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The results presented can be used in practice using the emitting zone that arrives at (or is absorbed by) a receiving
method described by Hartley and Black. This involves surface (or gas) zone is proportional to the difference in their
estimating the heat capacity of the soil so that <$> can be blackbody emissive powers and to their mutual direct ex-
evaluated and also estimating the value of the soil's thermal change area.
conductivity so that actual time can be determined from the Fortunately, many furnace enclosures can be approximated
Fourier number. Any differences between the estimated value geometrically by a collection of cubic gas zones bounded by
of thermal conductivity and the measured value can be accom- walls comprising square surface zones. The exchange area be-
modated either by using conservative values of time or by tween any two zones can then be generated by a simple sum-
repeating the test after equilibrium has been restored. mation of terms between component cubes and/or squares.
This task can be made considerably easier if these are
References generated beforehand as charts, tables, or simple correlations
1 Blackwell, J. H., " A Transient-Flow Method for Determination of Ther-
accessible by a computer program. Charts providing direct ex-
mal Constants of Insulating Materials in Bulk—Part 1—Theory," J. Appl. change areas between pairs of cubes, pairs of squares, and
Phys., Vol. 25, 1954, pp. 137-144. cubes and squares in close proximity to each other have been
2 Mitchell, J. K., and Kao, T. C , "Measurement of Soil Thermal Resistivi- prepared by Hottel and Cohen [2]. However, their data are
ty," ASCEJ. Geotech. Engng. Div., Vol. 104, 1978, pp. 1307-1320. limited to a range of optical path lengths (KB) of from zero to
3 Anderson, P., and Blackstrom, G., "Thermal Conductivity of Solids
Under Pressure by the Transient Hot-Wire Method," Rev. Sci. Instr., Vol. 47, 1.4. In all multiple grey gas representations of the total
1976, pp. 205-209. emissivity or absorptivity of fossil-fuel combustion products,
4 Blackwell, J. H., "The Axial-Flow Error in the Thermal Conductivity K for the high absorptivity grey gas component can exceed 20
Probe," Canadian J. Physics, Vol. 34, 1956, pp. 412-417. m" 1 for stoichiometric partial pressures of C 0 2 and H 2 0 [3,
5 Wechsler, A. E., "Development of Thermal Conductivity Probes for Soils
and Insulations," U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, CRREL Technical Report 4]. This therefore limits the size of the cubes or squares for
182, 1966. which exchange areas can be obtained to 0.07 m or less. Fur-
6 Hartley, J. G., and Black, W. Z., "Minimization of Measurement Errors thermore, some minor inaccuracies have been found in the
Involved in the Probe Method of Determining Soil Thermal Conductivity," above charts for a few of the configurations [5]. This paper
ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER, Vol. 98, 1976, pp. 530-531.
7 Steinmanis, J. E., "Thermal Property Measurements Using a Thermal presents more accurate data covering a wider range of KB
Probe," Proc. Meeting on Underground Cable Thermal Backfill, S. A. Boggs, from zero up to 18 (B max = 0.9 m) and generated with the ad-
F. Y. Chu, H. S. Radhakrishna, and J. E. Steinmanis, eds., Pergamon Press, vantage of much faster digital computing capability than was
New York, 1982, pp. 72-85. presumably available when the original charts were prepared.
8 Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C , Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford
University Press, 1959, p. 20. The data are also presented in the form of simple exponential
correlations which can easily be implemented into a computer
file or subroutine.

Formulation of Direct Exchange Area


Direct Exchange Areas for Calculating Radiation In the following formulations, the gas is assumed to be grey
Transfer in Rectangular Furnaces
KB
0-2 0-4 0-6 0-8 10 1-2 1-4 1-6 18
R. J. Tucker1
-' i::;|:;!:|:;::|::::p:i:
••

v*
08 \ 1 == j : :pb::::::::
Nomenclature \ : 111
K = attenuation or extinction coefficient 0-6
— ;.: 1 1 I! U.
of gas, m _ 1 ; '! !
B = cube or square side, m
SjSj = direct exchange area between sur-
• 1
1WIP
\.
faces i and j , m 2 0-3
W: • • ! •
• • ; ! '
:..":!-"."•

IwMM
:j
I" T
gjSj = direct exchange area between gas ;'
and surface j , m 2 i-i: ..j. ::::;..: 4 iSI 1'IWrrt

gjgj = direct exchange area between gas i 0-2


:•:•;.-
'.:"!•"

I:: H JiMian}

Pbjjjljjjfe
and gas j , m 2 :..
A surface area, m 2 MB"1'
V = volume, m 3
::."_
::~|.:;-:' ; i'r-:
::::!;:: :
. i ::

:;;;|.:.
= ::.(:.-
•.•:!•:
;.. j : . ; i:.
"S.
• :
• ; -

- : ; : .

p j ^
mn
3P^fflHfflijl
'X- ^yi{yil^jjt||fftHftnffl
.1" ^
Introduction .:: :.. s 1_ '
i BHBil

: • •

The prediction of the thermal performance of fuel-fired fur- :;=!:::. 1 t If


naces is dependent on an accurate calculation of radiant ex-
change between the combustion products, walls, and load
within the heating chamber. The Hottel ZONE method [1] is a
003
:5!
.;.!::;.
: : ! • : : •:.:!::.. • : : : - : :
:1 I
...
M
ill 1
~ WM
powerful technique for calculating radiation in furnaces pro-
vided the enclosure can be subdivided into well-defined sur- ;:;: A=({-.50513E-0^xKB+.23416E-02)x KB~.«H8E-01)xKB+.«288

face and gas zones of uniform temperature. The technique re-


quires an initial specification of the direct exchange areas be- ... hi A jHllSI
:::[:•: ..:;.:. \ j . . •j
tween all gas and/or surface zone pairs which are in mutual
radiative exchange. The radiant transfer originating from an
: : : : : •

J:-: Tlill
.... - ...

British Gas Corporation, Midlands Research Station 2 4 6 8 10 12 14


::!
1^Hlifff
16 18
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF KB
HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division January Fig. 1 The exchange area (gs)b between a cube of edge S and its six
29, 1985. bounding surfaces

Journal of Heat Transfer AUGUST 1986, Vol. 108/707


Copyright © 1986 by ASME
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KB
0 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 1( 0-2 0-4 0-6 0-fl 1-0 VI 1-4 16 1-6
I m i 1L:j$ pj1$|! ~ ! p J!!i J £ M ! £ X , _ 2 S l l 0-1 iteW»^BBBtBta^8BB ,t
ngr

If z 1
P f W i B iiiliiil 1 n w
HltiB8B8ii88lfl ft Pip i Jil
"•U« f t p 4 » — ^ ^ p f ^ i i p F
=- p p ; — - p •- — - i ''"'
~ ^ - ' - l i ttolaIt! M[ffiu

• • '• S1- •» I K E if
I _s.

ISi /
/--^—r
^ X //r
/ / / *
(^
P
i£pPr_
Lifc;--! i Jifcsiwi S a i l Sll'pGl
rf^sffflfflfSiiifii it» iiiiiifi w r:
H^M^BIIfiiii' -"l»<L '» It " - - ~ -t l l l l [ :::: iiix™; 1;
ftffllffii liifinipl ^
^iiil•i^l^il1wlTli1TU^*H^*^i*"TTT^l*•,^:-:?
•• H s . J ? i;~ - - : - - ^ •« _ 4 .•:- •<~k: -:;••••
if *n . "~~ ' :::::^~F' £'
:.|SJp. jBE :•:• ::i C :::. - -, i. ^ ^J;:::::: ~ ^ s t ^ z
001
llllilr t i l l
ijnntffflnf fifllltltiJ 1 lllll Willi JIK)$1 f^
tz. fifilffi] S i
4 W\--"*iUi '• -:!i'">---f ^ # i l 1 l ^ l i ? I S H B ^ 001
= ! Z S l l = d!lt IlijjSi l i l t
4H
~ i|'1 lp - •]\ '>' '""^MJ" ~'r¥- ^~- iHflf^ Itjttl jjtmjltrtjffiml'ITrl|p *r F Wtr f ^ ^ ^ l a g g r p l i i I;:: ;;= islfl-!! '~<t iiiz !:ii :!i! iiii s"

w
vi
BBSHiiiWsllll- - !,[ P^^::.t = iWpw|l|p[§|g|[- _ lit! ^ ::ii :;l:i:::: if:
:::: - = ::
1
4

PppBipfl) • E = lf- "|„\, =- i- |j_ - s-PPs^:


ppplBpiaitiig ^ r f - SL p
b; = l i i i i i i i l I f t i i l ! " llll if 11 i
|j|||jt|)ij||||||||ffij||^il! • L J| E P X - ' \-\ = --- 3=4= — ~ JH7 ;tf: :T17 :- :: -
gg= — -S?~ - .:_ - 4 -1 - ~ F~
IcTl
CT:
^ »fe
••--. S p i | | :s! i s if
=!iS^p!= =
il|t 1
r
t^^wHw^ M 4 - ^ ^ -if
B:-:::. tj:: ::iij:::: -^"
f^~~ ^f - ^ - is.
r rJf^pr: :: :: : " " i?= i^iiii^i-iii :::::•:: iiii ± :... w s ^ g - . T'"l
= £ 5 = lis
ilEPlFliinf"r: Bin fitKLJI.- • -
• ~ '

f • S)\ Brill
1
tStjd^iji'ilj"; y j y j .

0001
i*fr S i X [
^ ^ ^ ^ p E B f f l l l ! Ptt fHfllfHf^ -•^k. | fr-^ 1 - E: 'I 1 [ t : | a : f : g [ l | l i r 0001
Wit 4HW^I
~ ^ * r r MTT nrr r ^
:r: •':- Eiii
•p;
mmim F ;;S
NS
i ::: i 3 i f S ^ ^ :•::•:: =i;: ill I P z:: -if! ::::

IF Troi"
I|ilillpb !;W:-; :.:;• | [ N 5 / • ^ , ( ;.; , : ^
SSPPPPFWwf M : ~{
p." '"
;:• • a . ^ y .
H i v ^ ; ;:
1*
I l i i P l p i P P I iSU\ ! iili^ R* J i:
x^xx^i^*. •• llHILL*
f> l
-:
x

|T T| . ^ 4 ^ ;
j||||ji||j;: : j:'N T t
I •.ti

00001 1:44 i
;;.l ;
1
00001 - -ft ! :
t^ • :
"
s

0 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18

KB
0-2 0-4 0-6 0-8 1-0 1-2 1-4 1-6 1-E 10 12 4 6 1
02 04 06 08
1-0

I wMr-x \" Ii m 1 /
/ ^ «jffliin
y /SHAW
r
,
I
I B ^ /Y i .
1Si E ) ^ 7i i i H i ./ ^ --rtTffld

v-- -- •" "liiii


X ,
I I

1 'iwfil" I ;!
FT
X
i
|l"[i

01

•IH s.^ I •
0-1
1

\
Id
ii
!1
SiBffi:
11'
"Hi
if I'll1 I if
^ B H I l l l IAl i Ski&iiMU^ f, mi |i| HI llliifi! IHHs K S f'l
^-i^jHtH
J|j1l[| n
H
S i ii lilil ll iii *i 1111H^B I 111 B" IliMIII mil jij
l™"WIII Iw
UP " H I ' ' i i " I ' m llj l i l p i »
111 %ffi 1 i ^ P f l|j! if
i
HiSSIiilill
ItafSijciEaff f r
Wfc $. L in
" ,
— j« 1

4^uTr
\ f w

Wj|
IS
PljjHi'Wi
it "' T ^ ?
i i

3! t
iii'i IW irPifJffi
001
llfltrli •|!|i!l5 lipl^^^B MM
:
0-01 iilniiViWlur ii'
Blffi
**^ * w*

=W
i ""••"I •r^Li
!
1 1 |
Ti^LJi,llittp Sut""* t Z j l _!. • •
*Ts 4 H
\ Hi
ilHBSI
l H wI;p j j q E n
ipi|p»ffl|fB| nlc
1l HWlwffiH
4i '•
•^ 13 IM
' TflPf iiiiSiSf (ftHI lllil i,v"i $ H'V l l l l
tw | \ T '"
t
1 FT »l ""1
"II 'll
"Ij l l
TBWI
iRSPfrhr X ^ 1 i
PHI' '' PfflH"
B s y<\- *^' ii' l l 'ffl'ff
I f

1 ME S
immmmFm [!,!; f!! '" !'!!N |s?
h UK ml'MmB B
;
'iiiiifcii 0-001
\i|M 1

1 1
5J ; fr

'I'flHSllOi''"' P S
---^-±qp?l M f r MJlHM-
|| j;
- S i j S31 • i 11 1
illli
ITJiliP I ^•s. ' S i u iHlllfif
ppipif ' i 1^ v - •••* 4 - ^
3n™r'T r m S f e . L , % it\
illB Wpjiff" T ' s '" ^"ijhii'i i
i"iiH rt "jii'i •I pftfji'tt *
IIIfM il v 1 ' ' *S
II!
!M f n\ ' P"
p-HW *VH
„i -\
1
*
\ sj^y
~^~^ | ''
'"1
ss
s,\ '
r" j "J. 1
\N
1
, i ^sVi i \ | [

\ T R ^ ^ • I s

2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18
2 4
\
6
\ V 10 12 14 16
KB KB
Fig. 2 Direct exchange areas between zones in close proximity (Nos
on curves are X/B, Y/B, ZIB where S = cube or square side)

708 / Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986 Transactions of the ASME

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Table 1 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between Table 2 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between
parallel square surfaces; ss/B2 = C * e x p ( - 4 * KB) perpendicularly oriented square surfaces; ss / S 2 = C * e x p ( - A * KB);
s i / B2 = C * EXP(-A * KB) A = a0 + a-i 'KB 34*(KB) 4
2
s s / B =• C * EXP(-A * KB)

A « a 0 + aj*KB a^B)''
^ \ ^ ^ L

1
B^

X/B Y/B Z/B C A X/B Y/B Z/B C A Y/B Z/B


X/B C a
0 a
l a2 a
3 a
4
1 1 .1998 1.1053 1 1 4 .0191 4.0396 1 1 1 .2000 .5390 .429E-02 .206E-05
-.615E-01 -.151E-03
1 1 .0861 1.3014 2 1 4 .0171 4.1475
1 1 .0153 1.9987 3 1 4 .0126 4.4615 2 1 1 .0406 .9965 -.878E-1 •419E-02 -.773E-04 .000E+00
1 1 .0036 2.9351 4 1 4 .0082 4.9529
2 1 .0433 1.5172 2 2 4 .0153 4.2538 3 1 1 .0043 1.906
2 1 .0105 2.1959 3 2 4 .0114 4.5627
2 1 .0029 3.0880 4 2 4 .0076 5.0464 1 2 1 .0328 1.571 -.391E-01 .208E-02 .000E+00 .000E+00
3 1 .0045 2.7513 3 3 4 .0088 4.8569
3 1 .0018 3.5187 4 3 4 .0061 5.3190 2 2 1 .0189 1.751
4 1 .0009 4.1511 4 4 4 .0045 5.7494
3 2 1 .0059 2.384
1 2 .0686 2.0710 1 1 5 .0124 5.0322
1 2 .0481 2.2368 2 1 5 .0115 5.1224 1 3 1 .0089 2.502
1 2 .0206 2.7286 3 1 5 .0093 5.3863
1 2 .0080 3.4595 4 1 5 .0068 5.8053 2 3 1 .0069 2.665
2 2 .0351 2.4015 2 2 5 .0107 5.2114
2 2 .0164 2.8812 3 2 5 .0087 5.4720 3 3 1 .0036 3.129
2 2 .0068 3.5899 4 2 5 .0065 5.8861
3 2 .0093 3.3165 3 3 5 .0073 5.7232 1 2 2 .0329 2.055
3 2 .0046 3.9625 4 3 5 .0055 6.1231
4 2 .0027 4.5268 4 4 5 .0043 6.5018 2 2 2 .0230 2.245
1 3 .0330 3.0512 1 1 6 .0087 6.0271 3 2 2 .0101 2.780
1 3 .0274 3.1838 2 1 6 .0082 6.1042
1 3 .0168 3.5683 3 1 6 .0071 6.3310 1 3 2 .0159 2.860
1 3 .0090 4.1582 4 1 6 .0056 6.6951
2 3 .0230 3.3140 2 2 6 .0078 6.1805 2 3 2 .0129 3.010
2 3 .0146 3.6906 3 2 6 .0067 6.4052
2 3 .0081 4.2680 4 2 6 .0054 6.7658 3 3 2 .0076 3.435
3 3 .0101 4.0432 3 3 6 .0059 6.6235
3 3 .0061 4.5855 4 3 6 .0048 6.9744 1 3 3 .0124 3.481
4 3 .0040 5.0783 4 4 6 .0039 7.3105
2 3 3 .0107 3.609

3 3 3 .0073 3.976
n + i-a*^ 1i n l i A n r*e>*c •-•+ T a r t - r i /->-f-i

compatible with the multiple grey gas representation of a real change areas for the surface-surface configurations in a
furnace atmosphere. nonabsorbing atmosphere [6].
The direct exchange areas between pairs of differential sur-
face and/or volume elements / andy are given by the following Results
expressions [1] where r is the separating distance between
elements and 6 their relative angle of orientation (measured The results of the numerical integrations are presented
relative to the normal to a surface element) graphically in Figs. 1 and 2 for zones in close proximity to
each other and as exponential correlations in Tables 1-4 for all
Surface-surface exchange configurations evaluated. Exchange areas are provided for
2 squares in mutually parallel and perpendicular planes, as well
sjsj=dAj cos OjdAj cos 0,exp(- Kr) /-wr (1) as for cubes and squares and for pairs of cubes in a rec-
Volume-surface exchange tangular framework. These are all normalized asjn the charts
of Hottel and Cohen [2]. The "escape factor" (gs)b is the ex-
gjSj=K dVjdAj cos djexp(-Kr)/irr2 (2) change area between a cube of edge B and its six bounding sur-
faces and is presented graphically and as a correlation in Fig.
Volume-volume exchange
1. (gs)b is itself normalized to the unit emittance 4KV in 4 T
3
g^gj =K2dVidVjexp(-Kr)/Trr2 (3) steradians from a cube of volume V ( = B ). The plots in Fig.
2 for element pairs in very close proximity to each other are
Numerical Evaluation of Direct Exchange Areas substantially "nonlinear." This is not evident in the Hottel
The integration of equations (1), (2), and (3) above must and Cohen charts [2].
therefore be carried out to derive the exchange areas between By comparison of the normalized surface-surface exchange
finite square surfaces and/or cubic volume zones. Analytical areas for zero attenuation coefficient (factor C in Tables 1 and
solutions can only be derived when the gas is optically thin and 2) with analytically derived data, the numerical technique was
therefore non-self-absorbing (i.e., when the exp(-Kr) term is verified to be accurate to within ± 0 . 5 percent. The exponen-
unity, representing total transmittance). Where an absorbing tial correlations are themselves best-fit expressions derived by
gas is involved, numerical integration must be adopted. In- the method of least-squares and these are accurate to within
deed, for all evaluations carried out, including the surface- three decimal places.
surface exchange in a nonabsorbing atmosphere, a simple The above results relate to squares and/or cubes in close
numerical integration technique has been applied. Analytically proximity to each other. Exchange areas between zones
derived formulae have been used, however, to verify the ac- separated by larger distances can be approximated closely by
curacy of the numerical technique, by providing exact ex- assuming that the view and path length for absorption are the

Journal of Heat Transfer AUGUST.1986, Vol. 108/709

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Table 3 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between Conclusions


cubic gas zones and square surface zones; gs /(gs)b = C * e x p ( - / l *
KB); A = a0 + a, * KB + a2*(KB)2 Direct exchange areas are provided which can be used for
the evaluation of radiation exchange within rectangular gas-
P / (P)b - C * EXP(-A * KB)
filled enclosures. These are correlated in a form that can be in-
A - a 0 + ai*KB + B 2 *(KB) 2 corporated easily into a computer library file or subroutine
and should therefore be a valuable aid to the writing and
development of mathematical models utilizing the zone
SP method of analysis for radiant exchange.

Acknowledgments
2-tSS^L This paper is published by permission of the British Gas
Corporation. The author wishes to acknowledge John
X/B Y/B Z/B c Truelove (formerly HTFS) for his helpful advice and col-
2 1 1 .0337 .4563 -.311E-01 .824E-03 laboration at the start of this work.
3 1 1 .0048 1.457
References
2 2 1 .0137 .8332 .469E-01 .103E-02
1 Hottel, H. C , and Sarofim, A. F., Radiative Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New
3 2 1 .0034 1.674 York, 1967.
2 Hottel, H. C , and Cohen, E. S., "Radiant Heat Exchange in a Gas-Filled
3 3 1 .0017 2.251 Enclosure," AIChE, Mar. 1958, Vol. 4, p. 3.
3 Smith, T. F., Shen, Z. F . , and Friedman, J. N., "Evaluation of Coeffi-
cients for the Weighted Sum of Grey Gases Model," ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT
.0313 1.062
TRANSFER, Vol. 104, Nov. 1982, pp. 602-608.
.0200 1.292 4 Taylor, P. B., and Foster, P. J., "The Total Emissivities of Luminous and
Non-luminous Flames," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 17, 1974, pp.
.0078 1.933 1591-1605.
5 Becker, H. B., " A Mathematical Solution for Gas-to-Surface Radiative Ex-
.0135 1.514 change Area for a Rectangular Parallelepiped Enclosure Containing a Gray
Medium," ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER, Vol. 99, May 1977.
.0062 2.089
6 Siegel, R., and Howell, J., Thermal Radiation Meat Transfer, McGraw-
.0037 2.602 Hill, New York, 1972, Chap. 7.

.0120 2.033

.0098 2.210

.0060 2.666

.0083 2.366
Effective Absorptivity and Emissivity of Particulate
Media With Application to a Fluidized Bed
.0053 2.806

.0037 3.201
M. Q. Brewster1

Table 4 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between Nomenclature


pairs of cubic gas zones; gg I (KB (gs)b) = C * exp(-A * KB);
A = a 0 + a, *KB a3*(KB)3
d = two-flux absorption coefficient
B = back-scatter fraction
gg /(KB ( p ) ) = C * EXP(-A * KB)
b
c = mean particle clearance, ^m
A = a„ + ai*KB a3*(KB)3 d = particle diameter
1B eb = black hemispherical emissive

m i
power
/„ = particle volume fraction
q = heat flux, W/m 2 or W/m 2 'tim
T = particle temperature, K
B[ ah TK = gas temperature, K
U = superficial velocity (gas)
X/B Y/B Z/B C aO al a2 a3
x = semi-infinite slab normal
coordinate
2 1 1 .0949 .3784 -.331E-01 .174E-02 -.360E-04 a = absorptivity
3 1 1 .0203 1.430 6 = nonisothermal layer thickness
e = emissivity or particle emissivity
2 2 1 .0445 .8190 -.599E-01 .235E-02 -.347E-04
V = T0/Tb
3 2 1 .0161 1.657 X = wavelength, jim
3 3 1 .0099 2.263 £ = constant defined in equation
(9)
2 2 2 .0283 1.147 -.620E-01 .132E-02 .OOOE+00
a = two-flux scattering coefficient
3 2 2 .0132 1.866 <t> = single scatter polar angle
3 3 2 .0090 2.458

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Utah,


same for all points from within each zone, thus representing Sa | t L a k e c i t y , U T 84112; Assoc. Mem. ASME
zones as differential elements E q u a t i o n s (l)-(3) c a n in these Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF
c a s e s b e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y With t h e 6 a n d r t e r m s b a s e d o n HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division February 5,
center-to-center orientation and distance. 1985.

710/Vol. 108, AUGUST 1986 Transactions of the ASME

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