Methodology

Methodology

At first the sample was taken in a beaker. Then the water is heated and evaporated up to 1/4th of the sample. Now the sample is ready to check the presence of arsenic in the sampled water. Arsenic is insoluble in conc. HCL at room temp. & is unacted upon by cold diluted H2SO4. Therefore, Marsh·s testis performed with the sample. In this test hydrogen evolving gas generating apparatus is attached to the sampled water taken in a beaker . By the action of nascent Hydrogen reduced to Arsenic hydride, AsH3 , or Arsine

As2O3 + 12H As2S5 + 16H

= =

3H2O + 2AsH3 5H2S + 2AsH3

Zinc (arsenic free) and sulphuric acid (also pure and free from arsenic) are used to produce nascent hydrogen. This test is extremely delicate & used for detecting very small amount of arsenic, for instance, in case of poisoning. The gas AsH3 is extremely poisonous & so we have done the experiment very carefully. A piece of hard glass test tube with a few constrictions is attached to the delivery tube of the gas-generating apparatus with a piece of rubber tubing. Zn & diluted H2So4 is then taken in the apparatus & the hydrogen evolved is allowed to pass out for a few minutes. Now the hard glass test tube through which AsH3 is passing is heated by Bunsen burner. Thus AsH3 is decomposed & a brownish black mirror of arsenic is deposited on the heated part of the tube.

Then passing the gaseous AsH3 thorugh a dilute solution of AgNo3, with some drops of HNo3, a black ppt. of metallic silver is formed.

AsH3 + 6AgNo3 + 3H2O = 6Ag + H3AsO3 + 6HNO 3

Another test is performed for confirmation of presence of arsenic in sample water. To continue the next experiment, a strip of fresh copper foil is added in the acidific solution of the sample & the solution is warmed. Thus the copper strip became coated with a dark grey deposit of Cu5As2. To confirm arsenic, the copper strip with the grey deposit is washed. Then it is dried by filter paper. After that, the copperstrip has been taken in a dry hard glass test tube & heated when white sublimate of As2O3 is obtained.

Sampling

Sampling : The method of collection of a sample of concerned from a statistical population is called sampling. Type of Sample : Grab Sample : A sample which is collected at a particular instant from a particular location is called grab sample. Therefore, analysis of a grab sample represents the conditions prevailing at that particular location at that particular time point only & not at any other time points. Composite Sample : A sample which is a mixture or mixture of more than grab samples collected from same locations at different time points is known as composite sample. Various sample collected places are given below : 1) From Dwakhineshwar at 2:30pm on 02/08/2010 2)From tubewell of local area at 3.00pm on 03/08/2010 3) 4) 5) Date of Sample Analysis :10/08/2010 Place of Sample Analysis :

From thorough research of samples it has been found that, traces amount of arsenic is present in all forms of the sampled water. But in the deep tube well water arsenic contamination is more than expectation.

29.2% of the tube wells of west Bengal were found to have arsenic above 50 micro gm./L But we know, the maximum permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) is to have arsenic above 10 micro gm./L. From the generated data, it is estimated that about 2.0 million and 1.0 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 microg/L and 50 microg/L level, respectively in North 24-Parganas alone.

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