J ÖNK ÖP I NG I NT E R NAT I ONAL BUS I NE S S S C HOOL

JÖNKÖPING UNIVERSITY


M A R K E T C O M M U N I C A T I O N
IN THE
NEW DIGITAL WORLD
TAKE THE LEAP !
Master thesis within Marketing & Management
Authors: Leo Saleh & Angelica Storck
Tutor: Susanne Hertz
Jönköping, 2007-05-28

i
N E W DI G I T A L W O R L D


MARKET CDMMUN| C AT| DN
| N TH E
NEW D| B| TAL WDRLD


T A K E T H E L E A P !














LED 5ALEH & ANBEL|LA 5TDRLK

ii
Master Thesis in Business Administration
Title: Market Communication in the New Digital World, Take the Leap!
Authors: Leo Saleh & Angelica Storck
Tutor: Susanne Hertz
Date: 2007-05-28
Subject Terms: Marketing, Market Communication, Marketing Management, Market
Changes, Media Transformation, Media Audiences, Consumer Behaviour
Abstract

Background: During the last years, the boom of the Internet has carried along
with it new possibilities for communication, in addition, other
technological developments of society together act to form a new
reality in which companies have to rethink their means for com-
municating with consumers.
Problem and Purpose: In a new reality where consumers seem to reap all the benefits of
the technological changes, how then, should companies adjust to
the changing environment? The authors first investigated the
modern media environment and found some trends in how it is
evolving, and after listening to what some experts within the field
think about the future and of what should be done, they them-
selves endeavoured to generate some guidance for companies in
this matter.
Method: This thesis is somewhat of a Delphi study, which means that it
heavily relies on the statements of experts. What they have said
has played a crucial role in the authors’ own formulation of guid-
ance. The experts were interviewed either face-to-face, or through
the exchange of e-mails.
Conclusions: Major trends in how the media environment is transforming are;
technology as an enhancer to rather becoming a determinant,
segmentation to fragmentation, decreasing- to increasing returns
to scale, an opening for entirely new business concepts and an in-
creasing value of intangible assets as a complement to traditional,
tangible assets. The authors then presented some elements that
would be of crucial significance in this new environment, and they
also formulated some more specific guidance in how these ele-
ments could be instigated in companies. They were; Speed and
flexibility, customization and sustainability. Advice in how they
could be instigated where then summarized and illustrated in the
“New Digital World Market Communication Diamond”, which
basically emphasizes the need for updating the values and the cor-
porate culture, the need for streamlining supply chains, the need
of truly finding and using information about consumers, and fi-
nally, the need for adaptive experimentation.


iii
Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Jönköping International Business School for the last four years.
They have been exciting, fun, adventurous, and grueling at times, but in the end they have
been tremendously rewarding and invaluable to us. We feel that we now leave, enriched
with an advantageously international education with many doors open before us. We would
especially like to thank you for allowing us to travel the world as part of your study abroad
program, and it goes for both of us when we say that our study abroad experiences have
been amongst the most exciting things we have done in our lives this far. We sincerely
hope that you maintain and expand this possibility, and we wish you success in becoming
the best business school of Sweden.
We would like to thank all the experts who took the time from their busy lives to talk to us
for a while, you made this thesis possible. Thank you Albert Maruggi, Nils Enlund, Bertil
Thorngren, Kristofer Mencák, Niklas Elmgren and Mikael Nyström. We extend a special
thanks to all of the experts from the Media Management and Transformation Centre; Rob-
ert Picard, Karl-Erik Gustafsson, Cinzia Dal Zotto, Maria Norbäck, Annette Johansson
and Per-Erik Wolff, we had a great time meeting and discussing this interesting subject
with you.
We would also like to thank our tutor, Susanne Hertz, who guided us through the entire
process of writing the thesis, as well as our entire seminar group for all of our engaging dis-
cussions and the laughs we have shared.
Enjoy your reading!

Jönköping, 28 May 2007


Leo Saleh Angelica Storck





contact@leocallidus.com angelica.storck@gmail.com

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................2
1.2 Problem discussion ....................................................................................3
1.3 Purpose......................................................................................................4
1.4 Dissecting the purpose...............................................................................4
1.5 Disposition..................................................................................................5
1.6 Target Readers...........................................................................................6
2 Underlying Assumptions ........................................................... 7
2.1 The Big Picture...........................................................................................7
2.2 The Matrix of Change.................................................................................9
3 Theoretical Framework............................................................. 13
3.1 The Change of the Matrix.........................................................................13
3.1.1 Digitization and Convergence................................................................13
3.1.2 The Economics of the Information Age..................................................14
3.1.2.1 Network Externalities ........................................................................................................ 14
3.1.2.2 Increasing Returns to Scale ............................................................................................. 15
3.1.2.3 Path Dependence ............................................................................................................. 15
3.1.2.4 Lock-In ............................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.3 Communication Technologies ...............................................................16
3.1.3.1 Pull vs. Push...................................................................................................................... 16
3.1.3.2 The Internet ....................................................................................................................... 16
3.1.3.3 Streaming Audio and Video.............................................................................................. 16
3.1.3.3.1 YouTube ............................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.3.3.2 Joost .................................................................................................................................. 17
3.1.3.3.3 MySpace............................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.3.4 RSS .................................................................................................................................. 17
3.1.3.5 Webcasting........................................................................................................................ 18
3.1.3.6 Podcasting......................................................................................................................... 18
3.1.3.7 Blogs .................................................................................................................................. 18
3.1.3.8 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing........................................................................................ 18
3.1.4 Mobile Internet.......................................................................................19
3.1.4.1 M-Commerce..................................................................................................................... 19
3.1.4.2 Wireless Advertising ......................................................................................................... 20
3.2 Consumer Behavior..................................................................................20
3.2.1 Moving from Mass Production to Customization....................................21
3.3 Convergence & the Converging Consumer ..............................................22
3.3.1 Converging to the End Consumer .........................................................23
3.4 Media’s Impact on the Consumer .............................................................23
3.4.1 The Cyber Consumer ............................................................................24
3.4.2 Measuring Consumer Activity................................................................25
3.4.3 Consumer Use of Word of Mouth ..........................................................26
3.4.4 Viral Marketing.......................................................................................27
3.5 The New Reality of the Global Digital World.............................................27
4 Methodology.............................................................................. 29
4.1 Gathering Data.........................................................................................29
4.2 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Methods........................................29
4.2.1 Qualitative Research .............................................................................29
4.2.2 The Delphi Study Method......................................................................30

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4.3 Primary & Secondary sources ..................................................................31
4.4 Primary Data.............................................................................................31
4.5 Secondary Data........................................................................................32
4.6 Selection Criteria’s....................................................................................32
4.7 Snowball sampling....................................................................................33
4.8 Interviews .................................................................................................34
4.8.1 Face-to-Face Interviews ........................................................................34
4.8.2 E-mail Interviews ...................................................................................34
4.8.3 Contacted Experts.................................................................................35
4.9 Interpretation ............................................................................................36
4.10 Analyzing the Data .................................................................................37
4.11 Reliability ................................................................................................37
4.12 Validity....................................................................................................38
4.13 Short Summary of the Methodology .......................................................38
5 Empirical Findings.................................................................... 40
5.1 Karl-Erik Gustafsson.................................................................................40
5.1.1 The changes..........................................................................................40
5.1.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................41
5.1.3 The Future.............................................................................................41
5.2 Annette Johansson...................................................................................43
5.2.1 The Changes.........................................................................................43
5.2.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................43
5.2.3 The Future.............................................................................................44
5.3 Albert Maruggi ..........................................................................................45
5.3.1 The Changes.........................................................................................45
5.3.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................46
5.3.3 The Future.............................................................................................46
5.4 Nils Enlund ...............................................................................................48
5.4.1 The Changes.........................................................................................48
5.4.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................48
5.4.3 The Future.............................................................................................48
5.5 Bertil Thorngren........................................................................................50
5.6 Maria Norbäck ..........................................................................................51
5.6.1 The Changes.........................................................................................51
5.6.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................51
5.6.3 The Future.............................................................................................52
5.7 Per-Erik Wolff ...........................................................................................53
5.7.1 The Changes.........................................................................................53
5.7.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................53
5.7.3 The Future.............................................................................................54
5.8 Cinzia Dal Zotto........................................................................................55
5.8.1 The Changes.........................................................................................55
5.8.2 The Consumer.......................................................................................55
5.8.3 The Future.............................................................................................56
5.9 Robert G. Picard.......................................................................................57
5.9.1 The Changes.........................................................................................57
5.9.2 The Consumers.....................................................................................57
5.9.3 The future..............................................................................................58
5.10 Mikael Nyström @ Nyström Media .........................................................59

vi
5.10.1 The Changes........................................................................................59
5.10.2 The Consumer......................................................................................59
5.10.3 The Future............................................................................................59
5.11 Niklas Elmgren @ Infrakultur ..................................................................60
5.11.1 The Changes........................................................................................60
5.11.2 The Consumer......................................................................................60
5.11.3 The Future............................................................................................61
5.12 Kristofer Mencák @ GoViral ...................................................................62
5.12.1 The Changes........................................................................................62
5.12.2 The Consumer......................................................................................62
5.12.3 The Future............................................................................................62
6 Analysis ..................................................................................... 64
6.1 Current Trends and What Lies Ahead ......................................................64
6.1.1 Convergence .........................................................................................64
6.1.2 User Generated Content........................................................................65
6.1.3 Communicating Through the Internet ....................................................66
6.2 Summarizing the Trends ..........................................................................67
6.3 The New World Elements.........................................................................68
6.4 The Paradigm...........................................................................................69
6.5 B2C
n
.........................................................................................................70
6.6 The Blueprint Concept..............................................................................70
6.6.1 Blueprint & Material ...............................................................................71
6.6.2 The Medium...........................................................................................71
6.7 Taking the Leap........................................................................................72
6.7.1 Customization........................................................................................72
6.7.2 Speed....................................................................................................73
6.7.3 Flexibility................................................................................................74
6.7.4 Sustainability .........................................................................................76
6.7.5 = VALUE................................................................................................76
7 Conclusions............................................................................... 78
8 Limitations and Outroduction ................................................. 79
References...................................................................................... 80
APPENDICES.................................................................................. 86
A: The State of the Blogosphere.......................................................................86
B: YouTube Interface ........................................................................................89
C: Joost™ Interface ..........................................................................................91
D: MySpace Interface........................................................................................92
E: Macstyles.com..............................................................................................94
F: E-mail Questions...........................................................................................96





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FIGURES

Figure 1:1 - The Disposition of the Thesis 5

Figure 1:2 - The Level of Consultancy 6

Figure 2:1 - Map of International Connectivity, 1991 7

Figure 2:2 - Map of International Connectivity, 1997 8

Figure 2:3 - Internet Users World Map, 2015 8

Figure 2:4 - The Market Matrix Model 10

Figure 2:5 - The Market Matrix and Change Model 11

Figure 4:1 - The Interviewees 35

Figure 4:2 - The Methodology of the Thesis 39

Figure 6:1 - Summarizing the Trends 67

Figure 6:2 - The New World Elements Model 69

Figure 6:3 - The Blueprint Concept 72

Figure 6:4 - The New Digital World Market Communication Diamond 77



1
1 Introduction

This section will guide you into the subject and incrementally lead you to a realization of the problem and
the purpose of this entire study. Further, it will also provide you with an illustrative display of the disposi-
tion of the thesis. You will also be presented with information on the target readers of the study and some
clarifications. The main objective is that after reading this section, you will have a clear insight in what this
study is about and that you will be prepared, and willing, to read further.

“Few industries are under as much pressure as media…thanks to a growing number of delivery channels
and formats, consumers have virtually unlimited options when it comes to how and when they consume in-
formation. While audiences’ appetite for information and entertainment is truly staggering, providers are
finding they must spread the wealth in a buyer’s market now glutted with delivery points. It’s not surprising
that enterprises — from entertainment, broadcasting and cable companies, to publishers and digital media
innovators — are seeing once-predictable revenue structures give way as consumers get used to information
available virtually on demand — whenever, however and from wherever they choose to absorb it.”
- Transforming media and entertainment: The journey to on demand (2004), p. 1
In 1930, the American television pioneer, Charles Jenkins, broadcasted the first television
commercial (Inventors, 2007). Even though television commercials today receive a mixed
variety of feelings with an inclination towards being mostly negative, surely people must
have been astounded upon seeing that first, motion picture commercial.
Back then, marketing was in its baby years and many of its now elementary issues were as-
sumed to fall within basic concepts of economics (e.g., price setting was viewed as a simple
supply and demand issue) and it had barely differentiated from plain advertising theory
(Knowthis, 2007).
In the increasing competition of the midst 20
th
century companies slowly began to realize
that the old ways of selling were losing their ways. As competition grew stiffer across most
industries, organizations started to peek on the consumer side of the transaction as well.
What evolved from there was a new philosophy which suggested that in order to increase
sales, companies needed also to understand the needs and behaviours of their consumers.
Not until then was marketing in its truest sense born. Marketing was now first and fore-
most about knowing the consumer and it is very likely that it is from this time that the term
“The Customer is King” was born (Creative Match, 2003).
However, up until now marketing have continuously separated between sender and re-
ceiver, companies have send their marketing messages, the consumer have received them
and acted upon the multitude of messages from different companies. The significance of
the consumer being the sender of the marketing message was minimal. Sure, there has always
been the impact of word-of-mouth, but its influence was still not powerful enough to gen-
erate a great concern for management. (Hill Holliday, 2007).
Fast forward to 2007, and we can now surely talk about the consumer as being the king.
The Internet connects billions of people across continents and people are actively group-
ing, discussing, reading, inventing, sharing and trading online. In an environment like this,
where people are unlimitedly connected with each other, word-of-mouth, or “word-of-

2
mouse” rather, has a completely new meaning. Blogs have on occasions destroyed com-
pany images, plummeted sales, and ruined entire organizations (Tremayne, 2007). Compa-
nies now have all the reasons in the world to worry about what people think about them,
and they do!
1.1 Background
In the modern society, consumers– just as well as companies, are senders of marketing
messages. Today, people influence other people’s buyer behavior perhaps even to a greater
extent than companies do.
On the other hand, this also means increased opportunities for companies as they too have
access to the World Wide Web and all its functions just like you and me. They can send
you personalized information in an instant and customize marketing messages based on
your Internet behavior. Companies, too, can utilize the power of blogs, websites, communi-
ties – you name it! The Internet opens up a whole new world of marketing opportunities in
this new age of interconnectedness.
Still, market changes that are occurring today are not only limited to the proliferation of the
web, but all kinds of new technologies of the 21
st
century are collectively challenging the
traditional market structures and they are continuously forming new conditions to act
upon. Here is an instant time machine in bullet points that will give you a glimpse of what
is happening:
• The difference between broadcast, cable and satellite will become irrelevant because
all screens will be connected to a single pipe that is now known as the Internet.
• DVRs (digital video recorders) as we know them will die out since all screens will
be powered by computers (read: have memory and web access) and all content will
be available on demand. Cell phones will become DVRs-on-the-go, their storage
capacity accommodating for thousands of programming hours.
• We will be moving from the rule of mass content to the rule of content communi-
ties as TV content recommendation technologies proliferate
• The mobile phone is not only a media consumption device; it’s also a content crea-
tion device.
• Consumers have moved from owning the means of content consumption to own-
ing the means of production and ultimately — the means of distribution.
• Nobody knows how a particular device can evolve, least of all its engineers. An
evolution of any medium is shaped by its users.
• If, in the early days of television, a celebrity was somebody who had done some-
thing notable, “A modern celebrity is someone who is recognized by more people
than he himself can recognize.” That’s from Gary Carter, Managing Director of
FremantleMedia that created American Idol, among other shows.

(Hill Holliday, 2007)


3

It is clear that we are moving towards a situation where the individual has an increasingly
powerful influence on the market and in which customization and personalization to the
needs of the consumer is key.
Here is what Professor Picard very well writes in the preface of the book; “Strategic Re-
sponses to Media Market Changes” (2004):
“The pace of these [market] changes is extraordinary, forcing managers, shareholders, and employees to
scramble to comprehend the changes, to develop strategic responses, and to reorganize their activities. The
process is complex and there is difficulty determining where to focus attention because no single force is be-
hind the changes. Instead pressures are coming from technological forces, production forces, market forces, so-
cial forces, and managerial forces simultaneously.”
New technologies are changing the role of traditional media: blogs are undermining news-
papers, DVRs are allowing viewers to rid themselves of commercials and to see shows
when it suits them the most, and P2P (peer to peer) sharing is revolutionizing the way we
access and consume music.
While consumers remain fundamental to the industry, their choices are subject to evolving menus in terms of
when, where and how they can consume (and pay for) content. Clearly, the pressure is on to find new and
better ways to operate in an environment marked by rapid and often unpredictable change. Although de-
regulation, acquisitions and an explosion of digital formats have widened the playing field and created nu-
merous opportunities, these developments are a cautionary tale for investors, who are less inclined to place
their faith in a single medium or a single product. This puts even more financial pressure on providers to
better target captive audiences.
- Transforming media and entertainment: The journey to on demand (2004), p. 1
1.2 Problem discussion
In today’s constant developing media environment people are subjected to messages more
than ever. Consumers are also using a variation of media channels to a much larger extent
than before. Developing media channels such as the Internet, broadband that facilitates
downloading, digital media and mobile phones have made information more or less trans-
parent (Robert G. Picard, personal communication, 2007-03-08).
Consumers have furthermore become more selective towards the information that is
heaped upon them and now have the option to choose which messages to pay more atten-
tion to and which not. With this new technology, they are in other words able to filter out
any information they perceive as irrelevant. For companies this means that the market has
now become a tougher environment and that intensified competition has made it more dif-
ficult than ever to communicate to consumers.
It is the perception of the authors of this thesis that companies today are like organisms
whose habitat is drastically changing and that evolvement is a prerequisite for continued
survival. Those who cannot fly will have to develop wings and those who cannot swim will
have to develop gills; companies that do not respond in some way to the transforming en-
vironment are most likely to join the Dinosaurs in extinction.

4
Based on these issues the authors of this thesis are therefore firstly interested in investigat-
ing what experts within this field believe will happen in the future, how consumer prefer-
ences and demand will change and how companies will evolve as a response to this. Ques-
tions that have to be answered are then;
1) What are the major changes that are occurring right now and in what direction are
they taking the media environment in regards to the future?
Having attained answers to the first question, the authors are then enlightened in the new
reality of companies, and they thus seek to discover how companies can be proactive in the
face of these challenges by asking themselves the second question;
2) What can companies do to readjust themselves to the changing market conditions,
and in what proactive manner could they, in this new reality, take action in order to
stay competitive and keep consumers satisfied.
1.3 Purpose
This thesis will investigate the modern media environment and its ongoing transformation,
and it aims to result in some guidance for how companies can evolve their market commu-
nication to keep up with the new digital world.
1.4 Dissecting the purpose
Even though the purpose is pretty straightforward there are several underlying dimensions
that can be uncovered when reading it more thoroughly. First of all, when looking at the
time frames of the purpose the reader can recognize that there is one present and one fu-
ture aspect of it. The term ”modern media environment” suggests something right now,
while the term ”…ongoing transformation…” also refers to something in the future. How-
ever, as ongoing transformations inevidently mean that something will be different further
down the road, it is accurate to conclude that the entire purpose is in fact very future ori-
ented.
Secondly, there is a duality to the purpose in the sense of that in order to attain some guid-
ance for how companies can evolve their market communication in the new digital world,
the authors must first investigate in what way the current media environment is transform-
ing. The purpose is thus double natured in regards to being about grasping the current me-
dia environment as well as its changes, and then finding out how companies can think and
act in response to them.
The authors will, here, also take the chance to clarify that what is meant by ”market com-
munication” in this thesis; it is simply all ways in which a company communicates with its
consumers. It is hence a very simple definition of the term and there will be no emphasis
made on explaining, discussing or further elaborating on it in the theoretical framework.
What is important is how market communication, as defined here, is affected by the
changes and how it beneficially could be adjusted in response to them, the term or theo-
retical concept of market communication itself, on the other hand, is not.

5
1.5 Disposition
The thesis begins with a theoretical framework with the primary purpose of investigating
what is going on in the media environment, special emphasis is made on the context of the
changes, the consumers and how companies are affected by the just mentioned, that is to
say; what their new reality looks like. The reader is introduced to a model of the entire un-
derlying assumption of the thesis, which basically is that companies are slower to react than
consumers in the face of the changing environment. This model, consisting of three parts,
then forms the composition of the theoretical framework as well as of the empirical find-
ings, which is in accordance with it.
The reader then moves on to the methodology of the thesis, where he or she will be intro-
duced to how the authors have carried out the study. The most significant section of this
part is where the authors explain that this is somewhat of a Delphi study. For now, let us
just say that this means that the study is very much based on experts. It will thus, in this
section, be evident that this is a rather different thesis.
The empirical findings are constituted of the authors’ interviews with the selected panel of
experts, and their thoughts will be presented in accordance with the composition of the
theoretical framework.














Having read the title, the two research questions and the purpose, the reader is already
aware of that this is a consultative thesis in which the authors try to gain understanding of
the specific subject, in order to be able to offer some concretely presented guidance for
how companies can act in the face of the changes in the media environment. Having that
said, this means that the analysis is based on the theoretical framework and the empirical
findings, not in the sense that it analyses a solution to a stated problem, which is the case
for a “normal” thesis, but rather in the sense that it builds upon it and enables the authors to
Figure 1:1; The Disposition of the Thesis

6
see what is really important, draw parallels and finally to provide something of value to
people who are affected by the subject of the thesis. Consequently, the first research ques-
tion, concerning the changes, is then answered by the theoretical framework as well as by
the empirical findings. The second, consultative, research question, concerning how com-
panies can think and act in response to them, is thus answered by the entire scope of the
thesis and the level of consultancy is subsequently increased as we reach deeper within it.













1.6 Target Readers
When writing this thesis, both authors have agreed to continuously visualize and keep three
particular readers in mind for which this thesis is particularly aimed. They are; the student, the
marketer and the manager. The student is perceived as the layman who merely seeks to learn
something valuable but also more specifically as the business student who in this thesis can
find a lot of new and insightful ideas that are not necessarily part of his or her conventional
studies, and that hopefully will give the student an edge. Keeping the student in mind has
promoted the authors to keep things as simple and pedagogical as possible.
Visualizing a marketing professional as a reader of the end result has encouraged the
authors to really contribute with an understanding of the current transformation of media
and how this could influence how the marketer works today.
Keeping the manager in mind has triggered the authors to try to make the thesis as valuable
and action-packed as possible in terms of inspiring managers to elevate their organizations
in accordance with what the future holds.
The authors have also experienced that the subject of this thesis seems to have a very
strong general appeal based on the positive reactions they have met from fellow students
during its making.

Figure 1:2; The Level of Consultancy

7
2 Underlying Assumptions

This section is neither theoretical nor empirical, it is rather a combination of the two in which the authors
theoretically support the underlying notions that they themselves, empirically, assume. Basically, the authors
believe that all research begins with intrinsic assumptions held by the researchers, thus, they here intend to
explain and motivate their own assumptions in regards to the subject of the thesis. However, it is not a mat-
ter of loosely formulated notions that the authors subconsciously suppose, it is rather a well-developed foun-
dation for why the authors believe that this thesis, along with its research questions, really matter.
2.1 The Big Picture
“Many good ideas now canonized as revolutions took decades to have impact. We are often reminded by
those mindful of history that canals, railways, and electrification did not appear overnight.”
- Chakravorti (2003) in the first page of his book; “The Slow Pace of Fast Change”

The current, quite dramatic changes in the global media environment are the point of de-
parture of this entire thesis, and the authors must admit that there is a sense of an underly-
ing assumption that these changes will have a significant and even revolutionizing effect on
how businesses communicate in their markets and on how society functions as a whole.
When putting things in contrast though, this is perhaps not something that one should un-
consciously assume. “Consider television”, Chakravorti (2003) says; “…the most ubiquitous of in-
novations, which took more than thirty years - from GE’s first TV program in 1928 to the 1960s – be-
fore becoming a true mass medium.” (The Slow Pace of Fast Change, p.1). Big changes in society
are indeed not something that occurs overnight, but nonetheless, technology and society
inevitably transform and the pace of this change –whatever it may be - is naturally subject
to variation. It took thirty years for Television to become a true mass medium, Chakravorti
(2003) states, but he also mentions that radio, on the other hand, experienced a much more
rapid spread.

Since the Internet has a central role in the changes that are studied in this thesis, let us take
a look on how fast and how widespread it’s usage actually is. Larry Landweber of the
Computer Science Department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, have cre-
ated some maps that suitably illustrate this matter. This first map shows the differential le-
vels of network connectivity in September 1991:








Figure 2:1; Map of International Connectivity, 1991, Scarponi, A. (2005)

8

The next map is from June 1997 and the vast proliferation after only six years is very evi-
dent:













Even though the last map shows how nearly the entire world is connected, it is still from
1997 and thus quite old. Nowadays the whole world is more or less considered to have In-
ternet access and it is instead the number of Internet users within each country that is stud-
ied. Antonio Scarponi (2005) has created an animated map of the world showing the
growth of Internet users from 1993 and predicted to 2015, the following map depicts the
predicted Internet usage 2015 and uses a cartogram representation where the size of the
country is based on the number of Internet users rather than the geographical area.










Figure 2:3: Internet Users World Map, 2015, Scarponi, A. (2005)
Figure 2:2; Map of International Connectivity, 1997, Scarponi A. (2005)

9

It is evident that the Internet is extremely widespread, and that its formation was quite ra-
pid, particularly in comparison with that of television which was discussed earlier. The
point here is that changes and evolvements in technology and society take place with vary-
ing paces and with varying effects. In the same reasoning, the authors believe that the
changes that are explored in this thesis will have a dramatic impact on how companies
communicate in their markets, how consumers retrieve information, communicate, buy
commodities and receive services in their daily lives. It can be discussed how long it will
take until there is a dramatic result on society as a result of the current changes; will it take
more than thirty years as in the case of television, or will it be faster as in the case of radio
and the Internet? However, it is much more important to realize that the changes are actu-
ally occurring, and that they are gradually imposing companies to respond as it was made
clear in the introduction of the thesis, and it is thus even more important to try to grasp the
changes and try to realize what they imply – which is exactly why the authors have dedi-
cated themselves to this thesis.
In the beginning of this section the authors admitted that there is an underlying assumption
that the changes studied here will have a significant and even revolutionizing affect on how
businesses communicate in their markets and on how society functions as a whole, but
when putting things in contrast, this is perhaps not something that one should uncon-
sciously assume. Nevertheless, the authors consciously chose to assume this and it is their as-
piration that the reasons for doing so will be evident to the reader, and also shared by him
or her, after having read the frame of reference.
2.2 The Matrix of Change
The very notion of change assumes that something is or will undergo transformation, and of
course, this something transforms within a certain context, or matrix, if you will. Logically,
this also means that there can be all kinds of variation between the change of the actual
thing that is changing, and the matrix in which it is changing, as nothing exists by itself. But
enough with the philosophy, the point here is that the changes studied in this thesis do not
occur by themselves, but in the matrix which is the entire market of companies and con-
sumers, actually – it is the matrix itself that is changing since the media environment is the
connective link between businesses and consumers and thus it is part of the context in
which they interact. Or to use an analogy; the matrix is the sea in which the business-fish
and consumer-fish are swimming. Before continuing, an illustration of this that will be de-
veloped further is well situated. In the following figure, the cube holding the bowl is a cer-
tain market of companies and consumers, and this cube, or market rather, exists in a matrix
that is the environment of the entire market. In this thesis, the matrix is more particularly
the media environment that consists of all communication channels between companies and
consumers, and it is this that is changing.






10















Let us return to the reasoning in the beginning of this section where the authors logically
deducted that there can be variation between the change of the actual thing that is chang-
ing, and the matrix in which it is changing. Other ways of expressing this more pedagogi-
cally would be to say that it could be either the consumers that change, and thus compel a
response where the companies also change and which consequently means that the entire
matrix changes. It could also reversely be that companies change through for example de-
veloping new technology, which would lead to that consumers adapt to this and change,
which again, leads to that the entire matrix changes. Another possibility, which is the case
of this study, is instead that the matrix changes and imposes reactions from both consumers
and companies. It should be added that when the entire matrix changes it is, of course, a
result of that other constituting parts of the matrix change; these parts are the units that are
driving the developments of the media environment through creating new technologies
and so forth. However, the authors would like to avoid making this thesis more advanced
than necessary so let us leave it at that.
If the matrix is changing, the variation then occurs in how consumers and companies re-
spond to these changes and/or how quickly they respond to them. It can be fairly con-
cluded that consumers are quicker to respond to changes in the matrix, and that companies
are slower in this regard due to their large composition and inertia. However, let us theo-
retically clarify this.
Ahrne & Papakostas (2001) say “inertia means that organizations change slowly and unwillingly and
along tracks that are already laid out through the collective resources of the organization involved” (Inertia
and Innovation, p. 4). Further, they use the argument of Hannan and Freeman (1989) to
explain that the collective resources are designed and accumulated to do certain things and
thus changes in activities could mean a waste of resources.
Figure 2:4; The Market Matrix Model

11

Another source of inertia is simply the inability to perceive new things or even a need for
change. Organizations learn to report and handle certain kinds of information and not oth-
ers, and they are only able to handle and transmit parts of this information within the orga-
nization (Ahrne & Papakostas, 2001). This is why they to a certain extent are blind towards
what is going on in their environment, which adds to the tendency towards inertia. On the
basis of the mentioned presumptions, it can be safely assumed that companies are slower
to assimilate to changes in the matrix. Although, it is pretty straightforward that it is much
easier for individual consumers to adapt to a newly available technology as opposed to an
entire company that have to go through a lot of fuzz just in order to even slightly change
its ways.
So far, we have learned that it is the matrix that is changing and that consumers are faster
in responding to these changes. If reading it analytically, the same conclusions could be de-
ducted from the introduction of the thesis as it fundamentally expressed how companies
are being forced to adapt and evolve due to the changing behavior of consumers.
Returning to the Market Matrix model, let us now add the aspect of change to it and also
try to involve the notion of that consumers are faster to responding to the changes that we
just have discussed. In the following figure, change is represented by orange and it is evi-
dent how the matrix is changing and how consumers already to a great extent have assimi-
lated to these changes, while companies are slower to react.

















= CHANGE
Figure 2:5; The Market Matrix and Change Model

12

When we now continue further into the theoretical framework, bear in mind that the
changes you will read about are occurring in this matrix in which companies and consum-
ers exist and interact. After investigating the changes occurring in the matrix, the authors
will approach the matter through looking at how consumers are changing. As it was im-
plied earlier, the important thing is not that the media environment is changing, but that
these changes are altering the way consumers behave, since they respond to them faster,
and that this consequently imposes companies to adapt and act in accordance with this,
that is if they want to remain- or become increasingly successful. Finally, the authors will
thus investigate how companies are faced with new challenges and how they are becoming
increasingly enforced to evolve in response to the changes.
























13
3 Theoretical Framework

This section has as its main purpose to explore, grasp, and clarify the changes that are occurring in the me-
dia environment right now. As usual, the authors start off big before going into details and in order to really
put things in context they developed a model, which you were introduced to in the previous section, that de-
picts the entire underlying notion of the theoretical framework. This model is here discussed one part at a
time, beginning with the context of the transformations and moving on to how consumers are behaving differ-
ently as a result of them, and finally arriving at a discussion of how companies are affected by all of the pre-
vious.
3.1 The Change of the Matrix
The previous header was called ”The Matrix of Change” and it described how consumers
and companies are part of the same context, this heading is instead called ”The Change of
the Matrix” and we will now discover the ways in which this context is changing.
Do you remember the time machine from the introduction, which in bullet points gave us
a glimpse of what is happening? It was said that the difference between broadcast, cable
and satellite will become irrelevant because all screens will be connected to a single pipe,
which is the Internet. DVRs as we know them will die out since all screens will be powered
by computers and all content will be available on demand. Cell phones will become DVRs-
on-the-go with storage capacity accommodating for thousands of programming hours. We
will be moving from the rule of mass content to the rule of content communities as TV
content recommendation technologies proliferate. It was also said that consumers have
moved from owning the means of content consumption to owning the means of produc-
tion and ultimately — the means of distribution. (Hill Holliday, 2007).
This is a quick glimpse of what is going on in the media environment today, now, we will
move on to more deeply examining the major technological advancements of the informa-
tion age.

3.1.1 Digitization and Convergence
Digitization refers to the process of all electronic transmission and storage of information
becoming digital (Ruefli, Whinston & Wiggins, 2001). To put it in simpler words, it is the
transformation from analog to digital. Here is an explanation of the difference: ”As a tech-
nology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (in most cases, the human voice) and trans-
lating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where
the audio or video data is represented by a series of ’1’s and ’0’s” (Hellodirect.com, 2007). For exam-
ple, television signals used to be analog, which means that they were in the form of the
transmission of electronic waves. Today, however, television is being digitized especially
with the commercial debut of high definition television, which relies on the transmission of
digital signals (TVtechnology.com, 2007). Another example is the cellular phone. When
they first were introduced, cellular phones depended on analog transmission, but now they
also rely on the transmission of digital signals (Hosoda et. al., 1999). Perhaps the most fa-
miliar example of the analog to digital shift is in recorded music. Vinyl records and audio
tapes were both analog and have been almost exclusively replaced by CD’s, which are digi-
tal (Ruefli et. al., 2001).

14
Convergence is a broader sense of digitization and it brings together all major electronic
media: television, computers, video, and audio (Ruefli et. al., 2001). The first bullet point of
the time machine above said that ”The difference between broadcast, cable and satellite will
become irrelevant because all screens will be connected to a single pipe that is now known
as the Internet.”, this is basically what convergence means. WebTV sets can access the In-
ternet on the same appliance that is used to view TV programs, and you can also in many
cases watch television on your computer (Ruefli et. al., 2001).
Not only are electronic media coming together to a single pipe, but another sense of con-
vergence is the coming together of information delivery formats such as books, newspa-
pers, magazines, movies, television shows, radio shows, electronic games and Web sites.
Ruefli, Whinston and Wiggins (2001) continue to say ”as digital convergence takes place, the
boundaries between these formats are beginning to blur. Web pages with text, data, streaming audio and
video as well as animation and scrolling news or weather – all interactive – represent a format that defies
traditional categories.” (Digital Marketing, p.48).
3.1.2 The Economics of the Information Age
The economic forces of the information-based society differ from the economic relation-
ships that dominated the agricultural and industrial sectors of the economy. It is thus im-
portant to know about them due to that the management principles that have previously
worked in those economies do no necessarily work in the information society of today
(Ruefli et. al., 2001).
3.1.2.1 Network Externalities
Tirole (1994) says that ”Positive network externalities arise when a good is more valuable to a user the
more users adopt the same good or compatible ones.” (The Theory of Industrial Organization, p.
350). Hence, network externalities exist when the value of a good or service is at least in
part a function of the number of people who use it (Ruefli et. al, 2001). This is a distinct
feature of information technology goods and services. Think about your word processing
program for example, the more people that use it the more attractive it is going to be for a
potential buyer. Why? First of all, there is an increase in the value due to that you can ex-
change documents with other people that use the same word processor, and it is then of
course better the more people you can swap with. Another factor is that the more people
use your word processor, the more third-part applications are there going to be for it, such
as enhancing add-in programs or additional training materials.
Now, what does this mean? It means that some strategies that would be unthinkable in the
agricultural and the industrial economy are not only desirable but sometimes necessary for
being successful in the information economy. For example, as you are aware of, when surf-
ing the Web there are a lot of things you can get for free, Web browsers, games and all
kinds of software, this strategy of giving away unlimited amounts of your product would
only lead to bankruptcy in either the agricultural or industrial economy. In the information
society, on the other hand, it is a vital strategy because, just as mentioned above, the more
people that use your product the better it is. This is what network externalities (read: the
economic effects of networks) signify.



15
3.1.2.2 Increasing Returns to Scale
Increasing returns to scale arise in the information economy because of the phenomenon
of high fixed costs and very low variable costs (Ruefli et. al., 2001). Let us use your com-
puters’ operating system as an example, whether it be Windows Vista or Mac OS Leopard,
it takes a huge amount of resources and capital over a long period of time to create it and
thus it has a very high fixed cost, but when it has been developed – that’s it, it can then
cheaply be copied and distributed allover the world.
Now, combine this with the inherent network externality of the Internet in the sense of a
large installed base with low distribution costs, and you realize how each succeeding copy
sold yields an increased margin – allowing lower prices and higher total returns (Ruefli et.
al., 2001).
3.1.2.3 Path Dependence
According to traditional economic theory, the best technology, product or service will win
out inferior competitors eventually (Ruefli et. al., 2001). Arthur (1994) has instead devel-
oped a theory which suggests that an inferior technology, product or service may win out
because of the sequence of decisions that consumers make in what would be a path de-
pendant situation.
If this theory is true, it means that managers must evaluate whether to quickly bring an
adequate product to the market, or whether to wait and introduce a better product based
on superior technology. Path dependence would imply that the former strategy is better
due to the fact that even though a competitor later on introduces a superior technology, it
can be too late if your product already has gained foothold in the market. Actually, we have
seen indications of path dependence through history in the example of the battle of video
formats. Sony's Betamax video standard was introduced in 1975, shortly followed by JVC's
VHS. The two standards battled for dominance for an entire decade, with VHS eventually
emerging as the winner (Mediacollege.com, 2007). Consider the following excerpt:
”The victory was not due to any technical superiority (Betamax is arguably a better format), but to several
factors…The commonly-held belief is that the technically superior Betamax was beaten by VHS through
slick marketing…It is certainly true that VHS machines were initially much simpler and cheaper to ma-
nufacture, which would obviously be an attraction to companies deciding which standard to back.”
(www.mediacollege.com/video/format/compare/betamax-vhs.html, 2007-05-8).
Even though Sony’s betamax was introduced earlier, the victory of VHS still points to path
dependence due to that it was backed by more companies. (We are seeing the same thing
happening now with the battle between Toshiba’s HD-DVD and Sony’s technologically
superior Blu-Ray Discs, although a winner has not yet been crowned.)
You have probably already figured out that both network externalities and increasing re-
turns to scale, which were the two previous notions, have a lot to do with the reinforce-
ment of path dependence in a market.
3.1.2.4 Lock-In
Lock-in could be considered an extreme form of path dependence and it means that certain
choices with respect to technologies are, for all practical purposes, irreversible (Arthur,
1989, in Ruefli et. al., 2001). What this implies is basically that once a majority of consum-
ers have decided on a particular format, it eliminates the possibility of a new and even bet-
ter technology to be introduced. The QWERTY keyboard which is the layout all comput-

16
ers use today was first designed to slow typists down to prevent them from writing faster
than what the mechanical systems could handle. Even though this is no longer a factor for
today’s fast computers, the QWERTY layout still remains in use and it is practically unchal-
lenged.
What all these notions end up in is what Frank & Cook (1996) call the ”Winner-take-all Soci-
ety”(Title of their book) where it is about gaining the most support and usage of your prod-
uct rather than having the best one.
However, Baumol (1982) mention that information economy markets are generally con-
testable markets which means that they have low entry barriers, and that the rapid pace of
technological developments can dethrone incumbents through new products and services.
Finally, Ruefli et. al. (2001) add that ”as computers, media, telecommunications, and so on, come to-
gether, new potential competitors enter the fray, increasing the threats to the incumbent winner” (Digital
Marketing, p. 37).
3.1.3 Communication Technologies
As the authors have previously stated the matrix is the context in which consumers and
companies interact, let us now investigate more specifically some of the technologies that
now lie within it.
3.1.3.1 Pull vs. Push
There are basically two ways to receive information, either you actively seek it or it is given
to you. If you are browsing the Web pages on the Internet, for example, this is considered
to be a ”pull” technology because you are the one who actively seek information. Receiving
e-mails is, on the other hand, a ”push” technology since you are given information by an-
other part without necessarily asking for it (Ruefli et. al., 2001).
3.1.3.2 The Internet
There has been a lot of talk about the Internet in this thesis, let us now once for all define
it for those who do not entirely understand its’ technology. The Internet is a worldwide sy-
stem of computer networks that uses communication protocols called TCP/IP, now, you
have probably heard these combinations of letters many times but here is what they stand
for: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. While browsing the Web, you can
often click yourself beyond the current site and on to another site, where you once again
can click yourself further in an unlimited extent (after all, this is why it is called the ”web”),
what enables this is HTML language which stands for Hyper Text Markup Language and it
is employed by the part of the Internet called the World Wide Web (Ruefli et. al., 2001).
For more information about the Internet and how it works; Google it!
3.1.3.3 Streaming Audio and Video
Traditional techniques for receiving multimedia over the Internet required that you first
download the content, and not until the completion of the download could you watch or
listen to it (Ruefli et. al., 2001). Nowadays, however, you can watch or listen to content on
the Internet at the same time as you are receiving it, this is what is called ”streaming” (Rue-
fli et. al., 2001). It implies major benefits in regards to not having to wait and it generally
enriches the experience of the Internet, making it more vibrant and dynamic.

17
3.1.3.3.1 YouTube
YouTube is a video streaming site owned by GOOGLE, it grows by an addition of 65 000
new videos every day and over 100 million video clips are watched each day by people all-
over the world (Dagens Teknik, 2007-05-2). The videos can easily be forwarded to friends
over the Internet but recently, however, the videos are being increasingly forwarded to cell
phones as well.
YouTube is an extremely huge community where members upload, view, forward, save and
comment on video clips in virtually all possible topics. This enormous reach has, of course,
attracted businesses to join the network and even the United States Army has recently
started to use YouTube for uploading videos from the war in Iraq (Svenska Dagbladet,
2007-05-9). See appendix B for illustrations of the YouTube interface.
3.1.3.3.2 Joost
Joost is a new computer based, ad financed television service that differs from YouTube in
the sense that all material is straightly from the content producers which resolves any copy-
right issues. On YouTube, on the other hand, many members upload recorded content
from other sources, such as movies or TV shows, which can cause copyright issues with
the original content producer and/or provider (Erlandsson, 2007).
Regarding the interface, Joost operates on full screen and the user can switch between
channels just as with regular television. Rather than running directly on the Web browser,
like YouTube, Joost is instead installable software available for both Mac OS and Win-
dows. The creators are the same two guys behind Kazaa (P2P music sharing portal) and
Skype; the successful Internet telephony project, Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis (E24
Näringsliv, 2007-05-6). The software is not completely finished but a beta version is avail-
able through invitation and one of the authors has managed to receive one, which allows us
to show you some screenshots of the interface in appendix C.
3.1.3.3.3 MySpace
MySpace.com, which was launched less than two years ago, is the fifth ranked web domain
in terms of page views (comScore, 2007). It integrates web profiles, blogs, instant messag-
ing, e-mail, music downloads, photo galleries, classified listings, events, groups, chat rooms,
and user forums, and MySpace.com has thus created a connected community where users
put their lives online (NewsCorp.com, 2007). Here is a quote from a press release by com-
Score - a measurer of the digital world, in September 27, 2006:
“MySpace fares particularly well in U.S. user engagement. The site ranks first among all sites in individ-
ual video streams initiated by U.S. users with nearly 1.5 billion streams, which represented 20 percent of
all videos streamed by U.S. Internet users in July. The typical U.S. streamer on MySpace initiated an av-
erage of 39 streams during the course of the month, or slightly more than one per day.”
(http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=1015, 2007-05-24)
Take a look at the MySpace interface in appendix D.
3.1.3.4 RSS
RSS (Rich Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication) is a format for delivering regularly
changing web content. Many news-related sites, weblogs and other online publishers syndi-
cate their content as an RSS Feed to whoever wants it (WhatisRSS.com, 2007).

18
RSS solves a problem for regular users of the web. It allows you to easily stay informed by
retrieving the latest content from the sites you are interested in, you thus save time by not
needing to visit each site individually and you ensure your privacy by not needing to join
each site's email newsletter (WhatisRSS.com, 2007).
3.1.3.5 Webcasting
What in the physical world is called broadcasting is in the Internet known as Webcasting.
Using streaming technology that we recently mentioned, content producers such as radio
stations and television stations can Webcast their programs over the Internet (Ruefli et. al.,
2001).
3.1.3.6 Podcasting
Podcasting is quickly becoming a buzzword today and it simply implies online audio con-
tent that is delivered through an RSS feed. Many people describe podcasting as radio on
demand. However, podcasting gives significantly more options in terms of content than
radio does. In addition, with Podcasting, listeners can determine the time and the place,
meaning they decide what programming they want to receive and when they want to listen
to it (Podcasting-tools.com, 2007).
3.1.3.7 Blogs
Blogs, or weblogs as they also are called, can be defined as frequent, chronological publica-
tions of personal thoughts and Web links (MarketingTerms.com, 2007). Wright (2006)
writes that:
”The most powerful thing about blogging isn’t the technology; it’s this massive community driving the ’blo-
gosphere’. With millions of bloggers expressing their thoughts, experiences, and information they’ve learned
in their fields of interest, this medium has become a worldwide forum. Part of this conversation may be
about your company, which can be good news or bad. The worst news, however, would be if none of the mil-
lions of voices out there were talking about your company or its products.” (Blog Marketing, p. 3)
The huge blog portal ”Technorati” has presently counted up to 71 million blogs worldwide
and there are indications that the blogosphere currently doubles in size every six months
(E-consultancy.com, 2007). See appendix A for more interesting blog statistics.
3.1.3.8 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing
In the early days of networked personal computers, they were connected to each other in a
P2P configuration with one computer acting as a server for a number of computers or ”cli-
ents”, rather (Ruefli et. al., 2001). This was mostly done in order to share files or scarce re-
sources such as printers in company or a school computer lab, for example. Today, how-
ever, we have the same server-client structure across the entire Web and each separate
computer can act as a server as well as being a client, this consequently implies a significant
decentralization of the Internet. Digital information can be shared between people allover
the world in a way which is practically impossible to control and this is subject of contro-
versy today, with both the music and the movie industry taking legal action to try to pre-
vent their productions from freely circulating the web without compensation for their part.

19
3.1.4 Mobile Internet
Earlier, you read about audio and video streaming and the authors stated that it generally
enriches the experience of the Internet, making it more vibrant and dynamic, however,
streaming technology not only enriches the Internet but it may also be the strongest force
for significantly extending the Internet to cell phones. An article in the major Swedish bu-
siness paper ”Affärsvärlden” (Issue No. 17, 25 April 2007) states that internet traffic has
increased significantly much due to the growing popularity of video streaming sites such as
YouTube, and it speculates that this popularity will spill over to the telecommunications
sector. When you can browse the Web on your cell phone just as you do on your com-
puter, the barriers are gone, and the article mentions Australia, Japan and South Korea as
examples where young people already are walking the streets watching YouTube clips on
their cell phones. In the book ”E-Merging Media” Zerdick, Picot, Schrape, Burgelman, Sil-
verstone, Feldman, Wernick & Wolff (2005) categorize this type of technology as a ”dis-
ruptive technology” , here is an illuminating excerpt from their book:
”Different types of technologies and markets lead to differences in the evolution of the designs and market
concepts. In many cases, the lead users of the old technology are the initial users of the new technology and
thus define the evolution of the designs and market concepts…On the other hand; a special class of technolo-
gies called disruptive technologies operates differently. These technologies improve some aspects of product per-
formance while sacrificing others…” (p. 97-98)
They then continue to explain that mobile Internet involves a trade-off between reach
(portability) and richness (small screens and keyboards), where the latter is sacrificed for
higher reach and mobility. Zerdick et. al. (2005), just as the article in Affärsvärlden previ-
ously mentioned, use Japan as an example where the mobile Internet really has gained foot-
hold.
3.1.4.1 M-Commerce
MobileInfo.com (2007-05-09) defines m-commerce as "any electronic transaction or information
interaction conducted using a mobile device and mobile networks that leads to transfer of real or perceived
value in exchange for information, services or goods. " They continue to name a few typical exam-
ples of m-commerce:
• Purchasing airline tickets
• Purchasing movie tickets
• Restaurant booking and reservation
• Hotel booking and reservation
In an article found in the E-commerce Times (2007-04-30), Burger writes that as voice,
data, wired and wireless telecommunications converge, conditions are looking better for
the extension of e-commerce to mobile, or m-commerce, in markets allover the world.
Most interestingly, he quotes the CTO of Air2Web, Dale Gonzalez, who says that ”If you
count cell phone ringtone and wallpaper downloads as m-commerce, you're talking about billions of dol-
lars…If you throw in revenue associated with actual buying of other goods using the cell phone ... then the
estimates are all over the board. The reality is probably very little money is getting made, but that's where
the potential is."

20
If we really stretch our creativity and try to imagine the possibilities of m-commerce be-
yond, for example, downloading ring tones and wallpapers, this leads us to the next notion
of wireless advertising.
3.1.4.2 Wireless Advertising
Kennedy (2001) of Information Today (January, Volume 18, Issue 1) explains the possibili-
ties of mobile Internet using the following examples:
“Say you are driving down the freeway. As you approach an exit, your wireless phone is suddenly deluged
by come-ons from fast food restaurants that are located just off the exit ramp. Or you’re in an unfamiliar
city on a business trip, you have time to kill after your meeting, and you feel like browsing in a book-
store.Your cell phone can provide you with the location of the closest Barnes & Noble.” (From ”A
Trendmeister’s Technology Forecast”, http://www.infotoday.com/it/jan01/kennedy.htm)
MobileInfo.com (2007) says that, without doubt, the advertising industry is extremely ex-
cited about the idea of reaching high-income earners anywhere and everywhere for pro-
moting the products and services of its sponsors, and that wireless internet makes this
technically possible.
As you might already have thought, wireless advertising could mean an intrusion of per-
sonal privacy and a cause of unwanted spam. This is why they at MobileInfo.com also be-
lieve that it is reasonable for the industry to give an option to consumers to
*
opt-in for re-
ceiving advertising messages in certain specified circumstances, which means that they
would have to ask consumers for permission before on a push-basis, as previously dis-
cussed, send advertising messages to the consumer. They continue to say, ”the key principle
here is that the control (if, when and how) is entirely and completely in the hands of the consumer.”
(www.mobileinfo.com/Hot_Topics/Wireless_Advertising.htm, 2007-05-9).
3.2 Consumer Behavior
In the preface of the book “Consumer Behavior and Culture: consequences for global
marketing and advertising”, Mooij (2004) defines consumer behavior as:
“The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products,
services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires”.
In this definition the consumer behavior is perceived as a process where factors that influ-
ence the consumer before, during and after a purchase is included (Mooij, 2004). Solomon
(2004) agrees to this definition and explains further by saying that consumer behavior is an
ongoing process, not merely the moment when a purchase is placed and the consumer pays
for the good or service, it is an continuous interaction between the consumer and the pro-
ducer.
The question to be asked is why advertisers, managers and other professionals within mar-
keting should care about the behavior of consumers. The answer is that in order to fulfill
consumers’ need, a basic marketing concept, marketers’ need to have a good understanding
of the specific consumer. What determines if the consumer need is fulfilled to the outmost
extent and if the marketing strategy is a success is the consumer response. How consumers
respond is highly influenced by actions taken by marketers (Solomon, 2004).
In today’s society marketing stimuli surrounds us in stores, on advertisement displays, in
newspaper and magazines, messages with the help of music, on TV and of course the in-
*
The words “opt-in” and “opt-out” are going to reappear in the thesis and we thus offer a brief explanation here. Opt-in is when a
company, as you probably have experienced, asks for your permission to send you e-mails of interest or let you know when something
that you are interested in will be available again, for example. “Opt-out” is simply the opposite; when you delete yourself from a mail-
ing list or prohibit a company to contact you without permission, for example.

21
ternet. With the available technology the numbers of ways marketers can reach consumers
are many (Solomon, 2004).
3.2.1 Moving from Mass Production to Customization
Before, in the industrial age, consumers shaped their expectations accordingly to what
technology had to offer. They were then more willing and accepted the fact that some
product where only offered in a limited number, colors and so forth (Gunther, Mahajan &
Wind, 2002). During this period of time, consumers were offered one-of-a-kind items that
were available in a small quantity and consumers were given unique products matching
their exact need. In the late 1980s the era of mass customization was born and companies
could produce products on a large scale and at the same time customize them (Crow &
Shanteau, 2005; in Haugvedt, Machleit & Yalch, 2005). Thus with more options available,
and consumers who wanted products that reflected their personality, customization was a
fact (Gunther, Mahajan & Wind, 2002). Customization delivers a value that is more than
just quality and innovation, it is all about adapting and varying the product based on the
specific needs and requirement of each individual consumer (Sheth, 2001).
Along with the mass customization and the improved technology came not only more al-
ternatives for the consumers, but also possibilities for companies to be more efficient.
When this shift became a fact much of the focus what placed on the manufacturing tech-
nology and not the customized marketing. As the market evolved, the focus changed from
impersonal transactions between companies and consumers to close relationships (Gun-
ther, Mahajan & Wind, 2002). When the level of consumer involvement of products made
increased companies did not have to guess what the consumers actually needed and wanted
anymore. They were moreover decreasing their inventory of finished products and saved
money by not marketing the different product ranges (Crow & Shanteau, 2005; in
Haugvedt, Machleit & Yalch, 2005). With the changes on the markets new challenges as
well as opportunities arose having new tools available. Tools for making decisions, search-
ing for information and so forth changed the relationship between the consumer and the
company. Examples of some of the changes are shifts in purchase power, removing asym-
metric information, and questioning the present business models (Gunther, Mahajan &
Wind, 2002).
However, as Mohr, Sengupta & Slater (2006) moreover discuss, today’s’ traditional tools
and techniques when conducting marketing research such as surveys, focus groups and test
markets, are not enough to gain a deeper insight into the needs of consumers. In order to
understand the evolving markets and the rapidly changing markets consumers should be
observed instead of simply asking them questions regarding their habits. The authors fur-
ther suggests empathic design which focuses on understanding the consumers needs
through empathy with it and its surroundings. This enables companies to gain a deeper un-
derstanding of the consumer and its environment, be updated on the future development
of the environment and try to determine future needs that can be satisfied with innovation.
Mohr, Sengupta & Slater (2006) also state that companies often share a predictable knowl-
edge of who their consumers are, what their values are and how the company should com-
pete on the market. The more they share this knowledge the more difficult it will be for
them to differentiate themselves on the markets. In addition to this they end up competing
on the basis of improvements in quality and/or costs. That is why, in order for managers
to create new market space, there is a need to have a new approach towards the process of

22
market learning. If manager learn to work across the market boundaries they will find these
markets and opportunities to guide consumers instead of simply following them.
3.3 Convergence & the Converging Consumer
As stated by Gunther, Mahajan & Wind (2002), with the today’s technology, consumers
have more possibilities and alternatives to chose from than ever before. In comparison to
how it used to be with marketers producing for a large market, consumers nowadays can
design their own customized products. The authors further state that there are different
types of consumers, those who want a standardized product and those that prefer custom-
ized and other times both. Gunther, Mahajan & Wind (2002) presents three examples of a
consumer:
1) A traditional consumer:
“I agree with Henry. Give me a break with all these options already. I’ve got places to go. I just want to
walk into the dealer and pick out a car I like. There are enough standard offerings to satisfy me. Besides, I
happen to like black.”
2) The cyber consumer:
“Get with it, Henry. I’d like to design my own car from the ground up, mix my own color so it matches my
eyes and have my name and family coat of arms on the hood instead of your name and corporate logo. By the
way, I want it now. Got it?”
3) The centaur:
“The answer is not black and white. Sometimes I want to roll up my sleeves and design the product and
other times I want you to recommend a set of options. Like a dinner in an expensive restaurant, I’d like to
see the menu and wine list, but then ask the waiter what he recommends. I want customization when I
know what I want and when it is important to me. Otherwise, I’ll keep buying off the shelf. I want both
customized and standardized products”.
- Convergence Marketing: Strategies for Reaching the New Hybrid Consumer, p.64 - 65
According to Mooij (2004) as people around the world are becoming more wealthy and
better educated, their consumer taste also diverge. The theory of convergence discusses the
fact that along with industrialization and modernization nations are becoming more and
more alike. This even though there are historical, economical, political and cultural differ-
ences between them. Bohlin (2000) defines convergence as blurry borders between com-
puting, media and telecoms. He also adds that at the same time as competition increases
due to the standardized boundaries, the need for cooperation is also created through con-
vergence. However, as market players will with time become more and more aware of the
consumers needs, defining convergence will become less important.
Convergence benefits both the consumers as well as the producer. For example an increase
in purchasing power, the development of global media and advances in telecommunication
technologies are aspects of consumer behavior due to convergence. Aspects brought up
when it comes to convergence in marketing are an increase in demand for convenience and
health products, an increase in buying of services, convergence of distribution systems and
convergence of expenditures in advertising (Mooij, 2004).
In addition taken the fact that convergence takes place on different levels; technology,
business/industry and service levels, it opens door for both the consumer and the pro-

23
ducer. Example of the level of technology digitalisation has made it possible for different
devices and different networks to carry out similar functions. It also enables what used to
be separated traditional sectors to enter each other’s areas. Digitalisation interconnects
wireless, cable TV, satellite, telephone and so forth in one system, which in turn makes
joint services possible. With this we are able to make telephone calls from our televisions,
watch television on our PCs and download movies from the phone lines in our home.
From the business level perspective convergence appear in the form of alliances and merg-
ers between market actors, which would have been unthinkable just 10 years ago. The last
and final one of convergence is the service level where new ranges of services are offered.
This includes information services, interactive entertainment and electronic commerce. In
other words, as expressed by Bohlin (2000) it is a large demonstration of many technolo-
gies brought together as a new medium, which in turn widens the borders.
3.3.1 Converging to the End Consumer
Bohlin (2000) states that in order for convergence to be successful, consumers have to be
the center of attention or be the driving force of development. This so that consumer value
is created and work is concentrated towards that. In addition to this the possibilities of
what consumers can do with technology also has to be enhanced. With this in mind con-
sumers will benefit through the wide range of choices of platform-independent services
available at a lower cost. This so that consumer value is created and work is concentrated
towards that.
In addition to this, the possibilities of what consumers can do with technology also has to
be enhanced. With this in mind consumers will benefit through the wide range of choices
of platform-independent services available at a lower cost. However, even though personal-
ized services are more easily accessible, convenient and possibly cheaper than the tradi-
tional services, consumers are not all won over that easily. Factors such as trust, loyalty and
branding is something that the author believes has to be established to a further extent to
gain the consumers confident when dealing with online exchange. Intelligent agents will
come to play an important role when acting as intermediaries helping consumers find the
products wanted at the best price. For middlemen and smaller local retailers this is bad
news since consumer will not need their services anymore that instead will go to the com-
panies offering low cost products due to the economics of scale. The author finalize the
discussion by stating that as it becomes easier to compare prices intermediaries will turn
towards offering consumers services and value more in the form of convenience, complete
offerings and quality.
3.4 Media’s Impact on the Consumer
According to Aksoy, Bhatnagar & Malkoc (2004) cited in Schrum (2004), the need for
companies to find new ways of reaching the consumer has made them gain interest in using
non-traditional ways of communicating to the consumer. The convergence of persuasion
trough commercials and entertainment media is one solution, which Aksoy et. al. (2004; in
Schrum, 2004) identifies as a blurry communication. Sponsors pay for hidden messages
that are placed in the features entertainment. Blurred communications have mostly been
placed in movies and television programmes, now however it is also used in books, news-
papers, music, magazines and so forth. Based on this fact the interest in product placement
has increased enormously between researchers and practitioners of marketing.

24
Aksoy et. al. (2004; in Schrum, 2004) furthermore argue that when the long-term survival
of companies is at stake, they work only towards making the consumers aware of, inter-
ested in and finally accepting the offer. Therefore the companies, given the circumstances
with high competitive environment, they shower consumers with persuasive messages in
order to create, strengthen and change the attitudes and behaviour towards purchase. For
the companies to get their message out to the consumer there are a number of available
medias to use such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers and many more. In addition
to this, the strength of the message, the credibility of source and media used, how the mes-
sage match the content, receivers involvement and so on will in turn have an affect on the
memory, forming of attitudes and persuasion of the consumer.
As Lewis, Phelps & Raman (2005; in Haugtvedt, Machleit, & Yalch, 2005) states it is clear
that marketers who used to be in the center of marketing communication are now replaced
by consumers and where information flow is now more freely shared between the relations
of consumer to consumer, from consumer to business and from business to consumer.
The largest of these groups and the most amount of is the consumer-to-consumer group
since so many people today have access to the Internet. This in turn is of great benefit for
marketers who can customize and develop their messages towards the consumers who then
share these with one another.
There are many predictions of what the future holds when it comes to online advertise-
ment. When comparing different types of media there are benefits in favour of them all. As
Plessis (2005) discuss, print media has the benefit for consumers in the sense that they have
an unlimited amount of time to read the advertisement in a newspaper and the possibility
to save it and bring it out on a later occasion. The down side to this though is that the con-
sumer can also decide to spend no time what so ever reading the advertisement. The
author also says that television has some great benefits by having advertisement, which in-
cludes movement and sound. The consumer cannot however store these to look them later
and they are not able to determine the rate at which they chose to watch them. The third
and last one Plessis (2005) discuss is the benefits with Internet advertising. These are that
the medium includes both print as well as television advertisement. To what extent con-
sumers take in these advertisements though is an important determinant. Another one is
the amount of time a consumer spend in front of the computer and how used they are to
for example banners.
3.4.1 The Cyber Consumer
According to Haugvedt & Roehm (1999; in Schumann, 1999) marketing communication
on the Web is beneficial for both the marketers as well as consumers based on the interac-
tion that is formed between the consumer and the web site. They also state that the World
Wide Web is, in comparison to other communication channels, a relatively new one. It of-
fers people to search the web for everything from entertainment, commercial exchange, in-
formation and sense of community and business have responded to this medium very
quickly. The reason to why the Web is so successful, as further claimed by Haugvedt &
Roehm (1999; in Schumann, 1999), is that it has a high level of interaction where people
control what type of information they want to see, the number of times, the amount of
time spent in doing so and in an order chosen.
Consumers also benefit from using the Web by searching for information concerning
products and services of their interest without so much as leaving their homes. They can at
the same time choose what advertisement they want to ignore or what type of advertise-

25
ment that interests them. Consumers can furthermore control the content of information
that is available and offered to them as well as search for competitor’s offerings and com-
pare information with low cost and time invested to it (Roehm & Haugvedt, 1999; in
Schumann, 1999).
Ever since the commercial uses of Internet in 1994 came about, consumers are on a daily
basis subjected to product advertising on the Internet. Along with an increase of the
amount of banners, commercial emails and buttons, the communication between consum-
ers is also increasing to a far extent. In turn this shared information online helps consumers
to influence each other and product purchases (Boush & Kahle, 2005, in Haugvedt,
Machleit & Yalch, 2005).
Mitchell & Valenszuela (2005; in Haugvedt, Machleit & Yalch, 2005) explains that Internet
advertising differs from traditional advertising in the sense that it more customized and that
it does not disturb the consumers, as much and it can be a sales efficient way tracking via
click-through rates. However, they also state that click-through rates (the number of times
you click on a banner) are low and consumers have, just as with regular type of advertising,
learned how to avoid looking at these. Although it may have little effect on making the
consumer click on it, it still has an affect on consumer behaviour by simply mentioning or
displaying the logo or brand name.
Another technology that many people believe will be an important tool in the future, with
regards to the consumer use of the Internet, is the use of mobile phone and networked
computer (Kent, Lynch & Srinivasan, 2005; in Haugvedt, Machleit and Yalch, 2005). Ac-
cording to Accenture (2001; in Haugvedt, Machleit and Yalch, 2005) there will be more
handsets that personal computers used for access to Internet in 2006. Kent, Lynch & Srini-
vasan (2005; in Haugvedt, Machleit and Yalch, 2005) also add that along with this the wire-
less networking can come to offer consumers an unlimited range of shopping, businesses,
travel, security, entertainment and convenience. In addition they believe that the future of
mobile marketing will hold, unlike yesterdays’s mobile phones with small grey screens,
phones will have devices which offers full scale color in order to watch videos. In addition
to this they will have screensavers, networked mobile games sponsored of course with ad-
vertisement that will offer the consumers discounts, events and promotions on request.
Marketers will furthermore be able to target specific segments such as teenagers, families,
and business users and so forth with information packages.
With this new system however, benefits as well as negatives follows for both the provider
and the user. For the provider this will mean that there will be more permission based and
accepted advertising, or even perhaps in a medium where the user pays for the service. For
the user this means that the costs will decrease, they will have better control over the adver-
tising on their system, more interesting messages but reduced privacy concerns. Wireless
devices may become a great opportunity for entertainment to really penetrate the market of
consumer-paid content. Wireless devices can become an element through which people
“kill time” with information, entertainment and communication (Kent, Lynch & Srini-
vasan, 2005, in Haugvedt, Machleit and Yalch, 2005).
3.4.2 Measuring Consumer Activity
According to Dobrowolski, Huntington, Russel, Williams & Withey (2003) companies can
evaluate information needed by seeking the behaviour of consumers on different digital in-
formation platforms such as DiTV (Digital Interactive Television), the Web, touch-screen
and mobile phones. This can be done since all of these platforms function as digital finger-

26
print and by using systems that gather these fingerprints comparisons can be made between
the services, digital platforms and sites. The system can furthermore pin point larges popu-
lations instead of smaller communities. From the consumers point of view these systems
do not threat the personal integrity even though they hold a certain amount of personal in-
formation and characteristics of the individuals such as gender, age and postal codes. This
is after all information that companies have gathered through the willingness of consumers
who have entered their data. Although companies may come to use this information for
other purposes other than the initial one, consumers can be safe in the fact that the privacy
laws will not be broken by the companies.
3.4.3 Consumer Use of Word of Mouth
Sernovitz (2006) uses a very good quote from Oscar Wilde on page 8 in his book “Word of
Mouth Marketing: How Smart Companies Get People Talking” : “There is only one thing in the world
worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about.” Sernovitz (2006) defines word of
mouth in two ways. A more advanced definition describes it as the art and science of build-
ing a communication between the consumer-to-consumer and consumer-to-marketer, be-
ing beneficial for both. The author however prefers to use a more simplified version by
stating that it is everything you can do in order to make people talk about you. Word of
mouth is about conversations between consumers (C2C) instead of marketers controlling
the conversations. What marketers have to do is to give the consumers an idea that is
worth their time and effort to talk about and spread the word of.

Making consumers talk though is not always easy. With this information age that is cur-
rently taking place consumers are overwhelmed with information and do not have the same
amount of time anymore to either look deeper into or evaluate products. According to Sil-
verman (2001) this is the reason to why the traditional advertising has started to decline
where magazines are having problems, television networks are loosing viewers and print
and broadcast are becoming more expensive and results are decreasing. This is why word
of mouth has started to play such an important role. When consumers do not have the
time, this way of receiving information saves time because others have already gone
through the information, sorted it out and then offered the benefits with their experience.
Word of mouth moreover offer consumers a way to cut through the large mass of mes-
sages that is sent out, receive the necessary information and gain the benefits of it, espe-
cially from experts who’s thoughts are highly valued. Thanks to technology such as Web
sites, teleconferences, chat rooms, E-mail and so forth word of mouth saves consumers
time and money. This new trend of using word of mouth is, according to Silverman (2001)
the fastest growing form of marketing since we nowadays have the tools and knowledge in
order to use it the right way for a specific cause. Platforms also offer people the ability to
listen to a wider audience of consumers in more than one way. In addition to this it is now
possible to trace and measure conversations to a larger extent and thanks to the Web and
blogs we can see what is said about us.

However, word of mouth not only benefits consumers when evaluating products and serv-
ices but marketers as well. It is nowadays also used when working towards a marketing ob-
jective, so therefore the M in Word-of- Mouth has come to stand for marketing. As Serno-
vitz (2006) adds this form of marketing is also actionable, traceable and plannable as with
other types of marketing, which brings us to the next notion.


27
3.4.4 Viral Marketing
Viral marketing could be defined as a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encour-
ages people to pass along a marketing message (Marketingterms.com, 2007). The main
driver of the technique is to get as many people as possible to forward your marketing mes-
sage, and as more people do - a snowball effect is achieved where the message spreads in a
virus-like manner, hence the name. Of course, the opposite also holds true and if only
minimal forwarding is attained the virus, if you will, quickly fizzles and dies.
Basically, the notion of viral marketing is an attempt to take control of, steer and even initi-
ate the talks that are going on about your company. The tools for doing this have certainly
been dramatically enhanced through the convergence of medias and the proliferation of the
Internet, blogs and communities, in fact, when one talks about viral marketing it is implied
that the technique is used with the just mentioned technologies.
3.5 The New Reality of the Global Digital World
Now, having discussed the changes in the matrix itself and in the way consumers behave as
both a result and cause of it, let us wrap it all up through investigating how companies and
managers are affected and how their new reality looks like.
Wind & Mahajan (2001) describe a complex, dynamic and chaotic world where the envi-
ronment is changing so quickly and unpredictably that by the time a rigorous and ”opti-
mal” solution is developed, it is just as quickly made obsolete. Here is an excerpt from their
book ”Digital Marketing” (2001) that is so good that the authors have chosen to present it
to you in its entirety:
”Digital technology has opened new channels for selling products. It provides the consumer with a previously
unimaginable quantity and quality of information in an easily accessible form. Consumers can sort products
based on any desired attribute: price, nutritional value, functionality, or combination of attributes such as
price/value. Consumers can use it to obtain third-party endorsements and evaluations, or they can tap into
the experience of other users. Digital technology has put the consumer in charge, creating a fundamental shift
in the dynamics of marketing. Empowered by technology, consumers are unforgiving. Pity the poor company
that fails to see this or refuses to play by the new rules.” (p. 3)
Indeed, if one would describe the current transformations with one characteristic it would
be that consumers are gaining increased control and empowering abilities. Consumers now
have the ability to talk directly to companies as well as about them. Having gained the
power of a worldwide forum that is the Internet, consumers can impact brands, products,
and services on a global scale, without even stepping out the door. They also have the po-
wer to be more selective, skipping or ignoring what they do not want to engage with (Price
Waterhouse Coopers, 2007).
In the Price Waterhouse Coopers Advisory report ”How to capitalize on Lifestyle Adver-
tising in a consumer-centric world” (2007) they quote Amy Banse, president of Comcast
Interactive Media, as saying that “With the true emergence of an on-demand world, consumers are go-
ing to be able to control content like they never have before, they have so many more options available to
them now—it’s the consumer who is king.” (p. 3)
However, in the same report they also bring up that it is not only the consumer who is the
winner in the global digital world, they write that:


28
”On the other hand, brands that are transparent in their consumer service, communications, and advertis-
ing strategies can reap substantial competitive advantage from this two-way transparency and enhanced con-
sumer insight. This feedback loop arms brands with a tremendous amount of new consumer information
and enables them to respond in a more relevant and personal way. Advertisers, content providers, and dis-
tributors can monetize this wealth of information. Thus, what was once a one-way, static dialogue with the
consumer is now a network of dynamic conversations. Consequently, campaigns built entirely around broad
messages, faceless audiences, and mass distribution are becoming a thing of the past.” (p. 9)

Price Waterhouse Coopers’ consumer focus groups (2007) also indicate that the single
most powerful factor for making people engaged in a product or a brand is the entertain-
ment value of the advertising, quality, innovation and creativity when it comes to the con-
tent of advertising is becoming more critical for making people noticing the ad or ignoring
it.

Audiences now have the tools to aggregate, filter, and promote the media they personally
want to experience with the use of personal media configuration technologies we already
have discussed, such as digital video recorders (DVR’s) and Real Simple Syndication (RSS).
Along with their newfound ability to talk back to companies, consumers are consequently
becoming their own media networks. User-generated and shared content forms the back-
bone for websites such as Flickr and YouTube, and while the life spans of individual sites
may differ, nearly all media and advertising executives agree that user-generated content is
definitively not a fad (Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2007).

















29
4 Methodology

Having read the frame of reference, this section will now present you with the methodology used to gather the
empirical data of what experts think about the changes that are occurring and what they emphasize in re-
gards to the future. You will be shortly presented with relevant theories and the authors will motivate their
choice of how to carry out the study. The aim is that, after reading this section, you will not only know how
the data is collected and analyzed but you will also be aware of certain limiting aspects concerning the meth-
odology of this study.
4.1 Gathering Data
The process of gathering data, using different types of information and different ways to
collect it, can vary greatly. How the information is gathered and the type of information
will be based on the authors’ choice of method when conducting the research and serve as
the basis for the thesis. A number of broad concepts will be introduced and the authors
will then incrementally funnel down to exactly how this study is conducted.
4.2 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Methods
Different studies require different methods depending on the nature and the purpose of
the study. Many different approaches to gathering empirical data are extensively discussed
in various literature, but the perhaps most basic distinction is made between a qualitative
and a quantitative approach. The qualitative research method aims to explore reality
through an investigation of human aspects such as behaviors, thoughts and feelings of
relevant individuals rather than numerical and quantifiable aspects that are the essence of a
quantitative approach (Maylor & Blackmon, 2005). Simply put; observations as part of a
quantitative approach ultimately transform into measurable data which will then be used to
draw a general conclusion, while they as part of a qualitative approach rather lead to an in-
creased understanding of the matter at hand by means of answering ”why?” and ”how?”
questions (Johnson & Christensen, 2004).
At the end of the day, the method is merely the process of most effectively fulfilling the
purpose of the thesis. As recently mentioned, this obviously makes the choice of method
highly determined by the purpose of the study. As for this thesis, the purpose clearly sug-
gests that between these two approaches, a qualitative approach is the way to go. The very
future oriented purpose of the thesis suggests that the authors are fundamentally seeking to
understand future behavior that cannot at all be sought through quantifiable and numerical
means.
4.2.1 Qualitative Research
The purpose of this thesis is to find out how some companies could evolve their Market
communication as a response to the quite drastic transformations of the media environ-
ment that are going on right now. In order to do this, the authors have met with people
who can bring clarification into the matter, more specifically; experts who have studied the
current media changes to a much greater extent than the authors, and individuals from
some consulting companies that deal with these changes. The research thus becomes about
exploring and trying to grasp thoughts, predictions and feelings of these people as a re-
sponse to what is going on in the media environment. When looking at a phenomena and

30
trying to perceive how relevant individuals are experiencing and reacting to it, just as the
authors are doing, is what in methodology literature is referred to as ”phenomenology”
(Johnson & Christensen, 2004). When these individuals are also presumed to be experts
within the field of study, this methodology is more specifically referred to as a judgmental re-
search technique. Juries of executive opinion, subjective probability assessments, and con-
sumer intention surveys are all research techniques that fall under this term (Ritchie, 2005).
What best describes how the authors have intended to carry out their study is, nonetheless,
another judgmental technique called the Delphi study method.
4.2.2 The Delphi Study Method
Just by looking at the name one can get a pretty good idea of what this method is about. If
the reader still remembers some Greek mythology from early schooling he or she might
know about ”the oracle at Delphi” from which the ancient people of the Mediterranean
sought advice before all major decisions. The ancients had such faith in the sayings of the
Oracle that they even believed Delphi to be the center of the world (Ancient-greece.org,
2007). The Delphi study method is thus about seeking opinions, advice or expectations
about the likelihood of future events or potential scenarios and it was first used by the
RAND Corporation
*
after the Second World War (Golembiewski, 2000). It is now perhaps
obvious to the reader that this is not a method that is associated with a lot of rigorous and
precise rules of how to carry out the research, rather it is widely recognized as being a very
flexible research method. Ritchie (2005) also points out that ”the technique is much admired for
its ability to dig beneath the surface of issues and to tap into expertise and insight that would otherwise be
unavailable to the researcher” (Tourism Research Methods: Integrating Theory with Practice,
p.86), and this is precisely what the authors are seeking to do. Undoubtedly, a lot of
changes are currently taking place in the global media environment, this thesis is about
grasping where they will lead and how market communication will evolve in response to
them. Just as earlier mentioned, in order to get a grasp of these matters the authors will,
much like the ancients who sought the Oracle at Delphi, seek the opinions, thoughts and
predictions of expert people within this field.
Nevertheless, the Delphi study method is not entirely without guidelines and it is mainly
divided into four execution points which are; defining the problem, selecting the panel of
experts, determining the panel size, and conducting the Delphi rounds (Golembiewski,
2000).
Although the research methodology of this thesis is very much inline with the basic idea of
the Delphi study method, we now come across some points which makes it divert a little
bit from it. Fundamentally, the authors are referring to the double-natured problem defini-
tion of this thesis. Originally, when the Delphi method was used by the RAND Corpora-
tion in the 1950s it was mainly for military-related projects and they most likely gathered a
panel of experts to utter their thoughts on one general issue. In this thesis however, the
problem is double natured in the sense that the authors will first seek the thoughts of ex-
perts in regards to bringing clarity into what is really going on in the media environment
today, and secondly their thoughts about what is going to be important in the future. Fur-
ther, the second part of the problem definition; the one concerning what managers could
to do about the changes, is to be answered by the authors as based upon both the theoreti-
cal framework, the empirical findings and parallels there between. Having that said, the re-
search method used for this thesis could perhaps more accurately be denoted as a ”semi-
Delphi study method” as the authors do not go so far as to conduct the Delphi rounds
which otherwise are a part of such a study. However, putting this aside, the entire thesis is
*
The RAND Corporation is an American nonprofit institution that helps to improve policy and decisionmaking through research
and analysis.
www.rand.org, 2007-04-03


31
very much in line with the idea of the Delphi study being about relying on experts for
reaching a consensus, new understanding or any type of value into the subject that is dis-
cussed. The Delphi study nature of the thesis will be especially evident in the empirical
findings, where the exclusion of real Delphi rounds has instead been simulated through the
text in what could be called a ”virtual Delphi panel”. This means that the empirical findings
are constituted by the information gained from the interviews with each expert, and that it
is presented is such a way that it creates the feeling of that the expert is actually in front of
the reader expressing his or her thoughts, just as would be the case if there had been real
Delphi rounds conducted.
The heavy reliance on experts of a Delphi, or semi-Delphi study in this case, makes the
careful selection of subject experts an important matter, and the authors will present the
reader with information on how these selections have been made, after first clarifying the
issues of primary and secondary data.
4.3 Primary & Secondary sources
When gathering the data the researcher chooses a method that is vital in the research proc-
ess. Brannick & Roche (1997) claims that the researcher’s choice of method when gather-
ing data is largely influenced by the theoretical approach, the research questions chosen as
well as the methodological strategy.
Williams (2003; in Pickard, 2007) defines the difference between primary and secondary
sources. He states that a primary source is a document, image or a quantitative record that
serves as an explanation to past events and evidence that has arisen from it. When an origi-
nal document has been created contemporary, a direct quote from such a document is then
considered a primary source. A secondary source is an article, book or film that displays
primary sources in order to understand the past.
4.4 Primary Data
When seeking the views of focus groups or individual respondents, either in a structured or
unstructured manner, the researcher will be able to gather primary data (Brannick & Roche,
1997). Since the gathering of primary data is an important part of the process, especially in
the qualitative research, Thietart (2001) adds to this by stressing the importance of the
communication and relation between the researcher and the sources of data.
As Brannick & Roche (1997) states, primary data can be gathered trough observation.
Questionnaires and Interviews bring out information when the respondents answers ques-
tions but also by observing people in general in their natural environment or when being at
the location of a laboratory. When structuring a questionnaire the researcher knows what
type of information that is required and how to measure the variables. According to the
authors there is three aspects of the design of a questionnaire; question content, question
phrasing and question response format. The type of information that is required will de-
termine the questions that will be asked. The researcher must be sure to choose question so
that each and every question has a purpose. With regards to the second aspect, question
phrasing, the researcher has to take into consideration what type of language he/she wants
to use. If the questions are phrased inaccurate, the understanding and interpretation of the
questions can be incorrect.

32
4.5 Secondary Data
On the contrary to primary data, secondary data is already available information. Thietart
(2001) states some advantages with secondary data for researchers. One being that the data
is most often inexpensive, already gathered, and also that access to the people who pro-
vided it is not always necessary. Blackmon & Maylor (2005) says that not only can it be
used when someone else has already gathered the information that is needed. It can fur-
thermore be used when something is not available due to the geographical distance or
other access related matters. Or thirdly, when it concerns historical information that may
no longer exist or covers a certain time period. Thietart (2001) also stated that secondary
data may hold a historical value and will therefore be useful when assessing the primary
data and in comparison to other data. Brannick & Roche (1997) agrees on this and add by
saying that the gathering of secondary data over primary is also attained must faster which
makes the work for the researcher much more time efficient.
Thietart (2001) however emphasize that there are some disadvantages with secondary data
as well. The data can be hard to obtain or out of date as well as vary in being suitable for
the research to mention a few (Thietart, 2001). However, in overall secondary data have
many advantages that overweigh the disadvantages.
Secondary data also serves the purpose, according to Pickard (2007), of completing and fill-
ing the gap that is created when there is a lack of primary evidence. Secondary sources are
for example written accounts of events such as history textbooks. Here the author of the
secondary source writes his or hers own interpretation from the original record (Pickard,
2007). For the researcher not to question the value of the information and to have confi-
dence in the data Brannick & Roche (1997) states a number of questions that needs to be
taken into consideration when determining the credibility and minimizing any doubts of
the data gathered.
1) Who has gathered the data?
2) When was it collected?
3) What was collected?
4) What purpose did the gathering of the data fulfill?
5) Is there another source?

Pickard (2007) also reasons that when the researcher has made sure that the data is credi-
ble, it should be analyzed critically a bit further to assure that everything has a purpose.
Every issue brought up has to have an argument and serve as the foundation or back-
ground for you work (Pickard, 2007).
Secondary data has been gathered from literature such as available books on the subject as
well as academic articles. In order to obtain the theory needed the authors have used the
school library and various databases available. In addition to this search engines on the In-
ternet have been used such as Google Scholar to find suitable and reliable information on
the subject.
4.6 Selection Criteria’s
The authors have sought to find researchers of subjects that are directly associated with the
purpose of this thesis, which is to say that they are experts of current media changes and
related subjects of market communication. As both authors are students at the Jönköping

33
International Business School (JIBS) they have been fortunate enough to have access to the
MMTC (Media Management and Transformation Centre) and its staff who on a daily basis
conduct research there. Robert G. Picard, who is the director of the center is a very re-
spected, recognized and widely published authority within the subject and has been of great
assistance to the authors for pointing out some appropriate experts, as well as being one
himself. The whole thesis actually started with a consultative meeting with Professor Picard
in where the authors introduced the choice of subject and asked for some guidance, and it
also suitably ended with him, as he was the last one to be interviewed, face-to-face.
The authors extensively searched the Internet for finding other possible experts within the
subject, and they found Albert Maruggi, for example, who is president of Provident part-
ners and host of the Marketing Edge podcast. Another expert who was contacted was
Chris Anderson, known author of “The Long Tail”, but without success.
The authors furthermore used the Internet when searching for appropriate consulting
companies within Sweden that were believed to hold a high level of knowledge and aware
ness within the subject. The reason for choosing to contact Swedish companies is that
Sweden is considered to be in the lead of advancements in communication technologies,
globally (Robert G. Picard, personal communication, 2007-03-08).
Note very well, that “expert” is a very vague denotation and can be misguiding. The
authors of this thesis use the term to referr to people who 1) conduct research within the
subject of the thesis, or 2) are practically involved with the subject of the thesis.
4.7 Snowball sampling
Since many academic research studies are under a time pressure and have restricted re-
sources, snowball sampling can be of great use. It is an approach where the sample grows
as the research progresses (Pickard, 2007). Schmidt & Hollensen (2006) defines snowball
sampling as a technique that requires the first respondent to provide additional names of
other respondents.
They also add that snowball sampling becomes a reality when the researchers begin their
study before having determined a list of every person to be contacted. Accordingly, snow-
ball sampling was initially a welcomed effect that the authors experienced rather than a
strategy that was deliberately used.
When interviews have been carried out or respondents have been contacted, they were in
turn asked to give a few names of possible respondents. A parable of the snowball effect is
given by Paul (1999) who states that a snowball starts off by being small and grows larger
and larger as it rolls down a snow coated hill. Schmidt & Hollensen (2006) further claim
that the method is mostly appropriate when the samples are limited and when the respon-
dents are able to provide the researcher with valuable and qualifying names for the study.
It is common, according to Pickard (2007) to use this technique in order to identify a theo-
retical sample and it can be done in two ways. The first and original method is when this
type of sampling is used to make the first contact with the key informants, who in turn can
point out additional information sources. The second method is to start of by interviewing
the first contact who will, as the interview progresses, identify characteristics of people or
issues that need to be investigated further.

34
The authors have experienced the benefits of the snowball effect as names of additional re-
spondents were gathered through contact with the initial respondents of this study. Since
the initial respondents have a high level of knowledge and recognition within the area, the
authors believe that they have provided names of other equally valuable respondents
4.8 Interviews
The use of interviews will help the authors to gather valid and reliable data that is relevant
to the research questions and to the purpose. Interviews are particularly valuable as a tool
for gathering data when questions are either complex or open-ended and where the order
and logic of the questions may need to be varied (Healy, 1991) which is very accurate in
this case. The authors are definitely not asking ”yes” or ”no” questions, or questions that
can be precisely answered with a couple of sentences. Rather, they have very few but big
questions which require a lot of discussion and many follow-up questions, much like a sin-
gle trail that splits off into many smaller trails in an undetermined pattern that ultimately
leads back to the main trail.
This non-standardized interview approach is referred to as ”semi-structured” and just as
described, this means that the authors will have a list of themes and questions to be cov-
ered rather than a list of specific questions with checkboxes on the side (Saunders &
Thornhill, 2003).
4.8.1 Face-to-Face Interviews
Marschan-Piekkari & Welch (2004) believe that face-to-face interviews are ideal for gaining
in-depth responses and they also believe this to be confirmed by the high incidence of busi-
ness travel, particularly across borders ”in spite of advances in communications” (Qualita-
tive Research Methods for International Business, p.197)
The authors agree with this due to that meeting a respondent face-to-face allows you to
register all ranges of emotions and what the respondent particularly emphasizes. The per-
sonal connection, hand shaking, eye contact and the mutual appreciation that both parts
have taken the time and effort to travel in order to meet in the flesh are all factors that con-
tribute to a higher level of trust that otherwise would not be possible. This is why face-to-
face interviews have been a preferred method and the authors have sought to use it with as
many of the respondents as possible, although restrictions in time and money have hin-
dered all interviews to be of this kind.
Face to face interviews have been recorded for reviewing purposes after first asking the re-
spondent for permission. This has relieved the authors from the pressure of having to take
note of exactly everything and instead enabled them to focus on listening to the answers
and to derive important follow-up questions from them.
4.8.2 E-mail Interviews
The authors have used e-mail interviews to complement the data gathered from face-to-
face interviews to attain as many interesting opinions, thoughts and ideas as possible, that is
to say even from people situated elsewhere in the world. Contact has been initiated with
persons that the authors have found through searching the Internet and whose expertise
have been judged to be of great interest to this thesis and to its readers. The e-mail inter-
views can be compared with the face-to-face interviews with the exclusion of the physical

35
contact, of course, and the limited ability to ask immediate follow-up questions. Otherwise,
the main difference was that in the e-mail interviews, the authors asked all questions at one
time (see Appendix F) and then posed follow-up questions in case there were any, in con-
trast to the face-to-face interviews were the authors asked an initial question which acted as
a generator of further discussion and follow-up questions. The initial question was basically
a request for the interviewee to elaborate on their thoughts and opinions regarding every-
thing that is changing in the media environment right now, and what they feel the changes
imply. In the discussion that then would follow, the authors made sure to bring up ques-
tions that would generate answers regarding the consumer aspect of the matter, as well as
future aspects of how to evolve market communication.
This study is very much about the technological advancements of today and where they are
taking our society in means of communication, and the fact that the authors have been able
to reach people across the world and individuals whom they most likely would have never
heard about if it was not for the Internet, is certainly a modern trait that should not be
taken for granted.
4.8.3 Contacted Experts
The following is a list of who was contacted, how the interview was conducted (F2F = face
to face), and when it took place.


Figure 4:1; The Interviewees

36
4.9 Interpretation
Belk (2006) defines the difference between the positivist and the interpretivist by saying
that the positivist is associated with the quantitative research method and that the interpre-
tivist with the qualitative research method. In addition to this, he states that the difference
between the two theoretical perspectives concern the relationship between facts and values.
While the quantitative focuses more on the facts, qualitative studies relies somewhat more
on values. There are also different views on how the relationship between the researcher
and the researched is formed, as well as on the difference in how the research is evaluated
and presented. Given the fact that the authors of this thesis are conducting a qualitative
study, the story told and interpretation of it will, as clarified by the author, represent the
experiences, as they are understood by the initial person who tells the story. He also adds
that the research is in itself an act of storytelling or the making of a story.
Carrying out research in a qualitative study demands a high level of awareness in regards to
the theoretical assumptions made, as well as with the meaning of the language used and the
understanding that serves as the foundation for the interpretation, being the result of these.
A second and main element of the research, besides interpretation, is reflection. Reflection
focuses on the researcher’s personality, the community in total, the intellectual and the cul-
tural traditions as well as the meaning of the language and the storytelling in the consis-
tency of research. It is trough the reflections that the quality of interpretation increases
which in turn brings value to the empirical findings (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 1994).
Kvale (1996) presents three frameworks of interpretation that determines what state of
mind the researcher holds when conducting an interview; Self-Understanding, Critical
Commonsense, and Theoretical Understanding.
1) Self-Understanding – In the first framework the interpreter tries to in a reduced
format formulate what is said by the subject and what the subject themselves un-
derstand what is to be the meaning of their statement made but from the research-
ers viewpoint. The researcher is thereby limited by the subject’s own self-
understanding.
2) Critical Commonsense Understanding – In the second framework the researcher
takes it yet another step beyond the self-understanding. The interpreter reformu-
lated the subjects’ self-understanding, what they themselves mean and experience
regarding a topic, while the researcher keeps its commonsense understanding. Here
the researcher may hold a broader understanding, is critical to what is said and is
focused on either the subject’s statement or the content of it.
3) Theoretical Understanding – The third and final framework the researcher goes be-
yond the two previous mentioned frameworks. Here the researcher holds a more
speculative manner and a theoretical frame is applied when interpreting the mean-
ing of the statement by using for example a psychoanalytical theory as a feature of
the subject.
The authors have tried to hold a Critical Commonsense Understanding when interviewing
experts for this thesis. At the same time the authors have listened to and taken in what the
experts have stated and expressed, a neutral and critical stand has at the same time been
applied. This in order to discover what the authors believe is relevant and trustworthy in-
formation within the area of subject.

37
4.10 Analyzing the Data
When speaking in the terms of research, data must either fit into a system or be a compli-
ment and offer an explanation or understanding. The use of textual representations of in-
terviews, meetings and observations are different types of qualitative data. The term quali-
tative data in itself means that no data is reduced to numbers. Some argue that qualitative
data offers a level that is easier to understand and also that it offers a better portrayal of re-
ality (Brannick & Roche, 1997).
There are many ways of measuring data but one that is the most associated with the
method chosen by the authors is the constantly comparing analysis. This method includes,
according to Pickard (2007), comparing one piece of data with all other that may either be
similar or different. This in turn will help the researchers gain an own perception and de-
velop their own ideas of possible relations between the pieces of qualitative information
and data.
Brannick & Roche (1997) further discuss the main difference between qualitative and quan-
titative data. They state that it is the procedure of classification and that qualitative data has
a les tied structure, and the data classification takes place either during or after the data is
collected. In comparison to quantitative data that demands a more tightly structured classi-
fication system to be in place before gathering the data. This way of classifying data is after
all, as Brannick & Roche expresses it, the creation of researchers or a mean of social con-
struction.
4.11 Reliability
In relation to qualitative research, reliability is concerned with whether other researchers
would have reached the same conclusions if they were exposed to the same information,
and whether the study would generate the same conclusions if it were to be repeated (May-
lor & Blackmon, 2005). It is thus a matter of whether the data can be trusted in regards to
how it was collected, and whether it can be trusted in the way it is presented. This is to say
that reliability depends on the degree to which the data is free from bias in both of these
aspects. Naturally, bias is more of an issue when it comes to politically sensitive studies or
any study where some of the participants can be expected to have an interest of portraying
something in a certain manner. The authors are certainly free from bias and from any incli-
nation to wanting to portray something that would conflict with reality or bend it in some
way, and they believe that the same holds true for all respondents involved in this thesis.
There is simply no reason for bias in regards to the nature of the purpose of this study; it is
not a question of taking sides or true or false, and neither is it sensitive to any part.
Just as discussed in the beginning of the methodology section, this entire thesis is limited to
the scope of perception of all the involved individuals and it is in that sense a subjective pres-
entation of information. This is true for all written literature and perhaps particularly when
it is of a qualitative type. However, having that said, there is absolutely no guarantee that
other researchers would reach the same conclusions if they were exposed to the same in-
formation or that the study would yield the same conclusions if it were to be repeated. This
would then, according to the definition provided by Maylor and Blackmon (2005) that you
read in the beginning of this section, mean that the thesis does not have an absolute reli-
ability, but in the same reasoning no literature has an absolute reliability. The authors will
instead point out that this thesis is based on the perceptions of the very mindful and rec-

38
ognized experts that have been contacted, and that this hopefully serves as an assurance of
high reliability for this thesis.
Ultimately, the authors also encourage the reader to think for him- or herself and to always
keep an analytical mind.
4.12 Validity
McBurney & White (2007) defines validity as an indicator of how accurate a drawn conclu-
sion corresponds to reality. They further state that since the goal is to develop a theory that
can explain the existing relationship between variables, having a true and correct conclu-
sion, revealing a “truth” can be a difficult task to achieve. Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill
(2007) choose to define validity as a trial to see whether findings really appear to be what
they are; new findings. It questions if there really is a fundamental relationship between two
variables.
According to Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2007) it can be relatively easy to determine the
validity of the secondary sources. By simply looking at the authority of the source or its
reputation the validity can be assessed. For example survey data from well-known, large or-
ganizations are most likely to be trustworthy. This is due to the fact that these organiza-
tions are dependent on the credibility of their data in order to even be able to operate on
the market.
When it comes to validating the findings from qualitative based interview studies, it is de-
termined by the access the researcher has to the knowledge and expertise of the participant.
Interviews also allow the participant to communicate a meaning trough the language used,
it will in addition be a more flexible and responsive communication allowing for the inter-
viewer and respondent to discuss the matter from many angles (Saunders, Lewis & Thorn-
hill, 2007). The authors also explain that there can be a varying level of validity when it
comes to questionnaires depending on how the questions are designed and the structure of
it (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). The researcher must make sure that the respondent
understands the questions in the way intended. The same applies the other way around; the
researcher must also understand the answers in the way the respondent has intended to.
4.13 Short Summary of the Methodology
The authors began with explaining how this is a qualitative rather than a quantitative study,
and proceeded with presenting the judgmental research techniques of which the Delphi
study best describes how this research is conducted. Although, it was made clear that this is
not a full Delphi Study due to the exclusion of real, physical Delphi rounds and the authors
instead described the method as being a ”Semi-Delphi study”. The reader was also pre-
sented with information of how the experts have been selected, and that data has been
gathered from these respondents through face-to-face interviews as well as through e-mail
interviews. See next page for summarizing figure.





39





























Figure 4:2; The Methodology of the Thesis


40
5 Empirical Findings

In this section, the reader will take part of all the data gathered through interviews with experts in the field.
In what could be called a ”virtual Delphi panel”, you will be presented with the thoughts and ideas of each
interviewed expert, one by one, in order to fully grasp what he or she believes about the subject and in order
for you to be able to compare and draw parallels between them. The outline is, to the extent that it has been
possible, in direct accordance with the theoretical framework, and we will thus see what the experts have to
say about the changes that are occurring, how consumers are affected by them, and ultimately what the ex-
pert believes about the future of market communication and how companies will have to adjust to their new
reality. (Note very well, however, that even though the following is very much derived from what the experts
have said or written, it is not exclusively the exact words as formulated by them. An attempt has instead
been made to convey the essential feeling of their notions.)

5.1 Karl-Erik Gustafsson











5.1.1 The changes
The big question is whether we are moving towards an individualized media environment
or whether the big and general traditional media will remain, and I am personally of the
opinion that they will remain and I think a lot of things point to this. If we look at the daily
newspaper industry, for example, which intensely localized and caters to the information
needs of specific cities, I see nothing that challenges this model, they can of course com-
plement their printings with electronic aids and so forth, but this will always be on the
terms of the printed newspaper and they will never replace it.
If we look at TV, we can see how the monopoly in Sweden has dissolved but there are still
no dramatic changes as a result of this. There is still a small group, who owns 80 % of all
channels, and the nature of the channels is still very broad, and I think they will remain so.
So, in that sense I do not perceive any individualization or customization of media, how-
Source: Jönköping International Business School, Media Management and Transformation Centre, 2007

41
ever, there are more communication between the channels and the viewers in form of that
people can vote through using their phones for example, but this is merely a function of
feedback and interactivity rather than individualization.
Looking at the magazine industry, we have a continuous stream of new publications that
catch all the new trends in society, the trend for the last couple of years have been fashion
magazines for men for example. There is a clear tendency for more specific segmentation
and we can also see this in TV with the remaining 20% of the channels that become ex-
tremely focused in their content with sports channels and what not.
What you have to do when trying to predict the future is to look fifteen to twenty years
back in time and see what has happened, the mass media hasn’t changed drastically in that
time and it is not likely that it will fifteen to twenty years forward. All that talk about indi-
vidualizing media and each and everyone with their own TV channel, that is not going to
happen.
5.1.2 The Consumers
Regarding Internet advertisement, the more people get exposed to it the more they neglect
it and create a mental kind of marketing filter against it. So, the reason for why Internet ad-
vertising is considered to be rather successful is due to that the Internet as a medium is
constantly filled with new people that have not yet developed this mental filter. Marketing
is thus very much a struggle between consumers’ desire to keep advertising in a form where
it can be easily recognized so that one can activate the mental shield against it, and compa-
nies’ desire to try to infiltrate it with other content when consumers does not have this
shield activated and are more receptive for it
Generally, I do not believe that consumers are greatly affected by advertising, it is rather
when they already have decided to buy something when it comes to play its role. Consum-
ers usually have a set of preferred choices that they are considering, and in the decision be-
tween these alternatives they tend to do some research and this is when they are mostly af-
fected by the marketing of companies. Of course, the Internet has a great boosting affect
here when it comes to the consumers ability of researching the alternatives, however, for
companies to even become one of the preferred choices brings us back to the vital neces-
sity of the wide, traditional media.
In the future, people will most likely be desensitized regarding giving out personal informa-
tion, which could extend companies’ ability to use consumer information in their market-
ing.
5.1.3 The Future
Evening papers have (in Sweden) joined with local radio stations and they are also giving
out free newspapers and so forth, so the trend is that they complement their printings with
other stuff rather than replacing them. At the same time, we have blogs and all these other
things happening, but neither are they replacing the wide traditional media, but it is rather a
market research tool where companies use them to see what people are talking about in or-
der to get ideas about new content or new products.
What we can see is also that companies are using product placement and that they are try-
ing to more naturally give their product attention through incorporating it in other pro-
grams for example, this is in order to catch consumers while they are off-guard and more

42
receptive to advertising, in contrast to regular advertising when the viewer is aware of it and
thus have a kind of mental shield against it. We can also see this in published magazines
where products are incorporated in articles and various content to a greater extent.
Marketing implies that you have control, that you have a product and a message that you
are actively trying to promote, word of mouth does not have a place within marketing, I
believe, because it cannot be truly controlled.
What companies must take into regard are the public opinions and how they are evolving
in order to use them for their marketing, now for example, we have a very strong environ-
ment appeal that is being capitalized on.
Companies should find ways to use the information they already have about their consum-
ers, a company could for example use the information of what consumers are buying in or-
der to create advertising that is both wide and specific, in the sense that you send the mes-
sage to the entire segment but in the message itself focus on the things that are selling.





“All that talk about individualizing media and each and
everyone with their own TV channel, that is not going to
happen.”













43
5.2 Annette Johansson







5.2.1 The Changes
The primary change that is occurring right now is the convergence of media and that com-
panies are spreading their messages on different platforms. Newspapers, for example, can
re-use the same content and an article can thus also become a webcast on their TV plat-
form.
The changes we are seeing are also very much connected with the proliferation of the In-
ternet. Communities on the web are forming entirely new platforms where people meet
and interact with each other, this, of course, provides huge possibilities for companies to
target these people.
This leads us to the rather novel notion of viral marketing, which basically is word-of-
mouth marketing on the web that is being increasingly implemented. I do not believe that
this is a fad of some kind; companies are really thirsting for techniques like this, especially
when considering that the media noise is greater than ever and that it is difficult to stand
out.
The new context of the Internet basically allows us to do anything and only our own crea-
tivity and mental capacity set the limits.
5.2.2 The Consumers
I believe that the younger audience (10 – 25 years old) is generally more critical towards
marketing messages and this further emphasizes and strengthens the impact of viral mar-
keting, as the message then comes from people you know and trust as in contrast to com-
panies. Another thing is that children are taking a greater role as the decision makers in
families when it comes to purchases, which further induces companies to target younger
audiences through techniques like this.
However, I do not believe that consumers abandon the traditional media platforms. Gen-
eral products that we all use will always have to market themselves through wide media
platforms such as traditional television, and this will ensure the survival of traditional me-
dia. We will see far more innovativeness and creative marketing forms from companies
with niche products.
I am sure that people are being desensitized towards giving out personal information on
the web. When Internet banks started to establish themselves some years ago, for example,
there was a lot of resistance and skepticism against them, but now most people use them in
Annette Johansson has a master’s degree in business administra-
tion from JIBS (2001). She has international working experience
within brand management and marketing in both the BTC and
BTB market. Her research interests include marketing and lead-
ership in media companies.
Source: Jönköping International Business School, Media Management and Transformation Centre, 2007


44
spite of various problems such as hackers draining other people’s accounts and so forth.
Because after all, you get something in return for it, maybe it is just the price we have to
pay for the technological advancements.
5.2.3 The Future
When the Internet was a novelty in society, there was a belief that the regular newspapers
and magazines would die out due to that the same information provided in those mediums
would be available free of charge online, this did not happen and I do not believe that it
will. There is simply a different feel to print, physical media, and there does not have to be
a cannibalization effect where only one of the two can survive.
I believe that product placement has its place in the future as we are creating virtual realities
on the web, such as video games and virtual communities like Second Life (where you have
your own character and basically lead a second life online). In a soccer game, for example, the
players could wear company logos and advertisements just like they do in reality, in the
same sense, the whole virtual arena could be filled with advertisements.
A powerful example of how effective viral marketing can be is the movie “Snakes on a pla-
ne” which was entirely marketed through blogs and word-of-mouth on the web. Here is an
excerpt about the movie from the International Movie Database (2007) to exemplify the in-
fluence people had over the film through the Internet (added by the authors):
“In March 2006 New Line Cinema, due to massive fan interest on the Internet, allowed for a 5
day re-shoot to film new scenes to take the movie from PG-13 to a R-rated film (originally the film
wrapped principal photography in September 2005). Among these additions is the Samuel L.
Jackson character's line, ‘I've had it with these motherfucking snakes on this motherfucking plane,’
a line that originated in an anticipatory Internet parody of the movie.”
(http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0417148/trivia, 2007-05-13)
Companies can create some kind of appealing content on the web, and then plant the mes-
sage in a number of people within the consumer base and in communities of all kinds out
there, if the content is appealing enough, that is to say if it is original and captivating to the
extent that people forward it to their friends, the viral effect will take place and the message
will most likely spread to a very large number of people.


“The new context of the Internet basically allows us to do
anything and only our own creativity and mental capacity
set the limits.”



45
5.3 Albert Maruggi










5.3.1 The Changes
I believe that the most significant changes that are occurring right now are the
empowerment of consumer and citizen to speak their mind and distribute that opinion
globally, and the fragmentation of markets into communities rather than demographics
which creates a multi-dimensional view of buying behavior
America is just starting to taste what it is like to live in a diverse world where other markets
are growing faster than the US, where ideas are easily shared, and in a world where America
may not lead in some areas. This I believe will continue to be a transformation for a couple
of generations to come.
I say the following as having been a journalist and worked with national media for many
years in Washington, DC in Congress as Press Secretary for the Republican Party and as a
political communications advisor to presidential cabinet members of the senior Bush Ad-
ministration.
I believe the truth will further fall victim as more people have greater access to communica-
tion tools. We’ve seen it in America in the last 20 years with the rise of talk radio and what
I call “Divide and Conquer Entermation”
It’s about yelling louder, stirring up emotions, and playing the blame game. We now live
in a society where the accuser is the hero and the accused is tarnished regardless of the
facts.
Why is this? Because America and many Americans are impatient and predisposed to ac-
cept a package of goods.
Let me explain package of goods. America is television and sports crazy. We love 30-
minute shows and sports. What do those things have in common? First, they have a be-
ginning, middle, and an end. Second, they usually have a winner and loser, third, there will
always be another one on tomorrow.
So the same cycle appears with the news. We believe that life should repeat the same pat-
tern; major news coverage follows that pattern.

46
Katrina was last year’s story. Recently, the Alberto Gonzales (the current Attorney Gen-
eral) story of improperly firing some politically appointed attorneys was bounced on and
off page one coverage by the firing of Radio Announcer Don Imus for using racial remarks
and the Virgina Tech mass murders.
I must say, all is not lost in America. I do believe that blogging and other forms of net-
work/community communication can stimulate real dialogue among some citizens. This
however, takes several qualities that we have yet to nurture in our society. Those qualities
are open-mindedness, patience, and time.
If communities, be they online or in person, are established and continued, there will be a
more thoughtful society.
5.3.2 The Consumers
Personally I think consumers will mock many companies. The hip designers of logos and
“creative directors” of ad agencies will need to do a better job convincing the chief finan-
cial officers and the human resource directors that the “image” of the company must be
portrayed in every breath that company takes with every employee. If they don’t, consum-
ers will tell the world that the so-called caring company doesn’t give their employees health
benefits. The issue is a brand may be created in the minds of executives based on market
research and delightful messaging, but a brand is experienced through the employees and
product or service. Any experience that doesn’t match the brand will be what your con-
sumers, or I should say - former consumers, talk about around the world.
5.3.3 The Future
At the end of the day, camera phones, web cams, Mini-DV cameras, text messaging, and
just the plain old cell phone has created instant live reporting, whether you are in front of a
burning building or shopping for furniture, the ability to share what is in front of you with
others and then potentially act on that information is crazy wild. That means good, dy-
namic, revolutionary companies will need to rethink every aspect of their operation, from
physical layout of stores to online offerings and pricing.
Brand managers will move from ivory towers to the call center and cash registers. A per-
son who is responsible for brands will be online constantly or among the consumers in real
environments, not contrived focus groups.
If companies want to be responsive and grow with the audience they need to adopt new
corporate cultures and communication tactics. I also however, am not one to jump into
this tempting brew right away. Nor are all of the new tactics right for every company.
Now more than ever, thought, patience, and a healthy dose of exploration are required by
every company regarding things like blogs, podcasting, video on the web, social networks
and mobile marketing.
I believe companies should incorporate a Research and Development budget in their mar-
keting divisions. I mean marketing should have a line item in their budgets called “experi-
menting” and use it for 2 or 3 new media type tests in a year.
Technology, consumer products, entertainment, and I also think education especially col-
leges, universities, and training type schools are especially applicable to utilize the changes
that are occurring to improve their communication with consumers.

47
Government leaders and the public sector should embrace these new ways to communicate
with, and dare I say, “listen” to the public. Hey there’s a novel idea.
The Publishing industry should give great attention to how people want their information.
For example magazine publishers that believe their money comes from the printed page
might do well now to explore whether their audience wants that same content in different
ways and formats. Those who are smart might see new revenue opportunities round every
corner.




“The hip designers of logos and ‘creative directors’ of ad
agencies will need to do a better job convincing the chief fi-
nancial officers and the human resource directors that the
‘image’ of the company must be portrayed in every breath
that company takes with every employee… any experience
that doesn’t match the brand will be what your consumers,
or I should say - former consumers, talk about around the
world.”












48
5.4 Nils Enlund






5.4.1 The Changes
The major changes that are occurring right now are the move from unidirectional mass
media to bidirectional media with user generated content, the increasing importance of the
social functions of media, the ubiquitous access to media by the general public and the
commoditization of media products and services.
So, there is a widening spectrum of media services, intensified competition, lowered mar-
gins and a rise of new business concepts.
5.4.2 The Consumers
The move from unidirectional mass media to bidirectional media with user generated con-
tent alters the demand of consumers into having a more “decorporatized” tendency where
they prefer to receive their services from other regular persons just like themselves, rather
than from companies. The increasing importance of the social functions of media also
pushes consumers in this direction, as they have tremendously enhanced possibilities to
communicate with each other.
The commoditization of media products and services implies that they are becoming indis-
tinguishable from other similar products and services, which consequently makes consum-
ers more price-sensitive in the future.
5.4.3 The Future
In the future, companies should focus on encouraging consumer participation and interac-
tivity. These are powerful ways of building a relationship between consumers and a com-
pany. Going from unidirectional "preaching" to the consumers to an intimate dialogue
where the consumers actively contribute and socialize, will build trust and loyalty. Associat-
ing a company name or brand with an active community of interest will create a positive
ambience.
They should not only target consumer segments but also media usage habits. Consumer
media behavior is not only dependent on the demographical or geographical segment they
belong to, but varies according to habits, location and context. Instead of only targeting,
e.g., 19-24 year high income consumers, the companies could choose to target, e.g., mobile
consumers between Stockholm and Arlanda. The media habits of this latter group are quite
distinct and they can be reached through the correct choice of channels.

49
Companies should also spread their messages over as many platforms as possible. Con-
sumers are becoming more varied in their choices of media cannels. In order to reach a
specific consumer group, messages have to be distributed on many platforms in parallel,
e.g., print, outdoor, web, TV, radio and mobile phones.




“…there is a widening spectrum of media services, intensi-
fied competition, lowered margins and a rise of new busi-
ness concepts.”




















50
5.5 Bertil Thorngren








My question is whether we still can talk about a certain “media environment”; I believe that
the term implies one-way communication within more or less closed circuits, separated
from the world in general. This is quite the opposite of how the world looks today in this
regard, were we instead have user generated content and peer-to-peer communication.
In order for companies to keep up with what is happening they must be increasingly pre-
sent where relevant audiences actually live and operate.
This is in turn made difficult by that the technological choices of consumers are under con-
stant and rapid change. For the individual media user, it is often a matter of complex com-
binations and sequences of different platforms. For example, an individual can download a
video or transfer a song to their iPod through a USB cable as a result of watching a 15 sec-
ond trailer in their cell phone. It is no longer a question of real-time usage as with tradi-
tional media, rather the occasion of the download versus the occasion of the actual usage
can be days and even weeks apart.
It is here were I, and we at the Center for Information and Communication Research set
our main focus, that is to say on the possibilities of combining different techniques and
thus reaching a higher degree of freedom, both in terms of usage and the context of it.
This, we believe, is the path of the future.


“In order for companies to keep up with what is happen-
ing they must be increasingly present where relevant audi-
ences actually live and operate.”




51
5.6 Maria Norbäck







5.6.1 The Changes
The new changes that are currently taking place are first and foremost technological ones.
Through convergence and user generated content it is now much easier for companies to
reach consumers for example when consumers themselves creates their own blogs. Tech-
nology thereby changes the distance between the producer and the user and the relations in
the sense that the user becomes the producer. This in turn means that the boundaries be-
tween medias for example such as print and broadcast are breaking up and multi-platforms
are becoming a fact.
Event marketing is another trend on the current market and it will become more important
that companies follow this trend and that media like newspapers work with this as well.
Another trend is word of mouth, which is a new way for companies to market the products
and services by spreading the word among consumers. By making consumers interact with
each other and create communities they can help to spread a positive word of mouth about
the product. A perfect example here is the Mini Cooper car (Miniusa.com, 2007) which in
the US offers consumers the possibility to send people they know an email with a message
written by the Mini car in the form of melting rubber from the tires. This in turn helps
spread the word of the cool Mini cars and the website.
Mass marketing will still be needed to reach that wide audience while customized marketing
will be used to reach the smaller segments and when companies want to niche themselves
on the market more.
From the companies perspective they are starting to doubt the effect that mass marketing
has on consumers. Therefore I believe that the advertisers will put some stress on the tradi-
tional media so that they are confident in targeting the right consumers. The new technol-
ogy offers possibilities to measure the activity of consumers online while this cannot be
done to the same extent with the traditional ones. They will have to prove their efficiency,
otherwise the advertisers will question whether it is worth the money to use these medias.
5.6.2 The Consumers
Because the consumer has become so selective and is difficult to reach it is important that
companies use the most efficient ways of targeting consumers. The Swedish institute for
commercial and media statistics (www.irm-media.se, 2007) measure how annoying com-
mercial can be in the consumers’ perspective in different medias such as radio and televi-

52
sion. The institute has found that intrusive commercial is the form of advertising that can
really damage the product or service the most and companies have to learn how to work
around this.
5.6.3 The Future
As mentioned above companies have to make their consumers more interactive, from hav-
ing a passive to an active way of participating in the communication. A company that has
really succeeded in this is Apple by using a lock-in. By offering one initial product the con-
sumer more or less have to buy more than one component of the same brand, which in
turn adds value to the core product as well as increases the total value and perception of
the product. All this is due to the increase and development of technology. What I believe
is very important in addition to this is that companies create a lifestyle and if they succeed
in doing so they will be able to deliver their message to the consumer.
Blogs, games and so forth are other means that companies can use to reach consumers.
Then it enables for the product to grow in popularity as long as it holds a high quality. It
does not necessarily have to be the best product on the market but it can be one that many
adopt. It is about succeeding in reaching out to a large crowd, being of the right size and
being first on the market.
I hope that companies can become more innovative in the future when it comes to satisfy-
ing the needs of advertisers. Even though mass marketing will always remain since there
are generic products that will always need to reach a wide audience, the market will become
more niched towards specific target groups.




“…companies have to make their consumers more interac-
tive, from having a passive to an active way of participat-
ing in the communication.”








53
5.7 Per-Erik Wolff















5.7.1 The Changes
Digitization is one major change that is becoming an important element in the media envi-
ronment. Individualization of consumer is another where, especially younger consumers,
the companies needs to focus of the specific need of each and every individual. With con-
vergence becoming more of a fact, the competition is and will continue to increase both
within as well as across media categories.
These changes will in turn affect the markets of the consumer and competition, which is
becoming more and more fragmented. Companies now have to focus much more on the
individual consumer and its needs by finding and targeting niched market segments.
5.7.2 The Consumers
Due to the fact that consumers are becoming more and more difficult to reach, companies
have to work around that. Digitization is one possibility for companies in the media indus-
try to gain more information, and they can do so by interacting directly with the consum-
ers. Interaction can occur in a number of ways, for example on the Internet, interactive TV
and so forth. So the main issue that companies need to be aware of is to focus on direct
communication.
The changes that will have the most impact on consumers and what they demand from
companies will be based on their need. If consumer knows what they want they will de-
mand and find a product that to the largest extent fulfills their need. If on the contrary the

54
consumers do not know what they need they will expect companies to orientate and guide
them by using brands that they have learned to trust and rely on.
5.7.3 The Future
By opening up and incorporate ways to communicate professionally and interact directly
with their targeted groups, companies can evolve a way to communicate with their con-
sumers more easily. A tool in order to do this, companies can use database-marketing
which helps to gather, evaluate, and use this information both professionally as well as effi-
ciently.
Industries in which companies have to be particularly proactive when facing these changes
are industries with products that have short lifecycle due to constant changing demands.
These companies will furthermore need fast, direct information for example the media and
entertainment industry and the fashion industry.




“By opening up and incorporate ways to communicate pro-
fessionally and interact directly with their targeted groups,
companies can evolve a way to communicate with their con-
sumers more easily.”












55
5.8 Cinzia Dal Zotto















5.8.1 The Changes
Changes that are taking place now are for example in the newspaper industry. This is due
to the increase in technology that is affecting the newspapers in the sense that paper format
and numbers of subscribers are declining. Moreover, television that ones attracted the ad-
vertiser away from newspapers to the television are now loosing the advertisers to the In-
ternet since it was less expensive and the large audience that was reached. However, now
with the Internet you have the possibilities to really target the groups according to their
preferences and needs and to measure the activity and so forth. In addition with the in-
crease in use of the Internet companies now try to find and attract new consumers and
build relations since the older generation does not have an interest in the new technology.
5.8.2 The Consumer
Compared to the older generation they preferred news that was opinionated while the yo-
unger people prefer neutral and factual news, which is something companies will have to
consider in order to reach the consumers. One way to reach consumers will be through in-
tegrating television in the Internet and web television will develop further. When consum-
ers use blogs it has two functions. One is to provide with an independent opinion and de-
pending on the source the consumer or reader can determine the trustworthiness of it. The
second function is to provide readers or viewers with the possibility to interact through
Source: Jönköping International Business School, Media Management and Transformation Centre, 2007

56
communities and have not a monologue but a dialogue. This is becoming more and more
important to young people and the problem with this from a media perspective, in particu-
lar the newspapers, is how to reach this young segment. The Internet is from one point of
view a revolution in that sense because it allows for consumers to have contact with so
many people. 1,3 billion in the world are connected today and it is not a complete revolu-
tion but to a large extent so. You can reach a wide audience from many countries and are
therefore not geographically limited as consumers were in the old day.
5.8.3 The Future
In the future we will really see big changes especially in the newspaper industry and com-
panies will not only deal with newspaper format. The companies will try to diversify in
three ways; they will keep the traditional newspaper which will probably become a quality
paper for an elite group of people where they will increase the price and so on. The second
one concerns television, which is a media that will be kept and expanded. Then we have the
third one, Internet, which will grow even larger with time. All of these three will then be in-
tegrated and there will be the ”news views”. The consumer will want not only news to read
but also to view. This is why the Internet will become important for advertisers. It will also
most likely be less expensive at first but as the popularity of it grows so will the cost of ad-
vertising. The future news that will be available on the Internet will also be more neutral
since they will deliver very fast while the newspapers will offer more opinionated articles in
the papers.
Newspaper will not die out completely. Other companies will though have to determine
how to reach their consumers and through what media.
This changed communication and technology has lead to the fact that products and serv-
ices are not determined by the producers anymore, but instead by the users and their pref-
erences. Companies will have to be in more contact with the consumers in order to learn
how to improve and what they think of the product. You will also have to be able to relate
to the consumers and involve them in the process of developing the product. This can be
done by using advertising and interactive adverting where you at the same time ask the
consumers for their opinion. At the same time you do not want to disturb or annoy them
with the advertisement. With the fact the consumers now have the option to click and re-
move advertising companies have to find better ways to develop advertisement. There are
two main views on this matter. Either the company chooses something similar to advertise
or something completely different. This field is still unexposed but there is no doubt that
companies will have to enter this market.
Technology such as having news and other information from the Internet available on the
mobile phone is another possible future trend that may expand and grow popular but per-
haps more among the younger generation that has grown up with the mobile phone.
“This changed communication and technology has lead to
the fact that products and services are not determined by
the producers anymore, but instead by the users and their
preferences.”

57
5.9 Robert G. Picard











5.9.1 The Changes
The main changes that have occurred is that the technology that has arisen during the last
ten – fifteen years or so, have made it so that companies are no longer dependent on tele-
phones and print material for reaching their audiences. They have a lot more options to
have immediate contact with their consumers using e-mail, sms, websites and a variety of
other communication devices that are designed to make more information available to their
consumers on a regular basis. As a result of this, they have the ability to deal with consum-
ers in a more individualized manner and to have better connection between their commu-
nications and relationships. They are available to link offers to the things that the consumer
really wants, and they are able to link service to need. A car dealer, for example, that
knows which car they sold you last year can send you a personalized e-mail telling you
when it is time to bring the car in for service. Or if you are a supplier to a certain company
and faced with significant overstocks in your inventory, you can immediately contact the
purchasing agent and offer him a good deal for buying your surplus. These kinds of things
could have never been done before in an efficient and timely manner, and this makes for a
very different kind of relationship where marketing, sales, and inventory-control all come
together in a particular form of communicating.
5.9.2 The Consumers
The major change with consumers is their information seeking behavior, they can watch
TV and be directed to a website where they can receive information about a particular pro-
duct, download brochures, technical specifications, look at a video of the product, or if you
have a particular product and you want to look at something regarding repair instructions
the manuals are often available online. Sometimes, consumers are even directly interacting
with companies, talking about the product and certain issues regarding it and the company
can then use that information and take it back to the product development stage. So, it is
this information seeking and exchange behavior that really alters relationships with compa-
nies in a very powerful way.

58
I think more and more, what people are looking for, is an effective way of contact with
companies where they really get served. My wife, for example, is looking for a BMW and
on their website, she found a function where she could specify everything about the car she
wanted; colors, aspects of the interior, engine specifications and so forth, and on the very
next day she received a physical brochure of a car with the exact specifications that she had
assigned online. Now, that is effective marketing, and this is more and more what we are
dealing with nowadays, where there is no real separation between different mediums and
where companies are rather using them together in better ways than they were separately
used before.
5.9.3 The future
In regards to the future, companies must communicate in all different ways since it is has
really become an integrated market process today. They need to use print, broadcast, the
Internet, sales promotion and sponsorships, fairs and so on. What is happening is that all
of those things can come back together at one point, on the Internet, for instance, where
the consumers then can reach out to get what they need - when they need it. I think that a
really good company makes everything that it has available – available to everybody in a
very simple and accessible way. Another thing is that it becomes very cost effective when
you use the Internet for doing this, but the biggest problem for them is trying to figure out
what the individual consumer wants, which means that you have to ask them, you have to
get them registered or at the initial meeting give them opt-in, opt-out choices and alterna-
tives. I think what you are doing then is to create a stronger relationship with the consumer
in the long run; they are no longer anonymous, they have specific needs they want you to
serve and you as a company want to serve those need in the way they want you to, so it is a
consumer focus rather than a company focus of relationships.
I also think that a lot of companies make the mistake, when they do their consumer rela-
tionship management, that they think more in line of what is in it for the company, if they
do not instead put the emphasis on the consumer, they are going to opt-out on it.

“…consumers are even directly interacting with companies,
talking about the product and certain issues regarding it
and the company can then use that information and take
it back to the product development stage…it is this infor-
mation seeking and exchange behavior that really alters re-
lationships with companies in a very powerful way.”





59
5.10 Mikael Nyström @ Nyström Media






5.10.1 The Changes
The major transformations that are currently taking place in the environment of media are
the integration of the Internet as another way of reaching the target group. By using the In-
ternet to target specific groups more of the content will therefore be available in electric
forms such as news (papers), television and video and so forth.
When it comes to which transformation that will more specifically have an impact on how
companies communicate to their consumers’ interactive communication is the one to men-
tion. This since it will allow for companies to understand what the consumers need and
want in order to better address the specific demand of consumers.
5.10.2 The Consumer
All the transformations taking place on the market will have an impact on consumers. Due
to these transformations that bring possibilities, doors will open and consumers will be
more empowered. In turn, consumers will be able to more easily express likes and dislikes
they have with companies and/or services and demand more from companies.
5.10.3 The Future
When the consumers have more power it is important for companies to improve their
skills in the way they communicate with their consumers. One solution in order to be suc-
cessful when dealing with this matter is having a knowledgeable consumer relation’s staff.
Another one is communicating with consumers in an efficient way through emails, the
website of the company as well as using traditional means such as the phone and so forth.
What it comes down to, regardless of media, is to offer consumers speed and good infor-
mation. This is a general fact that applies to most industries and all industries have to work
proactively. Though one must add that the media industry is a prominent area where major
changes are taking place for example the television, news, communications and music and
so on.
“When the consumers have more power it is important for
companies to improve their skills in the way they commu-
nicate with their consumers.”

60
5.11 Niklas Elmgren @ Infrakultur






5.11.1 The Changes
The major transformation that will occur is the possibility to implement larger files in web-
based media. With the increasing public availability of Internet and development of
broadband and computers this form of interaction between companies and consumers it
will be easier and expand further. Today, you do not have to take into consideration, for
example, the size of the website like one used to do. This expansion will continue to grow
and contribute to a wider range of the Internet.
These transformations will contribute to a more gathered, boundless media society where
television, picture, web and film can be combined and be at the same place at the same
time. One example of this is the large newspapers commitment to the web television.
In addition this as mention, the traditional media will commit to widen the media range and
companies will spread their marketing over larger part of the medias that are available.
5.11.2 The Consumer
What will have most impact on what consumers demand from companies is the confirma-
tion that they have made a good purchase. If you as consumer come home from having
bought a nice sweater one would perhaps want to check the website of the company. If this
does not live up to the expectations of the consumer, one may become disappointed and
what seemed to be a good purchase will loose its value. Here is where companies have to
improve their communication and realize the potential of the Web. The consumer expects
to see a thoroughly worked out website and it is not enough anymore to simply present the
company with a website that your nephew has created.
Companies can also develop further through interactive media, which demands that the re-
ceiver and sender are apart of and contribute to the communication process. By involving
the receiver, in this case a presumptive consumers or person that has already bought some-
thing, in a process where the consumers has fun, the brand will create a long-term relation.
The more time a consumer spends on a company’s website, the more he or she is exposed
to the company’s brand and other messages. These are a unique way of communicating and
advertise other brands, identities and lifestyles that the company holds. This is what builds
the brand. One does not force a message onto the consumers which they have not asked
for, but instead the consumer visits the website voluntarily and is thus susceptible to the
communication that arises.

61
5.11.3 The Future
There are industries where companies have to work more proactively than others. It is par-
ticularly important in industries where services and products that include a certain lifestyle
are concerned. If one wants to build brands within areas for example such as snowboard,
skate, running, tennis and luxurious articles like Prada and Christian Dior this is very im-
portant. One does not expect Nike to have a boring website where one cannot view more
that one picture of the latest shoe.
All companies and branches have different targets and needs. To not take advantage of in-
teractive medias is to neglect the enormous potential that exists to build a strong relation-
ship between the consumer and the brand. Internet can offer so much more than simply
shout out a message from an advertising pillar or daily newspaper. This is something more
and more brands (the large ones are already involved) realize and place a larger part of their
advertising budget within.



“Today, you do not have to take into consideration, for
example, the size of the website like one used to do. This
expansion will continue to grow and contribute to a wider
range of the Internet.”














62
5.12 Kristofer Mencák @ GoViral










5.12.1 The Changes
The traditional model of sender to receiver is dying out which is one major transformation
that is taking place right now. Everybody now have the chance to be a sender and every-
body can be a receiver. This also means that there is an increased clutter. Advertisers do
not longer compete with other advertisers only for the attention of the consumers – they
compete with everybody. This in turn indicates that as an advertiser, to get through, one
has to have really good content and very interesting material.
The results of these changes are more channels and more targeted channels due to the low
cost of publishing content on the Internet. This means that messages can get extremely tar-
geted, if placed in the right environment. There will be however, as mentioned above, in
general, more clutter.
5.12.2 The Consumer
The fact that consumer are now able to talk back will have a large impact on how compa-
nies will communicate with the consumers. Compared to how it was in the old days on the
marketplace, the dialogue is back.
The same thing applies the other way around. Not only will the companies have to rely on
the ability to communicate with consumers, consumers too will demand the ability to
communicate with companies.
5.12.3 The Future
In order to adjust to the transformations, companies should evolve the way they communi-
cate with their consumers by creating content that the consumers like to interact with. It is
about engaging in a dialogue, in a respectful way by listening to and understanding the con-
sumers.
There is no specific industry were companies have to be more proactive than others in fac-
ing the transformations. Essentially all industries face the same challenges in regard to this.

63
Of course, some industries will have to adapt more, as their way traditionally have been less
consumer focused.
As mentioned above, companies should open up for a dialogue. Consumers generally want
to interact and now they also have the chance to do so. Companies should moreover create
areas that enable interaction and consumers will more than gladly help to create new prod-
ucts and improve old ones to suit their needs.




“The fact that consumer are now able to talk back will
have a large impact on how companies will communicate
with the consumers. Compared to how it was in the old
days on the marketplace, the dialogue is back.”















64
6 Analysis

As it has been mentioned earlier, the analysis is based on the theoretical framework and the empirical find-
ings in the sense that it builds upon them and enables the authors, as well as the reader, to see what is really
important, draw parallels and finally to provide something of value to the target readers of this thesis. After
the theoretical framework and the empirical findings have been discussed and somewhat condensed, the
authors will endeavor to present what they themselves have learned from the research up to this point, they
will share their insights, new found ideas and humbly strive to offer some guidance in how companies can
evolve their market communication in this new digital world. Be aware of then, that the latter part of the
analysis is thus more of a “consultative discussion” rather than a traditional analysis, with the entire thesis
as the “mental cosmos” from which the authors derive their guidance.

6.1 Current Trends and What Lies Ahead
6.1.1 Convergence
Experts agree on that one major current trend and change that is taking place on the mar-
ket right now is the convergence of media. Companies are developing their way in which
they communicate their message to consumers. They are doing so by spreading their mes-
sage over many platforms instead of using only one, which has formally been the case. This
is due to the development of technology, which has made it possible, as Bohlin (2000)
stated, for different devices and different networks to carry out similar functions. It enables
what used to be separated traditional sectors to enter each other’s areas (Bohlin, 2000).
One example of this is newspapers, which are using the same content but placing it onto
the Internet where they offer readers an online newspaper.
Bohlin (2000) stated that in order for companies to be successful when converging and try-
ing to reach consumers in the most efficient way, consumers have to be the centre of atten-
tion or be the driving force of development. Concurring and adding to this is Kristofer
Mencák who says that the market and traditional model of the sender to receiver is becom-
ing obsolete. In today’s market everyone can be a sender or a receiver and the same applies
for advertisers who do not only compete with other advertisers but with everyone, com-
petitors as well as consumers. In turn, this places much stress on the fact that the actual of-
fers and products have to be of good material. Therefore the companies, as suggested by
the authors of this thesis, must work very closely with their consumers since it is them who
will decide whether a product or service is a success or not. Moreover, by having a close
collaboration the companies can discover faults or elements of the products that can be
improve and they can do so at an early stage. Finding and solving a problem early will help
the company avoid any further damage and repair the hopefully little harm that has been
done to the consumer relationship. By solving it early the company will also show consum-
ers their value and importance for the company and the effort put into making them feel
satisfied.
When looking at the what these transformations are moving towards, they will contribute
with, as stated by Niklas Elmgren, a more boundless media society where different medias
such as picture, film, web and television is combined at the same place and same time. He

65
also states that the traditional media will commit to a wider ranger of media where compa-
nies can spread their message over a larger area.
Bertil Thorngren further ads that companies must stay updated on what is happening on
the market and be present all time where the consumers of interest are active. This is based
on the fact that the technological alternatives available on the market makes the consumers
adapt and change rapidly. Consequently the companies find it more and more difficult to
keep up and adjust to the various complex combinations that take place on different plat-
forms.
6.1.2 User Generated Content
Nils Enlund and Maria Norbäck two experts that especially talk about user generated con-
tent that has also become a common fact on today’s market. As the market and the focus
changed from being impersonal transactions between companies and consumers to close
relationships, as was stated in the theoretical framework by Gunther, Mahajan & Wind,
2002, the society went from a media that used to be concentrated around mass marketing
and is now heading towards a society where individualization and customization is highly
valued. What Albert Maruggi also emphasises is that consumers are becoming more and
more empowered and are allowed to speak their mind more than before. In addition to this
consumers are not nowadays separated into groups based on their geographical placement
but rather on preferences where they are fragmented in to market communities. The
authors of this thesis add that instead of focusing on the geographical placement and more
aim towards the preferences they will more easily and efficiently reach their target market.
This will make the marketing much more effective and target only those who are believed
to have a genuine interest in the products and is possible to build a long-term relationship
with.
Maria Norbäck believes that these technological changes such as convergence and user
generated content makes it much easier for companies on today’s market to reach consum-
ers. Because of the possibilities that have followed with the development of the Internet,
for example with consumers creating their own blogs, it is easier to track and measure con-
sumers’ activity. As some of the other experts also mention the relationship between the
consumers and the company also becomes more personnel and the distance between them
grows smaller. This is based on the fact, as presented above, that consumers are changing
places with the producers and the consumer in a way decides on what will be produced and
not. Due to this, multi-platforms are being created, as the boundaries between medias turn
blurrier, one example of this is shown in print and broadcast media being combined. Nils
Enlund adds to this when stating that the competition along with this movement and
change will become more though, the margins will be lowered, media services will develop
further and new concepts within business will arise.
Another trend that Karl-Erik Gustafsson discusses is the fact that companies are now fo-
cusing more towards segmenting the markets than they have done before. With more al-
ternatives available consumers are also becoming more selective and demands, as Gunther,
Mahajan & Wind (2002) stated, products that reflects their personality. This is becoming
more and more apparent as the magazine industry as well as television creates new papers
and channels in order to suit people that have more specific preferences. A segment such
as this one would not perhaps be reached that easily without offering a more specific prod-
uct to meet the consumer demand. Fashion magazines aimed towards men are one particu-
lar category that is growing very fast in popularity.

66
Karl-Erik Gustafsson is an expert though who has a somewhat more old fashioned way of
looking at the market. To the contrary of the other experts, he do not believe in a drastic
media change in the future, and he base this on when comparing and looking back at was
has happened in the past fifteen to twenty years. The authors of this thesis share a different
view but were still interested in learning about and hearing more about his point of view.
Karl-Erik Gustafsson himself said that his more old fashioned way of looking at the market
could perhaps be due to his age and past experience. He stated that the media has not
changed drastically and it not likely to change in the future and he do not believe in the in-
dividualization of media. He also said that he is of the opinion that the traditional media
will remain since medias such as newspapers tend to cater the information need of cities in
specific and that are strongly localized. No other model will challenge this; instead it will
only be complemented with electronic aids and so forth.
6.1.3 Communicating Through the Internet
Moving on to other growing trends, the three experts; Annette Johansson, Niklas Elmgren
and Cinzia Dal Zotto, all agree on that the Internet is a media that will continue to prolifer-
ate with the increasing amount of communities on the web. These communities form plat-
forms where people interact with one another. This is supported by Haugvedt & Roehm
(1999; in Schumann, D., 1999) who claim that the reason why Internet has become so suc-
cessful is because it offers people to search the web for everything from entertainment,
commercial exchange, information and form communities. Therefore businesses have to
respond to this medium very quickly. The experts further add that with all the possibilities
that Internet now has to offer, companies can reach their target groups in electric forms
such as television, news (papers) and video and so forth. The result of the lowered cost in
placing content and marketing on the Internet has made the targeting of consumers
through various channels extremely efficient if placed correctly. The authors of this thesis
emphasise the importance that companies have to learn how to communicate to their con-
sumers through the Internet since the media functions as an information source from
which consumers can gather knowledge about products either pre, during or post purchase.
This is something that they have to do now, not tomorrow or the day after, but now be-
cause every day there is a certain number of consumers connecting to the Web searching
for information determining their interest in products or services. Here is where all compa-
nies should work actively in aiming and capturing as many consumers as possible. It does
not really depend on what industry the companies are active in, Internet is and will be a de-
terminant and vital part of the companies’ growth. Another fact that companies must con-
sider is, as stated by Haugvedt & Roehm (1999), creating a high level of interaction be-
tween the consumers online and maintaining it. This can be done by determining what in-
formation that is of interest to the consumers, how often they want to and can have access
to it, time spent in doing so and so forth will determine if the consumers’ interest will re-
main high or not.
With the increasing use of the Internet another type of marketing has emerged; viral mar-
keting or word-of mouth on the web using a simplified term. Some of the experts have
claimed that this is not just a trend but rather a technique that companies have been waiting
for to use in order to differ from the competition. This since word of mouth is, as defined
by Sernovitz (2006), everything a company can do in order to make people talk about it. By
creating a positive rumour or message about a product or service and thereafter influence
consumers to interact with each other, companies will able to get their message out
through word of mouth. As Silverman (2001) stated the traditional way of advertising has
started to decline and magazines are experiencing problems, television networks are loosing

67
viewers and print and broadcast are becoming more expensive. Based on these facts the
experts believe word of mouth will come to play an even more important role with time.
The authors further add that the word of mouth strategies used by the companies must be
of a committing or entertaining form otherwise consumers will loose interest in spreading
the word.
Maria Norbäck however believe that the traditional model will be questioned in the future
and the effect that mass marketing will have on consumers. Much more stress will be
placed on the traditional medias in order for companies to feel safe in the fact that they are
targeting the right consumers. According to the authors; Dobrowolski, Huntington, Russel,
Williams, and Withey (2003), they state that the consumers activity will be easier measured
in the future through all of the platforms which functions as digital fingerprint where sys-
tems gather these fingerprints that can be compared between services, digital platforms and
sites. These systems can furthermore pin point large populations instead of smaller com-
munities. In agreement with this Maria Norbäck states that the online technology will offer
possibilities, which has not been possible to the same extent when using the traditional
models. What moreover will be a relevant matter in the time to come is how these tradi-
tional medias will prove their efficiency so that advertisers will know that they gain value
and not question the money spend in these medias.
A know denominator between the experts is that many of them believe that mass market-
ing will still be needed in order to reach the consumers who purchases the general prod-
ucts. However, they do believe that the customized marketing will be implemented more
with time so that the smaller segments are reached and companies that want to niche them-
selves more will also be able to do so.
6.2 Summarizing the Trends
All the discussed changes seem to point to a common denominator: media is becoming an
interactive medium with a blurred line between sender and receiver, where the consumer
becomes an active participant, contributor, and marketer. What earlier could be described
as “Piñata-style marketing” (authors denotation) where you swing the air and, if lucky, you
hit your target group, seem to be moving towards a more surgical marketing style where
you can reach your target group with surgical preciseness and even have a dialog with them.








Figure 6:1; Summarizing the Trends


68
These major trends inevitably challenge they way market communication works today, and
all companies wishing to continue reaching their consumers, preserve their competitive ad-
vantages and to remain in business will be forced to react in one way or another, there is no
walking around it.
6.3 The New World Elements
Having discussed the changes that are occurring in the media environment, if we still can
call it that, and identified some major trends of where it is heading, let us now instead focus
on the features that will be important to develop in this new reality.
Throughout the thesis, it has been very obvious that what we are talking about is a very dy-
namic and even chaotic environment, particularly so from the companies point of view. In
such an environment where nothing is really constant, it is natural to conclude that flexibil-
ity and speed are vital traits that companies must better cultivate in the future. Speed is not
only important for companies in regards to quickly putting their flexibility into work and
change what is necessary, but also in the sense that consumers are demanding and expect-
ing it to a greater extent. All of the immediate interconnectivity that has been talked about
throughout the thesis has generally created very demanding consumers who not only want
the best product or service for the best possible price, but they also want it instantly.
A dynamic and chaotic environment also points to another important feature that compa-
nies will have to cultivate more of in the future; as things quickly change it is not to the
same extent possible to blindly rely on a currently successful business idea, what is success-
ful today can become outdated tomorrow in a market with billions of connected people,
bubbling with ideas and concepts that can improve, copy or overthrow your idea. Your
flexibility should then also be implemented in updating the business concept and in seeking
for ways to improve it in order to make it as sustainable as possible.
In business, everything can simply be derived back to the consumers; if they no longer like
what you offer the company is not going to remain successful, period. In the light of this,
what is happening right now is that consumers are enormously empowered to search for al-
ternatives to your offering, this in turn raises the bar in terms of satisfying the consumer; if
they do not like your product they can easily find a better one that more accurately suits
their needs. Now, read the last part of the previous sentence again; that more accurately suits
their needs. This is very important because it brings us to the notion of customization and
that consumers are demanding more tailored offerings. The logic behind all this is actually
very simple and it is worth repeating; in a market where consumers, in a global arena, easily
can find alternatives - they are going to choose the products that suits their individual
specifications the most, hence, it becomes extremely important for companies to find out
what consumers want, and since no consumer is exactly similar to another one, it becomes
a matter of customizing for individual needs. The only way to find out what the individual
consumer wants is, of course, to ask him or her about it, but we will talk more about this
later. Now, let us instead see what we have discussed so far; we have a market environment
where speed and flexibility is vital, both for satisfying the consumers and in regards to im-
plementing the flexibility. We also have an environment where time has a whole new mean-
ing, it is a common notion that “time is relative”, well – in this case it has picked up the
pace tremendously and one minute today is a mili second tomorrow. What becomes impor-
tant then is to maintain sustainability in regards to the entire business concept, but also in
regards to every way of operating the company both inwards and outwards. We also dis-
cussed the importance of customization as a result of empowered consumers, where the

69
key of the customization is information about what the consumer wants, and this, of
course, implies interconnectivity between the company and its consumers. All of these aspects
are what together ultimately creates value for the consumers in the new digital world; high
speed equals high value, high level of customization equals high value, and sustainability
and continuous improvement ensures high value over time. Now, what is more important to
talk about is how companies could cultivate a combination of these attributes, but before we
go straight to the juice let us summarize what we have talked about in a neat model which
at any time can act as an instant reminder for you.
















6.4 The Paradigm
When reading about all the changes and what they imply, including the new world ele-
ments, it is easy to fall into the belief that it is only the consumers that are empowered and
that all of the changes are bad news for companies as they have to evolve and adjust to the
more difficultly charmed consumers. This is an unhealthy paradigm for a company to hold
and we will now discuss why it is also wrong. The authors received enlightenment in the
matter as a result of the following, which was said by Professor Picard during his interview:
“Sometimes, consumers are even directly interacting with companies, talking about the product and certain
issues regarding it and the company can then use that information and take it back to the product develop-
ment stage. So, it is this information seeking and exchange behavior that really alters relationships with
companies in a very powerful way.”
Figure 6:2; The New World Elements Model

70
Now, let us break down to the paradigm that these words actually imply. Throughout the
thesis it has been evident how the interconnectedness of the new digital world plays a ma-
jor role in the empowerment of consumers, we read about “decorporatization”, for exam-
ple, where Nils Enlund explained an emerging tendency of consumers preferring to receive
their services from other regular persons just like themselves, rather than from companies.
We could also read about the power of blogs, other communities and the Internet in large
as a place where consumers can communicate with each other to alter the demand for cer-
tain companies. However, this communication between consumers about certain compa-
nies and their products, as well as the communication directly with companies as enabled by
the new technology, can also act as a source for companies to find out exactly what consumers
want. The new digital world with its highly elevated potential for communication results not
only in consumer empowerment, but also in company empowerment in the sense that
companies can find out what they always have wanted, again; to know what consumers
want!
Companies should know then, that consumer empowerment does not necessarily mean
trouble but quite the opposite. In any case, this is especially, if not only, true for companies
that are proactive in regards to the new environment and use the new available techniques to
their advantage. If you remember the picture on the title page; it is about escaping your
bowl and taking that leap.
6.5 B2C
n

Albert Maruggi talked about a “multi-dimensional” view of buying behavior and he said
that it is created by a “fragmentation of markets into communities rather than demograph-
ics” in the new digital world. His notion is simply that as the Internet enables people to
gather and communicate according to interest, this creates a segmentation which incorpo-
rates all kinds of demographics, old people, young people, women and men, for example,
who all share the same interest.
However, the authors would like to take it a little bit further and claim that the new tech-
nologies and the Internet allows not only a multi-dimensional segmentation of consumers,
but also an individualized relationship which means that the company can target each con-
sumer differently according to their needs and preferences, in what would be a Business-to-
consumer-to-consumer-to-consumer-… or B2C
n
(where n equals total number of consum-
ers) formula. This is tightly connected with the previous paradigm of that consumers can
talk to companies and tell them what they want and it leads us to the, by the authors
coined, blueprint metaphor of marketing.
6.6 The Blueprint Concept
In order to present the positive implication of the paradigm, the authors are going to pro-
vide the reader with a clear illustration with the help of a metaphor. The metaphor used
will be in the form of a house where the consumer, company and the Internet will all have
an equally large part putting all the pieces together. Being a future consumer means that an
endlessly amount of alternatives will be available. With this increase of alternatives the con-
sumer will also demand more from companies, which in turn stresses the significance of
how the company interacts with its consumers.
The media, which the company decides to communicate to the consumer through, will
have an enormous effect on how successful the company will be in targeting the right con-

71
sumer. Since the authors believe that the Internet is, and will continue to be an absolute vi-
tal media and communication channel in the future, this is where all the information should
be provided to the consumers. In addition to this it is also a media where companies will
have to offer something additionally in adjacent to the core product, this to be able to dif-
fer from the rest of the companies on the market competing for the same target group.
What the authors basically have done is dividing the consumer, company and the Internet
into three separate groups that all serve a purpose to what becomes the final result, which
is the entirety. The consumer as an individual has demands that it wants the company to
fulfil. With the increase in consumer power the consumer will not play the part that accepts
the offer but rather the one who determines what will come to be the offer. By providing
the company with certain elements and parts it wishes the product to hold or added value
brought to it, the company can based on this information create a customized solution to
the problem. To simplify this, one could say that the consumer determines if the company
is attractive enough to even be able to sell any products, which in turn place much empha-
sis on the company’s sensitivity and adaptation towards consumers.
6.6.1 Blueprint & Material
When the consumer has a structured idea of what he or she needs and how to receive it, he
or she then turns to the company. In turn the company will customize a product that fulfils
the exact demands placed by the consumer. Having a structured plan will be referred to, by
the authors, as a blueprint where the consumers have decided the design and outline of the
product. This blueprint will then be handed to the company, which then arranges so that
the consumer receives the material needed to make the blueprint a reality. They supply
whatever that is needed in order to satisfy the consumer and the company also responds
very fast to changes that the consumer wants to make and improvements they wish to see
when placing future purchases.
6.6.2 The Medium
However, there is one major function in between the consumers and the company that
plays a crucial role, and that is the Internet. Without having a medium that allows for the
two parties to communicate fast, flexibly and in an efficient way the interaction between
the two will be close to non-existing. The Internet therefore serves as a foundation for
building the house. Without the foundation neither the design, the blueprint made by the
consumer or the material provided by the company, will be of any use. The Internet will be
a large determinant to whether the process is viable or not and no house will be built with-
out it. As information systems, warehousing and so forth improves so will the time effi-
ciency and the two parties will save not only time, but also costs by using this communica-
tion channel.
See the next page for an illustrative figure of the Blueprint Concept.






72










Figure 6:3; The Blueprint Concept
6.7 Taking the Leap
Previously, the authors discussed and agreed upon a set of elements that will be of utmost
importance for companies to cultivate in this new digital world and they also offered a
model (fig. 6:1) which can act as an instant reminder of them, the elements are: customiza-
tion, speed, flexibility and sustainability. Now is the time to be more specific on how these
elements could be attained, and hence, how companies can take the leap into the new digi-
tal bowl, sorry; world.
6.7.1 Customization
Both the new paradigm and the Blueprint Concept that you have been introduced to, rely
on the fact that companies, in the new digital world, can find out exactly what consumers
want. This means that for a wide variety of products, companies are able to move out their
R&D out of the labs and into the hands of consumers.
The prominence of customization in this new world demands other forms of product de-
velopment and delivery systems and it redefines the relationship between suppliers and
consumers. When consumers are allowed this great variety and alteration of their desired
products, it is important that companies are careful not to go beyond their own capabilities
and that they ensure a functioning and safe product despite alteration; technology must be
used to streamline the customization process.
As a result, customization implies a reorganization of the relationship between the firm and
its consumers; the consumer designs the product or the service while the firm “lends” out
its manufacturing logistics and other resources to the consumer, much in line with the
Blueprint Concept.
In any case, the company must of course know what the consumer wants, how, specifically,
can we move out R&D to the hands of consumers? Well, in principle, it is just like Picard
said; the company must ask the consumer! Although, looking further into the matter, there
are many ways in which a company can go about doing this where your own level of crea-

73
tivity is the only limit. Nevertheless, let us go through some of the ways in which this effec-
tively can be done.
First and foremost, it is about making the customer wanting to take the time to share
information with you, since after all, in a world where speed is a crucial element - time
inevitably becomes a valuable currency for both consumer and company. Well, for
someone to be willing to give you such information he or she must first of all have an
interest in doing so, which logically means that they have something to gain from it, and, of
course, you have to gain something from it as well. What this translates into is the notion of
that customization should be a process of mutual benefit between company and consumer,
more specifically, the notion can be expressed as “As long as you buy, you can have it any way
you want it”.
This can take the form of that you allow the consumer to customize the product him-
/herself right on your website before ordering it. There are several reasons for why this is a
good approach, for one, the customization occurs on your conditions and thus ensures that
you can handle the requirements, and two, it is easy for the consumer which encourages
that they actually go through with the purchase. A perfect and modern example of this is
the web based company; Macstyles.com, they sell vinyl decals for Apple notebooks and the
customer can customize their own design, see designs by other customers, post suggestions
for new designs on a forum, download manuals for how to apply the decals, and upload
pictures of their final product once received – all on the same website. Take a look at
appendix E and get inspired.
There are, of course, many other obvious ways, such as post purchase evaluations where
the Internet can allow you to send e-mail surveys to customers who have already purchased
your product. The authors would instead like to emphasize the discussed notion of mutual
benefit as a precondition for customization, and that it should be a starting point for your
own way of enabling and enhancing customization in accordance with the nature of your
product.
Another big chunk of customization is more about pure market research in order to find
out what consumers want, which is significantly enhanced with the Internet. The authors
write more about this in the section of flexibility, and that information can also be applied
in this matter.
6.7.2 Speed
Earlier, the authors have said that all of the immediate interconnectivity that has been
talked about throughout the thesis has generally created very demanding consumers who
not only want the best product or service for the best possible price, but they also want it
instantly. In fact, much of the growth and success of so many e-businesses can be credited
to consumers’ expectations in a digital world. They like the possibility of acquiring products
and services interactively, anywhere in the world at any time and to accomplish this with
the added benefits of interactive e-business solutions.
A crucial move towards this goal is to redesign the supply chain in order to find a balance
between digital and material distribution. Although, for digital products (e.g., books, soft-
ware, music, movies) this is a much simpler task since the products can be downloaded and
billed entirely online. With physical products (e.g., clothes, food), on the other hand, it is a
more complex issue and the physical distribution must be outsourced and completely inte-
grated with the digital component.

74
A huge opportunity that has arisen in the digital world is the possibility of offering your
suppliers real time access to your customers’ orders, and consequently achieving just-in-
time inventory with a streamlined, globally integrated and customer driven supply chain.
Particularly on the business-to-business side, the use of technology can facilitate an integra-
tion of the supply networks, it can reduce product inventory, streamline processes, help se-
cure the needed financing and other services, and consequently cut costs and speed up de-
velopment, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services.
Another crucial part of speeding up your company, the authors believe, is to cultivate a
suiting set of values throughout the company and let them saturate every department.
These values and the culture they promote should particularly emphasize the importance of
quickly addressing consumers’ inquiries. From personal experience, the authors cannot
emphasize enough how important it is that a company answers your e-mails fast and how
this leaves the impression of a well organized, professional and service-minded company.
Nothing is worse than sending an e-mail to a company or any organization for that matter,
and receiving an answer two weeks afterwards or not at all. However, how disappointing it
may be for the consumer, the company is always the loser in this situation. If a consumer
takes the time to send you e-mail he or she is interested and you should always aspire to
surprise the consumer with your speed of answering, and the polite manner in which you
do so. This, the authors assure you, have a way more positive impact on the consumer than
you might imagine. Hence, the values and the culture you should cultivate in your company
should express that:
All contact initiated by consumers is good contact and should be perceived as an interest
to buy, or an opportunity for the company to learn!
All contact should be answered instantly if possible, and if not – absolutely no longer
than 24 hours after the initial contact!
Always reply with an aura of respect, appreciation and sincerity!
6.7.3 Flexibility
The authors derived the importance of flexibility from the fact of a dynamic environment
where “one minute today is a mili second tomorrow” and where lowered entry barriers and
billions of connected people, “bubbling with ideas and concepts”, can improve, copy or
overthrow your idea.
It was also stated that your flexibility should be implemented in updating the business con-
cept and in seeking for ways to improve it in order to make it as sustainable as possible.
Flexibility is hence very much connected with sustainability, but the authors also talked
about the element of speed in regards to implementing the flexibility, and these two ele-
ments are thus also connected.
The bottom line is that flexibility is kind of a “backbone element” in this new digital world,
and it implies the entire necessary morale fiber of the modern organization of being alert,
swift, proactive and always ready in a world where nothing is still. In fact, these attributes
could, and should, be transferred to individual managers as well since, in reality, managers
bear the most responsibility for making their organizations flexible.
Flexibility implies that one is flexible towards something, in this case, the entire surround-
ing environment of the company. This element, the authors believe, is thus a matter of at-

75
tentiveness in regards to this environment due to that companies must, of course, know
what to be flexible towards. They need to know what to change, what to update and how
they need to adjust in response to their environment in general. The key here is then; in-
formation. Companies must be attentive to what is going on in their environment, and in
other companies’ environments as well, for that matter. They must not only be attentive, but
also proactive in regards to by themselves finding out what is happening concerning new
trends, competitors and new technology, for example, but also in finding out what is hap-
pening concerning problems and upcoming obstacles. Nothing good comes out of sitting
still.
However, flexibility does not only imply external factors but first and foremost it is an in-
ternal attribute to be able to change and adjust the company in response to something that
is outside. In regards to information as just discussed, the dilemma is to be able to transfer
it across all dimensions of the company in order to make it a coherent entity; you cannot
only change one third or half of the company.
Regarding information transparency and knowledge transfer within the company, the
authors strongly suggests companies to create an internal blog as a complement to e-
mailing.
Wright (2006) mentions the following advantages that blogs have over e-mail:
• Anyone can contribute
• Anyone can comment and their comments can be seen by everyone
• All posts are archived indefinitely
• Blog posts are categorized for ease of viewing
• Past posts can be searched quickly and easily
Internal blogs are powerful tools for internal communications, and Wright (2006) contin-
ues to say that they could be used for project sites, new project announcements, recruiting
and as a way to filter down official company news and information from executives.
For starting your new blog, the authors suggest that you check out WordPress
(www.wordpress.org) or Community Server (www.communityserver.org) software, which
both are completely free to download.
Returning to the importance of information and being attentive and proactive in regards to
your environment, blogs can, again, be of great help. The thing is not to find information,
but rather the right information, and there are several services out there (Technorati, Blog-
Pulse, IceRocket, PubSub) that offer you an entire searchable database of what is being said
in millions of blogs, search your company!
In fact, the origin of these blog databases has a lot to do with bloggers wanting to know
what is said about them, so instead for searching the web using Google, for example, Dave
Sifry (one of the earliest bloggers) created Technorati (www.technorati.com) as a way of
seeing how blogs are connected with each other, as quoted by Wright (2006) in the book
“Blog Marketing”:
“The reason why I created Technorati in the first place – I wanted to know who was talking about me and
the things I cared about – hasn’t changed… It provides me with a drop of joy and a lot of wonder that we

76
have been able to contribute our small part to the greater good, and to help people make sense out of all of
this remarkable creativity in the blogosphere.” (p. 148)
When everybody in the company knows what is going on, you as a manager can more eas-
ily assign changes according to the new information that you acquire and pass down
through the internal blog.
6.7.4 Sustainability
Changing consumer preferences, competitive dynamics, and other interconnected features
of the global digital business context that have been discussed so far, increase the uncer-
tainty in regards the likely effectiveness of the firm’s strategies. In this situation, the solu-
tion is to formulate and launch multiple strategies and evaluate their impact.
Without such experimentation, if a firm goes only with a single strategy, at the end of the
period, management is in no better position to decide what to do next – to increase, de-
crease, or keep the same level of marketing effort.
In a fast-changing, dynamic and uncertain global business environment, adaptive experi-
mentation is prerequisite for sustainability. Conducting comprehensive and adaptive ex-
periments with breakthrough experiments is the only way to reduce risk and accurately re-
view market responses to new strategic initiatives.
The major benefits of adaptive experimentation – continuous learning, added incentive to
develop and test innovative strategies that make it difficult for competition to figure out
your strategy, and cultivating a culture of experimentation and learning - are even more
crucial in the changing and chaotic digital marketing world.
In other words, the authors could not agree more with Maruggi when he says that “I believe
companies should incorporate a Research and Development budget in their marketing divisions” and that
“marketing should have a line item in their budgets called ‘experimenting’ and use it for 2 or 3 new media
type tests in a year.”
6.7.5 = VALUE
As previously mentioned, it is the combination and the synergy of these aspects that ulti-
mately creates value for the consumers in the new digital world; high speed equals high
value, high level of customization equals high value, and sustainability and continuous im-
provement ensures high value over time. Further, all concepts are interconnected with each
other, you could see that the importance of information is a common denominator for all
elements, just as the mentioned values and corporate culture are.
A company that implements a customization system based on mutual benefit and thus en-
courages consumers to go through with purchases as well to give information, a company
that implements just-in-time inventory and cultivates a culture of quickly and politely ad-
dressing consumers inquiries, a company that knows what is being said about it and that
has the ability to flexibly adapt to its environment, and a company that dares to experiment
in new medias and strategies in order to stay ahead of the changes, is bound to succeed in
the new, digital world.
On the next page, the authors offer you a model that depicts the elements of the new digi-
tal world as well as keywords for the significant steps necessary for taking the leap and
evolving your market communication for the future.

77































ADAPTIVE
EXPERIMENTATION
MUTUAL
BENEFIT
R&D W/ CONSUMERS

JUST-IN-TIME INV.
VALUES & CULTURE
INTERNAL BLOG
Figure 5:3; The New Digital World Market Communication Diamond

78
7 Conclusions
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the modern media environment and its ongo-
ing transformation, and it aimed to result in some guidance for how companies can evolve
their market communication to keep up with this new, digital world.
The authors also explained that this purpose was double natured in the sense that it was re-
quired to investigate the current media environment and determine the major transforma-
tions taking place within it today, and only then could the authors move on to provide ad-
vice for companies in how to evolve and adjust for the future.
After having conducted thorough research, both theoretical and empirical, the authors
were able to distinguish some major trends in which the current media environment is be-
ing altered in regards to the future. The trends are that technology, and particularly the In-
ternet, is evolving from just being an enhancer towards becoming a determining part of
market communication, a move from broad and often demographically based segmentation
to a narrower and more niched fragmentation of markets, decreasing returns to scale to in-
creasing returns to scale, the shift from an environment where existing business models are
being recycled to a modern potential of entirely new business concepts, and finally, the
trend of that tangible assets are also being complemented with the importance of intangible
assets, which is to say that information about consumers and their preferences and behav-
iors are crucial for the future company.
In this new and emerging reality, the authors identified four major elements that will be
crucial for companies to cultivate and incorporate in their operations in order to adjust to
the changes. The elements were speed, flexibility, customization and sustainability.
Since a majority of the research portrayed an emerging environment where consumers are
being endlessly empowered, the authors found it important to offer a paradigm that clearly
incorporates that companies, as well, are empowered by the new technological possibilities,
The paradigm thus expressed that consumers’ newfound power, derived from endless
communication possibilities, also brings along the opportunity for companies to find out
exactly what consumers want. The Blueprint Concept acted to further illustrate and
strengthen this paradigm, and its basic notion is that the new media environment enables
companies to attain quite exact blueprints of consumer preferences, which they can use for
optimizing their strategies as well as their products.
In addition to just introducing the new world elements, the authors also provided some
guidance in how to actually incorporate the implication of the elements in your company. It
was said that speed is best achieved through offering your suppliers real time access to your
customers’ orders and thus achieving a streamlined, just-in-time inventory, as well as culti-
vating values that emphasize the importance of quickly addressing customers’ needs. Flexi-
bility is also closely connected with values and the corporate culture, but the authors also
stressed the importance of finding out what to actually be flexible towards. In regards to
customization, a basic notion of mutual benefit was offered as a point of departure for all
attempts to encourage consumers to give you information. In order to stay alive in the new,
turbulent and chaotic digital world, the authors also urged managers to dare to experiment
in new media channels, and they expressed that proactiveness is crucial for attaining
sustainability.
All of the elements and the examples of how they could be instigated where then neatly
summarized in the “New Digital World Market Communication Diamond”.

79
8 Limitations and Outroduction

Firstly, this thesis was conducted without any financial support of any kind, which is a lim-
iting aspect in regards to the necessary costs of traveling large distances to meet people of
interest. However, the authors were fortunate enough to be part of the same institution as
the Media Management and Transformation Centre of the Jönköping International Busi-
ness School that, as can be derived from the name, is very relevant to the subject of the
thesis. Further, the authors are also fortunate enough to live in a time where most people
have their own computers and are connected to the Internet, which enabled them to con-
duct e-mail interviews with people at different places and from different institutions. Nev-
ertheless, e-mail interviews are naturally inferior to face-to-face interviews and this is thus
still a limit per se.
Secondly, as this is a consultative thesis it is important to make clear that even though the
authors have studied marketing and management for several years, they are not in any way
considered to be experts within the field in the same sense as those who have been inter-
viewed here, of which most have way more years of studies in their account, tremendous
experience and esteemed recognition. However, the authors prefer to reverse this argument
and instead point to that they have “stood on the shoulders of those who are greater”, and
that it is, in fact, this contact with these brilliant people that have enabled them to hope-
fully provide some guidance of value.

The authors would like to thank you for having read this far, and if you have gained any
valuable insight, ideas or advice that you find worthwhile and that can be of any assistance
to you, the purpose – at least on a personal level, has been fulfilled.

We wish you all the luck and fortune with whatever you are doing!

Best regards,
Leo Saleh & Angelica Storck









80
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APPENDICES
A: The State of the Blogosphere
Charts retrieved from: http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000436.html, 2007-05-14













































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More on the next page!

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B: YouTube Interface
Pictures retrieved from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer, 2007-05-10























More on the next page!

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C: Joost™ Interface
Pictures retrieved from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer, 2007-05-10





























More on the next page!

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D: MySpace Interface
Pictures received from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer, 2007-05-23

















More on the next page!

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E: Macstyles.com
Pictures received from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer, 2007-05-23





























More on the next page!

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F: E-mail Questions

Questions; EXPERTS

The Media Environment Changes

1. What do you feel are the major transformations occurring right
now in the media environment?

2. Where do you think the media environment is heading as a re-
sult of these transformations?

3. A) Are there any particular transformations that you believe will
have the most impact on how companies communicate with
their customers?

B) And respectively, are there any particular transformations
that you believe will have the most impact on what con-
sumers demand from companies?

Corporate Response to the Changes

4. How should companies, in your opinion, evolve the way they
communicate with their customers in response to these trans-
formations?

5. Is there an industry where companies have to be particularly
proactive in the face of these transformations?



N E W DI G I T A L W O R L D
TAKE THE LEAP!

&

i

Master Thesis in Business Administration
Title: Market Communication in the New Digital World, Take the Leap! Authors: Leo Saleh & Angelica Storck Tutor: Susanne Hertz Date: 2007-05-28 Subject Terms: Marketing, Market Communication, Marketing Management, Market Changes, Media Transformation, Media Audiences, Consumer Behaviour

Abstract
Background:

During the last years, the boom of the Internet has carried along with it new possibilities for communication, in addition, other technological developments of society together act to form a new reality in which companies have to rethink their means for communicating with consumers. In a new reality where consumers seem to reap all the benefits of the technological changes, how then, should companies adjust to the changing environment? The authors first investigated the modern media environment and found some trends in how it is evolving, and after listening to what some experts within the field think about the future and of what should be done, they themselves endeavoured to generate some guidance for companies in this matter. This thesis is somewhat of a Delphi study, which means that it heavily relies on the statements of experts. What they have said has played a crucial role in the authors’ own formulation of guidance. The experts were interviewed either face-to-face, or through the exchange of e-mails. Major trends in how the media environment is transforming are; technology as an enhancer to rather becoming a determinant, segmentation to fragmentation, decreasing- to increasing returns to scale, an opening for entirely new business concepts and an increasing value of intangible assets as a complement to traditional, tangible assets. The authors then presented some elements that would be of crucial significance in this new environment, and they also formulated some more specific guidance in how these elements could be instigated in companies. They were; Speed and flexibility, customization and sustainability. Advice in how they could be instigated where then summarized and illustrated in the “New Digital World Market Communication Diamond”, which basically emphasizes the need for updating the values and the corporate culture, the need for streamlining supply chains, the need of truly finding and using information about consumers, and finally, the need for adaptive experimentation.

Problem and Purpose:

Method:

Conclusions:

ii

and we wish you success in becoming the best business school of Sweden. We would also like to thank our tutor.com angelica.Acknowledgments We would like to thank Jönköping International Business School for the last four years. Cinzia Dal Zotto. Niklas Elmgren and Mikael Nyström. We feel that we now leave. 28 May 2007 Leo Saleh Angelica Storck contact@leocallidus. adventurous.com iii . Nils Enlund.storck@gmail. and it goes for both of us when we say that our study abroad experiences have been amongst the most exciting things we have done in our lives this far. Maria Norbäck. We sincerely hope that you maintain and expand this possibility. Robert Picard. Bertil Thorngren. Susanne Hertz. Kristofer Mencák. We would especially like to thank you for allowing us to travel the world as part of your study abroad program. enriched with an advantageously international education with many doors open before us. Enjoy your reading! Jönköping. Thank you Albert Maruggi. as well as our entire seminar group for all of our engaging discussions and the laughs we have shared. fun. They have been exciting. Annette Johansson and Per-Erik Wolff. and grueling at times. Karl-Erik Gustafsson. We extend a special thanks to all of the experts from the Media Management and Transformation Centre. who guided us through the entire process of writing the thesis. we had a great time meeting and discussing this interesting subject with you. you made this thesis possible. We would like to thank all the experts who took the time from their busy lives to talk to us for a while. but in the end they have been tremendously rewarding and invaluable to us.

............................................ 15 Path Dependence ....4 3............. 14 Increasing Returns to Scale ................20 3...................3.............1 3..................4........................23 3......... 17 RSS ..7 The Matrix of Change ...........................1 3..4 1.........................................1.................................3..1.........................................................................................................................3....................2....................................... Quantitative Research Methods ................1.......................................................1 3......1................................ 16 The Internet ................................................................ 18 Blogs ...............................................................................................2...16 3.............. 17 Joost ......................................5 The New Reality of the Global Digital World.......19 3............. 16 YouTube ....................................1..............9 2 Underlying Assumptions ..................................3.....1...........................................................................3 Communication Technologies .................................2................6 2.................................1 The Change of the Matrix .........1 The Cyber Consumer ......... Push ..........................1..................................................... 16 Streaming Audio and Video..........3........2 3.......................................... 20 3....................................1................. 1 1...3 Purpose ........................ 18 Podcasting ........3...............................1.......................................3 3.............................................2.........................3.......3 1...............1...............27 3....................................................................3.1.................................2......... 18 M-Commerce ..........3................27 4 Methodology..................29 4......2 3................................1..................................................2..........4 Dissecting the purpose ............................1 3.......................Table of Contents 1 Introduction ..............1....................................................................................................................4 Media’s Impact on the Consumer ................................3.............3............... 17 MySpace ...........1 Gathering Data ...........................................4........7 3......................................................................5 3............................................5 1.................................................................................26 3...........................................................4 Mobile Internet...6 The Big Picture ......1............................5 Target Readers....................................................................... 15 Pull vs......... 17 Webcasting .. 29 4........................................2 Network Externalities ..........................23 3.................................................................1........ 19 Wireless Advertising ..........................21 3...................................................8 3...3.................................................................2 Qualitative vs................3...............................................................2 3............................1 Digitization and Convergence...........................................................................1 Qualitative Research .........................1 Moving from Mass Production to Customization........2 The Economics of the Information Age.....................2 Measuring Consumer Activity ........2 Consumer Behavior........13 3.................................2..................2 Background ................................................................................2 Problem discussion .........4...............................6 3.........................................13 3......................3 3.................1...............................4 3.........1.........4..................2 The Delphi Study Method ............3...14 3........................................................................................................................3..........4......4 Viral Marketing.........................................................................................29 4........1 2........ 7 3 Theoretical Framework........2 1..........................................................................................................................................................24 3........................................ 15 Lock-In ..................... 13 3.. 18 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing .......................................1..........................................................................................................3 3...30 iv ........................1 Converging to the End Consumer ...........................29 4.................3 Consumer Use of Word of Mouth ...........................1..........1..........................................................................3 Convergence & the Converging Consumer ...22 3....................4............25 3............................................................1.4 Disposition .......................................................................1 1...........................................................

........................3 The Future ..........................................................................................................................................................................................40 5..........................41 5..................................37 4................................37 4..............................1 The Changes .4 Primary Data.........8.........................1 The Changes ...................46 5...........48 5..................12 Validity ...........57 5...5 Bertil Thorngren.......................3........................................................................................................2................................. Picard.........................45 5.......................................................................7 Per-Erik Wolff ...................34 4.8...............................3 Contacted Experts ..........................................2 The Consumer.....53 5.............................................................2 The Consumers .........3 Primary & Secondary sources .................................................57 5....................................................................................1...............9 Robert G..........55 5.....................11 Reliability ..........................................................................................................34 4...........2 The Consumers ......................................................................................1 The Changes ............................................8.....................................8.....................................2 The Consumers .58 5........................................55 5.............................................2 E-mail Interviews ..........................3 The Future .......8 Cinzia Dal Zotto .........10 Analyzing the Data ...........................................................................................34 4...........9.........................................................3 The future .....1............................................59 v ......4........31 4.......................1 The Changes ........................................................................5 Secondary Data................................2 The Consumers .............................................................2..............................................1 Karl-Erik Gustafsson..........................9.........4.....1..33 4.................................................6................................................2 The Consumers ...............................................................................................................................45 5.............1 The Changes ...................................................................38 4.48 5.........................................3 The Future ..............10 Mikael Nyström @ Nyström Media ...............................57 5.....43 5........8 Interviews .............................................................2...............54 5............3..........................................40 5.................................................................................................1 Face-to-Face Interviews ...........................35 4..............................3 Albert Maruggi ...........................................................3 The Future ...................1 The Changes ..........................................2 The Consumers .56 5...........................13 Short Summary of the Methodology .......................................................3 The Future .. 40 5..............53 5.........7................51 5..................................................................4....................................2 Annette Johansson....3 The Future ..................46 5.................3................................................................................................38 5 Empirical Findings..........................1 The Changes ....8....................................................................9............6.......31 4...................................................................50 5.......................................6 Selection Criteria’s.........................43 5.........................................................................53 5........................44 5...................................52 5...51 5..................7 Snowball sampling...........9 Interpretation ..........................36 4....................................................................................................................................................................8.....................................................3 The Future ....................4 Nils Enlund .............................55 5..................6.................................................................................................32 4........48 5...................................1 The changes.......................................2 The Consumers ....................6 Maria Norbäck ..........................................................................48 5........32 4........7............................................7...................43 5.......4.......................................41 5...............51 5........................

.......................64 6...........73 6..........5 B2Cn .................1 Blueprint & Material ........................91 D: MySpace Interface...............................................................................72 6...........59 5....... 78 8 Limitations and Outroduction ................................................................................................12.................................69 6......................................................................76 7 Conclusions......11 Niklas Elmgren @ Infrakultur ..................................................................1 The Changes.............................62 5.................................2 The Consumer..5...............................................................................11...........7.......................1 The Changes........10...2 The Consumer.....1 Customization............................70 6...............................................................7 Taking the Leap................59 5...61 5.........................60 5.....3 Flexibility.........74 6....................................................................................................1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 The Changes....................92 E: Macstyles...................7..............................11.............3 Communicating Through the Internet ...........66 6... 80 APPENDICES .............5 = VALUE...................7..................65 6......67 6.....64 6............................................................................................................3 The Future........................ 86 A: The State of the Blogosphere ..........................................................6......................6...............2 The Medium......76 6...........................................................................................10.............2 User Generated Content.............................................................2 Summarizing the Trends .........................................................................................................96 vi .......................71 6............... 79 References .....................................1 Convergence ......10.........................3 The Future......7.....................6 The Blueprint Concept.............................................................................................................................................3 The New World Elements...............71 6....................................................................................................................................60 5...............2 The Consumer..........12...............................................2 Speed ................................................................................62 5.............................................1 Current Trends and What Lies Ahead ........... 64 6...............................................................12....7..............................................12 Kristofer Mencák @ GoViral .............86 B: YouTube Interface ......................................................................60 5.................................62 5............................................................................4 Sustainability ...59 5............1.............................................................................................................94 F: E-mail Questions.......................................................................................3 The Future...........com ..........................................................................................62 6 Analysis ........4 The Paradigm ........................68 6....................................89 C: Joost™ Interface .....11........1............................................72 6..........................................................................................................70 6.......................................

The Level of Consultancy Figure 2:1 .The Market Matrix Model Figure 2:5 . 1997 Figure 2:3 .The Disposition of the Thesis Figure 1:2 .Summarizing the Trends Figure 6:2 . 1991 Figure 2:2 .The New World Elements Model Figure 6:3 . 2015 Figure 2:4 .Map of International Connectivity.The New Digital World Market Communication Diamond 5 6 7 8 8 10 11 35 39 67 69 72 77 vii .The Blueprint Concept Figure 6:4 .Map of International Connectivity.The Methodology of the Thesis Figure 6:1 .The Interviewees Figure 4:2 .FIGURES Figure 1:1 .Internet Users World Map.The Market Matrix and Change Model Figure 4:1 .

up until now marketing have continuously separated between sender and receiver.1 Introduction This section will guide you into the subject and incrementally lead you to a realization of the problem and the purpose of this entire study. to publishers and digital media innovators — are seeing once-predictable revenue structures give way as consumers get used to information available virtually on demand — whenever. or “word-of- 1 . organizations started to peek on the consumer side of the transaction as well. 2003). While audiences’ appetite for information and entertainment is truly staggering. “Few industries are under as much pressure as media…thanks to a growing number of delivery channels and formats. p. Back then. sharing and trading online. However. It’s not surprising that enterprises — from entertainment. What evolved from there was a new philosophy which suggested that in order to increase sales. companies have send their marketing messages. and willing. Sure. inventing. price setting was viewed as a simple supply and demand issue) and it had barely differentiated from plain advertising theory (Knowthis. the consumer have received them and acted upon the multitude of messages from different companies. The main objective is that after reading this section. In an environment like this. The Internet connects billions of people across continents and people are actively grouping. and we can now surely talk about the consumer as being the king. Not until then was marketing in its truest sense born. 2007). 2007). word-of-mouth. broadcasting and cable companies. marketing was in its baby years and many of its now elementary issues were assumed to fall within basic concepts of economics (e. Charles Jenkins. there has always been the impact of word-of-mouth. In the increasing competition of the midst 20th century companies slowly began to realize that the old ways of selling were losing their ways. where people are unlimitedly connected with each other. to read further. companies needed also to understand the needs and behaviours of their consumers.g. Marketing was now first and foremost about knowing the consumer and it is very likely that it is from this time that the term “The Customer is King” was born (Creative Match. broadcasted the first television commercial (Inventors. the American television pioneer. it will also provide you with an illustrative display of the disposition of the thesis. 1 In 1930. you will have a clear insight in what this study is about and that you will be prepared. but its influence was still not powerful enough to generate a great concern for management. consumers have virtually unlimited options when it comes to how and when they consume information.Transforming media and entertainment: The journey to on demand (2004). reading. The significance of the consumer being the sender of the marketing message was minimal. Even though television commercials today receive a mixed variety of feelings with an inclination towards being mostly negative. Fast forward to 2007. motion picture commercial. surely people must have been astounded upon seeing that first. (Hill Holliday. Further. however and from wherever they choose to absorb it.. providers are finding they must spread the wealth in a buyer’s market now glutted with delivery points. 2007).” . discussing. As competition grew stiffer across most industries. You will also be presented with information on the target readers of the study and some clarifications.

Consumers have moved from owning the means of content consumption to owning the means of production and ultimately — the means of distribution. consumers– just as well as companies. this also means increased opportunities for companies as they too have access to the World Wide Web and all its functions just like you and me. An evolution of any medium is shaped by its users. their storage capacity accommodating for thousands of programming hours. “A modern celebrity is someone who is recognized by more people than he himself can recognize. people influence other people’s buyer behavior perhaps even to a greater extent than companies do. plummeted sales. in the early days of television. and ruined entire organizations (Tremayne. (Hill Holliday. but all kinds of new technologies of the 21st century are collectively challenging the traditional market structures and they are continuously forming new conditions to act upon. Still. cable and satellite will become irrelevant because all screens will be connected to a single pipe that is now known as the Internet. and they do! 1. 2007) 2 • • • • • • . are senders of marketing messages. Nobody knows how a particular device can evolve. websites. If. among other shows. too. Here is an instant time machine in bullet points that will give you a glimpse of what is happening: • The difference between broadcast. can utilize the power of blogs. least of all its engineers. On the other hand. Companies.1 Background In the modern society. communities – you name it! The Internet opens up a whole new world of marketing opportunities in this new age of interconnectedness. We will be moving from the rule of mass content to the rule of content communities as TV content recommendation technologies proliferate The mobile phone is not only a media consumption device.mouse” rather. DVRs (digital video recorders) as we know them will die out since all screens will be powered by computers (read: have memory and web access) and all content will be available on demand.” That’s from Gary Carter. Cell phones will become DVRs-on-the-go. Managing Director of FremantleMedia that created American Idol. 2007). Companies now have all the reasons in the world to worry about what people think about them. has a completely new meaning. a celebrity was somebody who had done something notable. Blogs have on occasions destroyed company images. Today. it’s also a content creation device. They can send you personalized information in an instant and customize marketing messages based on your Internet behavior. market changes that are occurring today are not only limited to the proliferation of the web.

Clearly. Instead pressures are coming from technological forces. production forces. acquisitions and an explosion of digital formats have widened the playing field and created numerous opportunities. With this new technology.It is clear that we are moving towards a situation where the individual has an increasingly powerful influence on the market and in which customization and personalization to the needs of the consumer is key. digital media and mobile phones have made information more or less transparent (Robert G. their choices are subject to evolving menus in terms of when. “Strategic Responses to Media Market Changes” (2004): “The pace of these [market] changes is extraordinary. Those who cannot fly will have to develop wings and those who cannot swim will have to develop gills. they are in other words able to filter out any information they perceive as irrelevant. social forces. 1 1. forcing managers. to develop strategic responses. Although deregulation. This puts even more financial pressure on providers to better target captive audiences. and employees to scramble to comprehend the changes. The process is complex and there is difficulty determining where to focus attention because no single force is behind the changes. who are less inclined to place their faith in a single medium or a single product. and to reorganize their activities.Transforming media and entertainment: The journey to on demand (2004). p. 2007-03-08). broadband that facilitates downloading. Consumers have furthermore become more selective towards the information that is heaped upon them and now have the option to choose which messages to pay more attention to and which not. 3 . . While consumers remain fundamental to the industry. It is the perception of the authors of this thesis that companies today are like organisms whose habitat is drastically changing and that evolvement is a prerequisite for continued survival. companies that do not respond in some way to the transforming environment are most likely to join the Dinosaurs in extinction. where and how they can consume (and pay for) content.” New technologies are changing the role of traditional media: blogs are undermining newspapers. Developing media channels such as the Internet. Here is what Professor Picard very well writes in the preface of the book. personal communication. market forces. and managerial forces simultaneously. and P2P (peer to peer) sharing is revolutionizing the way we access and consume music. Picard.2 Problem discussion In today’s constant developing media environment people are subjected to messages more than ever. these developments are a cautionary tale for investors. For companies this means that the market has now become a tougher environment and that intensified competition has made it more difficult than ever to communicate to consumers. Consumers are also using a variation of media channels to a much larger extent than before. DVRs are allowing viewers to rid themselves of commercials and to see shows when it suits them the most. the pressure is on to find new and better ways to operate in an environment marked by rapid and often unpredictable change. shareholders.

and they thus seek to discover how companies can be proactive in the face of these challenges by asking themselves the second question. in this new reality. is affected by the changes and how it beneficially could be adjusted in response to them. it is accurate to conclude that the entire purpose is in fact very future oriented. Secondly. the term or theoretical concept of market communication itself. However. The authors will. is not. how consumer preferences and demand will change and how companies will evolve as a response to this. the authors are then enlightened in the new reality of companies. What is important is how market communication.Based on these issues the authors of this thesis are therefore firstly interested in investigating what experts within this field believe will happen in the future. as defined here. discussing or further elaborating on it in the theoretical framework. The term ”modern media environment” suggests something right now. here.3 Purpose This thesis will investigate the modern media environment and its ongoing transformation. and in what proactive manner could they. while the term ”…ongoing transformation…” also refers to something in the future. on the other hand. the authors must first investigate in what way the current media environment is transforming. 1. when looking at the time frames of the purpose the reader can recognize that there is one present and one future aspect of it. 4 .4 Dissecting the purpose Even though the purpose is pretty straightforward there are several underlying dimensions that can be uncovered when reading it more thoroughly. It is hence a very simple definition of the term and there will be no emphasis made on explaining. take action in order to stay competitive and keep consumers satisfied. The purpose is thus double natured in regards to being about grasping the current media environment as well as its changes. it is simply all ways in which a company communicates with its consumers. and then finding out how companies can think and act in response to them. also take the chance to clarify that what is meant by ”market communication” in this thesis. as ongoing transformations inevidently mean that something will be different further down the road. 1) What are the major changes that are occurring right now and in what direction are they taking the media environment in regards to the future? Having attained answers to the first question. there is a duality to the purpose in the sense of that in order to attain some guidance for how companies can evolve their market communication in the new digital world. 2) What can companies do to readjust themselves to the changing market conditions. 1. Questions that have to be answered are then. First of all. and it aims to result in some guidance for how companies can evolve their market communication to keep up with the new digital world.

in order to be able to offer some concretely presented guidance for how companies can act in the face of the changes in the media environment. The most significant section of this part is where the authors explain that this is somewhat of a Delphi study. This model.5 Disposition The thesis begins with a theoretical framework with the primary purpose of investigating what is going on in the media environment. Figure 1:1. in this section. where he or she will be introduced to how the authors have carried out the study. what their new reality looks like. then forms the composition of the theoretical framework as well as of the empirical findings. consisting of three parts. the two research questions and the purpose. For now. that is to say. but rather in the sense that it builds upon it and enables the authors to 5 . The empirical findings are constituted of the authors’ interviews with the selected panel of experts. The reader then moves on to the methodology of the thesis. special emphasis is made on the context of the changes. the reader is already aware of that this is a consultative thesis in which the authors try to gain understanding of the specific subject. not in the sense that it analyses a solution to a stated problem. the consumers and how companies are affected by the just mentioned. The reader is introduced to a model of the entire underlying assumption of the thesis. which basically is that companies are slower to react than consumers in the face of the changing environment. which is the case for a “normal” thesis. Having that said. The Disposition of the Thesis Having read the title. and their thoughts will be presented in accordance with the composition of the theoretical framework. which is in accordance with it. It will thus. be evident that this is a rather different thesis.1. let us just say that this means that the study is very much based on experts. this means that the analysis is based on the theoretical framework and the empirical findings.

the first research question. Visualizing a marketing professional as a reader of the end result has encouraged the authors to really contribute with an understanding of the current transformation of media and how this could influence how the marketer works today.see what is really important. Consequently. consultative. research question. The authors have also experienced that the subject of this thesis seems to have a very strong general appeal based on the positive reactions they have met from fellow students during its making. concerning how companies can think and act in response to them. is then answered by the theoretical framework as well as by the empirical findings. draw parallels and finally to provide something of value to people who are affected by the subject of the thesis. and that hopefully will give the student an edge. Figure 1:2. is thus answered by the entire scope of the thesis and the level of consultancy is subsequently increased as we reach deeper within it. They are. The student is perceived as the layman who merely seeks to learn something valuable but also more specifically as the business student who in this thesis can find a lot of new and insightful ideas that are not necessarily part of his or her conventional studies. the student. the marketer and the manager. The second. concerning the changes. both authors have agreed to continuously visualize and keep three particular readers in mind for which this thesis is particularly aimed.6 Target Readers When writing this thesis. Keeping the student in mind has promoted the authors to keep things as simple and pedagogical as possible. The Level of Consultancy 1. Keeping the manager in mind has triggered the authors to try to make the thesis as valuable and action-packed as possible in terms of inspiring managers to elevate their organizations in accordance with what the future holds. 6 .

Chakravorti (2003) in the first page of his book. but he also mentions that radio. 2.1). along with its research questions. Chakravorti (2003) says. USA. and the authors must admit that there is a sense of an underlying assumption that these changes will have a significant and even revolutionizing effect on how businesses communicate in their markets and on how society functions as a whole. We are often reminded by those mindful of history that canals. and electrification did not appear overnight. p. but nonetheless. technology and society inevitably transform and the pace of this change –whatever it may be . “Consider television”. assume.from GE’s first TV program in 1928 to the 1960s – before becoming a true mass medium. “The Slow Pace of Fast Change” The current. this is perhaps not something that one should unconsciously assume. have created some maps that suitably illustrate this matter. A. thus. quite dramatic changes in the global media environment are the point of departure of this entire thesis. (2005) . When putting things in contrast though. Larry Landweber of the Computer Science Department at the University of Wisconsin. which took more than thirty years . Big changes in society are indeed not something that occurs overnight. This first map shows the differential levels of network connectivity in September 1991: 7 Figure 2:1. Basically. 1991. the authors believe that all research begins with intrinsic assumptions held by the researchers. “…the most ubiquitous of innovations. they here intend to explain and motivate their own assumptions in regards to the subject of the thesis. However. It took thirty years for Television to become a true mass medium. Scarponi.” .” (The Slow Pace of Fast Change. empirically. Madison. Chakravorti (2003) states. experienced a much more rapid spread.is naturally subject to variation. Since the Internet has a central role in the changes that are studied in this thesis. let us take a look on how fast and how widespread it’s usage actually is. really matter. railways. it is rather a well-developed foundation for why the authors believe that this thesis. on the other hand.2 Underlying Assumptions This section is neither theoretical nor empirical.1 The Big Picture “Many good ideas now canonized as revolutions took decades to have impact. it is rather a combination of the two in which the authors theoretically support the underlying notions that they themselves. Map of International Connectivity. it is not a matter of loosely formulated notions that the authors subconsciously suppose.

Scarponi. Scarponi A. A. 2015. (2005) Even though the last map shows how nearly the entire world is connected. the following map depicts the predicted Internet usage 2015 and uses a cartogram representation where the size of the country is based on the number of Internet users rather than the geographical area.The next map is from June 1997 and the vast proliferation after only six years is very evident: Figure 2:2. Map of International Connectivity. Figure 2:3: Internet Users World Map. Antonio Scarponi (2005) has created an animated map of the world showing the growth of Internet users from 1993 and predicted to 2015. (2005) 8 . 1997. Nowadays the whole world is more or less considered to have Internet access and it is instead the number of Internet users within each country that is studied. it is still from 1997 and thus quite old.

the authors believe that the changes that are explored in this thesis will have a dramatic impact on how companies communicate in their markets. and also shared by him or her. exists in a matrix that is the environment of the entire market. this is perhaps not something that one should unconsciously assume. this something transforms within a certain context. actually – it is the matrix itself that is changing since the media environment is the connective link between businesses and consumers and thus it is part of the context in which they interact. or market rather. this also means that there can be all kinds of variation between the change of the actual thing that is changing. the authors consciously chose to assume this and it is their aspiration that the reasons for doing so will be evident to the reader. it is much more important to realize that the changes are actually occurring. the point here is that the changes studied in this thesis do not occur by themselves.2 The Matrix of Change The very notion of change assumes that something is or will undergo transformation. Nevertheless. The point here is that changes and evolvements in technology and society take place with varying paces and with varying effects. and it is this that is changing. communicate. In the beginning of this section the authors admitted that there is an underlying assumption that the changes studied here will have a significant and even revolutionizing affect on how businesses communicate in their markets and on how society functions as a whole. In the same reasoning. 2. particularly in comparison with that of television which was discussed earlier. 9 . after having read the frame of reference. and of course. how consumers retrieve information. will it take more than thirty years as in the case of television. the cube holding the bowl is a certain market of companies and consumers. the matrix is more particularly the media environment that consists of all communication channels between companies and consumers. Before continuing. It can be discussed how long it will take until there is a dramatic result on society as a result of the current changes. In the following figure. or will it be faster as in the case of radio and the Internet? However. and the matrix in which it is changing. and it is thus even more important to try to grasp the changes and try to realize what they imply – which is exactly why the authors have dedicated themselves to this thesis. In this thesis. but in the matrix which is the entire market of companies and consumers. and that they are gradually imposing companies to respond as it was made clear in the introduction of the thesis. and this cube. buy commodities and receive services in their daily lives. the matrix is the sea in which the business-fish and consumer-fish are swimming. as nothing exists by itself. and that its formation was quite rapid. or matrix. an illustration of this that will be developed further is well situated. but when putting things in contrast. Or to use an analogy.It is evident that the Internet is extremely widespread. But enough with the philosophy. if you will. Logically.

these parts are the units that are driving the developments of the media environment through creating new technologies and so forth. of course. leads to that the entire matrix changes. If the matrix is changing. a result of that other constituting parts of the matrix change. However.Figure 2:4. Ahrne & Papakostas (2001) say “inertia means that organizations change slowly and unwillingly and along tracks that are already laid out through the collective resources of the organization involved” (Inertia and Innovation. Another possibility. which would lead to that consumers adapt to this and change. The Market Matrix Model Let us return to the reasoning in the beginning of this section where the authors logically deducted that there can be variation between the change of the actual thing that is changing. Further. It can be fairly concluded that consumers are quicker to respond to changes in the matrix. let us theoretically clarify this. and that companies are slower in this regard due to their large composition and inertia. the authors would like to avoid making this thesis more advanced than necessary so let us leave it at that. It should be added that when the entire matrix changes it is. p. 4). It could also reversely be that companies change through for example developing new technology. 10 . and thus compel a response where the companies also change and which consequently means that the entire matrix changes. the variation then occurs in how consumers and companies respond to these changes and/or how quickly they respond to them. Other ways of expressing this more pedagogically would be to say that it could be either the consumers that change. However. which again. and the matrix in which it is changing. which is the case of this study. is instead that the matrix changes and imposes reactions from both consumers and companies. they use the argument of Hannan and Freeman (1989) to explain that the collective resources are designed and accumulated to do certain things and thus changes in activities could mean a waste of resources.

In the following figure. Organizations learn to report and handle certain kinds of information and not others. Although. On the basis of the mentioned presumptions. change is represented by orange and it is evident how the matrix is changing and how consumers already to a great extent have assimilated to these changes. This is why they to a certain extent are blind towards what is going on in their environment. So far. If reading it analytically. The Market Matrix and Change Model 11 . the same conclusions could be deducted from the introduction of the thesis as it fundamentally expressed how companies are being forced to adapt and evolve due to the changing behavior of consumers. while companies are slower to react. and they are only able to handle and transmit parts of this information within the organization (Ahrne & Papakostas. = CHANGE Figure 2:5.Another source of inertia is simply the inability to perceive new things or even a need for change. it is pretty straightforward that it is much easier for individual consumers to adapt to a newly available technology as opposed to an entire company that have to go through a lot of fuzz just in order to even slightly change its ways. it can be safely assumed that companies are slower to assimilate to changes in the matrix. let us now add the aspect of change to it and also try to involve the notion of that consumers are faster to responding to the changes that we just have discussed. which adds to the tendency towards inertia. 2001). Returning to the Market Matrix model. we have learned that it is the matrix that is changing and that consumers are faster in responding to these changes.

As it was implied earlier. 12 . the authors will thus investigate how companies are faced with new challenges and how they are becoming increasingly enforced to evolve in response to the changes. that is if they want to remain. the authors will approach the matter through looking at how consumers are changing.When we now continue further into the theoretical framework. the important thing is not that the media environment is changing. Finally. After investigating the changes occurring in the matrix. but that these changes are altering the way consumers behave. bear in mind that the changes you will read about are occurring in this matrix in which companies and consumers exist and interact. since they respond to them faster.or become increasingly successful. and that this consequently imposes companies to adapt and act in accordance with this.

DVRs as we know them will die out since all screens will be powered by computers and all content will be available on demand. This model is here discussed one part at a time. 13 . which you were introduced to in the previous section. and finally arriving at a discussion of how companies are affected by all of the previous. Another example is the cellular phone. grasp. Do you remember the time machine from the introduction. it is the transformation from analog to digital. cable and satellite will become irrelevant because all screens will be connected to a single pipe. (Hill Holliday.com. now. al. which relies on the transmission of digital signals (TVtechnology. 2001). 1999). the authors start off big before going into details and in order to really put things in context they developed a model.1 The Change of the Matrix The previous header was called ”The Matrix of Change” and it described how consumers and companies are part of the same context. beginning with the context of the transformations and moving on to how consumers are behaving differently as a result of them. Vinyl records and audio tapes were both analog and have been almost exclusively replaced by CD’s. 2007). which is the Internet. Today. which are digital (Ruefli et. this heading is instead called ”The Change of the Matrix” and we will now discover the ways in which this context is changing. that depicts the entire underlying notion of the theoretical framework. To put it in simpler words. the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. al. 2007). analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (in most cases. We will be moving from the rule of mass content to the rule of content communities as TV content recommendation technologies proliferate. For example. 3.1 Digitization and Convergence Digitization refers to the process of all electronic transmission and storage of information becoming digital (Ruefli. 2007). Cell phones will become DVRson-the-go with storage capacity accommodating for thousands of programming hours. television is being digitized especially with the commercial debut of high definition television. 2001). which in bullet points gave us a glimpse of what is happening? It was said that the difference between broadcast. Perhaps the most familiar example of the analog to digital shift is in recorded music.com. This is a quick glimpse of what is going on in the media environment today. Here is an explanation of the difference: ”As a technology.. 3. Whinston & Wiggins. As usual. we will move on to more deeply examining the major technological advancements of the information age. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of ’1’s and ’0’s” (Hellodirect. television signals used to be analog. When they first were introduced. It was also said that consumers have moved from owning the means of content consumption to owning the means of production and ultimately — the means of distribution.. and clarify the changes that are occurring in the media environment right now. but now they also rely on the transmission of digital signals (Hosoda et. which means that they were in the form of the transmission of electronic waves.1. cellular phones depended on analog transmission. however.3 Theoretical Framework This section has as its main purpose to explore.

it is a vital strategy because. magazines. television shows. Web browsers.2 The Economics of the Information Age The economic forces of the information-based society differ from the economic relationships that dominated the agricultural and industrial sectors of the economy. 3. newspapers. For example. the more people that use it the more attractive it is going to be for a potential buyer. 2001). Hence. radio shows. data. but another sense of convergence is the coming together of information delivery formats such as books.” (Digital Marketing.1 Network Externalities Tirole (1994) says that ”Positive network externalities arise when a good is more valuable to a user the more users adopt the same good or compatible ones. as you are aware of. this strategy of giving away unlimited amounts of your product would only lead to bankruptcy in either the agricultural or industrial economy. p. Ruefli. Web pages with text. al. al.”. and audio (Ruefli et. Think about your word processing program for example. p. the more people that use your product the better it is.1. movies. the boundaries between these formats are beginning to blur.1. just as mentioned above. Now. This is what network externalities (read: the economic effects of networks) signify. what does this mean? It means that some strategies that would be unthinkable in the agricultural and the industrial economy are not only desirable but sometimes necessary for being successful in the information economy.. streaming audio and video as well as animation and scrolling news or weather – all interactive – represent a format that defies traditional categories. Whinston and Wiggins (2001) continue to say ”as digital convergence takes place. 350).. 3.” (The Theory of Industrial Organization. WebTV sets can access the Internet on the same appliance that is used to view TV programs. 2001).Convergence is a broader sense of digitization and it brings together all major electronic media: television. games and all kinds of software. and you can also in many cases watch television on your computer (Ruefli et. In the information society. 2001). on the other hand. this is basically what convergence means.. the more third-part applications are there going to be for it. It is thus important to know about them due to that the management principles that have previously worked in those economies do no necessarily work in the information society of today (Ruefli et.2. Why? First of all. computers. video. Not only are electronic media coming together to a single pipe. electronic games and Web sites. such as enhancing add-in programs or additional training materials. there is an increase in the value due to that you can exchange documents with other people that use the same word processor. and it is then of course better the more people you can swap with. 14 . al. The first bullet point of the time machine above said that ”The difference between broadcast. Another factor is that the more people use your word processor. cable and satellite will become irrelevant because all screens will be connected to a single pipe that is now known as the Internet. network externalities exist when the value of a good or service is at least in part a function of the number of people who use it (Ruefli et.48). This is a distinct feature of information technology goods and services. 2001). al. when surfing the Web there are a lot of things you can get for free.

3. it means that managers must evaluate whether to quickly bring an adequate product to the market. which were the two previous notions. Path dependence would imply that the former strategy is better due to the fact that even though a competitor later on introduces a superior technology.1. 2007).4 Lock-In Lock-in could be considered an extreme form of path dependence and it means that certain choices with respect to technologies are. Arthur (1994) has instead developed a theory which suggests that an inferior technology. Sony's Betamax video standard was introduced in 1975. al. have a lot to do with the reinforcement of path dependence in a market. which would obviously be an attraction to companies deciding which standard to back. Even though Sony’s betamax was introduced earlier. shortly followed by JVC's VHS. The two standards battled for dominance for an entire decade. 2001). al..3 Path Dependence According to traditional economic theory. whether it be Windows Vista or Mac OS Leopard. 2007-05-8).com/video/format/compare/betamax-vhs. The QWERTY keyboard which is the layout all comput- 15 . in Ruefli et. 3. 3. we have seen indications of path dependence through history in the example of the battle of video formats.2. and you realize how each succeeding copy sold yields an increased margin – allowing lower prices and higher total returns (Ruefli et. (We are seeing the same thing happening now with the battle between Toshiba’s HD-DVD and Sony’s technologically superior Blu-Ray Discs. Consider the following excerpt: ”The victory was not due to any technical superiority (Betamax is arguably a better format). combine this with the inherent network externality of the Internet in the sense of a large installed base with low distribution costs. Now.1. it can be too late if your product already has gained foothold in the market. product or service may win out because of the sequence of decisions that consumers make in what would be a path dependant situation.com. or whether to wait and introduce a better product based on superior technology. 2001). it eliminates the possibility of a new and even better technology to be introduced. 1989.” (www..html.mediacollege. for all practical purposes.2 Increasing Returns to Scale Increasing returns to scale arise in the information economy because of the phenomenon of high fixed costs and very low variable costs (Ruefli et. it takes a huge amount of resources and capital over a long period of time to create it and thus it has a very high fixed cost. 2001). the victory of VHS still points to path dependence due to that it was backed by more companies..1. 2001). the best technology. but when it has been developed – that’s it. irreversible (Arthur. Actually.. al.2. it can then cheaply be copied and distributed allover the world. product or service will win out inferior competitors eventually (Ruefli et.) You have probably already figured out that both network externalities and increasing returns to scale. What this implies is basically that once a majority of consumers have decided on a particular format. al.2. but to several factors…The commonly-held belief is that the technically superior Betamax was beaten by VHS through slick marketing…It is certainly true that VHS machines were initially much simpler and cheaper to manufacture. Let us use your computers’ operating system as an example. with VHS eventually emerging as the winner (Mediacollege. If this theory is true. although a winner has not yet been crowned.

2001). now. for example. Even though this is no longer a factor for today’s fast computers. al.1. either you actively seek it or it is given to you. let us now once for all define it for those who do not entirely understand its’ technology. Finally. media. the QWERTY layout still remains in use and it is practically unchallenged. The Internet is a worldwide system of computer networks that uses communication protocols called TCP/IP... on the other hand. this is considered to be a ”pull” technology because you are the one who actively seek information. al. making it more vibrant and dynamic..2 The Internet There has been a lot of talk about the Internet in this thesis. and that the rapid pace of technological developments can dethrone incumbents through new products and services. and so on. 37). 2001). While browsing the Web.1.1. 3. al. and not until the completion of the download could you watch or listen to it (Ruefli et. what enables this is HTML language which stands for Hyper Text Markup Language and it is employed by the part of the Internet called the World Wide Web (Ruefli et. you can watch or listen to content on the Internet at the same time as you are receiving it. al. this is why it is called the ”web”). 16 . 3. (2001) add that ”as computers.3. increasing the threats to the incumbent winner” (Digital Marketing. It implies major benefits in regards to not having to wait and it generally enriches the experience of the Internet.3. however.. you can often click yourself beyond the current site and on to another site. new potential competitors enter the fray. this is what is called ”streaming” (Ruefli et. Baumol (1982) mention that information economy markets are generally contestable markets which means that they have low entry barriers. where you once again can click yourself further in an unlimited extent (after all. let us now investigate more specifically some of the technologies that now lie within it. p. telecommunications. If you are browsing the Web pages on the Internet. Push There are basically two ways to receive information. 2001). 2001). al. Nowadays. Google it! 3. you have probably heard these combinations of letters many times but here is what they stand for: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. come together. For more information about the Internet and how it works.3 Streaming Audio and Video Traditional techniques for receiving multimedia over the Internet required that you first download the content. 3. Ruefli et.1 Pull vs.ers use today was first designed to slow typists down to prevent them from writing faster than what the mechanical systems could handle.1. a ”push” technology since you are given information by another part without necessarily asking for it (Ruefli et. Receiving e-mails is.3. What all these notions end up in is what Frank & Cook (1996) call the ”Winner-take-all Society”(Title of their book) where it is about gaining the most support and usage of your product rather than having the best one.3 Communication Technologies As the authors have previously stated the matrix is the context in which consumers and companies interact. However.

This enormous reach has.asp?id=1015. chat rooms.3.com. events. The typical U. 2007-05-6). instant messaging. 2007). and user forums.com has thus created a connected community where users put their lives online (NewsCorp. groups. Regarding the interface.3. 3. forward. save and comment on video clips in virtually all possible topics. classified listings. in September 27. of course. streamer on MySpace initiated an average of 39 streams during the course of the month.S. music downloads. the successful Internet telephony project. The creators are the same two guys behind Kazaa (P2P music sharing portal) and Skype. Joost operates on full screen and the user can switch between channels just as with regular television. which allows us to show you some screenshots of the interface in appendix C. 2007-05-9). which represented 20 percent of all videos streamed by U.4 RSS RSS (Rich Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication) is a format for delivering regularly changing web content. view. 2007-05-2).1. 2007-05-24) Take a look at the MySpace interface in appendix D. on the other hand.3.1.S.comscore.1. which was launched less than two years ago.3. users with nearly 1. The videos can easily be forwarded to friends over the Internet but recently. however.S. Internet users in July. Joost is instead installable software available for both Mac OS and Windows. which can cause copyright issues with the original content producer and/or provider (Erlandsson. Here is a quote from a press release by comScore .com. It integrates web profiles.3.3. Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis (E24 Näringsliv. 2006: “MySpace fares particularly well in U. ad financed television service that differs from YouTube in the sense that all material is straightly from the content producers which resolves any copyright issues. 17 .1 YouTube YouTube is a video streaming site owned by GOOGLE. On YouTube. 3. the videos are being increasingly forwarded to cell phones as well. and MySpace.3 MySpace MySpace.S. 2007). photo galleries.com. or slightly more than one per day. 2007).3. Rather than running directly on the Web browser. is the fifth ranked web domain in terms of page views (comScore. Many news-related sites. The software is not completely finished but a beta version is available through invitation and one of the authors has managed to receive one. such as movies or TV shows. user engagement. The site ranks first among all sites in individual video streams initiated by U. many members upload recorded content from other sources. like YouTube. See appendix B for illustrations of the YouTube interface.a measurer of the digital world. attracted businesses to join the network and even the United States Army has recently started to use YouTube for uploading videos from the war in Iraq (Svenska Dagbladet.1. blogs.com/press/release. 2007).3. 3.” (http://www.5 billion streams. it grows by an addition of 65 000 new videos every day and over 100 million video clips are watched each day by people allover the world (Dagens Teknik. weblogs and other online publishers syndicate their content as an RSS Feed to whoever wants it (WhatisRSS.2 Joost Joost is a new computer based. e-mail. YouTube is an extremely huge community where members upload.

1. they were connected to each other in a P2P configuration with one computer acting as a server for a number of computers or ”clients”. The worst news.5 Webcasting What in the physical world is called broadcasting is in the Internet known as Webcasting. al. Digital information can be shared between people allover the world in a way which is practically impossible to control and this is subject of controversy today.3. Today. which can be good news or bad. p.” (Blog Marketing. In addition. 2007). 2007). 3. Wright (2006) writes that: ”The most powerful thing about blogging isn’t the technology. experiences. can be defined as frequent. chronological publications of personal thoughts and Web links (MarketingTerms.3.com.8 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing In the early days of networked personal computers. or weblogs as they also are called.1. However.RSS solves a problem for regular users of the web. with Podcasting. Using streaming technology that we recently mentioned. 2007).3. 2001). listeners can determine the time and the place. al. 18 . this consequently implies a significant decentralization of the Internet.1. Part of this conversation may be about your company. 3. meaning they decide what programming they want to receive and when they want to listen to it (Podcasting-tools. See appendix A for more interesting blog statistics.. content producers such as radio stations and television stations can Webcast their programs over the Internet (Ruefli et. 2007). This was mostly done in order to share files or scarce resources such as printers in company or a school computer lab. however. With millions of bloggers expressing their thoughts. would be if none of the millions of voices out there were talking about your company or its products. 3.com. rather (Ruefli et.3. podcasting gives significantly more options in terms of content than radio does. It allows you to easily stay informed by retrieving the latest content from the sites you are interested in. 3) The huge blog portal ”Technorati” has presently counted up to 71 million blogs worldwide and there are indications that the blogosphere currently doubles in size every six months (E-consultancy. you thus save time by not needing to visit each site individually and you ensure your privacy by not needing to join each site's email newsletter (WhatisRSS. for example.7 Blogs Blogs.com. 3. we have the same server-client structure across the entire Web and each separate computer can act as a server as well as being a client. 2001). and information they’ve learned in their fields of interest. Many people describe podcasting as radio on demand.. it’s this massive community driving the ’blogosphere’.com. however. with both the music and the movie industry taking legal action to try to prevent their productions from freely circulating the web without compensation for their part.6 Podcasting Podcasting is quickly becoming a buzzword today and it simply implies online audio content that is delivered through an RSS feed.1. this medium has become a worldwide forum.

. making it more vibrant and dynamic.3. Japan and South Korea as examples where young people already are walking the streets watching YouTube clips on their cell phones. When you can browse the Web on your cell phone just as you do on your computer. or m-commerce. These technologies improve some aspects of product performance while sacrificing others…” (p. services or goods. 25 April 2007) states that internet traffic has increased significantly much due to the growing popularity of video streaming sites such as YouTube. who says that ”If you count cell phone ringtone and wallpaper downloads as m-commerce. Feldman. Most interestingly. al. In the book ”E-Merging Media” Zerdick. Dale Gonzalez. he quotes the CTO of Air2Web. In many cases. wired and wireless telecommunications converge.4. Burger writes that as voice. Burgelman. Silverstone.1.4 Mobile Internet Earlier.1. conditions are looking better for the extension of e-commerce to mobile. just as the article in Affärsvärlden previously mentioned. Wernick & Wolff (2005) categorize this type of technology as a ”disruptive technology” . and it speculates that this popularity will spill over to the telecommunications sector. Schrape. The reality is probably very little money is getting made. 3. in markets allover the world. and the article mentions Australia. " They continue to name a few typical examples of m-commerce: • • • • Purchasing airline tickets Purchasing movie tickets Restaurant booking and reservation Hotel booking and reservation In an article found in the E-commerce Times (2007-04-30). you read about audio and video streaming and the authors stated that it generally enriches the experience of the Internet.com (2007-05-09) defines m-commerce as "any electronic transaction or information interaction conducted using a mobile device and mobile networks that leads to transfer of real or perceived value in exchange for information." 19 . Zerdick et. 97-98) They then continue to explain that mobile Internet involves a trade-off between reach (portability) and richness (small screens and keyboards). An article in the major Swedish business paper ”Affärsvärlden” (Issue No. but that's where the potential is. use Japan as an example where the mobile Internet really has gained foothold. data. a special class of technologies called disruptive technologies operates differently. 17. streaming technology not only enriches the Internet but it may also be the strongest force for significantly extending the Internet to cell phones. Picot.1 M-Commerce MobileInfo. (2005). however. you're talking about billions of dollars…If you throw in revenue associated with actual buying of other goods using the cell phone . the barriers are gone. here is an illuminating excerpt from their book: ”Different types of technologies and markets lead to differences in the evolution of the designs and market concepts. the lead users of the old technology are the initial users of the new technology and thus define the evolution of the designs and market concepts…On the other hand. where the latter is sacrificed for higher reach and mobility. then the estimates are all over the board..

during and after a purchase is included (Mooij. or experiences to satisfy needs and desires”. not merely the moment when a purchase is placed and the consumer pays for the good or service. the advertising industry is extremely excited about the idea of reaching high-income earners anywhere and everywhere for promoting the products and services of its sponsors. without doubt.com (2007) says that. The answer is that in order to fulfill consumers’ need. and you feel like browsing in a bookstore. this leads us to the next notion of wireless advertising.” (www.htm) MobileInfo. when and how) is entirely and completely in the hands of the consumer. Mooij (2004) defines consumer behavior as: “The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select. for example. as you probably have experienced. you have time to kill after your meeting. * 20 . As you approach an exit.Your cell phone can provide you with the location of the closest Barnes & Noble. use or dispose of products. The question to be asked is why advertisers.com/it/jan01/kennedy. in newspaper and magazines.2 Wireless Advertising Kennedy (2001) of Information Today (January. 2007-05-9). on TV and of course the inThe words “opt-in” and “opt-out” are going to reappear in the thesis and we thus offer a brief explanation here. for example.” (From ”A Trendmeister’s Technology Forecast”.If we really stretch our creativity and try to imagine the possibilities of m-commerce beyond. “Opt-out” is simply the opposite. They continue to say. when you delete yourself from a mailing list or prohibit a company to contact you without permission. as previously discussed. downloading ring tones and wallpapers. Opt-in is when a company. As you might already have thought. What determines if the consumer need is fulfilled to the outmost extent and if the marketing strategy is a success is the consumer response. it is an continuous interaction between the consumer and the producer. 2004).4. which means that they would have to ask consumers for permission before on a push-basis. Or you’re in an unfamiliar city on a business trip. marketers’ need to have a good understanding of the specific consumer. services. Volume 18.htm. managers and other professionals within marketing should care about the behavior of consumers.com/Hot_Topics/Wireless_Advertising. and that wireless internet makes this technically possible. purchase. In this definition the consumer behavior is perceived as a process where factors that influence the consumer before. In today’s society marketing stimuli surrounds us in stores. wireless advertising could mean an intrusion of personal privacy and a cause of unwanted spam. messages with the help of music. asks for your permission to send you e-mails of interest or let you know when something that you are interested in will be available again. Solomon (2004) agrees to this definition and explains further by saying that consumer behavior is an ongoing process. 2004). for example. a basic marketing concept. 3. This is why they at MobileInfo. your wireless phone is suddenly deluged by come-ons from fast food restaurants that are located just off the exit ramp.mobileinfo. ”the key principle here is that the control (if. on advertisement displays. send advertising messages to the consumer.1.2 Consumer Behavior In the preface of the book “Consumer Behavior and Culture: consequences for global marketing and advertising”.com also believe that it is reasonable for the industry to give an option to consumers to *opt-in for receiving advertising messages in certain specified circumstances.infotoday. ideas. Issue 1) explains the possibilities of mobile Internet using the following examples: “Say you are driving down the freeway. 3. http://www. How consumers respond is highly influenced by actions taken by marketers (Solomon.

there is a need to have a new approach towards the process of 21 . 2005). searching for information and so forth changed the relationship between the consumer and the company. be updated on the future development of the environment and try to determine future needs that can be satisfied with innovation. 2002). Mahajan & Wind. In the late 1980s the era of mass customization was born and companies could produce products on a large scale and at the same time customize them (Crow & Shanteau. colors and so forth (Gunther. 2002). The more they share this knowledge the more difficult it will be for them to differentiate themselves on the markets. 2002). Customization delivers a value that is more than just quality and innovation. Along with the mass customization and the improved technology came not only more alternatives for the consumers. With the available technology the numbers of ways marketers can reach consumers are many (Solomon. As the market evolved. During this period of time. In addition to this they end up competing on the basis of improvements in quality and/or costs. Machleit & Yalch. They were moreover decreasing their inventory of finished products and saved money by not marketing the different product ranges (Crow & Shanteau. This enables companies to gain a deeper understanding of the consumer and its environment. in the industrial age.1 Moving from Mass Production to Customization Before. in Haugvedt. They were then more willing and accepted the fact that some product where only offered in a limited number. as Mohr. Thus with more options available. 2002). 2005. Mahajan & Wind. The authors further suggests empathic design which focuses on understanding the consumers needs through empathy with it and its surroundings. the focus changed from impersonal transactions between companies and consumers to close relationships (Gunther. That is why. today’s’ traditional tools and techniques when conducting marketing research such as surveys.ternet. 2005. are not enough to gain a deeper insight into the needs of consumers. and consumers who wanted products that reflected their personality. but also possibilities for companies to be more efficient. 3. Mohr. in Haugvedt.2. Tools for making decisions. what their values are and how the company should compete on the market. 2005). Sengupta & Slater (2006) moreover discuss. consumers shaped their expectations accordingly to what technology had to offer. Mahajan & Wind. and questioning the present business models (Gunther. customization was a fact (Gunther. When this shift became a fact much of the focus what placed on the manufacturing technology and not the customized marketing. removing asymmetric information. Machleit & Yalch. Sengupta & Slater (2006) also state that companies often share a predictable knowledge of who their consumers are. consumers were offered one-of-a-kind items that were available in a small quantity and consumers were given unique products matching their exact need. focus groups and test markets. 2004). With the changes on the markets new challenges as well as opportunities arose having new tools available. In order to understand the evolving markets and the rapidly changing markets consumers should be observed instead of simply asking them questions regarding their habits. Examples of some of the changes are shifts in purchase power. However. in order for managers to create new market space. When the level of consumer involvement of products made increased companies did not have to guess what the consumers actually needed and wanted anymore. Mahajan & Wind. it is all about adapting and varying the product based on the specific needs and requirement of each individual consumer (Sheth. 2001).

Gunther.64 . it opens door for both the consumer and the pro- 22 . consumers nowadays can design their own customized products. For example an increase in purchasing power. Mahajan & Wind (2002). Mahajan & Wind (2002) presents three examples of a consumer: 1) A traditional consumer: “I agree with Henry. In comparison to how it used to be with marketers producing for a large market. By the way. 2004).market learning.Convergence Marketing: Strategies for Reaching the New Hybrid Consumer. The theory of convergence discusses the fact that along with industrialization and modernization nations are becoming more and more alike. business/industry and service levels. I happen to like black. I’ve got places to go. I’d like to design my own car from the ground up. In addition taken the fact that convergence takes place on different levels. their consumer taste also diverge. I want customization when I know what I want and when it is important to me. Sometimes I want to roll up my sleeves and design the product and other times I want you to recommend a set of options.3 Convergence & the Converging Consumer As stated by Gunther. . political and cultural differences between them. an increase in buying of services. Convergence benefits both the consumers as well as the producer.” 2) The cyber consumer: “Get with it. economical. defining convergence will become less important. If manager learn to work across the market boundaries they will find these markets and opportunities to guide consumers instead of simply following them. He also adds that at the same time as competition increases due to the standardized boundaries. those who want a standardized product and those that prefer customized and other times both. consumers have more possibilities and alternatives to chose from than ever before. media and telecoms. I’d like to see the menu and wine list.65 According to Mooij (2004) as people around the world are becoming more wealthy and better educated. Besides. the need for cooperation is also created through convergence. I’ll keep buying off the shelf. I want both customized and standardized products”. Give me a break with all these options already. Aspects brought up when it comes to convergence in marketing are an increase in demand for convenience and health products. This even though there are historical. convergence of distribution systems and convergence of expenditures in advertising (Mooij. The authors further state that there are different types of consumers. p. Bohlin (2000) defines convergence as blurry borders between computing. with the today’s technology. Henry. I want it now. mix my own color so it matches my eyes and have my name and family coat of arms on the hood instead of your name and corporate logo. as market players will with time become more and more aware of the consumers needs. the development of global media and advances in telecommunication technologies are aspects of consumer behavior due to convergence. Otherwise. technology. There are enough standard offerings to satisfy me. However. but then ask the waiter what he recommends. Like a dinner in an expensive restaurant. 3. I just want to walk into the dealer and pick out a car I like. Got it?” 3) The centaur: “The answer is not black and white.

This so that consumer value is created and work is concentrated towards that. With this in mind consumers will benefit through the wide range of choices of platform-independent services available at a lower cost. even though personalized services are more easily accessible. which would have been unthinkable just 10 years ago. In addition to this. convenient and possibly cheaper than the traditional services. Blurred communications have mostly been placed in movies and television programmes. al. From the business level perspective convergence appear in the form of alliances and mergers between market actors. Bhatnagar & Malkoc (2004) cited in Schrum (2004). The last and final one of convergence is the service level where new ranges of services are offered. 23 . 3. The author finalize the discussion by stating that as it becomes easier to compare prices intermediaries will turn towards offering consumers services and value more in the form of convenience. With this we are able to make telephone calls from our televisions. Example of the level of technology digitalisation has made it possible for different devices and different networks to carry out similar functions. loyalty and branding is something that the author believes has to be established to a further extent to gain the consumers confident when dealing with online exchange. Digitalisation interconnects wireless. With this in mind consumers will benefit through the wide range of choices of platform-independent services available at a lower cost.4 Media’s Impact on the Consumer According to Aksoy. watch television on our PCs and download movies from the phone lines in our home. In other words. telephone and so forth in one system. Intelligent agents will come to play an important role when acting as intermediaries helping consumers find the products wanted at the best price. For middlemen and smaller local retailers this is bad news since consumer will not need their services anymore that instead will go to the companies offering low cost products due to the economics of scale. cable TV. as expressed by Bohlin (2000) it is a large demonstration of many technologies brought together as a new medium. which in turn makes joint services possible. consumers are not all won over that easily. which in turn widens the borders. complete offerings and quality. now however it is also used in books. (2004. satellite. Sponsors pay for hidden messages that are placed in the features entertainment. in Schrum. magazines and so forth. However. the possibilities of what consumers can do with technology also has to be enhanced. Factors such as trust. consumers have to be the center of attention or be the driving force of development. newspapers.3. which Aksoy et. the need for companies to find new ways of reaching the consumer has made them gain interest in using non-traditional ways of communicating to the consumer. This includes information services.ducer.1 Converging to the End Consumer Bohlin (2000) states that in order for convergence to be successful. Based on this fact the interest in product placement has increased enormously between researchers and practitioners of marketing. This so that consumer value is created and work is concentrated towards that. music. 2004) identifies as a blurry communication. In addition to this the possibilities of what consumers can do with technology also has to be enhanced. interactive entertainment and electronic commerce. It also enables what used to be separated traditional sectors to enter each other’s areas. 3. The convergence of persuasion trough commercials and entertainment media is one solution.

the strength of the message. a relatively new one. Another one is the amount of time a consumer spend in front of the computer and how used they are to for example banners. Consumers also benefit from using the Web by searching for information concerning products and services of their interest without so much as leaving their homes. When comparing different types of media there are benefits in favour of them all. how the message match the content. in Schrum. as further claimed by Haugvedt & Roehm (1999. strengthen and change the attitudes and behaviour towards purchase. interested in and finally accepting the offer. There are many predictions of what the future holds when it comes to online advertisement. newspapers and many more. They also state that the World Wide Web is. To what extent consumers take in these advertisements though is an important determinant. This in turn is of great benefit for marketers who can customize and develop their messages towards the consumers who then share these with one another. The third and last one Plessis (2005) discuss is the benefits with Internet advertising. & Yalch. As Plessis (2005) discuss.1 The Cyber Consumer According to Haugvedt & Roehm (1999. in Schumann. 2004) furthermore argue that when the long-term survival of companies is at stake. from consumer to business and from business to consumer. the amount of time spent in doing so and in an order chosen. in Haugtvedt.Aksoy et. information and sense of community and business have responded to this medium very quickly. forming of attitudes and persuasion of the consumer. they work only towards making the consumers aware of. the number of times. The largest of these groups and the most amount of is the consumer-to-consumer group since so many people today have access to the Internet. commercial exchange. in Schumann. which includes movement and sound. These are that the medium includes both print as well as television advertisement. In addition to this. The consumer cannot however store these to look them later and they are not able to determine the rate at which they chose to watch them. It offers people to search the web for everything from entertainment. 1999). 3. (2004. As Lewis. 1999) marketing communication on the Web is beneficial for both the marketers as well as consumers based on the interaction that is formed between the consumer and the web site. The down side to this though is that the consumer can also decide to spend no time what so ever reading the advertisement. in comparison to other communication channels. Phelps & Raman (2005. print media has the benefit for consumers in the sense that they have an unlimited amount of time to read the advertisement in a newspaper and the possibility to save it and bring it out on a later occasion. They can at the same time choose what advertisement they want to ignore or what type of advertise- 24 .4. receivers involvement and so on will in turn have an affect on the memory. magazines. Therefore the companies. they shower consumers with persuasive messages in order to create. is that it has a high level of interaction where people control what type of information they want to see. The author also says that television has some great benefits by having advertisement. The reason to why the Web is so successful. 2005) states it is clear that marketers who used to be in the center of marketing communication are now replaced by consumers and where information flow is now more freely shared between the relations of consumer to consumer. given the circumstances with high competitive environment. radio. al. For the companies to get their message out to the consumer there are a number of available medias to use such as television. Machleit. the credibility of source and media used.

3. 2005). in Haugvedt. events and promotions on request. 2005) explains that Internet advertising differs from traditional advertising in the sense that it more customized and that it does not disturb the consumers. as much and it can be a sales efficient way tracking via click-through rates. This can be done since all of these platforms function as digital finger- 25 . 2005) also add that along with this the wireless networking can come to offer consumers an unlimited range of shopping.4. In turn this shared information online helps consumers to influence each other and product purchases (Boush & Kahle. 2005). in Haugvedt. consumers are on a daily basis subjected to product advertising on the Internet. According to Accenture (2001. travel. Machleit and Yalch. 1999). Lynch & Srinivasan. Although it may have little effect on making the consumer click on it. security. Lynch & Srinivasan (2005.2 Measuring Consumer Activity According to Dobrowolski. Machleit & Yalch. Along with an increase of the amount of banners. Kent. Machleit and Yalch. entertainment and convenience. Ever since the commercial uses of Internet in 1994 came about. with regards to the consumer use of the Internet. in Haugvedt. and business users and so forth with information packages. Machleit and Yalch. networked mobile games sponsored of course with advertisement that will offer the consumers discounts. Williams & Withey (2003) companies can evaluate information needed by seeking the behaviour of consumers on different digital information platforms such as DiTV (Digital Interactive Television). 2005) there will be more handsets that personal computers used for access to Internet in 2006. or even perhaps in a medium where the user pays for the service. touch-screen and mobile phones. Wireless devices may become a great opportunity for entertainment to really penetrate the market of consumer-paid content. commercial emails and buttons. in Haugvedt. Lynch & Srinivasan.ment that interests them. entertainment and communication (Kent. 2005. families. With this new system however. Machleit & Yalch. it still has an affect on consumer behaviour by simply mentioning or displaying the logo or brand name. Consumers can furthermore control the content of information that is available and offered to them as well as search for competitor’s offerings and compare information with low cost and time invested to it (Roehm & Haugvedt. Huntington. For the provider this will mean that there will be more permission based and accepted advertising. businesses. In addition to this they will have screensavers. 2005). Russel. Marketers will furthermore be able to target specific segments such as teenagers. benefits as well as negatives follows for both the provider and the user. they will have better control over the advertising on their system. For the user this means that the costs will decrease. 2005. phones will have devices which offers full scale color in order to watch videos. more interesting messages but reduced privacy concerns. unlike yesterdays’s mobile phones with small grey screens. In addition they believe that the future of mobile marketing will hold. the Web. is the use of mobile phone and networked computer (Kent. 2005. learned how to avoid looking at these. they also state that click-through rates (the number of times you click on a banner) are low and consumers have. Wireless devices can become an element through which people “kill time” with information. Machleit and Yalch. Mitchell & Valenszuela (2005. in Haugvedt. in Schumann. However. just as with regular type of advertising. in Haugvedt. 1999. the communication between consumers is also increasing to a far extent. Another technology that many people believe will be an important tool in the future.

This new trend of using word of mouth is. traceable and plannable as with other types of marketing. especially from experts who’s thoughts are highly valued. Making consumers talk though is not always easy. When consumers do not have the time. It is nowadays also used when working towards a marketing objective. Platforms also offer people the ability to listen to a wider audience of consumers in more than one way. From the consumers point of view these systems do not threat the personal integrity even though they hold a certain amount of personal information and characteristics of the individuals such as gender. However. word of mouth not only benefits consumers when evaluating products and services but marketers as well.” Sernovitz (2006) defines word of mouth in two ways. being beneficial for both. television networks are loosing viewers and print and broadcast are becoming more expensive and results are decreasing. which brings us to the next notion. In addition to this it is now possible to trace and measure conversations to a larger extent and thanks to the Web and blogs we can see what is said about us. What marketers have to do is to give the consumers an idea that is worth their time and effort to talk about and spread the word of. so therefore the M in Word-of. Word of mouth is about conversations between consumers (C2C) instead of marketers controlling the conversations.print and by using systems that gather these fingerprints comparisons can be made between the services.3 Consumer Use of Word of Mouth Sernovitz (2006) uses a very good quote from Oscar Wilde on page 8 in his book “Word of Mouth Marketing: How Smart Companies Get People Talking” : “There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about. According to Silverman (2001) this is the reason to why the traditional advertising has started to decline where magazines are having problems. A more advanced definition describes it as the art and science of building a communication between the consumer-to-consumer and consumer-to-marketer.4. consumers can be safe in the fact that the privacy laws will not be broken by the companies. teleconferences.Mouth has come to stand for marketing. according to Silverman (2001) the fastest growing form of marketing since we nowadays have the tools and knowledge in order to use it the right way for a specific cause. Thanks to technology such as Web sites. receive the necessary information and gain the benefits of it. Word of mouth moreover offer consumers a way to cut through the large mass of messages that is sent out. The author however prefers to use a more simplified version by stating that it is everything you can do in order to make people talk about you. age and postal codes. Although companies may come to use this information for other purposes other than the initial one. digital platforms and sites. and that is not being talked about. chat rooms. With this information age that is currently taking place consumers are overwhelmed with information and do not have the same amount of time anymore to either look deeper into or evaluate products. This is why word of mouth has started to play such an important role. this way of receiving information saves time because others have already gone through the information. This is after all information that companies have gathered through the willingness of consumers who have entered their data. As Sernovitz (2006) adds this form of marketing is also actionable. 3. 26 . The system can furthermore pin point larges populations instead of smaller communities. E-mail and so forth word of mouth saves consumers time and money. sorted it out and then offered the benefits with their experience.

3) Indeed. blogs and communities.” (p. they have so many more options available to them now—it’s the consumer who is king. It provides the consumer with a previously unimaginable quantity and quality of information in an easily accessible form. Empowered by technology. or they can tap into the experience of other users. creating a fundamental shift in the dynamics of marketing. Pity the poor company that fails to see this or refuses to play by the new rules. if you will. dynamic and chaotic world where the environment is changing so quickly and unpredictably that by the time a rigorous and ”optimal” solution is developed. the notion of viral marketing is an attempt to take control of. 2007). the opposite also holds true and if only minimal forwarding is attained the virus. The main driver of the technique is to get as many people as possible to forward your marketing message.a snowball effect is achieved where the message spreads in a virus-like manner.3. In the Price Waterhouse Coopers Advisory report ”How to capitalize on Lifestyle Advertising in a consumer-centric world” (2007) they quote Amy Banse. Consumers can sort products based on any desired attribute: price. without even stepping out the door. steer and even initiate the talks that are going on about your company. 3) However. products. consumers can impact brands. as saying that “With the true emergence of an on-demand world. having discussed the changes in the matrix itself and in the way consumers behave as both a result and cause of it.” (p. nutritional value. in fact. Of course.4 Viral Marketing Viral marketing could be defined as a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message (Marketingterms. and as more people do . 2007). president of Comcast Interactive Media. Wind & Mahajan (2001) describe a complex. 3. Having gained the power of a worldwide forum that is the Internet. when one talks about viral marketing it is implied that the technique is used with the just mentioned technologies. skipping or ignoring what they do not want to engage with (Price Waterhouse Coopers. if one would describe the current transformations with one characteristic it would be that consumers are gaining increased control and empowering abilities. functionality. They also have the power to be more selective. Basically. let us wrap it all up through investigating how companies and managers are affected and how their new reality looks like. or combination of attributes such as price/value. Digital technology has put the consumer in charge.com. and services on a global scale. consumers are unforgiving. quickly fizzles and dies. consumers are going to be able to control content like they never have before. Consumers can use it to obtain third-party endorsements and evaluations. Here is an excerpt from their book ”Digital Marketing” (2001) that is so good that the authors have chosen to present it to you in its entirety: ”Digital technology has opened new channels for selling products. in the same report they also bring up that it is not only the consumer who is the winner in the global digital world. they write that: 27 . The tools for doing this have certainly been dramatically enhanced through the convergence of medias and the proliferation of the Internet. Consumers now have the ability to talk directly to companies as well as about them.4.5 The New Reality of the Global Digital World Now. hence the name. it is just as quickly made obsolete.

campaigns built entirely around broad messages. static dialogue with the consumer is now a network of dynamic conversations. filter. and distributors can monetize this wealth of information. consumers are consequently becoming their own media networks.”On the other hand. what was once a one-way. such as digital video recorders (DVR’s) and Real Simple Syndication (RSS). Along with their newfound ability to talk back to companies.” (p. and advertising strategies can reap substantial competitive advantage from this two-way transparency and enhanced consumer insight. and mass distribution are becoming a thing of the past. content providers. 28 . brands that are transparent in their consumer service. 9) Price Waterhouse Coopers’ consumer focus groups (2007) also indicate that the single most powerful factor for making people engaged in a product or a brand is the entertainment value of the advertising. faceless audiences. communications. Thus. and promote the media they personally want to experience with the use of personal media configuration technologies we already have discussed. Consequently. User-generated and shared content forms the backbone for websites such as Flickr and YouTube. nearly all media and advertising executives agree that user-generated content is definitively not a fad (Price Waterhouse Coopers. 2007). This feedback loop arms brands with a tremendous amount of new consumer information and enables them to respond in a more relevant and personal way. Advertisers. quality. and while the life spans of individual sites may differ. innovation and creativity when it comes to the content of advertising is becoming more critical for making people noticing the ad or ignoring it. Audiences now have the tools to aggregate.

As recently mentioned. you will not only know how the data is collected and analyzed but you will also be aware of certain limiting aspects concerning the methodology of this study. 4.2. and individuals from some consulting companies that deal with these changes. 4. 2005).1 Qualitative Research The purpose of this thesis is to find out how some companies could evolve their Market communication as a response to the quite drastic transformations of the media environment that are going on right now. the method is merely the process of most effectively fulfilling the purpose of the thesis. this obviously makes the choice of method highly determined by the purpose of the study. As for this thesis. The qualitative research method aims to explore reality through an investigation of human aspects such as behaviors. The research thus becomes about exploring and trying to grasp thoughts. When looking at a phenomena and 29 . The aim is that.4 Methodology Having read the frame of reference. At the end of the day.2 Qualitative vs. but the perhaps most basic distinction is made between a qualitative and a quantitative approach. can vary greatly. a qualitative approach is the way to go. more specifically. You will be shortly presented with relevant theories and the authors will motivate their choice of how to carry out the study. In order to do this.1 Gathering Data The process of gathering data. after reading this section. the authors have met with people who can bring clarification into the matter. How the information is gathered and the type of information will be based on the authors’ choice of method when conducting the research and serve as the basis for the thesis. The very future oriented purpose of the thesis suggests that the authors are fundamentally seeking to understand future behavior that cannot at all be sought through quantifiable and numerical means. 4. Many different approaches to gathering empirical data are extensively discussed in various literature. predictions and feelings of these people as a response to what is going on in the media environment. using different types of information and different ways to collect it. 2004). thoughts and feelings of relevant individuals rather than numerical and quantifiable aspects that are the essence of a quantitative approach (Maylor & Blackmon. experts who have studied the current media changes to a much greater extent than the authors. observations as part of a quantitative approach ultimately transform into measurable data which will then be used to draw a general conclusion. this section will now present you with the methodology used to gather the empirical data of what experts think about the changes that are occurring and what they emphasize in regards to the future. while they as part of a qualitative approach rather lead to an increased understanding of the matter at hand by means of answering ”why?” and ”how?” questions (Johnson & Christensen. the purpose clearly suggests that between these two approaches. A number of broad concepts will be introduced and the authors will then incrementally funnel down to exactly how this study is conducted. Simply put. Quantitative Research Methods Different studies require different methods depending on the nature and the purpose of the study.

the one concerning what managers could to do about the changes. the research method used for this thesis could perhaps more accurately be denoted as a ”semiDelphi study method” as the authors do not go so far as to conduct the Delphi rounds which otherwise are a part of such a study. and consumer intention surveys are all research techniques that fall under this term (Ritchie.2 The Delphi Study Method Just by looking at the name one can get a pretty good idea of what this method is about. and conducting the Delphi rounds (Golembiewski. determining the panel size. 2007). nonetheless. 2000). 2000). rather it is widely recognized as being a very flexible research method.org. defining the problem. the entire thesis is * The RAND Corporation is an American nonprofit institution that helps to improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. The Delphi study method is thus about seeking opinions. the Delphi study method is not entirely without guidelines and it is mainly divided into four execution points which are.trying to perceive how relevant individuals are experiencing and reacting to it. It is now perhaps obvious to the reader that this is not a method that is associated with a lot of rigorous and precise rules of how to carry out the research. much like the ancients who sought the Oracle at Delphi. Having that said. Ritchie (2005) also points out that ”the technique is much admired for its ability to dig beneath the surface of issues and to tap into expertise and insight that would otherwise be unavailable to the researcher” (Tourism Research Methods: Integrating Theory with Practice. thoughts and predictions of expert people within this field. Originally. p. Nevertheless. and secondly their thoughts about what is going to be important in the future. If the reader still remembers some Greek mythology from early schooling he or she might know about ”the oracle at Delphi” from which the ancient people of the Mediterranean sought advice before all major decisions. is to be answered by the authors as based upon both the theoretical framework. and this is precisely what the authors are seeking to do. 4. Juries of executive opinion. putting this aside. Fundamentally. Further.86).org. we now come across some points which makes it divert a little bit from it. when the Delphi method was used by the RAND Corporation in the 1950s it was mainly for military-related projects and they most likely gathered a panel of experts to utter their thoughts on one general issue. When these individuals are also presumed to be experts within the field of study. selecting the panel of experts. another judgmental technique called the Delphi study method. Although the research methodology of this thesis is very much inline with the basic idea of the Delphi study method. 2004). is what in methodology literature is referred to as ”phenomenology” (Johnson & Christensen.2. subjective probability assessments. However. the problem is double natured in the sense that the authors will first seek the thoughts of experts in regards to bringing clarity into what is really going on in the media environment today. the second part of the problem definition.rand. What best describes how the authors have intended to carry out their study is. www. in order to get a grasp of these matters the authors will. a lot of changes are currently taking place in the global media environment. just as the authors are doing. In this thesis however. seek the opinions. The ancients had such faith in the sayings of the Oracle that they even believed Delphi to be the center of the world (Ancient-greece. 2007-04-03 30 . this thesis is about grasping where they will lead and how market communication will evolve in response to them. this methodology is more specifically referred to as a judgmental research technique. the empirical findings and parallels there between. Just as earlier mentioned. 2005). advice or expectations about the likelihood of future events or potential scenarios and it was first used by the * RAND Corporation after the Second World War (Golembiewski. Undoubtedly. the authors are referring to the double-natured problem definition of this thesis.

1997). 31 . According to the authors there is three aspects of the design of a questionnaire.3 Primary & Secondary sources When gathering the data the researcher chooses a method that is vital in the research process. or semi-Delphi study in this case. new understanding or any type of value into the subject that is discussed.4 Primary Data When seeking the views of focus groups or individual respondents. question phrasing and question response format. The type of information that is required will determine the questions that will be asked. the researcher will be able to gather primary data (Brannick & Roche. The Delphi study nature of the thesis will be especially evident in the empirical findings. Brannick & Roche (1997) claims that the researcher’s choice of method when gathering data is largely influenced by the theoretical approach. a direct quote from such a document is then considered a primary source. the research questions chosen as well as the methodological strategy. This means that the empirical findings are constituted by the information gained from the interviews with each expert. just as would be the case if there had been real Delphi rounds conducted. and that it is presented is such a way that it creates the feeling of that the expert is actually in front of the reader expressing his or her thoughts. When an original document has been created contemporary. and the authors will present the reader with information on how these selections have been made. The researcher must be sure to choose question so that each and every question has a purpose. image or a quantitative record that serves as an explanation to past events and evidence that has arisen from it. 4. especially in the qualitative research. When structuring a questionnaire the researcher knows what type of information that is required and how to measure the variables.very much in line with the idea of the Delphi study being about relying on experts for reaching a consensus. in Pickard. A secondary source is an article. the researcher has to take into consideration what type of language he/she wants to use. question phrasing. where the exclusion of real Delphi rounds has instead been simulated through the text in what could be called a ”virtual Delphi panel”. after first clarifying the issues of primary and secondary data. He states that a primary source is a document. question content. makes the careful selection of subject experts an important matter. book or film that displays primary sources in order to understand the past. 4. The heavy reliance on experts of a Delphi. the understanding and interpretation of the questions can be incorrect. Williams (2003. primary data can be gathered trough observation. Questionnaires and Interviews bring out information when the respondents answers questions but also by observing people in general in their natural environment or when being at the location of a laboratory. either in a structured or unstructured manner. If the questions are phrased inaccurate. As Brannick & Roche (1997) states. Thietart (2001) adds to this by stressing the importance of the communication and relation between the researcher and the sources of data. 2007) defines the difference between primary and secondary sources. Since the gathering of primary data is an important part of the process. With regards to the second aspect.

Secondary data also serves the purpose. It can furthermore be used when something is not available due to the geographical distance or other access related matters. 4. Thietart (2001) states some advantages with secondary data for researchers. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Who has gathered the data? When was it collected? What was collected? What purpose did the gathering of the data fulfill? Is there another source? Pickard (2007) also reasons that when the researcher has made sure that the data is credible. Every issue brought up has to have an argument and serve as the foundation or background for you work (Pickard. Secondary data has been gathered from literature such as available books on the subject as well as academic articles. when it concerns historical information that may no longer exist or covers a certain time period. and also that access to the people who provided it is not always necessary. In order to obtain the theory needed the authors have used the school library and various databases available. Secondary sources are for example written accounts of events such as history textbooks. Here the author of the secondary source writes his or hers own interpretation from the original record (Pickard. Or thirdly. As both authors are students at the Jönköping 32 . In addition to this search engines on the Internet have been used such as Google Scholar to find suitable and reliable information on the subject. 2007). secondary data is already available information. Thietart (2001) however emphasize that there are some disadvantages with secondary data as well. For the researcher not to question the value of the information and to have confidence in the data Brannick & Roche (1997) states a number of questions that needs to be taken into consideration when determining the credibility and minimizing any doubts of the data gathered. Blackmon & Maylor (2005) says that not only can it be used when someone else has already gathered the information that is needed. already gathered. of completing and filling the gap that is created when there is a lack of primary evidence. according to Pickard (2007). The data can be hard to obtain or out of date as well as vary in being suitable for the research to mention a few (Thietart. 2001). 2007). One being that the data is most often inexpensive.5 Secondary Data On the contrary to primary data.4. Thietart (2001) also stated that secondary data may hold a historical value and will therefore be useful when assessing the primary data and in comparison to other data. it should be analyzed critically a bit further to assure that everything has a purpose. which is to say that they are experts of current media changes and related subjects of market communication. in overall secondary data have many advantages that overweigh the disadvantages.6 Selection Criteria’s The authors have sought to find researchers of subjects that are directly associated with the purpose of this thesis. Brannick & Roche (1997) agrees on this and add by saying that the gathering of secondary data over primary is also attained must faster which makes the work for the researcher much more time efficient. However.

They also add that snowball sampling becomes a reality when the researchers begin their study before having determined a list of every person to be contacted. Robert G. Accordingly. Picard. It is common. as the interview progresses.7 Snowball sampling Since many academic research studies are under a time pressure and have restricted resources. It is an approach where the sample grows as the research progresses (Pickard. Note very well. according to Pickard (2007) to use this technique in order to identify a theoretical sample and it can be done in two ways. The authors of this thesis use the term to referr to people who 1) conduct research within the subject of the thesis. The whole thesis actually started with a consultative meeting with Professor Picard in where the authors introduced the choice of subject and asked for some guidance. as he was the last one to be interviewed. The reason for choosing to contact Swedish companies is that Sweden is considered to be in the lead of advancements in communication technologies. The authors furthermore used the Internet when searching for appropriate consulting companies within Sweden that were believed to hold a high level of knowledge and aware ness within the subject. as well as being one himself. who in turn can point out additional information sources. A parable of the snowball effect is given by Paul (1999) who states that a snowball starts off by being small and grows larger and larger as it rolls down a snow coated hill. The second method is to start of by interviewing the first contact who will. globally (Robert G. Schmidt & Hollensen (2006) defines snowball sampling as a technique that requires the first respondent to provide additional names of other respondents. Schmidt & Hollensen (2006) further claim that the method is mostly appropriate when the samples are limited and when the respondents are able to provide the researcher with valuable and qualifying names for the study. recognized and widely published authority within the subject and has been of great assistance to the authors for pointing out some appropriate experts. or 2) are practically involved with the subject of the thesis. snowball sampling was initially a welcomed effect that the authors experienced rather than a strategy that was deliberately used. and they found Albert Maruggi. but without success. identify characteristics of people or issues that need to be investigated further. they were in turn asked to give a few names of possible respondents. Picard. personal communication. known author of “The Long Tail”.International Business School (JIBS) they have been fortunate enough to have access to the MMTC (Media Management and Transformation Centre) and its staff who on a daily basis conduct research there. and it also suitably ended with him. 4. snowball sampling can be of great use. who is president of Provident partners and host of the Marketing Edge podcast. 2007). The authors extensively searched the Internet for finding other possible experts within the subject. that “expert” is a very vague denotation and can be misguiding. face-to-face. 2007-03-08). The first and original method is when this type of sampling is used to make the first contact with the key informants. for example. Another expert who was contacted was Chris Anderson. who is the director of the center is a very respected. When interviews have been carried out or respondents have been contacted. 33 .

2003). although restrictions in time and money have hindered all interviews to be of this kind. 4. This non-standardized interview approach is referred to as ”semi-structured” and just as described.1 Face-to-Face Interviews Marschan-Piekkari & Welch (2004) believe that face-to-face interviews are ideal for gaining in-depth responses and they also believe this to be confirmed by the high incidence of business travel. eye contact and the mutual appreciation that both parts have taken the time and effort to travel in order to meet in the flesh are all factors that contribute to a higher level of trust that otherwise would not be possible.The authors have experienced the benefits of the snowball effect as names of additional respondents were gathered through contact with the initial respondents of this study. 4.197) The authors agree with this due to that meeting a respondent face-to-face allows you to register all ranges of emotions and what the respondent particularly emphasizes. The personal connection. they have very few but big questions which require a lot of discussion and many follow-up questions. p. The authors are definitely not asking ”yes” or ”no” questions. thoughts and ideas as possible.8 Interviews The use of interviews will help the authors to gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to the research questions and to the purpose. hand shaking. Since the initial respondents have a high level of knowledge and recognition within the area. Rather. Face to face interviews have been recorded for reviewing purposes after first asking the respondent for permission. Interviews are particularly valuable as a tool for gathering data when questions are either complex or open-ended and where the order and logic of the questions may need to be varied (Healy.8. the authors believe that they have provided names of other equally valuable respondents 4. Contact has been initiated with persons that the authors have found through searching the Internet and whose expertise have been judged to be of great interest to this thesis and to its readers. or questions that can be precisely answered with a couple of sentences. particularly across borders ”in spite of advances in communications” (Qualitative Research Methods for International Business. The e-mail interviews can be compared with the face-to-face interviews with the exclusion of the physical 34 . This has relieved the authors from the pressure of having to take note of exactly everything and instead enabled them to focus on listening to the answers and to derive important follow-up questions from them.8. that is to say even from people situated elsewhere in the world.2 E-mail Interviews The authors have used e-mail interviews to complement the data gathered from face-toface interviews to attain as many interesting opinions. 1991) which is very accurate in this case. This is why face-toface interviews have been a preferred method and the authors have sought to use it with as many of the respondents as possible. this means that the authors will have a list of themes and questions to be covered rather than a list of specific questions with checkboxes on the side (Saunders & Thornhill. much like a single trail that splits off into many smaller trails in an undetermined pattern that ultimately leads back to the main trail.

and the fact that the authors have been able to reach people across the world and individuals whom they most likely would have never heard about if it was not for the Internet. in contrast to the face-to-face interviews were the authors asked an initial question which acted as a generator of further discussion and follow-up questions. the authors made sure to bring up questions that would generate answers regarding the consumer aspect of the matter.8. is certainly a modern trait that should not be taken for granted. The initial question was basically a request for the interviewee to elaborate on their thoughts and opinions regarding everything that is changing in the media environment right now. In the discussion that then would follow. as well as future aspects of how to evolve market communication. the main difference was that in the e-mail interviews.3 Contacted Experts The following is a list of who was contacted. 4. Figure 4:1. This study is very much about the technological advancements of today and where they are taking our society in means of communication. and what they feel the changes imply. The Interviewees 35 . and when it took place.contact. the authors asked all questions at one time (see Appendix F) and then posed follow-up questions in case there were any. how the interview was conducted (F2F = face to face). of course. Otherwise. and the limited ability to ask immediate follow-up questions.

The researcher is thereby limited by the subject’s own selfunderstanding. he states that the difference between the two theoretical perspectives concern the relationship between facts and values. as well as on the difference in how the research is evaluated and presented. Self-Understanding. the story told and interpretation of it will. He also adds that the research is in itself an act of storytelling or the making of a story. Given the fact that the authors of this thesis are conducting a qualitative study. Critical Commonsense. The authors have tried to hold a Critical Commonsense Understanding when interviewing experts for this thesis.4. While the quantitative focuses more on the facts. 1) Self-Understanding – In the first framework the interpreter tries to in a reduced format formulate what is said by the subject and what the subject themselves understand what is to be the meaning of their statement made but from the researchers viewpoint. the intellectual and the cultural traditions as well as the meaning of the language and the storytelling in the consistency of research. It is trough the reflections that the quality of interpretation increases which in turn brings value to the empirical findings (Alvesson & Sköldberg. Here the researcher may hold a broader understanding. being the result of these. while the researcher keeps its commonsense understanding. Here the researcher holds a more speculative manner and a theoretical frame is applied when interpreting the meaning of the statement by using for example a psychoanalytical theory as a feature of the subject. as they are understood by the initial person who tells the story. qualitative studies relies somewhat more on values. 3) Theoretical Understanding – The third and final framework the researcher goes beyond the two previous mentioned frameworks. as clarified by the author. Carrying out research in a qualitative study demands a high level of awareness in regards to the theoretical assumptions made. is reflection. a neutral and critical stand has at the same time been applied. Reflection focuses on the researcher’s personality. besides interpretation. the community in total. and Theoretical Understanding.9 Interpretation Belk (2006) defines the difference between the positivist and the interpretivist by saying that the positivist is associated with the quantitative research method and that the interpretivist with the qualitative research method. A second and main element of the research. 2) Critical Commonsense Understanding – In the second framework the researcher takes it yet another step beyond the self-understanding. 1994). There are also different views on how the relationship between the researcher and the researched is formed. is critical to what is said and is focused on either the subject’s statement or the content of it. as well as with the meaning of the language used and the understanding that serves as the foundation for the interpretation. 36 . represent the experiences. At the same time the authors have listened to and taken in what the experts have stated and expressed. In addition to this. This in order to discover what the authors believe is relevant and trustworthy information within the area of subject. Kvale (1996) presents three frameworks of interpretation that determines what state of mind the researcher holds when conducting an interview. The interpreter reformulated the subjects’ self-understanding. what they themselves mean and experience regarding a topic.

It is thus a matter of whether the data can be trusted in regards to how it was collected. This way of classifying data is after all. This method includes. comparing one piece of data with all other that may either be similar or different. There are many ways of measuring data but one that is the most associated with the method chosen by the authors is the constantly comparing analysis. Brannick & Roche (1997) further discuss the main difference between qualitative and quantitative data. bias is more of an issue when it comes to politically sensitive studies or any study where some of the participants can be expected to have an interest of portraying something in a certain manner. In comparison to quantitative data that demands a more tightly structured classification system to be in place before gathering the data. There is simply no reason for bias in regards to the nature of the purpose of this study. according to the definition provided by Maylor and Blackmon (2005) that you read in the beginning of this section. the creation of researchers or a mean of social construction. and the data classification takes place either during or after the data is collected. However. this entire thesis is limited to the scope of perception of all the involved individuals and it is in that sense a subjective presentation of information. This would then. and they believe that the same holds true for all respondents involved in this thesis. and whether it can be trusted in the way it is presented. reliability is concerned with whether other researchers would have reached the same conclusions if they were exposed to the same information. The authors will instead point out that this thesis is based on the perceptions of the very mindful and rec- 37 . as Brannick & Roche expresses it. having that said.10 Analyzing the Data When speaking in the terms of research.4. data must either fit into a system or be a compliment and offer an explanation or understanding. and whether the study would generate the same conclusions if it were to be repeated (Maylor & Blackmon. it is not a question of taking sides or true or false. 2005). The term qualitative data in itself means that no data is reduced to numbers. Some argue that qualitative data offers a level that is easier to understand and also that it offers a better portrayal of reality (Brannick & Roche. This is to say that reliability depends on the degree to which the data is free from bias in both of these aspects. there is absolutely no guarantee that other researchers would reach the same conclusions if they were exposed to the same information or that the study would yield the same conclusions if it were to be repeated. 1997). 4. Naturally. This in turn will help the researchers gain an own perception and develop their own ideas of possible relations between the pieces of qualitative information and data. The authors are certainly free from bias and from any inclination to wanting to portray something that would conflict with reality or bend it in some way. The use of textual representations of interviews. meetings and observations are different types of qualitative data. This is true for all written literature and perhaps particularly when it is of a qualitative type.11 Reliability In relation to qualitative research. according to Pickard (2007). They state that it is the procedure of classification and that qualitative data has a les tied structure. and neither is it sensitive to any part. but in the same reasoning no literature has an absolute reliability. mean that the thesis does not have an absolute reliability. Just as discussed in the beginning of the methodology section.

13 Short Summary of the Methodology The authors began with explaining how this is a qualitative rather than a quantitative study. revealing a “truth” can be a difficult task to achieve. and proceeded with presenting the judgmental research techniques of which the Delphi study best describes how this research is conducted. large organizations are most likely to be trustworthy. When it comes to validating the findings from qualitative based interview studies. This is due to the fact that these organizations are dependent on the credibility of their data in order to even be able to operate on the market. and that data has been gathered from these respondents through face-to-face interviews as well as through e-mail interviews. physical Delphi rounds and the authors instead described the method as being a ”Semi-Delphi study”. it was made clear that this is not a full Delphi Study due to the exclusion of real. Saunders. the authors also encourage the reader to think for him. The reader was also presented with information of how the experts have been selected. According to Saunders. it will in addition be a more flexible and responsive communication allowing for the interviewer and respondent to discuss the matter from many angles (Saunders. having a true and correct conclusion. Lewis & Thornhill. it is determined by the access the researcher has to the knowledge and expertise of the participant.or herself and to always keep an analytical mind. The researcher must make sure that the respondent understands the questions in the way intended. 4. Lewis & Thornhill (2007) it can be relatively easy to determine the validity of the secondary sources. Although. They further state that since the goal is to develop a theory that can explain the existing relationship between variables. the researcher must also understand the answers in the way the respondent has intended to. By simply looking at the authority of the source or its reputation the validity can be assessed. 38 . new findings. It questions if there really is a fundamental relationship between two variables. Interviews also allow the participant to communicate a meaning trough the language used. 2007). Ultimately.12 Validity McBurney & White (2007) defines validity as an indicator of how accurate a drawn conclusion corresponds to reality. The same applies the other way around. 4. See next page for summarizing figure. and that this hopefully serves as an assurance of high reliability for this thesis. For example survey data from well-known. Lewis & Thornhill (2007) choose to define validity as a trial to see whether findings really appear to be what they are.ognized experts that have been contacted. The authors also explain that there can be a varying level of validity when it comes to questionnaires depending on how the questions are designed and the structure of it (Saunders. Lewis & Thornhill. 2007).

The Methodology of the Thesis 39 .Figure 4:2.

In what could be called a ”virtual Delphi panel”. in order to fully grasp what he or she believes about the subject and in order for you to be able to compare and draw parallels between them. 2007 5. you will be presented with the thoughts and ideas of each interviewed expert. the reader will take part of all the data gathered through interviews with experts in the field. to the extent that it has been possible. however. how- 40 . that even though the following is very much derived from what the experts have said or written. and ultimately what the expert believes about the future of market communication and how companies will have to adjust to their new reality. The outline is. which intensely localized and caters to the information needs of specific cities. how consumers are affected by them.) 5.1 Karl-Erik Gustafsson Source: Jönköping International Business School. it is not exclusively the exact words as formulated by them. they can of course complement their printings with electronic aids and so forth. Media Management and Transformation Centre. and I think they will remain so. for example. and we will thus see what the experts have to say about the changes that are occurring. and the nature of the channels is still very broad. An attempt has instead been made to convey the essential feeling of their notions. we can see how the monopoly in Sweden has dissolved but there are still no dramatic changes as a result of this. one by one. and I am personally of the opinion that they will remain and I think a lot of things point to this.5 Empirical Findings In this section. There is still a small group. but this will always be on the terms of the printed newspaper and they will never replace it. who owns 80 % of all channels. in direct accordance with the theoretical framework. If we look at TV. I see nothing that challenges this model. in that sense I do not perceive any individualization or customization of media. So.1 The changes The big question is whether we are moving towards an individualized media environment or whether the big and general traditional media will remain. (Note very well.1. If we look at the daily newspaper industry.

5. this is in order to catch consumers while they are off-guard and more 41 . so the trend is that they complement their printings with other stuff rather than replacing them. In the future. the mass media hasn’t changed drastically in that time and it is not likely that it will fifteen to twenty years forward. people will most likely be desensitized regarding giving out personal information.3 The Future Evening papers have (in Sweden) joined with local radio stations and they are also giving out free newspapers and so forth. What we can see is also that companies are using product placement and that they are trying to more naturally give their product attention through incorporating it in other programs for example. Marketing is thus very much a struggle between consumers’ desire to keep advertising in a form where it can be easily recognized so that one can activate the mental shield against it.2 The Consumers Regarding Internet advertisement. which could extend companies’ ability to use consumer information in their marketing. for companies to even become one of the preferred choices brings us back to the vital necessity of the wide. and in the decision between these alternatives they tend to do some research and this is when they are mostly affected by the marketing of companies. traditional media. Consumers usually have a set of preferred choices that they are considering. the more people get exposed to it the more they neglect it and create a mental kind of marketing filter against it. the reason for why Internet advertising is considered to be rather successful is due to that the Internet as a medium is constantly filled with new people that have not yet developed this mental filter.ever. we have a continuous stream of new publications that catch all the new trends in society. there are more communication between the channels and the viewers in form of that people can vote through using their phones for example. that is not going to happen. There is a clear tendency for more specific segmentation and we can also see this in TV with the remaining 20% of the channels that become extremely focused in their content with sports channels and what not. but this is merely a function of feedback and interactivity rather than individualization. it is rather when they already have decided to buy something when it comes to play its role.1. the trend for the last couple of years have been fashion magazines for men for example. however. At the same time. All that talk about individualizing media and each and everyone with their own TV channel. and companies’ desire to try to infiltrate it with other content when consumers does not have this shield activated and are more receptive for it Generally. Of course. the Internet has a great boosting affect here when it comes to the consumers ability of researching the alternatives. So. 5. What you have to do when trying to predict the future is to look fifteen to twenty years back in time and see what has happened. I do not believe that consumers are greatly affected by advertising. but neither are they replacing the wide traditional media. we have blogs and all these other things happening. but it is rather a market research tool where companies use them to see what people are talking about in order to get ideas about new content or new products. Looking at the magazine industry.1.

receptive to advertising. because it cannot be truly controlled. What companies must take into regard are the public opinions and how they are evolving in order to use them for their marketing. Companies should find ways to use the information they already have about their consumers. Marketing implies that you have control. that you have a product and a message that you are actively trying to promote. I believe. in contrast to regular advertising when the viewer is aware of it and thus have a kind of mental shield against it. in the sense that you send the message to the entire segment but in the message itself focus on the things that are selling. word of mouth does not have a place within marketing. we have a very strong environment appeal that is being capitalized on. a company could for example use the information of what consumers are buying in order to create advertising that is both wide and specific.” 42 . now for example. “All that talk about individualizing media and each and everyone with their own TV channel. We can also see this in published magazines where products are incorporated in articles and various content to a greater extent. that is not going to happen.

for example. this.5.2. Newspapers. Source: Jönköping International Business School. The new context of the Internet basically allows us to do anything and only our own creativity and mental capacity set the limits. I do not believe that consumers abandon the traditional media platforms. 2007 5. companies are really thirsting for techniques like this.1 The Changes The primary change that is occurring right now is the convergence of media and that companies are spreading their messages on different platforms. especially when considering that the media noise is greater than ever and that it is difficult to stand out. of course. as the message then comes from people you know and trust as in contrast to companies.2 Annette Johansson Annette Johansson has a master’s degree in business administration from JIBS (2001). for example. Her research interests include marketing and leadership in media companies. The changes we are seeing are also very much connected with the proliferation of the Internet. I do not believe that this is a fad of some kind. General products that we all use will always have to market themselves through wide media platforms such as traditional television. and this will ensure the survival of traditional media. but now most people use them in 43 . She has international working experience within brand management and marketing in both the BTC and BTB market. This leads us to the rather novel notion of viral marketing. When Internet banks started to establish themselves some years ago. I am sure that people are being desensitized towards giving out personal information on the web. which basically is word-ofmouth marketing on the web that is being increasingly implemented. However. Media Management and Transformation Centre. can re-use the same content and an article can thus also become a webcast on their TV platform. provides huge possibilities for companies to target these people. Another thing is that children are taking a greater role as the decision makers in families when it comes to purchases. 5. there was a lot of resistance and skepticism against them. We will see far more innovativeness and creative marketing forms from companies with niche products.2. which further induces companies to target younger audiences through techniques like this.2 The Consumers I believe that the younger audience (10 – 25 years old) is generally more critical towards marketing messages and this further emphasizes and strengthens the impact of viral marketing. Communities on the web are forming entirely new platforms where people meet and interact with each other.

for example. this did not happen and I do not believe that it will. maybe it is just the price we have to pay for the technological advancements. in the same sense.2.3 The Future When the Internet was a novelty in society. A powerful example of how effective viral marketing can be is the movie “Snakes on a plane” which was entirely marketed through blogs and word-of-mouth on the web. that is to say if it is original and captivating to the extent that people forward it to their friends. There is simply a different feel to print. the players could wear company logos and advertisements just like they do in reality. the viral effect will take place and the message will most likely spread to a very large number of people. 5. the whole virtual arena could be filled with advertisements.” (http://www.imdb. you get something in return for it.’ a line that originated in an anticipatory Internet parody of the movie. and there does not have to be a cannibalization effect where only one of the two can survive. due to massive fan interest on the Internet.” 44 . and then plant the message in a number of people within the consumer base and in communities of all kinds out there. I believe that product placement has its place in the future as we are creating virtual realities on the web. Here is an excerpt about the movie from the International Movie Database (2007) to exemplify the influence people had over the film through the Internet (added by the authors): “In March 2006 New Line Cinema. “The new context of the Internet basically allows us to do anything and only our own creativity and mental capacity set the limits. allowed for a 5 day re-shoot to film new scenes to take the movie from PG-13 to a R-rated film (originally the film wrapped principal photography in September 2005). In a soccer game. Among these additions is the Samuel L. ‘I've had it with these motherfucking snakes on this motherfucking plane. Jackson character's line. Because after all.spite of various problems such as hackers draining other people’s accounts and so forth. physical media. such as video games and virtual communities like Second Life (where you have your own character and basically lead a second life online). if the content is appealing enough. there was a belief that the regular newspapers and magazines would die out due to that the same information provided in those mediums would be available free of charge online. 2007-05-13) Companies can create some kind of appealing content on the web.com/title/tt0417148/trivia.

America is television and sports crazy. Why is this? Because America and many Americans are impatient and predisposed to accept a package of goods. third. We’ve seen it in America in the last 20 years with the rise of talk radio and what I call “Divide and Conquer Entermation” It’s about yelling louder. and the fragmentation of markets into communities rather than demographics which creates a multi-dimensional view of buying behavior America is just starting to taste what it is like to live in a diverse world where other markets are growing faster than the US. We now live in a society where the accuser is the hero and the accused is tarnished regardless of the facts. and in a world where America may not lead in some areas. middle.1 The Changes I believe that the most significant changes that are occurring right now are the empowerment of consumer and citizen to speak their mind and distribute that opinion globally. and an end.3 Albert Maruggi 5. Second. I believe the truth will further fall victim as more people have greater access to communication tools. This I believe will continue to be a transformation for a couple of generations to come. 45 . and playing the blame game. What do those things have in common? First. they have a beginning. We believe that life should repeat the same pattern.3. I say the following as having been a journalist and worked with national media for many years in Washington. they usually have a winner and loser. Let me explain package of goods. major news coverage follows that pattern. there will always be another one on tomorrow. So the same cycle appears with the news. We love 30minute shows and sports.5. stirring up emotions. where ideas are easily shared. DC in Congress as Press Secretary for the Republican Party and as a political communications advisor to presidential cabinet members of the senior Bush Administration.

I believe companies should incorporate a Research and Development budget in their marketing divisions. patience. am not one to jump into this tempting brew right away. and I also think education especially colleges. If companies want to be responsive and grow with the audience they need to adopt new corporate cultures and communication tactics. podcasting. Now more than ever. The issue is a brand may be created in the minds of executives based on market research and delightful messaging. entertainment. the ability to share what is in front of you with others and then potentially act on that information is crazy wild.2 The Consumers Personally I think consumers will mock many companies. I also however. takes several qualities that we have yet to nurture in our society.former consumers. Recently. the Alberto Gonzales (the current Attorney General) story of improperly firing some politically appointed attorneys was bounced on and off page one coverage by the firing of Radio Announcer Don Imus for using racial remarks and the Virgina Tech mass murders. If communities. patience. there will be a more thoughtful society. text messaging. thought. but a brand is experienced through the employees and product or service. 5. I do believe that blogging and other forms of network/community communication can stimulate real dialogue among some citizens. Brand managers will move from ivory towers to the call center and cash registers. talk about around the world. Any experience that doesn’t match the brand will be what your consumers. A person who is responsible for brands will be online constantly or among the consumers in real environments. are established and continued. consumers will tell the world that the so-called caring company doesn’t give their employees health benefits. revolutionary companies will need to rethink every aspect of their operation. all is not lost in America. I must say.3. and training type schools are especially applicable to utilize the changes that are occurring to improve their communication with consumers. Nor are all of the new tactics right for every company. 46 . video on the web. camera phones. Technology. be they online or in person.3 The Future At the end of the day. and time. or I should say . Mini-DV cameras. The hip designers of logos and “creative directors” of ad agencies will need to do a better job convincing the chief financial officers and the human resource directors that the “image” of the company must be portrayed in every breath that company takes with every employee. whether you are in front of a burning building or shopping for furniture. Those qualities are open-mindedness.3. consumer products. If they don’t. I mean marketing should have a line item in their budgets called “experimenting” and use it for 2 or 3 new media type tests in a year. 5. social networks and mobile marketing. not contrived focus groups. This however. and a healthy dose of exploration are required by every company regarding things like blogs. dynamic. universities. and just the plain old cell phone has created instant live reporting.Katrina was last year’s story. That means good. web cams. from physical layout of stores to online offerings and pricing.

and dare I say.” 47 . or I should say .Government leaders and the public sector should embrace these new ways to communicate with. “The hip designers of logos and ‘creative directors’ of ad agencies will need to do a better job convincing the chief financial officers and the human resource directors that the ‘image’ of the company must be portrayed in every breath that company takes with every employee… any experience that doesn’t match the brand will be what your consumers. Those who are smart might see new revenue opportunities round every corner. talk about around the world. For example magazine publishers that believe their money comes from the printed page might do well now to explore whether their audience wants that same content in different ways and formats.former consumers. Hey there’s a novel idea. “listen” to the public. The Publishing industry should give great attention to how people want their information.

intensified competition. e. The media habits of this latter group are quite distinct and they can be reached through the correct choice of channels. 5.2 The Consumers The move from unidirectional mass media to bidirectional media with user generated content alters the demand of consumers into having a more “decorporatized” tendency where they prefer to receive their services from other regular persons just like themselves. Associating a company name or brand with an active community of interest will create a positive ambience. 48 . lowered margins and a rise of new business concepts. 5. the increasing importance of the social functions of media. Instead of only targeting. mobile consumers between Stockholm and Arlanda. Going from unidirectional "preaching" to the consumers to an intimate dialogue where the consumers actively contribute and socialize.. the companies could choose to target. but varies according to habits. 19-24 year high income consumers. as they have tremendously enhanced possibilities to communicate with each other. will build trust and loyalty..4. So.4. The increasing importance of the social functions of media also pushes consumers in this direction. companies should focus on encouraging consumer participation and interactivity.4.4 Nils Enlund 5. They should not only target consumer segments but also media usage habits.5. Consumer media behavior is not only dependent on the demographical or geographical segment they belong to. These are powerful ways of building a relationship between consumers and a company. rather than from companies.g.g. the ubiquitous access to media by the general public and the commoditization of media products and services. location and context.3 The Future In the future. which consequently makes consumers more price-sensitive in the future.1 The Changes The major changes that are occurring right now are the move from unidirectional mass media to bidirectional media with user generated content. e. The commoditization of media products and services implies that they are becoming indistinguishable from other similar products and services. there is a widening spectrum of media services.

print.g. TV. lowered margins and a rise of new business concepts. “…there is a widening spectrum of media services. e. outdoor. radio and mobile phones. In order to reach a specific consumer group.Companies should also spread their messages over as many platforms as possible. intensified competition. Consumers are becoming more varied in their choices of media cannels. web.” 49 . messages have to be distributed on many platforms in parallel..

It is no longer a question of real-time usage as with traditional media. is the path of the future. both in terms of usage and the context of it. This is in turn made difficult by that the technological choices of consumers are under constant and rapid change. it is often a matter of complex combinations and sequences of different platforms. This. For the individual media user. rather the occasion of the download versus the occasion of the actual usage can be days and even weeks apart. an individual can download a video or transfer a song to their iPod through a USB cable as a result of watching a 15 second trailer in their cell phone. In order for companies to keep up with what is happening they must be increasingly present where relevant audiences actually live and operate. that is to say on the possibilities of combining different techniques and thus reaching a higher degree of freedom. were we instead have user generated content and peer-to-peer communication. separated from the world in general. It is here were I. and we at the Center for Information and Communication Research set our main focus. I believe that the term implies one-way communication within more or less closed circuits. For example. “In order for companies to keep up with what is happening they must be increasingly present where relevant audiences actually live and operate. we believe. This is quite the opposite of how the world looks today in this regard.5 Bertil Thorngren My question is whether we still can talk about a certain “media environment”.” 50 .5.

They will have to prove their efficiency. Through convergence and user generated content it is now much easier for companies to reach consumers for example when consumers themselves creates their own blogs. 2007) measure how annoying commercial can be in the consumers’ perspective in different medias such as radio and televi- 51 . The Swedish institute for commercial and media statistics (www. This in turn helps spread the word of the cool Mini cars and the website.2 The Consumers Because the consumer has become so selective and is difficult to reach it is important that companies use the most efficient ways of targeting consumers.6. Technology thereby changes the distance between the producer and the user and the relations in the sense that the user becomes the producer. By making consumers interact with each other and create communities they can help to spread a positive word of mouth about the product. From the companies perspective they are starting to doubt the effect that mass marketing has on consumers. This in turn means that the boundaries between medias for example such as print and broadcast are breaking up and multi-platforms are becoming a fact.com. Event marketing is another trend on the current market and it will become more important that companies follow this trend and that media like newspapers work with this as well. 5. The new technology offers possibilities to measure the activity of consumers online while this cannot be done to the same extent with the traditional ones. which is a new way for companies to market the products and services by spreading the word among consumers.se.irm-media.6. Another trend is word of mouth. Therefore I believe that the advertisers will put some stress on the traditional media so that they are confident in targeting the right consumers. Mass marketing will still be needed to reach that wide audience while customized marketing will be used to reach the smaller segments and when companies want to niche themselves on the market more.1 The Changes The new changes that are currently taking place are first and foremost technological ones.6 Maria Norbäck 5.5. 2007) which in the US offers consumers the possibility to send people they know an email with a message written by the Mini car in the form of melting rubber from the tires. A perfect example here is the Mini Cooper car (Miniusa. otherwise the advertisers will question whether it is worth the money to use these medias.

from having a passive to an active way of participating in the communication.sion. Even though mass marketing will always remain since there are generic products that will always need to reach a wide audience. I hope that companies can become more innovative in the future when it comes to satisfying the needs of advertisers. All this is due to the increase and development of technology. the market will become more niched towards specific target groups.3 The Future As mentioned above companies have to make their consumers more interactive. from having a passive to an active way of participating in the communication. which in turn adds value to the core product as well as increases the total value and perception of the product. It does not necessarily have to be the best product on the market but it can be one that many adopt. Blogs.” 52 . “…companies have to make their consumers more interactive. Then it enables for the product to grow in popularity as long as it holds a high quality. It is about succeeding in reaching out to a large crowd. games and so forth are other means that companies can use to reach consumers. What I believe is very important in addition to this is that companies create a lifestyle and if they succeed in doing so they will be able to deliver their message to the consumer.6. being of the right size and being first on the market. 5. The institute has found that intrusive commercial is the form of advertising that can really damage the product or service the most and companies have to learn how to work around this. By offering one initial product the consumer more or less have to buy more than one component of the same brand. A company that has really succeeded in this is Apple by using a lock-in.

7.5. These changes will in turn affect the markets of the consumer and competition. the companies needs to focus of the specific need of each and every individual. If consumer knows what they want they will demand and find a product that to the largest extent fulfills their need. So the main issue that companies need to be aware of is to focus on direct communication. companies have to work around that.2 The Consumers Due to the fact that consumers are becoming more and more difficult to reach. Digitization is one possibility for companies in the media industry to gain more information. With convergence becoming more of a fact.1 The Changes Digitization is one major change that is becoming an important element in the media environment. the competition is and will continue to increase both within as well as across media categories. especially younger consumers. for example on the Internet. Companies now have to focus much more on the individual consumer and its needs by finding and targeting niched market segments. 5. Individualization of consumer is another where. Interaction can occur in a number of ways.7 Per-Erik Wolff 5. The changes that will have the most impact on consumers and what they demand from companies will be based on their need. interactive TV and so forth. which is becoming more and more fragmented.7. and they can do so by interacting directly with the consumers. If on the contrary the 53 .

companies can evolve a way to communicate with their consumers more easily. and use this information both professionally as well as efficiently. These companies will furthermore need fast.” 54 .7. 5. “By opening up and incorporate ways to communicate professionally and interact directly with their targeted groups. evaluate. A tool in order to do this. Industries in which companies have to be particularly proactive when facing these changes are industries with products that have short lifecycle due to constant changing demands. companies can evolve a way to communicate with their consumers more easily.3 The Future By opening up and incorporate ways to communicate professionally and interact directly with their targeted groups. direct information for example the media and entertainment industry and the fashion industry.consumers do not know what they need they will expect companies to orientate and guide them by using brands that they have learned to trust and rely on. companies can use database-marketing which helps to gather.

5.5. One way to reach consumers will be through integrating television in the Internet and web television will develop further.8. which is something companies will have to consider in order to reach the consumers. now with the Internet you have the possibilities to really target the groups according to their preferences and needs and to measure the activity and so forth. One is to provide with an independent opinion and depending on the source the consumer or reader can determine the trustworthiness of it.2 The Consumer Compared to the older generation they preferred news that was opinionated while the younger people prefer neutral and factual news.8. television that ones attracted the advertiser away from newspapers to the television are now loosing the advertisers to the Internet since it was less expensive and the large audience that was reached.1 The Changes Changes that are taking place now are for example in the newspaper industry. However.8 Cinzia Dal Zotto Source: Jönköping International Business School. 2007 5. Media Management and Transformation Centre. In addition with the increase in use of the Internet companies now try to find and attract new consumers and build relations since the older generation does not have an interest in the new technology. The second function is to provide readers or viewers with the possibility to interact through 55 . When consumers use blogs it has two functions. Moreover. This is due to the increase in technology that is affecting the newspapers in the sense that paper format and numbers of subscribers are declining.

At the same time you do not want to disturb or annoy them with the advertisement.3 billion in the world are connected today and it is not a complete revolution but to a large extent so. Internet. This is becoming more and more important to young people and the problem with this from a media perspective. This field is still unexposed but there is no doubt that companies will have to enter this market. Companies will have to be in more contact with the consumers in order to learn how to improve and what they think of the product. Either the company chooses something similar to advertise or something completely different.” 56 . You will also have to be able to relate to the consumers and involve them in the process of developing the product.8. they will keep the traditional newspaper which will probably become a quality paper for an elite group of people where they will increase the price and so on. The Internet is from one point of view a revolution in that sense because it allows for consumers to have contact with so many people. There are two main views on this matter. You can reach a wide audience from many countries and are therefore not geographically limited as consumers were in the old day. but instead by the users and their preferences. 1. The consumer will want not only news to read but also to view. 5. Then we have the third one. Other companies will though have to determine how to reach their consumers and through what media. This is why the Internet will become important for advertisers. The future news that will be available on the Internet will also be more neutral since they will deliver very fast while the newspapers will offer more opinionated articles in the papers. but instead by the users and their preferences. This changed communication and technology has lead to the fact that products and services are not determined by the producers anymore.communities and have not a monologue but a dialogue. With the fact the consumers now have the option to click and remove advertising companies have to find better ways to develop advertisement. in particular the newspapers.3 The Future In the future we will really see big changes especially in the newspaper industry and companies will not only deal with newspaper format. The second one concerns television. Newspaper will not die out completely. is how to reach this young segment. This can be done by using advertising and interactive adverting where you at the same time ask the consumers for their opinion. All of these three will then be integrated and there will be the ”news views”. The companies will try to diversify in three ways. It will also most likely be less expensive at first but as the popularity of it grows so will the cost of advertising. Technology such as having news and other information from the Internet available on the mobile phone is another possible future trend that may expand and grow popular but perhaps more among the younger generation that has grown up with the mobile phone. which will grow even larger with time. which is a media that will be kept and expanded. “This changed communication and technology has lead to the fact that products and services are not determined by the producers anymore.

and they are able to link service to need. They are available to link offers to the things that the consumer really wants. that knows which car they sold you last year can send you a personalized e-mail telling you when it is time to bring the car in for service. have made it so that companies are no longer dependent on telephones and print material for reaching their audiences. consumers are even directly interacting with companies. sms. it is this information seeking and exchange behavior that really alters relationships with companies in a very powerful way. Picard 5. they can watch TV and be directed to a website where they can receive information about a particular product. These kinds of things could have never been done before in an efficient and timely manner. and inventory-control all come together in a particular form of communicating. So. they have the ability to deal with consumers in a more individualized manner and to have better connection between their communications and relationships. As a result of this. A car dealer. for example. 5. or if you have a particular product and you want to look at something regarding repair instructions the manuals are often available online. Or if you are a supplier to a certain company and faced with significant overstocks in your inventory. look at a video of the product.9. technical specifications. talking about the product and certain issues regarding it and the company can then use that information and take it back to the product development stage. They have a lot more options to have immediate contact with their consumers using e-mail.9 Robert G.2 The Consumers The major change with consumers is their information seeking behavior. and this makes for a very different kind of relationship where marketing. download brochures.1 The Changes The main changes that have occurred is that the technology that has arisen during the last ten – fifteen years or so. you can immediately contact the purchasing agent and offer him a good deal for buying your surplus. websites and a variety of other communication devices that are designed to make more information available to their consumers on a regular basis.9. 57 . Sometimes.5. sales.

they are going to opt-out on it. opt-out choices and alternatives. “…consumers are even directly interacting with companies. aspects of the interior. that they think more in line of what is in it for the company. that is effective marketing.” 58 .I think more and more.3 The future In regards to the future. Now. engine specifications and so forth. for example. when they do their consumer relationship management. is looking for a BMW and on their website. fairs and so on. where there is no real separation between different mediums and where companies are rather using them together in better ways than they were separately used before. they are no longer anonymous. is an effective way of contact with companies where they really get served. colors. she found a function where she could specify everything about the car she wanted. on the Internet. broadcast. My wife. you have to get them registered or at the initial meeting give them opt-in. I also think that a lot of companies make the mistake. so it is a consumer focus rather than a company focus of relationships. companies must communicate in all different ways since it is has really become an integrated market process today. where the consumers then can reach out to get what they need . talking about the product and certain issues regarding it and the company can then use that information and take it back to the product development stage…it is this information seeking and exchange behavior that really alters relationships with companies in a very powerful way.9.when they need it. if they do not instead put the emphasis on the consumer. and on the very next day she received a physical brochure of a car with the exact specifications that she had assigned online. sales promotion and sponsorships. what people are looking for. for instance. 5. I think that a really good company makes everything that it has available – available to everybody in a very simple and accessible way. and this is more and more what we are dealing with nowadays. Another thing is that it becomes very cost effective when you use the Internet for doing this. I think what you are doing then is to create a stronger relationship with the consumer in the long run. which means that you have to ask them. they have specific needs they want you to serve and you as a company want to serve those need in the way they want you to. the Internet. but the biggest problem for them is trying to figure out what the individual consumer wants. What is happening is that all of those things can come back together at one point. They need to use print.

Due to these transformations that bring possibilities. news. Another one is communicating with consumers in an efficient way through emails. communications and music and so on.5. This is a general fact that applies to most industries and all industries have to work proactively. consumers will be able to more easily express likes and dislikes they have with companies and/or services and demand more from companies.2 The Consumer All the transformations taking place on the market will have an impact on consumers. Though one must add that the media industry is a prominent area where major changes are taking place for example the television. regardless of media. “When the consumers have more power it is important for companies to improve their skills in the way they communicate with their consumers. is to offer consumers speed and good information. In turn. One solution in order to be successful when dealing with this matter is having a knowledgeable consumer relation’s staff. 5.10.10 Mikael Nyström @ Nyström Media 5. By using the Internet to target specific groups more of the content will therefore be available in electric forms such as news (papers). the website of the company as well as using traditional means such as the phone and so forth. doors will open and consumers will be more empowered.10. 5.1 The Changes The major transformations that are currently taking place in the environment of media are the integration of the Internet as another way of reaching the target group.10. When it comes to which transformation that will more specifically have an impact on how companies communicate to their consumers’ interactive communication is the one to mention.3 The Future When the consumers have more power it is important for companies to improve their skills in the way they communicate with their consumers. This since it will allow for companies to understand what the consumers need and want in order to better address the specific demand of consumers.” 59 . What it comes down to. television and video and so forth.

11. the more he or she is exposed to the company’s brand and other messages. which demands that the receiver and sender are apart of and contribute to the communication process. This expansion will continue to grow and contribute to a wider range of the Internet. web and film can be combined and be at the same place at the same time. If you as consumer come home from having bought a nice sweater one would perhaps want to check the website of the company. for example. identities and lifestyles that the company holds. One does not force a message onto the consumers which they have not asked for. In addition this as mention.11. One example of this is the large newspapers commitment to the web television. you do not have to take into consideration. picture. but instead the consumer visits the website voluntarily and is thus susceptible to the communication that arises. Here is where companies have to improve their communication and realize the potential of the Web. Companies can also develop further through interactive media. Today. 60 . 5. the traditional media will commit to widen the media range and companies will spread their marketing over larger part of the medias that are available. These are a unique way of communicating and advertise other brands.1 The Changes The major transformation that will occur is the possibility to implement larger files in webbased media. boundless media society where television. With the increasing public availability of Internet and development of broadband and computers this form of interaction between companies and consumers it will be easier and expand further. in this case a presumptive consumers or person that has already bought something. the brand will create a long-term relation. This is what builds the brand. If this does not live up to the expectations of the consumer. The consumer expects to see a thoroughly worked out website and it is not enough anymore to simply present the company with a website that your nephew has created. one may become disappointed and what seemed to be a good purchase will loose its value.2 The Consumer What will have most impact on what consumers demand from companies is the confirmation that they have made a good purchase.11 Niklas Elmgren @ Infrakultur 5. The more time a consumer spends on a company’s website.5. These transformations will contribute to a more gathered. By involving the receiver. the size of the website like one used to do. in a process where the consumers has fun.

5.11.3 The Future There are industries where companies have to work more proactively than others. It is particularly important in industries where services and products that include a certain lifestyle are concerned. If one wants to build brands within areas for example such as snowboard, skate, running, tennis and luxurious articles like Prada and Christian Dior this is very important. One does not expect Nike to have a boring website where one cannot view more that one picture of the latest shoe. All companies and branches have different targets and needs. To not take advantage of interactive medias is to neglect the enormous potential that exists to build a strong relationship between the consumer and the brand. Internet can offer so much more than simply shout out a message from an advertising pillar or daily newspaper. This is something more and more brands (the large ones are already involved) realize and place a larger part of their advertising budget within.

“Today, you do not have to take into consideration, for example, the size of the website like one used to do. This expansion will continue to grow and contribute to a wider range of the Internet.”

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5.12 Kristofer Mencák @ GoViral

5.12.1 The Changes The traditional model of sender to receiver is dying out which is one major transformation that is taking place right now. Everybody now have the chance to be a sender and everybody can be a receiver. This also means that there is an increased clutter. Advertisers do not longer compete with other advertisers only for the attention of the consumers – they compete with everybody. This in turn indicates that as an advertiser, to get through, one has to have really good content and very interesting material. The results of these changes are more channels and more targeted channels due to the low cost of publishing content on the Internet. This means that messages can get extremely targeted, if placed in the right environment. There will be however, as mentioned above, in general, more clutter. 5.12.2 The Consumer The fact that consumer are now able to talk back will have a large impact on how companies will communicate with the consumers. Compared to how it was in the old days on the marketplace, the dialogue is back. The same thing applies the other way around. Not only will the companies have to rely on the ability to communicate with consumers, consumers too will demand the ability to communicate with companies. 5.12.3 The Future In order to adjust to the transformations, companies should evolve the way they communicate with their consumers by creating content that the consumers like to interact with. It is about engaging in a dialogue, in a respectful way by listening to and understanding the consumers. There is no specific industry were companies have to be more proactive than others in facing the transformations. Essentially all industries face the same challenges in regard to this.

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Of course, some industries will have to adapt more, as their way traditionally have been less consumer focused. As mentioned above, companies should open up for a dialogue. Consumers generally want to interact and now they also have the chance to do so. Companies should moreover create areas that enable interaction and consumers will more than gladly help to create new products and improve old ones to suit their needs.

“The fact that consumer are now able to talk back will have a large impact on how companies will communicate with the consumers. Compared to how it was in the old days on the marketplace, the dialogue is back.”

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1 6. 6. as well as the reader. By solving it early the company will also show consumers their value and importance for the company and the effort put into making them feel satisfied. Finding and solving a problem early will help the company avoid any further damage and repair the hopefully little harm that has been done to the consumer relationship. They are doing so by spreading their message over many platforms instead of using only one. draw parallels and finally to provide something of value to the target readers of this thesis. they will share their insights. that the latter part of the analysis is thus more of a “consultative discussion” rather than a traditional analysis. they will contribute with. This is due to the development of technology. In today’s market everyone can be a sender or a receiver and the same applies for advertisers who do not only compete with other advertisers but with everyone. to see what is really important. When looking at the what these transformations are moving towards. this places much stress on the fact that the actual offers and products have to be of good material. consumers have to be the centre of attention or be the driving force of development.1. One example of this is newspapers. In turn. the analysis is based on the theoretical framework and the empirical findings in the sense that it builds upon them and enables the authors. Concurring and adding to this is Kristofer Mencák who says that the market and traditional model of the sender to receiver is becoming obsolete. competitors as well as consumers. Bohlin (2000) stated that in order for companies to be successful when converging and trying to reach consumers in the most efficient way. film. by having a close collaboration the companies can discover faults or elements of the products that can be improve and they can do so at an early stage. with the entire thesis as the “mental cosmos” from which the authors derive their guidance. Companies are developing their way in which they communicate their message to consumers. Therefore the companies. 2000). After the theoretical framework and the empirical findings have been discussed and somewhat condensed. Be aware of then. He 64 . a more boundless media society where different medias such as picture. which has formally been the case. the authors will endeavor to present what they themselves have learned from the research up to this point. must work very closely with their consumers since it is them who will decide whether a product or service is a success or not. which has made it possible. new found ideas and humbly strive to offer some guidance in how companies can evolve their market communication in this new digital world. as stated by Niklas Elmgren.1 Current Trends and What Lies Ahead Convergence Experts agree on that one major current trend and change that is taking place on the market right now is the convergence of media. web and television is combined at the same place and same time. which are using the same content but placing it onto the Internet where they offer readers an online newspaper.6 Analysis As it has been mentioned earlier. It enables what used to be separated traditional sectors to enter each other’s areas (Bohlin. Moreover. as Bohlin (2000) stated. as suggested by the authors of this thesis. for different devices and different networks to carry out similar functions.

also states that the traditional media will commit to a wider ranger of media where companies can spread their message over a larger area. Bertil Thorngren further ads that companies must stay updated on what is happening on the market and be present all time where the consumers of interest are active. This is based on the fact that the technological alternatives available on the market makes the consumers adapt and change rapidly. Consequently the companies find it more and more difficult to keep up and adjust to the various complex combinations that take place on different platforms. 6.1.2 User Generated Content

Nils Enlund and Maria Norbäck two experts that especially talk about user generated content that has also become a common fact on today’s market. As the market and the focus changed from being impersonal transactions between companies and consumers to close relationships, as was stated in the theoretical framework by Gunther, Mahajan & Wind, 2002, the society went from a media that used to be concentrated around mass marketing and is now heading towards a society where individualization and customization is highly valued. What Albert Maruggi also emphasises is that consumers are becoming more and more empowered and are allowed to speak their mind more than before. In addition to this consumers are not nowadays separated into groups based on their geographical placement but rather on preferences where they are fragmented in to market communities. The authors of this thesis add that instead of focusing on the geographical placement and more aim towards the preferences they will more easily and efficiently reach their target market. This will make the marketing much more effective and target only those who are believed to have a genuine interest in the products and is possible to build a long-term relationship with. Maria Norbäck believes that these technological changes such as convergence and user generated content makes it much easier for companies on today’s market to reach consumers. Because of the possibilities that have followed with the development of the Internet, for example with consumers creating their own blogs, it is easier to track and measure consumers’ activity. As some of the other experts also mention the relationship between the consumers and the company also becomes more personnel and the distance between them grows smaller. This is based on the fact, as presented above, that consumers are changing places with the producers and the consumer in a way decides on what will be produced and not. Due to this, multi-platforms are being created, as the boundaries between medias turn blurrier, one example of this is shown in print and broadcast media being combined. Nils Enlund adds to this when stating that the competition along with this movement and change will become more though, the margins will be lowered, media services will develop further and new concepts within business will arise. Another trend that Karl-Erik Gustafsson discusses is the fact that companies are now focusing more towards segmenting the markets than they have done before. With more alternatives available consumers are also becoming more selective and demands, as Gunther, Mahajan & Wind (2002) stated, products that reflects their personality. This is becoming more and more apparent as the magazine industry as well as television creates new papers and channels in order to suit people that have more specific preferences. A segment such as this one would not perhaps be reached that easily without offering a more specific product to meet the consumer demand. Fashion magazines aimed towards men are one particular category that is growing very fast in popularity.

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Karl-Erik Gustafsson is an expert though who has a somewhat more old fashioned way of looking at the market. To the contrary of the other experts, he do not believe in a drastic media change in the future, and he base this on when comparing and looking back at was has happened in the past fifteen to twenty years. The authors of this thesis share a different view but were still interested in learning about and hearing more about his point of view. Karl-Erik Gustafsson himself said that his more old fashioned way of looking at the market could perhaps be due to his age and past experience. He stated that the media has not changed drastically and it not likely to change in the future and he do not believe in the individualization of media. He also said that he is of the opinion that the traditional media will remain since medias such as newspapers tend to cater the information need of cities in specific and that are strongly localized. No other model will challenge this; instead it will only be complemented with electronic aids and so forth. 6.1.3 Communicating Through the Internet

Moving on to other growing trends, the three experts; Annette Johansson, Niklas Elmgren and Cinzia Dal Zotto, all agree on that the Internet is a media that will continue to proliferate with the increasing amount of communities on the web. These communities form platforms where people interact with one another. This is supported by Haugvedt & Roehm (1999; in Schumann, D., 1999) who claim that the reason why Internet has become so successful is because it offers people to search the web for everything from entertainment, commercial exchange, information and form communities. Therefore businesses have to respond to this medium very quickly. The experts further add that with all the possibilities that Internet now has to offer, companies can reach their target groups in electric forms such as television, news (papers) and video and so forth. The result of the lowered cost in placing content and marketing on the Internet has made the targeting of consumers through various channels extremely efficient if placed correctly. The authors of this thesis emphasise the importance that companies have to learn how to communicate to their consumers through the Internet since the media functions as an information source from which consumers can gather knowledge about products either pre, during or post purchase. This is something that they have to do now, not tomorrow or the day after, but now because every day there is a certain number of consumers connecting to the Web searching for information determining their interest in products or services. Here is where all companies should work actively in aiming and capturing as many consumers as possible. It does not really depend on what industry the companies are active in, Internet is and will be a determinant and vital part of the companies’ growth. Another fact that companies must consider is, as stated by Haugvedt & Roehm (1999), creating a high level of interaction between the consumers online and maintaining it. This can be done by determining what information that is of interest to the consumers, how often they want to and can have access to it, time spent in doing so and so forth will determine if the consumers’ interest will remain high or not. With the increasing use of the Internet another type of marketing has emerged; viral marketing or word-of mouth on the web using a simplified term. Some of the experts have claimed that this is not just a trend but rather a technique that companies have been waiting for to use in order to differ from the competition. This since word of mouth is, as defined by Sernovitz (2006), everything a company can do in order to make people talk about it. By creating a positive rumour or message about a product or service and thereafter influence consumers to interact with each other, companies will able to get their message out through word of mouth. As Silverman (2001) stated the traditional way of advertising has started to decline and magazines are experiencing problems, television networks are loosing

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viewers and print and broadcast are becoming more expensive. Based on these facts the experts believe word of mouth will come to play an even more important role with time. The authors further add that the word of mouth strategies used by the companies must be of a committing or entertaining form otherwise consumers will loose interest in spreading the word. Maria Norbäck however believe that the traditional model will be questioned in the future and the effect that mass marketing will have on consumers. Much more stress will be placed on the traditional medias in order for companies to feel safe in the fact that they are targeting the right consumers. According to the authors; Dobrowolski, Huntington, Russel, Williams, and Withey (2003), they state that the consumers activity will be easier measured in the future through all of the platforms which functions as digital fingerprint where systems gather these fingerprints that can be compared between services, digital platforms and sites. These systems can furthermore pin point large populations instead of smaller communities. In agreement with this Maria Norbäck states that the online technology will offer possibilities, which has not been possible to the same extent when using the traditional models. What moreover will be a relevant matter in the time to come is how these traditional medias will prove their efficiency so that advertisers will know that they gain value and not question the money spend in these medias. A know denominator between the experts is that many of them believe that mass marketing will still be needed in order to reach the consumers who purchases the general products. However, they do believe that the customized marketing will be implemented more with time so that the smaller segments are reached and companies that want to niche themselves more will also be able to do so.

6.2

Summarizing the Trends

All the discussed changes seem to point to a common denominator: media is becoming an interactive medium with a blurred line between sender and receiver, where the consumer becomes an active participant, contributor, and marketer. What earlier could be described as “Piñata-style marketing” (authors denotation) where you swing the air and, if lucky, you hit your target group, seem to be moving towards a more surgical marketing style where you can reach your target group with surgical preciseness and even have a dialog with them.

Figure 6:1; Summarizing the Trends

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and since no consumer is exactly similar to another one. and all companies wishing to continue reaching their consumers. copy or overthrow your idea. in a global arena. it becomes extremely important for companies to find out what consumers want. This is very important because it brings us to the notion of customization and that consumers are demanding more tailored offerings. that more accurately suits their needs. but also in regards to every way of operating the company both inwards and outwards. it has been very obvious that what we are talking about is a very dynamic and even chaotic environment. but we will talk more about this later. We also discussed the importance of customization as a result of empowered consumers. it is a common notion that “time is relative”. The only way to find out what the individual consumer wants is. let us instead see what we have discussed so far. Throughout the thesis. we have a market environment where speed and flexibility is vital. where the 68 . let us now instead focus on the features that will be important to develop in this new reality. What becomes important then is to maintain sustainability in regards to the entire business concept. in a market where consumers. if they no longer like what you offer the company is not going to remain successful. if we still can call it that. but they also want it instantly. what is successful today can become outdated tomorrow in a market with billions of connected people. it becomes a matter of customizing for individual needs. well – in this case it has picked up the pace tremendously and one minute today is a mili second tomorrow. Your flexibility should then also be implemented in updating the business concept and in seeking for ways to improve it in order to make it as sustainable as possible. In such an environment where nothing is really constant. to ask him or her about it. but also in the sense that consumers are demanding and expecting it to a greater extent. A dynamic and chaotic environment also points to another important feature that companies will have to cultivate more of in the future. what is happening right now is that consumers are enormously empowered to search for alternatives to your offering.3 The New World Elements Having discussed the changes that are occurring in the media environment. bubbling with ideas and concepts that can improve. Now. read the last part of the previous sentence again. both for satisfying the consumers and in regards to implementing the flexibility. All of the immediate interconnectivity that has been talked about throughout the thesis has generally created very demanding consumers who not only want the best product or service for the best possible price. it is natural to conclude that flexibility and speed are vital traits that companies must better cultivate in the future. easily can find alternatives . hence. if they do not like your product they can easily find a better one that more accurately suits their needs. In the light of this.they are going to choose the products that suits their individual specifications the most. 6. this in turn raises the bar in terms of satisfying the consumer. particularly so from the companies point of view. Now. The logic behind all this is actually very simple and it is worth repeating. there is no walking around it. Speed is not only important for companies in regards to quickly putting their flexibility into work and change what is necessary. We also have an environment where time has a whole new meaning. everything can simply be derived back to the consumers. of course. period. preserve their competitive advantages and to remain in business will be forced to react in one way or another. and identified some major trends of where it is heading.These major trends inevitably challenge they way market communication works today. In business. as things quickly change it is not to the same extent possible to blindly rely on a currently successful business idea.

and this.key of the customization is information about what the consumer wants. which was said by Professor Picard during his interview: “Sometimes. high level of customization equals high value.” 69 . Figure 6:2.4 The Paradigm When reading about all the changes and what they imply. The New World Elements Model 6. it is this information seeking and exchange behavior that really alters relationships with companies in a very powerful way. Now. implies interconnectivity between the company and its consumers. and sustainability and continuous improvement ensures high value over time. The authors received enlightenment in the matter as a result of the following. including the new world elements. consumers are even directly interacting with companies. of course. but before we go straight to the juice let us summarize what we have talked about in a neat model which at any time can act as an instant reminder for you. high speed equals high value. it is easy to fall into the belief that it is only the consumers that are empowered and that all of the changes are bad news for companies as they have to evolve and adjust to the more difficultly charmed consumers. All of these aspects are what together ultimately creates value for the consumers in the new digital world. talking about the product and certain issues regarding it and the company can then use that information and take it back to the product development stage. So. This is an unhealthy paradigm for a company to hold and we will now discuss why it is also wrong. what is more important to talk about is how companies could cultivate a combination of these attributes.

will have an enormous effect on how successful the company will be in targeting the right con- 70 . the authors are going to provide the reader with a clear illustration with the help of a metaphor.6 The Blueprint Concept In order to present the positive implication of the paradigm. old people. His notion is simply that as the Internet enables people to gather and communicate according to interest. who all share the same interest. company and the Internet will all have an equally large part putting all the pieces together. as well as the communication directly with companies as enabled by the new technology. The metaphor used will be in the form of a house where the consumer. However. this communication between consumers about certain companies and their products. which the company decides to communicate to the consumer through. 6. in what would be a Business-toconsumer-to-consumer-to-consumer-… or B2Cn (where n equals total number of consumers) formula. rather than from companies. to know what consumers want! Companies should know then. by the authors coined. women and men. We could also read about the power of blogs. again. Being a future consumer means that an endlessly amount of alternatives will be available. this is especially. let us break down to the paradigm that these words actually imply. but also an individualized relationship which means that the company can target each consumer differently according to their needs and preferences. if not only. can also act as a source for companies to find out exactly what consumers want. for example. other communities and the Internet in large as a place where consumers can communicate with each other to alter the demand for certain companies. for example. that consumer empowerment does not necessarily mean trouble but quite the opposite.Now. With this increase of alternatives the consumer will also demand more from companies. This is tightly connected with the previous paradigm of that consumers can talk to companies and tell them what they want and it leads us to the. where Nils Enlund explained an emerging tendency of consumers preferring to receive their services from other regular persons just like themselves. we read about “decorporatization”. However. If you remember the picture on the title page. young people. true for companies that are proactive in regards to the new environment and use the new available techniques to their advantage. but also in company empowerment in the sense that companies can find out what they always have wanted. Throughout the thesis it has been evident how the interconnectedness of the new digital world plays a major role in the empowerment of consumers.5 B2C n Albert Maruggi talked about a “multi-dimensional” view of buying behavior and he said that it is created by a “fragmentation of markets into communities rather than demographics” in the new digital world. In any case. The media. it is about escaping your bowl and taking that leap. 6. The new digital world with its highly elevated potential for communication results not only in consumer empowerment. the authors would like to take it a little bit further and claim that the new technologies and the Internet allows not only a multi-dimensional segmentation of consumers. blueprint metaphor of marketing. this creates a segmentation which incorporates all kinds of demographics. which in turn stresses the significance of how the company interacts with its consumers.

which in turn place much emphasis on the company’s sensitivity and adaptation towards consumers. and that is the Internet. In addition to this it is also a media where companies will have to offer something additionally in adjacent to the core product. With the increase in consumer power the consumer will not play the part that accepts the offer but rather the one who determines what will come to be the offer. The Internet will be a large determinant to whether the process is viable or not and no house will be built without it. Since the authors believe that the Internet is. The Internet therefore serves as a foundation for building the house. In turn the company will customize a product that fulfils the exact demands placed by the consumer.sumer.1 Blueprint & Material When the consumer has a structured idea of what he or she needs and how to receive it.6. See the next page for an illustrative figure of the Blueprint Concept.6. the company can based on this information create a customized solution to the problem. which is the entirety. Without the foundation neither the design. flexibly and in an efficient way the interaction between the two will be close to non-existing. he or she then turns to the company. there is one major function in between the consumers and the company that plays a crucial role. and will continue to be an absolute vital media and communication channel in the future. will be of any use. by the authors. What the authors basically have done is dividing the consumer. They supply whatever that is needed in order to satisfy the consumer and the company also responds very fast to changes that the consumer wants to make and improvements they wish to see when placing future purchases. The consumer as an individual has demands that it wants the company to fulfil. 6. this is where all the information should be provided to the consumers. 71 . 6. which then arranges so that the consumer receives the material needed to make the blueprint a reality. By providing the company with certain elements and parts it wishes the product to hold or added value brought to it. This blueprint will then be handed to the company. Without having a medium that allows for the two parties to communicate fast.2 The Medium However. As information systems. Having a structured plan will be referred to. company and the Internet into three separate groups that all serve a purpose to what becomes the final result. as a blueprint where the consumers have decided the design and outline of the product. one could say that the consumer determines if the company is attractive enough to even be able to sell any products. but also costs by using this communication channel. warehousing and so forth improves so will the time efficiency and the two parties will save not only time. To simplify this. this to be able to differ from the rest of the companies on the market competing for the same target group. the blueprint made by the consumer or the material provided by the company.

world. there are many ways in which a company can go about doing this where your own level of crea- 72 . 6. As a result. how companies can take the leap into the new digital bowl. looking further into the matter. the consumer designs the product or the service while the firm “lends” out its manufacturing logistics and other resources to the consumer. rely on the fact that companies. speed. 6:1) which can act as an instant reminder of them. it is just like Picard said. the company must of course know what the consumer wants.1 Customization Both the new paradigm and the Blueprint Concept that you have been introduced to. The prominence of customization in this new world demands other forms of product development and delivery systems and it redefines the relationship between suppliers and consumers. sorry.Figure 6:3. can find out exactly what consumers want. companies are able to move out their R&D out of the labs and into the hands of consumers. how. The Blueprint Concept 6. in principle. technology must be used to streamline the customization process. the authors discussed and agreed upon a set of elements that will be of utmost importance for companies to cultivate in this new digital world and they also offered a model (fig. specifically.7 Taking the Leap Previously. can we move out R&D to the hands of consumers? Well. Now is the time to be more specific on how these elements could be attained. This means that for a wide variety of products. In any case. in the new digital world. much in line with the Blueprint Concept. it is important that companies are careful not to go beyond their own capabilities and that they ensure a functioning and safe product despite alteration. the company must ask the consumer! Although. customization implies a reorganization of the relationship between the firm and its consumers. When consumers are allowed this great variety and alteration of their desired products. and hence. the elements are: customization. flexibility and sustainability.7.

g. clothes. and two. which is significantly enhanced with the Internet. This can take the form of that you allow the consumer to customize the product him/herself right on your website before ordering it. What this translates into is the notion of that customization should be a process of mutual benefit between company and consumer. and upload pictures of their final product once received – all on the same website. Macstyles. the customization occurs on your conditions and thus ensures that you can handle the requirements. for someone to be willing to give you such information he or she must first of all have an interest in doing so. and that information can also be applied in this matter. First and foremost.com.g.2 Speed Earlier.7. Another big chunk of customization is more about pure market research in order to find out what consumers want. software. it is a more complex issue and the physical distribution must be outsourced and completely integrated with the digital component. of course. much of the growth and success of so many e-businesses can be credited to consumers’ expectations in a digital world.time inevitably becomes a valuable currency for both consumer and company. With physical products (e. of course. it is easy for the consumer which encourages that they actually go through with the purchase. you have to gain something from it as well. and that it should be a starting point for your own way of enabling and enhancing customization in accordance with the nature of your product. There are several reasons for why this is a good approach.. since after all. The authors write more about this in the section of flexibility. Although. such as post purchase evaluations where the Internet can allow you to send e-mail surveys to customers who have already purchased your product. books. many other obvious ways. and. download manuals for how to apply the decals. They like the possibility of acquiring products and services interactively. on the other hand.tivity is the only limit. 73 . let us go through some of the ways in which this effectively can be done. post suggestions for new designs on a forum. Take a look at appendix E and get inspired. food). anywhere in the world at any time and to accomplish this with the added benefits of interactive e-business solutions. they sell vinyl decals for Apple notebooks and the customer can customize their own design. Well. A crucial move towards this goal is to redesign the supply chain in order to find a balance between digital and material distribution. movies) this is a much simpler task since the products can be downloaded and billed entirely online. music. but they also want it instantly. in a world where speed is a crucial element . In fact. A perfect and modern example of this is the web based company. for one. Nevertheless. which logically means that they have something to gain from it. you can have it any way you want it”. see designs by other customers. the notion can be expressed as “As long as you buy. it is about making the customer wanting to take the time to share information with you. for digital products (e. The authors would instead like to emphasize the discussed notion of mutual benefit as a precondition for customization.. more specifically. the authors have said that all of the immediate interconnectivity that has been talked about throughout the thesis has generally created very demanding consumers who not only want the best product or service for the best possible price. 6. There are.

in this case. and should. help secure the needed financing and other services. the company is always the loser in this situation. The bottom line is that flexibility is kind of a “backbone element” in this new digital world. but the authors also talked about the element of speed in regards to implementing the flexibility. manufacturing. Hence. is to cultivate a suiting set of values throughout the company and let them saturate every department. Particularly on the business-to-business side. Flexibility is hence very much connected with sustainability. have a way more positive impact on the consumer than you might imagine. and it implies the entire necessary morale fiber of the modern organization of being alert. the use of technology can facilitate an integration of the supply networks. the authors believe. and if not – absolutely no longer than 24 hours after the initial contact! Always reply with an aura of respect. “bubbling with ideas and concepts”. appreciation and sincerity! 6. This. these attributes could. This element.3 Flexibility The authors derived the importance of flexibility from the fact of a dynamic environment where “one minute today is a mili second tomorrow” and where lowered entry barriers and billions of connected people. or an opportunity for the company to learn! All contact should be answered instantly if possible. These values and the culture they promote should particularly emphasize the importance of quickly addressing consumers’ inquiries.A huge opportunity that has arisen in the digital world is the possibility of offering your suppliers real time access to your customers’ orders. the entire surrounding environment of the company. it can reduce product inventory. globally integrated and customer driven supply chain. the authors cannot emphasize enough how important it is that a company answers your e-mails fast and how this leaves the impression of a well organized. swift. Flexibility implies that one is flexible towards something. in reality. From personal experience. can improve. Nothing is worse than sending an e-mail to a company or any organization for that matter. proactive and always ready in a world where nothing is still. In fact. the authors assure you. how disappointing it may be for the consumer. and consequently achieving just-intime inventory with a streamlined. managers bear the most responsibility for making their organizations flexible. professional and service-minded company. and consequently cut costs and speed up development. and receiving an answer two weeks afterwards or not at all. However. and delivery of products and services. It was also stated that your flexibility should be implemented in updating the business concept and in seeking for ways to improve it in order to make it as sustainable as possible. and the polite manner in which you do so. streamline processes.7. Another crucial part of speeding up your company. the values and the culture you should cultivate in your company should express that: All contact initiated by consumers is good contact and should be perceived as an interest to buy. is thus a matter of at- 74 . be transferred to individual managers as well since. copy or overthrow your idea. If a consumer takes the time to send you e-mail he or she is interested and you should always aspire to surprise the consumer with your speed of answering. and these two elements are thus also connected. the authors believe.

of course. which both are completely free to download. They must not only be attentive. new project announcements. the authors strongly suggests companies to create an internal blog as a complement to emailing.org) software. Returning to the importance of information and being attentive and proactive in regards to your environment. and there are several services out there (Technorati. In regards to information as just discussed. and Wright (2006) continues to say that they could be used for project sites. be of great help. PubSub) that offer you an entire searchable database of what is being said in millions of blogs.com) as a way of seeing how blogs are connected with each other. recruiting and as a way to filter down official company news and information from executives. the dilemma is to be able to transfer it across all dimensions of the company in order to make it a coherent entity. information. They need to know what to change. but also proactive in regards to by themselves finding out what is happening concerning new trends. The key here is then. Companies must be attentive to what is going on in their environment. competitors and new technology. for example. but rather the right information. you cannot only change one third or half of the company. for that matter. what to update and how they need to adjust in response to their environment in general. for example. the origin of these blog databases has a lot to do with bloggers wanting to know what is said about them. and in other companies’ environments as well.wordpress. However. so instead for searching the web using Google. again. as quoted by Wright (2006) in the book “Blog Marketing”: “The reason why I created Technorati in the first place – I wanted to know who was talking about me and the things I cared about – hasn’t changed… It provides me with a drop of joy and a lot of wonder that we 75 . Wright (2006) mentions the following advantages that blogs have over e-mail: • • • • • Anyone can contribute Anyone can comment and their comments can be seen by everyone All posts are archived indefinitely Blog posts are categorized for ease of viewing Past posts can be searched quickly and easily Internal blogs are powerful tools for internal communications. flexibility does not only imply external factors but first and foremost it is an internal attribute to be able to change and adjust the company in response to something that is outside. Regarding information transparency and knowledge transfer within the company. the authors suggest that you check out WordPress (www. IceRocket. Dave Sifry (one of the earliest bloggers) created Technorati (www. For starting your new blog. blogs can. BlogPulse. The thing is not to find information.technorati.communityserver. know what to be flexible towards. but also in finding out what is happening concerning problems and upcoming obstacles. Nothing good comes out of sitting still.org) or Community Server (www. search your company! In fact.tentiveness in regards to this environment due to that companies must.

A company that implements a customization system based on mutual benefit and thus encourages consumers to go through with purchases as well to give information. Without such experimentation. and sustainability and continuous improvement ensures high value over time. adaptive experimentation is prerequisite for sustainability. dynamic and uncertain global business environment. and to help people make sense out of all of this remarkable creativity in the blogosphere. Conducting comprehensive and adaptive experiments with breakthrough experiments is the only way to reduce risk and accurately review market responses to new strategic initiatives.are even more crucial in the changing and chaotic digital marketing world. it is the combination and the synergy of these aspects that ultimately creates value for the consumers in the new digital world. 6. the solution is to formulate and launch multiple strategies and evaluate their impact. In a fast-changing. if a firm goes only with a single strategy. you as a manager can more easily assign changes according to the new information that you acquire and pass down through the internal blog. or keep the same level of marketing effort. a company that implements just-in-time inventory and cultivates a culture of quickly and politely addressing consumers inquiries. high level of customization equals high value.” 6. and a company that dares to experiment in new medias and strategies in order to stay ahead of the changes. management is in no better position to decide what to do next – to increase. high speed equals high value.5 = VALUE As previously mentioned. increase the uncertainty in regards the likely effectiveness of the firm’s strategies. all concepts are interconnected with each other. and cultivating a culture of experimentation and learning . competitive dynamics. In other words. the authors offer you a model that depicts the elements of the new digital world as well as keywords for the significant steps necessary for taking the leap and evolving your market communication for the future. at the end of the period. just as the mentioned values and corporate culture are.7. you could see that the importance of information is a common denominator for all elements. the authors could not agree more with Maruggi when he says that “I believe companies should incorporate a Research and Development budget in their marketing divisions” and that “marketing should have a line item in their budgets called ‘experimenting’ and use it for 2 or 3 new media type tests in a year. 148) When everybody in the company knows what is going on.have been able to contribute our small part to the greater good. digital world. a company that knows what is being said about it and that has the ability to flexibly adapt to its environment. added incentive to develop and test innovative strategies that make it difficult for competition to figure out your strategy. and other interconnected features of the global digital business context that have been discussed so far. decrease.” (p. 76 . is bound to succeed in the new.7. Further. The major benefits of adaptive experimentation – continuous learning. In this situation.4 Sustainability Changing consumer preferences. On the next page.

The New Digital World Market Communication Diamond 77 . VALUES & CULTURE INTERNAL BLOG ADAPTIVE EXPERIMENTATION MUTUAL BENEFIT R&D W/ CONSUMERS Figure 5:3.JUST-IN-TIME INV.

both theoretical and empirical. 78 . derived from endless communication possibilities. the authors also provided some guidance in how to actually incorporate the implication of the elements in your company. flexibility. turbulent and chaotic digital world. and only then could the authors move on to provide advice for companies in how to evolve and adjust for the future. as well. Flexibility is also closely connected with values and the corporate culture. are empowered by the new technological possibilities. the authors found it important to offer a paradigm that clearly incorporates that companies. The elements were speed. and it aimed to result in some guidance for how companies can evolve their market communication to keep up with this new. In regards to customization. The authors also explained that this purpose was double natured in the sense that it was required to investigate the current media environment and determine the major transformations taking place within it today. The trends are that technology. In this new and emerging reality. which is to say that information about consumers and their preferences and behaviors are crucial for the future company. and they expressed that proactiveness is crucial for attaining sustainability. which they can use for optimizing their strategies as well as their products. In order to stay alive in the new. All of the elements and the examples of how they could be instigated where then neatly summarized in the “New Digital World Market Communication Diamond”. the authors also urged managers to dare to experiment in new media channels. as well as cultivating values that emphasize the importance of quickly addressing customers’ needs. Since a majority of the research portrayed an emerging environment where consumers are being endlessly empowered. and its basic notion is that the new media environment enables companies to attain quite exact blueprints of consumer preferences. decreasing returns to scale to increasing returns to scale. the authors identified four major elements that will be crucial for companies to cultivate and incorporate in their operations in order to adjust to the changes. The Blueprint Concept acted to further illustrate and strengthen this paradigm. just-in-time inventory. the authors were able to distinguish some major trends in which the current media environment is being altered in regards to the future. is evolving from just being an enhancer towards becoming a determining part of market communication. customization and sustainability. but the authors also stressed the importance of finding out what to actually be flexible towards.7 Conclusions The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the modern media environment and its ongoing transformation. a move from broad and often demographically based segmentation to a narrower and more niched fragmentation of markets. After having conducted thorough research. the shift from an environment where existing business models are being recycled to a modern potential of entirely new business concepts. the trend of that tangible assets are also being complemented with the importance of intangible assets. digital world. In addition to just introducing the new world elements. and particularly the Internet. It was said that speed is best achieved through offering your suppliers real time access to your customers’ orders and thus achieving a streamlined. and finally. The paradigm thus expressed that consumers’ newfound power. a basic notion of mutual benefit was offered as a point of departure for all attempts to encourage consumers to give you information. also brings along the opportunity for companies to find out exactly what consumers want.

and that it is. ideas or advice that you find worthwhile and that can be of any assistance to you. this thesis was conducted without any financial support of any kind. which is a limiting aspect in regards to the necessary costs of traveling large distances to meet people of interest.8 Limitations and Outroduction Firstly. the authors are also fortunate enough to live in a time where most people have their own computers and are connected to the Internet. Secondly. Further. the authors were fortunate enough to be part of the same institution as the Media Management and Transformation Centre of the Jönköping International Business School that. they are not in any way considered to be experts within the field in the same sense as those who have been interviewed here. as this is a consultative thesis it is important to make clear that even though the authors have studied marketing and management for several years. and if you have gained any valuable insight. Leo Saleh & Angelica Storck 79 . the authors prefer to reverse this argument and instead point to that they have “stood on the shoulders of those who are greater”. which enabled them to conduct e-mail interviews with people at different places and from different institutions. of which most have way more years of studies in their account. the purpose – at least on a personal level. We wish you all the luck and fortune with whatever you are doing! Best regards. However. this contact with these brilliant people that have enabled them to hopefully provide some guidance of value. However. is very relevant to the subject of the thesis. has been fulfilled. in fact. e-mail interviews are naturally inferior to face-to-face interviews and this is thus still a limit per se. tremendous experience and esteemed recognition. as can be derived from the name. Nevertheless. The authors would like to thank you for having read this far.

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(2005) E-merging Media: Communication and the Media Economy of the Future.XML Europe 2000 (2007) Nils Enluund. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.gca. A.org/papers/xmleurope2000/author/s15-00auth1. et al. Germany 85 . Retrieved from http://www.html Zerdick.

com/alerts/archives/000436.html. 2007-05-14 86 .sifry.APPENDICES A: The State of the Blogosphere Charts retrieved from: http://www.

87 .

More on the next page! 88 .

2007-05-10 More on the next page! 89 .B: YouTube Interface Pictures retrieved from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer.

90 .

C: Joost™ Interface Pictures retrieved from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer. 2007-05-10 More on the next page! 91 .

2007-05-23 More on the next page! 92 .D: MySpace Interface Pictures received from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer.

93 .

com Pictures received from screenshots from one of the authors’ computer. 2007-05-23 More on the next page! 94 .E: Macstyles.

95 .

Is there an industry where companies have to be particularly proactive in the face of these transformations? 96 . in your opinion. What do you feel are the major transformations occurring right now in the media environment? 2. are there any particular transformations that you believe will have the most impact on what consumers demand from companies? Corporate Response to the Changes 4. A) Are there any particular transformations that you believe will have the most impact on how companies communicate with their customers? B) And respectively. Where do you think the media environment is heading as a result of these transformations? 3. How should companies. evolve the way they communicate with their customers in response to these transformations? 5. EXPERTS The Media Environment Changes 1.F: E-mail Questions Questions.

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