generalisesfrom one setting to another

Table 3.4 Basic concepts in research

Concept Meaning Relevance
Theory A set of explanatory Usefulness
Hypothesis A testable proposition Validity

Methodology A general approach to Usefulness

studying research topics
Method A specific research Good fit with theory,
technique hypothesis and

Source: Silverman (1994) p. 1.

3. Searching the literature
Generating a research topic
Figure 4.1 Example of a mind map. General subject area: Research

Phenomenological Positivistic






Data Data
analysis collection

Outcome Outcome

Exploratory Descriptive
Analytical Prescriptive
Figure 4.2 Example of a relevance tree.

Workplace Social

Oral Written Visual

One-way Two-way One-way Two-way One-way Two-way

Presentations Conversations Books Letters Films Body

Radio Articles Memos Television language
Audio tape Meetings Reports Video Video
Newspapers Graphics conferencing
Notices Images Multi-media?
Example of Sources of secondary data :
•Articles in Jornal, magazines and newspapers
•Conference papers
•Published statistics
•Companies’ annual reports and accounts
•Organisations’ internal reports
•Films, videos and broadcasts
•Electronic databases
•The internet.

Reference books :

•Dictionaries : explain terms

•Encyclopaedias : give a general overview
•Handbooks : give specific information on a particular topic and
can be used to gain a working knowledge of a subject
Table 4.2 Suggested order for conducting a literature search

Information source Suggested reference

Dictionaries and encyclopaedias

Books Library catalogue

British National Bibliography
Journal articles Indexes and abstracts

Newspaper articles Times Index

Guardian Index
Monthly Index to the Financial Times
Government publications Annual catalogue (HMSO)
Catalogue of British Official Publications
Theses Index to Theses (UK)
Dissertation Abstracts (USA)
Conference proceedings Index of Conference proceedings
(published conference papers) (British Library)
Standards BSI Standards Catalogue

Statistics Guide to Official Statistic (UK)

Sources of Unofficial Statistics
Directories Current British Directories

Company annual reports Companies/library reference area

Market reports and surveys Marketing Surveys Index

Table 4.4 Examples of reference books

Type of reference book Example Dewey classification

Dictionaries explain Dictionary of Accounting 657.03 BRO

terms & Finance

Encyclopaedias give a Encyclopaedia of 658.003 HEY

general overview Management

Handbooks give specific Gower Handbook of 658 LOC

information on a Management
particular topic and can
be used to gain a working
knowledge of a subject.
Table 4.13 Glosary of terms used in this chapter
Abstract A summary of a report, article or paper

Analogy Designing a study in one subject by importing ideas and

procedures from another area where there are
ASCH American Standard Code for Information Interchange

Bibliography A detailed list of references as well as items which were

not cited but are relevant to the document
Brainstorming A technique which can be used for generating research topics
by listing spontaneous ideas with one or more interested
CD-ROM An acronym for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory; an
off-line database
Citation An acknowledgement within the text of a document of the
source from which you have obtained information
Data Known facts or things used as a basis for inference or
Database A comprehensive, consistent, controlled, coordinated collection of
structured data items held in a computer

Empirical evidence Data which is based on observation or experience

Term Definition
Harvard System A system of referencing favoured by the social sciences,
anthropology and some of the life sciences which shows citations
as author, data and page number in brackets within the text and
lists full references at the end of the document

Hypothesis An idea or proposition which can be tested for association or

causality by deducing logical consequences which can be tested
against empirical evidence
Index A publication which contains a systematic list of references to
academic publications
Literature All sources of published data
Literature review A written summary of the finding of a literature search which
demonstrates that the literature has been located, read and

Literature search The process of exploring the existing literature to ascertain what
has been written or otherwise published on a particular subject

Methodology The approach to the entire process of a research study

Method The various means by which data can be collected and/or

Mind map An individual’s personal idea of the key aspects of a subject
illustrated in an informal diagram which shows connections and

Morphology The study of form

Term Definition
Morphological analysis A technique for generating research topics whereby the subject is
analysed into its key attributes and a ‘mix and match’ approach
Off-line Not being accessible to or under the control of the computer
On-line Being accessibleto and under the control of the computer
Paradigm The progress of scientific practice based on people’s philosophies
and assumptions about the worl and the nature of knowledge

Published bibliography A list of books which are currently in print or which have been
published in the past
References A detailed, alphabetical (Harvard System) or numerical
(Vancouver System) list of the sources from which information
has been obtained and which have been cited in the text of a
Relevance tree A diagram which can be used as a device for generating research
topics and develops clusters of related ideas from a fairly broad
starting concept
Research design The science and art of planning procedures for conducting
Research problem The specific problem or issue which will be addressed by the
Research proposal The document which sets out the research design for a study
Term Definition

Research questions The specific questions which the research will attempt
to answer

Research topic The general area of research interest

Secondary data Data which already exists such as books, documents

and films

Snowballing The practice of using the list of references at the end of

a piece of literature as a guide to other works on the
Specialist bibliography A list of books that is specific to one subject area

Vancouver System A system of referencing favoured by the applied

sciences which shows citations as an in-text number
each time the source is cited and lists the numbered, full
references at the end of the document
Figure 5.1 Overview of Research Design

Identify research problem

Determine purpose of research

Develop theoretical framework

Define research questions/hypotheses

Define terms

Identify limitations of study

Decide methodology

Determine expected outcome