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A Seminar Report

Submitted by
Chetan Wagh

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of



Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering - Sevagram
Sevagram, Wardha -442102
[2017 – 2018]

Seminar Report

In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering
Civil Engineering

Chetan Wagh

Under the Guidance of

Dr. S.G. Makrande


Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering - Sevagram
Sevagram, Wardha -442102
[2017 – 2018]

Certified that seminar work entitled“RETROFITTING” is a bonafide work carried out
in the sixth semester by “Chetan Wagh” in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of
Engineering in Civil Engineering from Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University during
the academic year 2016-2017. Who carried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part
of this work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree.

Dr. P.P. Saklecha Dr.P.P. Saklecha

(Project Guide) (Head of Department)

Civil Engineering

We have great pleasure in presenting a Seminar report on “RETROFITTING” We
would like to thanks many of the people who helped us while producing this Seminar report.
First of all producing this report would not have been possible if not for the endless contribution
of time, effect & guidance by our guide Dr, P.P. SAKLECHA and H.O.D of Civil
Department. They helped us in overcoming the critical hurdles. We are extremely thankful to all
our teachers and friends for their valuable help to present this Seminar report. Last but not the
least we thanks to the almighty who gives us the opportunity to reach up to this level under their


Retrofitting an existing building can oftentimes be more cost-effective than building a new

facility. Since buildings consume a significant amount of energy (40 percent of the nation's total

U.S. energy consumption), particularly for heating and cooling (32 percent), and because

existing buildings comprise the largest segment of the built environment, it is important to

initiate energy conservation retrofits to reduce energy consumption and the cost of heating,

cooling, and lighting buildings. But conserving energy is not the only reason for retrofitting

existing buildings. The unique aspects for retrofit of historic buildings must be given special

consideration. Designing major renovations and retrofits for existing buildings to include

sustainability initiatives will reduce operation costs and environmental impacts, and can increase

building adaptability, durability, and resiliency.


Sr. Topic Page No.

1. Introduction vii

2. Method of retrofitting viii

3. x
Classification of retrofitting technique xi

4 Retrofitting of masonary structures xiii

5. xiv
Need to retrofitting

6. Advantages xv




To meet up the requirements of advance infra structure new innovative materials/ technologies in
civil engineering industry has started to make its way
Any technology or material has its limitations and to meet the new requirements new
technologies have to be invented and used.

When structures becoming old and the increasing bar for the constructed buildings the old
buildings have started to show a serious need of additional retrofits to increase their durability
and life.

It is the modification of existing/damaged structures to make them more resistant to seismic

activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes.

Power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency / increasing output / reducing emissions

Home energy retrofit, the improving of existing buildings with energy efficiency equipment

Sesmic retrofit, the process of strengthening older buildings in order to make them earthquake

The production of retrofit parts is necessary in manufacture when the design of a large assembly
is changed or revised. If, after the changes have been implemented, a customer (with an old
version of the product) wishes to purchase a replacement part then retrofit parts and assembling
techniques will have to be used so that the revised parts will fit suitably onto the older assembly.


 Replacement of concrete member

 Addition of concrete section
 Addition of member
 Addition of support point
 Addition of retrofitting member

Supplemental members are new columns, beams, braces, or infilled walls that are installed to
support damaged structural members. The location of these members is usually below the
damaged or deflected areas to stabilize the structural framing. New members are installed to
support seriously cracked and deflected flexural members and the technique is generally
economical. The use of cross bracing, infilled walls, or other means of providing resistance to
lateral forces are required if the original structure has lost the necessary resistance.

his repair method can be used if none of the other strengthening techniques is adequate.
Supplemental members are quickly installed and, therefore, are suitable temporary emergency
repair solutions. A new column obstructs passage and new beams reduce head room. Further, the
new beam or new column is noticeable and architecturally unpleasant. Cross bracing and infilled
walls seriously disturb the interior space utilization. Loads and stresses in the existing structure
may not be relieved unless special procedures are used.

The materials used for concrete repair works such as replacement and jacketing of concrete
structural members should have good bonding properties with the existing materials and should
be non-shrinking


Addition of shear wall
Frequently used for retrofitting of non ductile reinforced concrete frame buildings. The added
elements can be either cast‐in‐place or precast concrete elements. New elements preferably be
placed at the exterior of the building. Not preferred in the interior of the structure to avoid
interior mouldings.

Addition of bracing
Adding Steel Bracings An effective solution when large openings are required. Potential
advantages for the following reasons: higher strength and stiffness, opening for natural light,
amount of work is less since foundation cost may be minimized adds much less weight to the
existing structure

Fig: Effect of Adding Shear Walls and Bracings

Jacketing (Local Retrofitting Technique) Most popular method for strengthening of building
columns Types-1. Steel jacket, 2. Reinforced Concrete jacket, 3. Fibre Reinforced Polymer
Composite(FRPC) jacket Purpose for jacketing: To increase concrete confinement. To increase
shear strength. To increase flexural strength.


Stiching of cracks
Our crack stitching bars are reinforced stainless steel rods that are chemically bonded into bed
joints. These rods stitch together cracks found within a property, redistributing tensile forces and
stabilising structural integrity. The bed joints are cut out with specialist dust extraction cutting
equipment and then the crack stitching bar is grouted in place to prevent any future movement.

To finish, our crack stitching bars are hidden on completion, meaning your property can retain
the original character of its wall.

Grouting with cement or epoxy

Epoxy grout has become more and more popular among tile contractors and builders. I find new
benefits every time I use this product. Unlike cement grout, which is made from a cementitious
powder mix, epoxy grout is made from epoxy resins and a filler powder. The grout is extremely
durable and almost completely stainproof. Regular grout isn't waterproof, so unlike epoxy grout,
it can absorb water when it's wet and stain easily. If you're tired of scrubbing the gunk off your
grout, epoxy grout could be your solution.

Strengthening of arches
Arches conventionally fail by the development of four hinges leading to a mechanism. The
design basis for Archtec strengthening is to locate reinforcement where hinges are predicted to
develop so as to improve bending strength. By providing additional strength in this way, the arch
barrel is better able to resist live load and peak compressive stresses in the masonry are reduced
compared with similar unstrengthened cases.

The same procedure is applied to more complex bridge arrangements, including multi-span
arches, although failure mechanisms and reinforcement positioning requires different locations to
be considered in design.

The primary purpose of earthquake retrofitting is to keep a home from being displaced from its
concrete foundation.

Retrofitting means making improvements to an existing building. The purpose is to make the
building safer and less prone to major structural damage during an earthquake.

Existing homes need to be retrofitted because our understanding of the effects of earthquakes as
well as construction techniques have improved after the homes were built.

The terms house bolting, foundation bolting and cripple wall bracing are often used
synonymously with earthquake retrofitting .

Earthquake insurance typically carries a 20% deductible. Retrofitting helps to reduce earthquake
damages, hence it is worth much more than its cost.

Homeowners want to ensure the safety of their family.

Landlords want to avoid future loss of income from a vacant and damaged building.

Some earthquake and homeowner's insurance require house retrofitting.

Proper disclosure about foundations are required before property transfers.

1.Lower operating costs
One of the biggest and most obvious benefits to reducing energy consumption in buildings is l
ower energy costs.

2.Higher return on investment and higher rental income for the landlord
Tenants are often willing to pay more for leases in buildings with good environmental
performance and energy efficiency.

3.Lower tenant churn and vacancy rates, opening the building to new tenant markets
Many government departments now require minimum energy efficiency and environmental
performance levels from the office space they lease. The private sector is starting to make similar

When a building meets or exceeds these expectations, tenants will stay in the building longer and
this is a factor in attracting new tenants.

4.Higher overall capital value of the building

Improvements to a building’s systems and infrastructure will increase its overall capital value.

5.Lower environmental footprint and greenhouse gas emissions

A building that uses less energy is responsible for fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Retrofits
also present the opportunity to improve waste management, incorporate more sustainable
construction materials and improve water efficiency.

6.Improved indoor environment quality

Indoor environment quality has become an important issue in modern office buildings. Retrofits
offer the perfect opportunity to improve indoor environment quality, which in turn may have
benefits for tenant health and productivity

7.Money saved investing in energy infrastructure

If a building becomes more energy efficient it is possible that upgrades to switchboards and
other electrical infrastructure can be avoided, saving both time and money.

8.Improving corporate image

The landlords’ commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability can have corporate image
benefits. More and more tenants are seeking these qualities in the buildings they occupy and also
in the companies they deal with.

Retrofitting is used to increase the durability of the structure and improved the indoor
environmental quality without increasing the operating cost. Seismic Retrofitting is a suitable
technology for protection of a variety of structures. It has matured in the recent years to a highly
reliable technology. But, the expertise needed is not available in the basic level. The main
challenge is to achieve a desired performance level at a minimum cost, which can be achieved
through a detailed nonlinear analysis. Optimization techniques are needed to know the most
efficient retrofit for a particular structure. Proper Design Codes are needed to be published as
code of practice for professionals related to this field.