direct Exchange Areas for Calculating Radiation Transfer in Rectangular Furnace

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direct Exchange Areas for Calculating Radiation Transfer in Rectangular Furnace

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The results presented can be used in practice using the emitting zone that arrives at (or is absorbed by) a receiving

method described by Hartley and Black. This involves surface (or gas) zone is proportional to the difference in their

estimating the heat capacity of the soil so that <$> can be blackbody emissive powers and to their mutual direct ex-

evaluated and also estimating the value of the soil's thermal change area.

conductivity so that actual time can be determined from the Fortunately, many furnace enclosures can be approximated

Fourier number. Any differences between the estimated value geometrically by a collection of cubic gas zones bounded by

of thermal conductivity and the measured value can be accom- walls comprising square surface zones. The exchange area be-

modated either by using conservative values of time or by tween any two zones can then be generated by a simple sum-

repeating the test after equilibrium has been restored. mation of terms between component cubes and/or squares.

This task can be made considerably easier if these are

References generated beforehand as charts, tables, or simple correlations

1 Blackwell, J. H., " A Transient-Flow Method for Determination of Ther-

accessible by a computer program. Charts providing direct ex-

mal Constants of Insulating Materials in Bulk—Part 1—Theory," J. Appl. change areas between pairs of cubes, pairs of squares, and

Phys., Vol. 25, 1954, pp. 137-144. cubes and squares in close proximity to each other have been

2 Mitchell, J. K., and Kao, T. C , "Measurement of Soil Thermal Resistivi- prepared by Hottel and Cohen [2]. However, their data are

ty," ASCEJ. Geotech. Engng. Div., Vol. 104, 1978, pp. 1307-1320. limited to a range of optical path lengths (KB) of from zero to

3 Anderson, P., and Blackstrom, G., "Thermal Conductivity of Solids

Under Pressure by the Transient Hot-Wire Method," Rev. Sci. Instr., Vol. 47, 1.4. In all multiple grey gas representations of the total

1976, pp. 205-209. emissivity or absorptivity of fossil-fuel combustion products,

4 Blackwell, J. H., "The Axial-Flow Error in the Thermal Conductivity K for the high absorptivity grey gas component can exceed 20

Probe," Canadian J. Physics, Vol. 34, 1956, pp. 412-417. m" 1 for stoichiometric partial pressures of C 0 2 and H 2 0 [3,

5 Wechsler, A. E., "Development of Thermal Conductivity Probes for Soils

and Insulations," U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, CRREL Technical Report 4]. This therefore limits the size of the cubes or squares for

182, 1966. which exchange areas can be obtained to 0.07 m or less. Fur-

6 Hartley, J. G., and Black, W. Z., "Minimization of Measurement Errors thermore, some minor inaccuracies have been found in the

Involved in the Probe Method of Determining Soil Thermal Conductivity," above charts for a few of the configurations [5]. This paper

ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER, Vol. 98, 1976, pp. 530-531.

7 Steinmanis, J. E., "Thermal Property Measurements Using a Thermal presents more accurate data covering a wider range of KB

Probe," Proc. Meeting on Underground Cable Thermal Backfill, S. A. Boggs, from zero up to 18 (B max = 0.9 m) and generated with the ad-

F. Y. Chu, H. S. Radhakrishna, and J. E. Steinmanis, eds., Pergamon Press, vantage of much faster digital computing capability than was

New York, 1982, pp. 72-85. presumably available when the original charts were prepared.

8 Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C , Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford

University Press, 1959, p. 20. The data are also presented in the form of simple exponential

correlations which can easily be implemented into a computer

file or subroutine.

Direct Exchange Areas for Calculating Radiation In the following formulations, the gas is assumed to be grey

Transfer in Rectangular Furnaces

KB

0-2 0-4 0-6 0-8 10 1-2 1-4 1-6 18

R. J. Tucker1

-' i::;|:;!:|:;::|::::p:i:

••

v*

08 \ 1 == j : :pb::::::::

Nomenclature \ : 111

K = attenuation or extinction coefficient 0-6

— ;.: 1 1 I! U.

of gas, m _ 1 ; '! !

B = cube or square side, m

SjSj = direct exchange area between sur-

• 1

1WIP

\.

faces i and j , m 2 0-3

W: • • ! •

• • ; ! '

:..":!-"."•

IwMM

:j

I" T

gjSj = direct exchange area between gas ;'

and surface j , m 2 i-i: ..j. ::::;..: 4 iSI 1'IWrrt

:•:•;.-

'.:"!•"

I:: H JiMian}

Pbjjjljjjfe

and gas j , m 2 :..

A surface area, m 2 MB"1'

V = volume, m 3

::."_

::~|.:;-:' ; i'r-:

::::!;:: :

. i ::

:;;;|.:.

= ::.(:.-

•.•:!•:

;.. j : . ; i:.

"S.

• :

• ; -

- : ; : .

p j ^

mn

3P^fflHfflijl

'X- ^yi{yil^jjt||fftHftnffl

.1" ^

Introduction .:: :.. s 1_ '

i BHBil

•

: • •

naces is dependent on an accurate calculation of radiant ex-

change between the combustion products, walls, and load

within the heating chamber. The Hottel ZONE method [1] is a

003

:5!

.;.!::;.

: : ! • : : •:.:!::.. • : : : - : :

:1 I

...

M

ill 1

~ WM

powerful technique for calculating radiation in furnaces pro-

vided the enclosure can be subdivided into well-defined sur- ;:;: A=({-.50513E-0^xKB+.23416E-02)x KB~.«H8E-01)xKB+.«288

quires an initial specification of the direct exchange areas be- ... hi A jHllSI

:::[:•: ..:;.:. \ j . . •j

tween all gas and/or surface zone pairs which are in mutual

radiative exchange. The radiant transfer originating from an

: : : : : •

J:-: Tlill

.... - ...

::!

1^Hlifff

16 18

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF KB

HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division January Fig. 1 The exchange area (gs)b between a cube of edge S and its six

29, 1985. bounding surfaces

Copyright © 1986 by ASME

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KB

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ngr

If z 1

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HltiB8B8ii88lfl ft Pip i Jil

"•U« f t p 4 » — ^ ^ p f ^ i i p F

=- p p ; — - p •- — - i ''"'

~ ^ - ' - l i ttolaIt! M[ffiu

• • '• S1- •» I K E if

I _s.

ISi /

/--^—r

^ X //r

/ / / *

(^

P

i£pPr_

Lifc;--! i Jifcsiwi S a i l Sll'pGl

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ftffllffii liifinipl ^

^iiil•i^l^il1wlTli1TU^*H^*^i*"TTT^l*•,^:-:?

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if *n . "~~ ' :::::^~F' £'

:.|SJp. jBE :•:• ::i C :::. - -, i. ^ ^J;:::::: ~ ^ s t ^ z

001

llllilr t i l l

ijnntffflnf fifllltltiJ 1 lllll Willi JIK)$1 f^

tz. fifilffi] S i

4 W\--"*iUi '• -:!i'">---f ^ # i l 1 l ^ l i ? I S H B ^ 001

= ! Z S l l = d!lt IlijjSi l i l t

4H

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1

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ppplBpiaitiig ^ r f - SL p

b; = l i i i i i i i l I f t i i l ! " llll if 11 i

|j|||jt|)ij||||||||ffij||^il! • L J| E P X - ' \-\ = --- 3=4= — ~ JH7 ;tf: :T17 :- :: -

gg= — -S?~ - .:_ - 4 -1 - ~ F~

IcTl

CT:

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• ~ '

f • S)\ Brill

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0001

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0 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18

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„i -\

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s,\ '

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\N

1

, i ^sVi i \ | [

\ T R ^ ^ • I s

2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18

2 4

\

6

\ V 10 12 14 16

KB KB

Fig. 2 Direct exchange areas between zones in close proximity (Nos

on curves are X/B, Y/B, ZIB where S = cube or square side)

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Table 1 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between Table 2 Correlation coefficients for direct exchange areas between

parallel square surfaces; ss/B2 = C * e x p ( - 4 * KB) perpendicularly oriented square surfaces; ss / S 2 = C * e x p ( - A * KB);

s i / B2 = C * EXP(-A * KB) A = a0 + a-i 'KB 34*(KB) 4

2

s s / B =• C * EXP(-A * KB)

A « a 0 + aj*KB a^B)''

^ \ ^ ^ L

1

B^

X/B C a

0 a

l a2 a

3 a

4

1 1 .1998 1.1053 1 1 4 .0191 4.0396 1 1 1 .2000 .5390 .429E-02 .206E-05

-.615E-01 -.151E-03

1 1 .0861 1.3014 2 1 4 .0171 4.1475

1 1 .0153 1.9987 3 1 4 .0126 4.4615 2 1 1 .0406 .9965 -.878E-1 •419E-02 -.773E-04 .000E+00

1 1 .0036 2.9351 4 1 4 .0082 4.9529

2 1 .0433 1.5172 2 2 4 .0153 4.2538 3 1 1 .0043 1.906

2 1 .0105 2.1959 3 2 4 .0114 4.5627

2 1 .0029 3.0880 4 2 4 .0076 5.0464 1 2 1 .0328 1.571 -.391E-01 .208E-02 .000E+00 .000E+00

3 1 .0045 2.7513 3 3 4 .0088 4.8569

3 1 .0018 3.5187 4 3 4 .0061 5.3190 2 2 1 .0189 1.751

4 1 .0009 4.1511 4 4 4 .0045 5.7494

3 2 1 .0059 2.384

1 2 .0686 2.0710 1 1 5 .0124 5.0322

1 2 .0481 2.2368 2 1 5 .0115 5.1224 1 3 1 .0089 2.502

1 2 .0206 2.7286 3 1 5 .0093 5.3863

1 2 .0080 3.4595 4 1 5 .0068 5.8053 2 3 1 .0069 2.665

2 2 .0351 2.4015 2 2 5 .0107 5.2114

2 2 .0164 2.8812 3 2 5 .0087 5.4720 3 3 1 .0036 3.129

2 2 .0068 3.5899 4 2 5 .0065 5.8861

3 2 .0093 3.3165 3 3 5 .0073 5.7232 1 2 2 .0329 2.055

3 2 .0046 3.9625 4 3 5 .0055 6.1231

4 2 .0027 4.5268 4 4 5 .0043 6.5018 2 2 2 .0230 2.245

1 3 .0330 3.0512 1 1 6 .0087 6.0271 3 2 2 .0101 2.780

1 3 .0274 3.1838 2 1 6 .0082 6.1042

1 3 .0168 3.5683 3 1 6 .0071 6.3310 1 3 2 .0159 2.860

1 3 .0090 4.1582 4 1 6 .0056 6.6951

2 3 .0230 3.3140 2 2 6 .0078 6.1805 2 3 2 .0129 3.010

2 3 .0146 3.6906 3 2 6 .0067 6.4052

2 3 .0081 4.2680 4 2 6 .0054 6.7658 3 3 2 .0076 3.435

3 3 .0101 4.0432 3 3 6 .0059 6.6235

3 3 .0061 4.5855 4 3 6 .0048 6.9744 1 3 3 .0124 3.481

4 3 .0040 5.0783 4 4 6 .0039 7.3105

2 3 3 .0107 3.609

3 3 3 .0073 3.976

n + i-a*^ 1i n l i A n r*e>*c •-•+ T a r t - r i /->-f-i

compatible with the multiple grey gas representation of a real change areas for the surface-surface configurations in a

furnace atmosphere. nonabsorbing atmosphere [6].

The direct exchange areas between pairs of differential sur-

face and/or volume elements / andy are given by the following Results

expressions [1] where r is the separating distance between

elements and 6 their relative angle of orientation (measured The results of the numerical integrations are presented

relative to the normal to a surface element) graphically in Figs. 1 and 2 for zones in close proximity to

each other and as exponential correlations in Tables 1-4 for all

Surface-surface exchange configurations evaluated. Exchange areas are provided for

2 squares in mutually parallel and perpendicular planes, as well

sjsj=dAj cos OjdAj cos 0,exp(- Kr) /-wr (1) as for cubes and squares and for pairs of cubes in a rec-

Volume-surface exchange tangular framework. These are all normalized asjn the charts

of Hottel and Cohen [2]. The "escape factor" (gs)b is the ex-

gjSj=K dVjdAj cos djexp(-Kr)/irr2 (2) change area between a cube of edge B and its six bounding sur-

faces and is presented graphically and as a correlation in Fig.

Volume-volume exchange

1. (gs)b is itself normalized to the unit emittance 4KV in 4 T

3

g^gj =K2dVidVjexp(-Kr)/Trr2 (3) steradians from a cube of volume V ( = B ). The plots in Fig.

2 for element pairs in very close proximity to each other are

Numerical Evaluation of Direct Exchange Areas substantially "nonlinear." This is not evident in the Hottel

The integration of equations (1), (2), and (3) above must and Cohen charts [2].

therefore be carried out to derive the exchange areas between By comparison of the normalized surface-surface exchange

finite square surfaces and/or cubic volume zones. Analytical areas for zero attenuation coefficient (factor C in Tables 1 and

solutions can only be derived when the gas is optically thin and 2) with analytically derived data, the numerical technique was

therefore non-self-absorbing (i.e., when the exp(-Kr) term is verified to be accurate to within ± 0 . 5 percent. The exponen-

unity, representing total transmittance). Where an absorbing tial correlations are themselves best-fit expressions derived by

gas is involved, numerical integration must be adopted. In- the method of least-squares and these are accurate to within

deed, for all evaluations carried out, including the surface- three decimal places.

surface exchange in a nonabsorbing atmosphere, a simple The above results relate to squares and/or cubes in close

numerical integration technique has been applied. Analytically proximity to each other. Exchange areas between zones

derived formulae have been used, however, to verify the ac- separated by larger distances can be approximated closely by

curacy of the numerical technique, by providing exact ex- assuming that the view and path length for absorption are the

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cubic gas zones and square surface zones; gs /(gs)b = C * e x p ( - / l *

KB); A = a0 + a, * KB + a2*(KB)2 Direct exchange areas are provided which can be used for

the evaluation of radiation exchange within rectangular gas-

P / (P)b - C * EXP(-A * KB)

filled enclosures. These are correlated in a form that can be in-

A - a 0 + ai*KB + B 2 *(KB) 2 corporated easily into a computer library file or subroutine

and should therefore be a valuable aid to the writing and

development of mathematical models utilizing the zone

SP method of analysis for radiant exchange.

Acknowledgments

2-tSS^L This paper is published by permission of the British Gas

Corporation. The author wishes to acknowledge John

X/B Y/B Z/B c Truelove (formerly HTFS) for his helpful advice and col-

2 1 1 .0337 .4563 -.311E-01 .824E-03 laboration at the start of this work.

3 1 1 .0048 1.457

References

2 2 1 .0137 .8332 .469E-01 .103E-02

1 Hottel, H. C , and Sarofim, A. F., Radiative Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New

3 2 1 .0034 1.674 York, 1967.

2 Hottel, H. C , and Cohen, E. S., "Radiant Heat Exchange in a Gas-Filled

3 3 1 .0017 2.251 Enclosure," AIChE, Mar. 1958, Vol. 4, p. 3.

3 Smith, T. F., Shen, Z. F . , and Friedman, J. N., "Evaluation of Coeffi-

cients for the Weighted Sum of Grey Gases Model," ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT

.0313 1.062

TRANSFER, Vol. 104, Nov. 1982, pp. 602-608.

.0200 1.292 4 Taylor, P. B., and Foster, P. J., "The Total Emissivities of Luminous and

Non-luminous Flames," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 17, 1974, pp.

.0078 1.933 1591-1605.

5 Becker, H. B., " A Mathematical Solution for Gas-to-Surface Radiative Ex-

.0135 1.514 change Area for a Rectangular Parallelepiped Enclosure Containing a Gray

Medium," ASME JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER, Vol. 99, May 1977.

.0062 2.089

6 Siegel, R., and Howell, J., Thermal Radiation Meat Transfer, McGraw-

.0037 2.602 Hill, New York, 1972, Chap. 7.

.0120 2.033

.0098 2.210

.0060 2.666

.0083 2.366

Effective Absorptivity and Emissivity of Particulate

Media With Application to a Fluidized Bed

.0053 2.806

.0037 3.201

M. Q. Brewster1

pairs of cubic gas zones; gg I (KB (gs)b) = C * exp(-A * KB);

A = a 0 + a, *KB a3*(KB)3

d = two-flux absorption coefficient

B = back-scatter fraction

gg /(KB ( p ) ) = C * EXP(-A * KB)

b

c = mean particle clearance, ^m

A = a„ + ai*KB a3*(KB)3 d = particle diameter

1B eb = black hemispherical emissive

m i

power

/„ = particle volume fraction

q = heat flux, W/m 2 or W/m 2 'tim

T = particle temperature, K

B[ ah TK = gas temperature, K

U = superficial velocity (gas)

X/B Y/B Z/B C aO al a2 a3

x = semi-infinite slab normal

coordinate

2 1 1 .0949 .3784 -.331E-01 .174E-02 -.360E-04 a = absorptivity

3 1 1 .0203 1.430 6 = nonisothermal layer thickness

e = emissivity or particle emissivity

2 2 1 .0445 .8190 -.599E-01 .235E-02 -.347E-04

V = T0/Tb

3 2 1 .0161 1.657 X = wavelength, jim

3 3 1 .0099 2.263 £ = constant defined in equation

(9)

2 2 2 .0283 1.147 -.620E-01 .132E-02 .OOOE+00

a = two-flux scattering coefficient

3 2 2 .0132 1.866 <t> = single scatter polar angle

3 3 2 .0090 2.458

same for all points from within each zone, thus representing Sa | t L a k e c i t y , U T 84112; Assoc. Mem. ASME

zones as differential elements E q u a t i o n s (l)-(3) c a n in these Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF

c a s e s b e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y With t h e 6 a n d r t e r m s b a s e d o n HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received by the Heat Transfer Division February 5,

center-to-center orientation and distance. 1985.

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