Andy Fields Questionnaire

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Andy Fields Questionnaire

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Task 1

The University of Sussex is constantly seeking to employ the best people possible as lecturers

(no, really, it is). Anyway, they wanted to revise a questionnaire based on Bland’s theory of

research methods lecturers. This theory predicts that good research methods lecturers should

have four characteristics: (1) a profound love of statistics; (2) an enthusiasm for experimental

design; (3) a love of teaching; and (4) a complete absence of normal interpersonal skills.

These characteristics should be related (i.e. correlated). The ‘Teaching Of Statistics for

Scientific Experiments’ (TOSSE) already existed, but the university revised this questionnaire

and it became the ‘Teaching Of Statistics for Scientific Experiments — Revised’ (TOSSE—R).

The gave this questionnaire to 239 research methods lecturers around the world to see if it

supported Bland’s theory. The questionnaire is below and the data are in TOSSE-R.sav.

Conduct a factor analysis (with appropriate rotation) to see the factor structure of the data.

SD D N A SA

1 A A A A A

that I'd mistakenly dug up thinking it was Roy's largest root

2

If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach A A A A A

4

I worship at the shrine of Pearson A A A A A

6 because the pain of my burning oesophagus would be light relief in A A A A A

comparison

9 A A A A A

morning

11 A A A A A

rotation

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

13

Designing experiments is fun A A A A A

14 A A A A A

the pub

15 A A A A A

Analysis

16 A A A A A

thrills me

17 A A A A A

observation in my next experiment

18 A A A A A

my bowels

20 A A A A A

individual

A A A A A

my groin

22 A A A A A

experiment

I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even

23 A A A A A

they die of boredom

24 1930s and follow Fisher around on my hands and knees licking the A A A A A

floor on which he'd just trodden

25 I love teaching A A A A A

27 A A A A A

they'll get bad marks

SPSS Output

Correlation Matrixa

a. Determinant = 1.498E-06

Multicollinearity: The determinant of the correlation matrix was 0.00000149, which is smaller

than 0.00001 and, therefore, indicates that multicollinearity could be a problem in these data

(although, strictly speaking, because we’re using principal components analysis we don’t need

to worry).

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling

Adequacy. .894

Sphericity df 378

Sig. .000

Communalities

Initial Extraction

I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd mistakenly dug up thinking it was

1.000 .631

Roy's largest root

If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach 1.000 .641

I memorize probability values for the F-distribution 1.000 .558

I worship at the shrine of Pearson 1.000 .568

I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene 1.000 .561

Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because the pain of my burning

1.000 .638

oesophagus would be light relief in comparison

Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling 1.000 .484

I like control conditions 1.000 .682

I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning 1.000 .632

I could spend all day explaining statistics to people 1.000 .409

I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation 1.000 .542

People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak 1.000 .263

Designing experiments is fun 1.000 .521

I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub 1.000 .696

I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis 1.000 .498

Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me 1.000 .676

I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in my next experiment 1.000 .709

Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels 1.000 .519

I like to help students 1.000 .540

Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual 1.000 .480

Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin 1.000 .557

I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment 1.000 .763

I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of boredom 1.000 .605

I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and follow Fisher around on my

1.000 .653

hands and knees licking the floor on which he'd just trodden

I love teaching 1.000 .541

I spend lots of time helping students 1.000 .593

I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad marks 1.000 .625

My cat is my only friend 1.000 .561

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Sample Size: McCallum et al (1999) have demonstrated that when communalities after

extraction are above .5, a sample size between 100-200 can be adequate and even when

communalities are below .5 a sample size of 500 should be sufficient. We have a sample size

of 239 with some communalities below .5, and so the sample size may not be adequate.

However, the KMO measure of sampling adequacy is .894, which is above Kaiser’s (1974)

recommendation of .5. This value is also ‘meritorious’ (and almost ‘marvelous’) according to

Hutcheson & Sofroniou (1999). As such, the evidence suggests that the sample size is

adequate to yield distinct and reliable factors.

Bartlett’s test: This tests whether the correlations between questions are sufficiently large for

factor analysis to be appropriate (it actually tests whether the correlation matrix is sufficiently

different from an identity matrix). In this case it is significant (χ2 (378) = 2989.77, p < .001)

indicating that the correlations within the R-matrix are sufficiently different from zero to

warrant factor analysis.

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total

1 9.028 32.243 32.243 9.028 32.243 32.243 6.923

2 2.750 9.823 42.066 2.750 9.823 42.066 3.752

3 1.709 6.102 48.169 1.709 6.102 48.169 3.693

4 1.504 5.370 53.539 1.504 5.370 53.539 5.238

5 1.155 4.127 57.665 1.155 4.127 57.665 3.159

6 .975 3.482 61.147

7 .921 3.289 64.436

8 .828 2.957 67.394

9 .789 2.819 70.212

10 .734 2.620 72.832

11 .708 2.529 75.362

12 .658 2.350 77.711

13 .627 2.240 79.951

14 .584 2.085 82.036

15 .549 1.960 83.996

16 .539 1.925 85.921

17 .492 1.757 87.678

18 .453 1.619 89.297

19 .412 1.471 90.768

20 .399 1.426 92.195

21 .341 1.218 93.412

22 .336 1.200 94.612

23 .314 1.122 95.734

24 .289 1.033 96.767

25 .271 .966 97.733

26 .255 .911 98.644

27 .212 .759 99.403

28 .167 .597 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

Scree Plot

10

4

Eigenvalue

0

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

Component Number

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

Extraction: SPSS has extracted 5 factors based on Kaiser’s criterion of retaining factors with

eigenvalues greater than 1. Is this warranted? Kaiser’s criterion is accurate when there are

less than 30 variables and the communalities after extraction are greater than .7, or when the

sample size exceeds 250 and the average communality is greater than .6. For these data the

sample size is 239, there are 28 variables, and the mean communality is .577 so extracting 5

factors is not really warranted. The scree plot shows clear inflexions at 3 and 5 factors and so

using the scree plot you could justify extracting 3 or 5 factors.

Pattern Matrixa

Component

1 2 3 4 5

Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me .829

I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub .813

I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment .765

I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in

.733

my next experiment

Designing experiments is fun .575

I like control conditions .556

I could spend all day explaining statistics to people .458

I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning

I like to help students .735

Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual .651

I love teaching .633

I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad

.556

marks

Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling .470

I spend lots of time helping students .461

I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation

I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of

.713

boredom

My cat is my only friend .702

I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene .692

People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak .493

I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and

follow Fisher around on my hands and knees licking the floor on which he'd just .752

trodden

I memorize probability values for the F-distribution .662

I worship at the shrine of Pearson .589

I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis .481

Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin .433 .479

I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd

.445

mistakenly dug up thinking it was Roy's largest root

Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because

.818

the pain of my burning oesophagus would be light relief in comparison

If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach .784

Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels .549

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 15 iterations.

Rotation: You should chose an oblique rotation because the question says that the constructs

we’re measuring are related.

Looking at the pattern matrix (and using loadings greater than .4 as recommended by

Stevens) we see the following pattern:

Factor 1:

• Q 16. Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me

• Q 14. I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub

• Q 22. I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

• Q 17. I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in

my next experiment

• Q 13. Designing experiments is fun

• Q 8. I like control conditions

• Q 10. I could spend all day explaining statistics to people

Factor 2:

• Q 9. I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning

• Q 19. I like to help students

• Q 20. Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual

• Q 25. I love teaching

• Q 27. I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad

marks

• Q 7. Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling

• Q 26. I spend lots of time helping students

Factor 3:

• Q 23. I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of

boredom

• Q 28. My cat is my only friend

• Q 5. I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene

• Q 12. People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak

Factor 4:

• Q 24. I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and

follow Fisher around on my hands and knees licking the floor on which he'd just trodden

• Q 3. I memorize probability values for the F-distribution

• Q 4. I worship at the shrine of Pearson

• Q 15. I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis

• Q 21. Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin

• Q 1. I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd

mistakenly dug up thinking it was Roy's largest root

Factor 5:

• Q 6. Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because the

pain of my burning oesophagus would be light relief in comparison

• Q 2. If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach

• Q 18. Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels

No Factor:

• Q 11. I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation

Factor 1 seems to relate to research methods, factor 2 to teaching, factor 3 to general social

skills, factor 4 to statistics and factor 5 to, well, err, teaching again. All in all this isn’t

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

particularly satisfying and doesn’t really support the four factor model. We saw earlier that the

extraction of 5 factors probably wasn’t justified. In fact the scree plot seems to indicate 3.

Let’s re-run the analysis but asking SPSS for three factors. Let’s see how this changes the

pattern matrix:

Pattern Matrixa

Component

1 2 3

I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment .799

I like control conditions .794

I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in my next experiment .788

Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin .745

Designing experiments is fun .715

I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning .682

I memorize probability values for the F-distribution .669

I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd mistakenly dug up thinking it was

.623

Roy's largest root

I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and follow Fisher around on my hands

.620

and knees licking the floor on which he'd just trodden

I worship at the shrine of Pearson .615

Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me .583

Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling .568

I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis .542

I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation .535

I could spend all day explaining statistics to people .443

I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub .437

I like to help students .618

If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach -.560

Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because the pain of my burning

-.531

oesophagus would be light relief in comparison

Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels -.519

I spend lots of time helping students .406 .515

I love teaching .449

Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual

I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene .719

I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of boredom .687

My cat is my only friend .680

People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak .536

I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad marks .418 .441

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

Looking at the pattern matrix (and using loadings greater than .4 as recommended by

Stevens) we see the following pattern:

Factor 1:

• Q 22. I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment

• Q 8. I like control conditions

• Q 17. I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in

my next experiment

• Q 21. Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin

• Q 13. Designing experiments is fun

• Q 9. I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning

• Q 3. I memorize probability values for the F-distribution

• Q 1. I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd

mistakenly dug up thinking it was Roy's largest root

Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 15

• Q 24. I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and

follow Fisher around on my hands and knees licking the floor on which he'd just trodden

• Q 4. I worship at the shrine of Pearson

• Q 16. Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me

• Q 7. Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling

• Q 15. I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis

• Q 11. I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation

• Q 10. I could spend all day explaining statistics to people

• Q 14. I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub

Factor 2:

• Q 19. I like to help students

• Q 2. If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach (note negative weight)

• Q 6. Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because the

pain of my burning oesophagus would be light relief in comparison (note negative

weight)

• Q 18. Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels

(note negative weight)

• Q 26. I spend lots of time helping students

• Q 25. I love teaching

Factor 3:

• Q 5. I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene

• Q 23. I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of

boredom

• Q 28. My cat is my only friend

• Q 12. People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak

• Q 27. I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad

marks

No Factor:

• Q 20. Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual

This factor is a lot clearer cut: Factor 1 relates to a love of methods and statistics, Factor 2 to

a love of teaching, and factor 3 to an absence of normal social skills. This doesn’t support the

original four factor model suggested because the data indicate that love of methods and

statistics can’t be separated (if you love one you love the other).

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