A Study on Optimizing Techniques

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A Study on Optimizing Techniques

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SYSTEM

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

EEIES 2009

7-8 DECEMBER 2009

PENANG MALAYSIA

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

Sizing of DG in Distribution System

Siti Rafidah Abdul Rahim*, Syahrul Ashikin Azmi*, M o h d Herwan Sulaiman*, M u h a m a d Hatta Hussain ,

Siti Nor Baizura Zawawi"^.

* Universiti Malaysia Perlis/School of Electrical systems Engineering, Kangar, Pedis. Email: rafidahfaiunimap.edu.mv ,

ashikin(@,unimap.edu.mv, mherwanffilunimap.edu.my. muhdhatta@,unimap.edu.my

** Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia/ Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Batu Pahat, Johor.

Email: baizura engfgvahoo.com.

Abstract—Recent changes in the electric utility performance of the optimization techniques in order to

infrastructure created the opportunities for many determine the optimal sizing of DG using EP and AIS.

technological innovations including the application of DG in

order to achieve a variety of benefits. To achieve the II. METHODOLOGY

benefits, factors such as the capacity of the units and the

best location have to be considered. This problem was The optimal size of the distributed generator is

addressed in this study by the development of the techniques determined by having the kW output (P ) of the g

to optimize the output of the DG in order to obtain distributed generator as the variable to be optimized. The

maximum benefits from its installation. The proposed kVar output of the distributed generator was determined

technique was capable to effectively improve the system using (2) and the power factor of the system was set to be

performance in terms of system losses. This paper presents 0.85.

the comparative study on the performance of the

optimization techniques for determining the optimal sizing Xi = Pg (1)

of DG using Evolutionary Programming and Artificial Q = P *tan'd

g g (2)

Immune System. The proposed technique was tested on

IEEE Reliability Test systems namely the IEEE 69-bus and cos 0 = 0 . 8 5

the program was developed using the MATLAB 9 = Power factor angle

programming software.

The operation of the distributed generator is considered

Keywords — Distributed generator; Evolutionary to be at steady state and therefore, the distributed

programming (EP); Artificial Immune System generator is modelled as injected active and reactive

power, P and Q respectively [5]. The number of

g g

or compensating capacitor to be installed in the systems.

The terms of DG implies the use of any modular

technology that is sited throughout a utility service area

or interconnected to the distribution or sub-transmission A. Sblutionary fbgramming

system to lower the cost of service. DGs are normally

Evolutionary Programming originally was conceived

small generating sets, connected to the grid or feeding

by Lawrence J. Fogel in 1960 as an alternative approach

power islands, based on technologies such as internal

to artificial intelligence [6]. Evolutionary Programming

combustion engines, small and micro gas turbines, fuel

(EP) has been employed in the field of design search and

cells, photovoltaic and wind plants [1, 2, and 3]. The

optimization more thoroughly after the exposure from

introduction of DG on the distribution network can

Fogel [7] when it was first implemented in the prediction

significantly impact to the flow of power, voltage

of finite states machines. EP has been applied for a

conditions and power quality at customers and utility

variety of power engineering problems, e.g. optimal

equipment [4].

distribution system planning [8], operation optimization

The increase in penetration of distributed generation in [6] and distribution network reconfiguration [9, 10].

distribution network requires the system engineers to In this study, the EP optimization technique was used

properly plan the implementation of DG. Determining the to determine the optimal sizing in the distribution system

suitable location and sizing of a distributed generator is with aims to reduce the system losses and also to improve

important in order to ensure for maximum benefits to be the voltage profile. Ref [5] shows the algorithm for EP

obtained from the implementation of DG. The great optimization technique in order to determine the optimal

attention should be considered in determining the sizing of DG. Figure 1 shows the flowchart of EP

allocation and sizing of DG since non-optimal places and technique in order to obtain the optimal size of DG.

sizing of DG can result in an increase in the system

losses. This paper presents the comparative study on the

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

B. Artificial bimune System specified by the difference between the maximum and

The Artificial Immune System (AIS) is a new minimum fitness to be less than 0.0001. If the

Computational Intelligence (CI) approach that is inspired convergence condition is not satisfied, the processes will

in the vertebrate immune system and has produced be repeated.

efficient computational tools for solving problems [11].

Figure 2 shows the flowchart of project methodology for

implementation of AIS. The mutation process maimum flmess-minimum f, <

mess 0.0001 (4)

implemented based on (3).

X i+mj = X + N (0, p ( X

y j m a x - X „ ) (f, / f ^ J

jmi (3) Start

Where:

= mutated parents (offspring) Generate initial population (Xj, n i )

randomly

X

y = parents

N = Gaussian random variable with mean u and

variance y

Evaluate fitness value

B = mutation scale, S £

Xjna = maximum random number for every variable

Xj„i„ = minimum random number for every variable

fi = fitness for the in, random number

=

/max maximum fitness

For the purpose of determining the optimal sizing of

DG, the random numbers represent the kW output (P ) of g

size of DG is to be set in the interval of 0MW-3MW. The

number of variables depends on the number of distributed

generators to be installed in the systems.

Mutate (Xj\ n/ )

Step 2 Evaluation of the fitness value of each

population

In order to minimize the network losses, the fitness Evaluate fitness and add to population

of the AIS is taken to be the total losses in the distribution

system. The total loss was evaluated by solving the load

t

flow program. It was done by calling the load flow

Merge with old population

program into the AIS as a main program. The

optimization also took the consideration of the voltage

constraint in the system so that the minimum and *

Selection for next generation by pair

maximum voltage would not be exceeded.

wise tournament

Step 3 Clone No

In this process, the size of DG and the total losses

were cloned.

The value of clone was mutated by implementing the

mutation operator. Mutation is the only variation operator Stop

used for generating the offspring from each parent. The

fitness of the offspring was calculated by calling the load

flow program.

The selection process was done by using the priority Figure 1: Flowchart for implementation of EP technique in order to

obtain the optimal size of DG.

selection strategy.

This procedure is to determine the stopping criteria

of the optimization. The convergence criterion is

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

Start TABLE 1.

4 —

TOTAL LOSSES AND MINIMUM VOLTAGE IN THE

Generate initial population (x;) SYSTEM WITHOUT DG

randomly

Loading P lots V rain

Clone (xO The result obtained from the simulation of EP and AIS

techniques were tabulated in Table 2 . From the analysis, it

could be observed that the number of iteration of AIS is

Mutate (Xi') better than EP.

The graph shown in Figure 2 compares the total losses

I

in the system with D G at bus 6 1 . The result from the EP

Evaluate fitness and add to population and AIS optimization techniques shows that the total

losses in the system were reduced with the installation of

I DG.

Selection for next generation

Similarly, the graph in Figure 3 shows the variation in

No the minimum voltage with respect to overall load increase

in the system when D G was installed at bus 61. It could

be observed that allocating D G at bus 61 has given better

voltage improvement and hence the voltage profile of the

system is maintained at an acceptable range.

Stop

obtain the optimal size of DG. TOTAL LOSSES AND MINIMUM VOLTAGE IN THE SYSTEM

USING EP AND AIS TECHNIQUES

The proposed techniques were tested on IEEE Total Total

Reliability Test systems namely the IEEE 69-bus and the Loading V„,„ Iteration

Losses

v „

mi

Iteration

Losses

program was developed using the MATLAB

programming software [12]. 0.6 0.0116 0.9839 1 0.0082 0.9839 14

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1 0.0245 0.9724 1 0.0232 0.973 16

The effect of optimal sizing and allocation of the D G

on the total losses and voltage profile in the system was

1.2 0.0336 0.9669 2 0.0336 0.9674 13

observed by installing the D G at bus 6 1 . The comparative

study was done in order to see the effectiveness of the

1.4 0.0518 0.9609 2 0.0461 0.9618 21

proposed techniques in order to determine the optimal

size of the D G using EP and AIS.

Table 1 shows the total losses and minimum voltage in

the system without installation of D G . The result shows

that, the optimal output of the D G increased as the loading

at a load bus was incremented.

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

V. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the implementation of DG at the

5 identified location with optimal sizing was successfully

tested on the test systems. The results show that the both

s AIS

(A techniques were capable to minimize the system losses

VI

VI and improve the voltage profile. The result shows that the

o -EP

AIS technique was capable to simulate with the minimum

number of iteration compared to EP.

-without

DG ACKNOWLEDGMENT

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Higher

Loading Education for financially supporting this research under

Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) and

UniMAP.

Figure 3: Total losses in the system with DG

REFERENCES

[1] A. Silvestri,. A. Berizzi and S. Buonanno, "Distribution generation

planning using Evolutionary Programming", Electric Power

Engineering, Powertech Budapest 99. International Conference,

•S 0.95 —•—AIS pp. 257,1999.

o> [2] W. E. Khattam, K. Bhattacharya, Y. Hegazy and MM.A Salama,

no "Optimal investment planning for distributed generation in a

2 0.9 •EP competitive electricity market", IEEE Transactions On Power

o Systems, Vol. 19, Issue: 3, pp. 1674 - 1684, Aug 2004.

>E 0.85

0.8 , , j j —r-™-™,

[31 I. S. Bae, J. O. Kim, J. C. Kim and C. Singh, "Optimal operating

-WITHOUT strategy for distributed generation considering hourly reliability

'E worth", IEEE Transactions On Power Systems, Vol. 19, Issue: 1 ,

0.60.8 1 1.21.4 DG

I pp. 287 - 292, Feb. 2004.

Loading [4] P. P.Barker and R. W. D. Mello, "Determining the impact of

distributed generation on power system:part 1-radial distribution

system", Power Technology Inc, IEEE, pp. 1645-1666, 2000.

[5] S. R Abdul Rahim , T. K. Abdul Rahman, I. Musirin, S. A Azmi,

M. F. Mohammed, M. H Hussain, M.Faridun, "Comparing the

Figure 4: Minimum voltage in the system with DG Network Performance between the Installation of DG and

Compensating Capacitor using EP", International Journal of

Power, Energy and Artificial Intelligence (IJPEAI): Vol. 1, No. 1,

August 2008.

Finally the optimal active power to be generated by

[6] L. J. Fogel, "The Future of Evolutionary Programming",

the DG installed at bus 61 for the range of loading Conference Record Twenty-Fourth Asilomar Conference on

conditions is tabulated in Table 3. It could be observed Signals, Systems and Computers, Vol. 2, pp. 1036, Nov. 1990.

that higher injected power is required from the DG as the [7] L. J. Fogel, "Intelligence through simulated evolution- forty years

of Evolutionary Programming", John Wiley & Sons,INC, Canada,

loading was increased in order to minimize the system

1999.

losses and hence voltage profile improvement in the

[8] W. M. Lin, C. D. Yang and M. T. Tsay, "Distribution system

system. planning with Evolutionary Programming and reliability cost

model", Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE

TABLE 3. Proceedings-, Vol. 147, Issue: 6, pp. 336 - 341, Nov. 2000.

[9] Y. H. Song, G. S. Wang, A. T. Johns and P. Y. Wang,

OPTIMAL SIZING OF DG USING EP AND AIS "Evolutionary approach to distribution network reconfiguration

for energy saving", Electricity Distribution. Part 1. Contributions.

AIS EP 14th International Conference and Exhibition on (IEE Conf. Pub.

No. 438), Vol. 5, pp. 33/1 - 33/8, Jun. 1997.

Loading [10] G. S. Wang, P. Y. Wang, Y. H. Song and A. T. Johns, "Co-

P g Q, Pg ordinated system of fuzzy logic and Evolutionary Programming

based network reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution

0.6 0.9828 0.4978 1.1011 0.5577 systems", Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference

on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 3, pp. 1838 - 1844, Sep. 1996.

0.8 1.5187 0.7693 1.4646 0.7419 S. Ishak, A. F. Abidin and T. K. A. Rahman, 'Static Var

[11] Compensator Planning Using Artificial Immune System For Loss

Minimization and Voltage Improvement', National Power &

1 1.9137 0.9693 1.8366 0.9303 Energy Conference (PECon) 2004 Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia.

1.2 2.2133 1.1211 2.205 1.1169 [12] T. K. A. Rahman, S. R. A. Rahim and I. Musirin, "Optimal

Allocation and Sizing of Embedded Generators", IEEE National

1.4 2.7307 1.3832 2.5736 1.3036 Power Engineering Conference (PeCon), Malaysia, 29-30 Nov

2004

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

D-STATCOM at the Distribution Network

S h a m s u l A i z a m Zulkifli*, M d Z a r a f i A h m a d * , R o h a i z a H a m d a n * , a n d N o o r R o p i d a h B u j a l "

* Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johore, Malaysia. Email:

aizam@uthm.edy.my, zarafi@uthm.edu.my, and rohaiza@uthm.edu.my, and ** ropidah@yahoo.corn

Abstract— Power quality devices are used to voltages that are in phase and coupled with the A C

increase/monitor the electric system distribution network. system through the reactance of coupling transformer. A

This paper is focus on to determine the location and n u m b e r key characteristic of this controller is that the active and

of Distribution Static C o m p e n s a t o r ( D - S T A T C O M ) at 10

reactive powers exchanged between the converter and the

bus bar distribution network. B y find the optimal n u m b e r

a n d location of D - S T A T C O M , it reduced the n u m b e r s of D -

A C system can be controlled b y changing the phase angle

S T A T C O M needs in mitigate voltage sag p r o b l e m . T h e between the converter output voltage and the bus voltage

m o d a l analysis and the time d o m a i n simulation are used in at the point of common coupling [l]-[4].

determine the best location of D - S T A T C O M in distribution

network.

time, P S C A D

I. INTRODUCTION

electric power without interruption. In recent years, due Figure 1. Connection of the STATCOM in AC System

to increase in critical load an electronic device, customers

require high form of power quality than before. The most Post

Voltage

common power quality problems are voltage sags, /Irate] Voltage (10% ot initial V)

A

harmonics, voltage swell, power interruptions and voltage

flicker. 1

Reactive power compensation is an important issue in

electrical power systems where Flexible AC

Transmission System (FACTS) devices play an important

«—Maximum time duration of

role in controlling the reactive power flow to the power | voltafledip20

network. Static Synchronous Compensator ( S T A T C O M ) Maximum Transient Voltage Dip

(20% of initial V )

is a member of F A C T S family that is connected in shunt

with the system. In distribution system, it is also known *—FaiitCleared

as D - S T A T C O M . Recent days, S T A T C O M commonly -

io *\

N v •

\ 1 to 3 mm.

located at every critical load in distribution system and it

Figure 2. Voltage Stability Criteria

will increase the power quality monitoring cost. Optimal

number and location of D - S T A T C O M will reduce or B. Voltage Stability and Voltage Recovery Criteria

eliminate power quality problems in distribution system.

Fig. 2 shows the voltage stability criteria where the

A. D-STA TCOM Configuration voltage magnitude should not drop below 8 0 % . A s an

example if a fault occurs for below 8 0 % of its initial

value, and resulting oscillations should not exceed 20

The most basic configuration of S T A T C O M consists

cycles. For 50 H z system it is about 0.4 s while for the

of two-level Voltage Source Converter (VSC) with a D C

60Hz system it is about 0.33 s. If this condition occurs it

energy storage device, a coupling transformer connected

will increase the voltage collapse on the system. Once

in shunt with the A C system and the associated control

voltage is recovered, its magnitude should not fall below

circuits. Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the D-

0.9 p.u [5]. Fig. 3 shows the Voltage Recovery Criteria.

S T A T C O M . The V S C converts the D C voltage across the

A s explain the clearing time for 50Hz system is 0.4 s and

storage device into a set of three phase A C output

this is fall as the ideal for the voltage recovery time. It

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

means that the D - S T A T C O M that needs to be located The distribution network was obtained from Tenaga

must have clearing time for less then 0.4 s Nasional Berhad, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. The

overall flow of this paper is summarized in the flow chart

1.1 as shown in Fig. 4.

1.0

0.9

O- I The P S C A D software was used to simulate the

network where the single line diagram was converted to

I 0.8 : <cy

electrical network using mathematical formulas. For three

0.7

phase loads, the active power was considered as load

0.6

resistance and reactive power was considered as load

0.S

inductance. The loads was calculated for each bus bar and

0.4 0.5 S o u n d s

the three phase voltage (VL_ ) from main supply sub-

l

0.3

Fault station (MES) is 1 l k V and apparent power (S) equal to

0.2

.Clearing 3 0 M V A . T h e designed network using P S C A D is shown

0.1

0 . 0 0 . 3 0.6 0 . 9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2 . 7 3.0

in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 for the system without D - S T A T C O M

Tim* (Second*) and the system with D - S T A T C O M respectively.

Figure 3. Voltage Recovery Criteria [5]

II. NETWORK D E S I G N

^ START ^

i i i

i i

f f

L-

which are main bus bar A, main bus bar B and main bus

bar C and the grouping of buses is shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1

GROUPING OF MAIN BUSBAR

Group No. of Bus

A Busbar 1, Busbar 2,

Busbar 3, Busbar 4 and

IjiwiiO M I A 1l«M

Busbar 6

T

B Busbar 7 and Busbar 8

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

t t

Figure 7. Without D-STATCOM at (a) bus A, (b) bus B, (c) bus C

because of faults time is set to start at 0.5 s for the

duration of 1 s. After the fault time, the voltage will

return constant at the normal condition. This short-term

reduction in voltage is called voltage sag. In this

simulation, the voltage sag is non-repetitive but in the

Figure 6. Distribution System with D-STATCOM. real network, it can be happen.

In this simulation, a fault time is set to 1 s and occurs B- D-STATCOM Allocated at Bus bar A, B and C for

from 0.5 s until 1.5 s. The fault component is connected Voltage Sag Compensation.

in shunt to the study distribution system as shown in Fig.

5 and Fig. 6. T h e simulation is run in two conditions,

which are, a network without D - S T A C O M and a network

with D - S T A T C O M . The network without D - S T A T C O M

is simulated to monitor the voltage at each main group

bus bar and the voltage sag that been occurred. Modal 0.30

S T A T C O M . The idea is to get the time of recovery based

0)

on voltage recovery criteria as shown in Fig. 3 where it is

classified to ideal, adequate or poor. T h e ideal bus bar

then will be chosen as the best location of D - S T A T C O M .

O.BO

O.eo

A. Result of Simulation Network without D-STA TCOM (LpO 300 2.20 2.*Q 2*D 2.RO

Figure 8. Load voltage of group main Bus A, a) without D-STATCOM

phase balance fault occurring at time 0.5 s for duration of b) with D-STATCOM. c) Time of Recovery

1.0 s. The results of simulation are shown in Fig. 7. For

the system without D - S T A T C O M , the load voltage The simulation results of the D - S T A T C O M at group

dropped from 0.818 p.u to 0.800 p.u at the group of main bus bar A response in term of the load voltage in per unit

bus bar A as shown in Fig. 7(a). are shown in Fig 8. For the system with the D-

S T A T C O M connected in the system, the load voltage

PorjOnll Voiago -

will increase from 0.800 p.u to 0.993 p.u as shown in Fig.

8(a) while Fig. 8(b) shows the load voltage takes 0.25 s to

Mm0.7SB

Max O-ai 9 recover to the rated voltage.

The simulation results of the D - S T A T C O M at group

bus bar B are shown in Fig. 9. For the system with the D -

S T A T C O M connected in the system, the load voltage

will increase from 0.800 p.u to 0.997 p.u as shown in Fig.

(a) Group of main bus A 9(a). Fig. 9(b) shows the load voltage takes for 0.29 s to

recover to rated voltage.

International Conference: Electrical Energy and Industrial Electronic Systems EEIES2009, 7-8 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia

plotted at the graph of voltage recovery time as shown in

Fig. 11. The plotted graph demonstrates that all the

desiring time is fall at the ideal condition means the D -

S T A T C O M can be placed in any point of bus system. The

results also presents a spike at the beginning and at the

end of fault duration and these are caused by the process

of charging and discharging of the capacitor in D-

S T A T C O M circuit.

(a)

X 0.988 IV. CONCLUSION

01.000

A 0.003

S T A T C O M responded well in mitigating voltage sag

caused b y three-phase balance fault. The summarize data

2.00 2 20 2.40 2.60 39

of voltage recoveries, time recoveries and classification

of the network are depicted in Table 2.

(b)

Figure 9. Load voltage of group main Bus B , a) With D-STATCOM.

b) Time of Recovery TABLE 2

SUMMARY OF NETWORK SIMULATION

This also happen at the main group bus bar C where it Location of Voltage (Vp.u) Time of Classification

show that the system with the D - S T A T C O M connected, D- Without With recovery

STATCOM D-STA D-STA (s)

the load voltage improved from 0.800 p.u to 1.0 p.u as (Bus bar) TCOM TCOM

shown in Fig. 10(a), while the time recovery is about A 0.800 0.993 0.25 Ideal

0.23s as demonstrated in Fig. 10(b). B 0.800 0.997 0.29 Ideal

C 0.800 1.0 0.23 Ideal

install D - S T A T C O M because voltages are recovered

within 0.6s. Although the entire bus bar groups are ideal

location, only the best location will be chosen. Therefore,

ao a-to 73

HE the best solution for the power quality problem (voltage

(a) sag) in this distribution network is when D - S T A T C O M is

located at main group bus bar C.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank to Universiti T u n

Hussein Onn Malaysia for supporting and encouraging

s r £

"° J f A

E» "° "> ~';:~ in publishing paper or journal for various conferences.

Figure 10. Load voltage of main group Bus C , a) With D-STATCOM. REFERENCES

b) Time of Recovery [1] H.G. Sarminto, G. Pampin, J.D. de Leon, "FACTS Solution for

Voltage Stability problems in Large Metropolitan Area," 2004

1.1 IEEE/PES Power System Conference and Exposition, vol 1,

pp.275-282, Oct. 2004.

1.0 [2] H. Yonezawa, T.Shimato, M.Tsukada, K. Matsuno, I.Iyoda,

0.9 — J.Paserba, G.F.Reed, "Study of a STATCOM application for

0.8

J 1

: o voltage stability evaluated by dynamic PV curve and time

simulation,"2000 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter

S3 0.7 Meeting, vol.2, pp.1471-1476, Jan 2000.

.St 0.6 [3] M.F.Kandlawala and A.H.M.A.Rahim, "Power system dynamic

performance with STATCOM controller, " 8th annual IEEE

0.5

technical exchange meeting, April 2001.

0.4 0.5 Seconds [4] Noor Izzri bin Hj Abdul Wahab, "Power Quality Improvement

0.3 •Aft®' £puif..Cte.sfiD.a Using Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) On 11 kV

Fault Distribution System", Universiti Putra Malaysia: Msc Thesis. 23¬

0.2 .Clearing 31, 38-72, May 2002.

0.1 [5] P.P Barker, J.J. Burke, R.T.Mancao, T.A.Short, C.A. Warren, and

-t- -+- -+- -4-

0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 C.W.Bums, " Power Quality Monitoring of a Distribution

Tima(Ssconds) System," IEEE/Trans. Power Del.,vol.9, no.2,pp. 1136-1142,

Figure 11. Plot of voltage time recovery Apr. 1994.

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