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Space out means that you stop your drill string at the proper location where all the

BOP rams (annular and pipe rams)
will not close against a tool joint. Please see the figure below for more understanding.

Practically, on land or offshore (shelf), stopping your drill string with the tool joint at the rotary table is the correct and
simple way to space out. The reason is that most of rigs are designed to have about 30 ft from the rotary table to top of
annular preventer. Anyway, since each rig is different, you need to make sure that the drilling contractor has the correct
way to space out.

Why is it important to space out?
You may heard about 3-S (Space Out, Shut down, and Shut In) for well control. This is the first important step to shut
the well in effectively. If you properly space out, you will have ability to control the well in the correct way. However, if
you don’t space out your drill string correctly, you may not be able to use one or more of your BOP effectively and you
will be in a big trouble.

Leak Off Test – you pressure test shoe and formation until formation break down.
Let’s I explain more about it: Leak off Test is conducted in order to find the fracture pressure (fracture gradient) of
formation and shoe. When conducting the LOT, you will pump drilling fluid to until you see the fracture trend of
formation. Once formation is fractured, the first pressure that deviated from a trend is typically called Leak Off Pressure.
We use the leak off pressure to calculate LOT.

Formation Integrity Test – you test strength of shoe and formation to designed pressure.
Let’s I explain more about it: Formation Integrity Test is typically used for testing strength of formation and shoe by
increasing Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) to designed pressure. When you do the FIT test, you will increase surface
pressure until it reaches the required pressure only. There is no intention to break the formation with FIT. You will do
FIT to ensure that you will be able to drill to section target depth and will be able to control the well in case of well
control situation without underground blow out.

Margin of Overpull in Drillstring

Margin of overpull is additional tension to be applied when pulling the stuck drill string without breaking the tensile limit
of the drill string. This is the difference between maximum allowable tensile load of drill string and hook load.

The formula for margin of overpull is described below;

Margin of Overpull = Ta – Th

Where;

Ta is the maximum allowable tensile strength, lb.

Th is the hook load (excluding top drive weight), lb.

The ratio between Ta and Th is safety factor (SF).

SF =Ta ÷ Th

Example: The drill string consists of the following equipment:

5” DP S-135, 4-1/2” IF connection, adjusted weight of 23.5 ppf = 8,000 ft

5” HWDP S-135, 4-1/2” IF connection, adjusted weight of 58 ppf = 900 ft

Mud motor and MWD, weight 20 Klb, = 100 ft

Expected hook load at TD = 270 Klb

Tensile strength of 5” DP S-135 (premium class) = 436 Klb

Tensile strength of 5” HWDP S-135 (premium class) = 1,100 Klb

90% of tensile strength is allowed to pull without permission from town.

Determine the margin of overpull from the information above.

Maximum tension will happen at the surface so 5”DP will get the most tension when pulling and since only 90% of
tensile strength is allowed. The allowable tensile (Ta) is as follows;

Ta = 0.9 x 436 = 392 Klb

Th = 270 Klb at TD

Margin of over pull = 392 – 270 = 122 Klb

Safety Factor = 392 ÷ 270 = 1.45

When pressure drops to set pressure. it states about the pumping system as follows: • Two or three independent sources of power (Air.Reserve Fluid System and Pumping System in Koomey Unit Reserve Fluid System in Koomey According to API RP53. each closing unit should have a fluid reservoir tank with a capacity equal to or at least twice the usable fluid capacity of the accumulator system and reservoir fluid is stored at atmospheric pressure Pumping System in Koomey Unit Pumps in the Koomey Unit provide power to charge bottles to 3. pressure in the bottles will drop due to fluid movement. pumps will automatically kick in and pressure up the bottles to 3. According to API RP53. • Pneumatic pump is normally set at 2600 to 2900 psi. each pump system should be capable of closing the annular BOP on drill pipe. opening HCR and obtaining a minimum pressure of 200 psi over pre-charge pressure within 2 minutes. Once the BOP rams are activated.000 psi. The set points of each pump are as follows: • Electrical pump is normally set at 2700 to 3000 psi. Electric or Nitrogen) • For surface accumulators: With the accumulator removed from service. .000 psi.

Learn more about pipe displacement 3. the trip tank must be use to keep track volume gain. BHA and drill pipe) is ran back in the hole. If hydrostatic pressure decreases too much. When TOH. Trip In Hole (TIH): While tripping in hole. 2. There are several operations that we can use the trip tank to monitor the well as follows. While Tripping Out of Hole (TOH). mud hydrostatic will be lost because mud volume must substitute drill pipe volume pulled out of hole. The importance of trip tank is as follows: 1. a trip tank pump will circulate mud into a bell nipple in order to keep the hole full all the time and the over-flow mud will return back to the trip tank. 2. Provide sufficient hydrostatic pressure to prevent influx from reservoir. the trip tank is used to track volume of mud replacing volume of drill string. If the volume of mud measured by trip tank is less than the expected volume of drill pipe volume tripped out of hole. Kick Indicator: Volume of mud from the trip tank is pumped in the hole can be an indicator that relates to a situation occurring in wellbore as kick. the suspect problem is kick because volume of kick substitutes volume of mud. influx from reservoir can come into the hole and make a trouble in well control. The circulation system while tripping I would like to show the circulation system while tripping out of hole therefore you will be more understanding about how trip tank works. 1. Once every stand is pulled.Trip Tank is a small metal tank with small capacity about 20-40 bbls with 1 bbl divisions inside and it is used to monitor the well. The expected volume gain should be equal to the displacement volume of whole string. For this reason. the mud volume in the well will decrease because the drill pipe is pulled out of . mud in trip tank must be filled into hole to maintain hydrostatic pressure. Flow check: The trip tank is utilized to determine well condition in order to see if the well is still under static condition. Trip Out Of Hole (TOOH): While tripping out of hole. The volume of mud should be equal to displacement volume of any kind of tubular tripped out of hole. the drilling string (bit.

the annulus will be full all the time (see figure below). Since the trip tank pump is always run while tripping. .hole.

Additionally.Drill Collar Weight Calculation To Prevent Drill Pipe Buckling Drill collar provides weight to the bit for drilling and keep the drill string from buckling. Drill pipe buckle due to insufficient of drill collar . drill pipe should not run in compression because it can get seriously damaged therefore we need to know weight of drill collar that is enough to provide weight to the bit.

Drill pipe straight because of sufficient drill collar weight Drill collar weight in a vertical well The following formula is used to determine required drill collar weight to obtain a desired weight on bit for a vertical well. .

What is the drill collar weight to obtain the desired WOB of 50 Klb? . SF is a safety factor. Safety factor for this case is 25%. WOB is a required weight on bit. lb. The following formula is used to determine required drill collar weight to obtain a desired weight on bit for a deviated well. SF is a safety factor. θ is inclination of the well. BF is mud buoyancy factor. the drill collar weight will not directly transfer to the bit because of well inclination which has direct affect on weight on bit. Example: The deviated well has inclination of 30 degree in tangent section and planned mud weight is 12.WDC = (WOB x SF) ÷ BF Where WDC is drill collar weight in air. lb. BF is mud buoyancy factor. lb. lb.0 ppg. Drill collar weight in a deviated well In a deviated well. WOB is a required weight on bit. WDC = (WOB x SF) ÷ (BF x COS (θ)) Where WDC is drill collar weight in air.

Buoyancy Factor = (65.3 Klb (88.5 = 0. Additional circulation is required for this case. the BHA consists of mud motor.25 WDC = (50. the drillpipe pressure gauge and the casing pressure gauge shows that the circulating drill pipe pressure = 1500 psi and casing pressure = 650 psi (see the figure below).000 x 1. For instant.3 Klb. 1 In order to get more understanding about driller’s method. In reality. drill collar weight in the air should be 88. stabilizer.817 SF @ 25 % = 1.0) ÷ 65. the BHA does not only have the drill collar so you need to adapt this figure.817 x COS (30)) WDC = 88. there are some quizzes that will help you get clear picture of it. 1st example - Before start circulating. Driller’s Method Quiz No.333 Klb In this case. LWD and HWDP which have a total weight of 30 Klb Therefore. . . the actual drill collar weight is just only 58.5 – 12.25) ÷ (0. Do you think what is happening with the well? VVV VV V V Answer: There is influx (kick) remaining in well because casing pressure is higher than the original shut in drill pipe pressure.3 – 30). you have the following information Original Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure = 500 psi Initial Circulating Pressure (ICP) = 1500 psi After end of 1st circulation of Driller’s Method.

Casing side: BHP = Hydrostatic pressure + Casing Pressure —> equation 3 With the assumption stated above. . you should see that casing pressure must be equal to initial shut in drill pipe pressure Drill pipe side: BHP = Hydrostatic Pressure + Shut in Drill pipe pressure —> equation 1 Casing side: BHP = Hydrostatic pressure + Casing Pressure + Frictional Pressure —> equation 2 Neglect frictional pressure so we can write the formula like this.Explanation Driller’s method concept is to hold bottom hole pressure constant therefore with neglecting frictional pressure. you will see that equation 1 = equation 3 Then you will know that Shut in Drill pipe pressure = Casing Pressure learn About Drill Pipe Float Valve A drill pipe float valve is a check valve installed in the drill stem that allows mud to be pumped down but prevents flow back up. There are two types of float valves which are flapper type and plunger type. once influx in out of hole.

5-2) Vwm = 4667 bbl In order to dilute total of 2000 bbl of the original mud with 7% LGS down to 3. Let’s me explain more by showing you some equations. bring the pumps up by holding casing pressure constant. this is different from the way to control LGS by adding base fluid as base oil or water because mud that is added into system has some Low Gravity Solid (LGS). is listed below. Please find the excel sheet used to calculate how much barrel of drilling fluid to control Low Gravity Solid (LGS) in mud system. 4667 bbl of mud that has 2% bentonite is requied to add into the system. used to calculate dilution of mud system. Establish Circulation in Driller’s Method Step – 1 You can read previous about driller’s method here!!! Today. Note: Acronyms are listed below. typically about 2-5 BPM. BHP = Bottom Hole Pressure HP = Hydrostatic Pressure CP = Casing Pressure FrP = Frictional Pressure At static condition: BHP = HP in the annulus + CP . The oil base mud has 2% of bentonite slurry. by holding constant casing pressure. Vwm = Vm x (Fct – Fcop) ÷ (Fcop – Fca) Vwm = 2000 x (7 – 3. However.Dilution of Mud System to Control Low Gravity Solid by Adding Mud Adding bbl of drillingfluid can help control low gravity solid (LGS) in mud system. Formula. Hence. The idea of holding casing pressure constant while bring up pumps is to maintain constant bottom hole pressure. we need to account for Low Gravity Solid (LGS) of new mud into the calculation as well.5% LGS. when we calculate it. Vwm = barrels of dilution water or base fluid Vm = total barrels of mud in circulating system Fct = percent low gravity solids in system Fcop = percent total low gravity solids desired Fca = percent low gravity solids bentonite and/or chemicals added in mud Example: Determine how much barrels of oil base mud to diluate total 2000 bbl of mud in system from total LGS = 7 % to desired LGS of 3.5) ÷ (3. This post will demonstrate you how to determine barrels of drilling fluid required to achive the desired Low Gravity Solid (LGS). The reason why we need to hold constant casing pressure is to maintain constant bottom hole pressure. I post about 1st step of establishing circulation in driller’s method. Bring pump up to circulating rate. Vwm = Vm x (Fct – Fcop) ÷ (Fcop – Fca) Where.5 %.

2. 3. FrP can be ignored.At dynamic condition: BHP = HP in annulus + CP + FrP In the dynamic environment. After you bring pump to kill rate. personnel must manipulate the choke while circulating. Zero strokes counter and record time every activity. you will get circulating pressure called Initial Circulating Pressure (ICP). Ensure that team members know their role and responsibility. 2010 After the pumps are brought up to desired kill rate and drill pipe pressure stabilize.COM on OCTOBER 24. if we pump as slowly as possible. the BHP will be maintained the same. 4. we can write the relationship in term of equation below. . Eliminate all ignition sources that are close to the rig and vent lines of mud-gas separator. ICP = SIDPP + SCR pressure SCR pressure = ICP – SIDPP Note: Kill rate is normally about 2-5 BPM. You should have a pre job safety meeting before killing operation. Circulate Out The Influx Holding Drill Pipe Pressure Constant by DRILLINGFORMULAS. ICP is summation of shut in drill pipe pressure (SIDPP) and pressure to overcome friction called Slow Circulating Rate Pressure (SCR pressure). The equation above tells us that when you hold CP constant. 1. Before performing this operation. For the first circulation. you must ensure these following items. Hence. To achieve maintain drill pipe pressure constant. Ensure that a circulating system is lined up properly. personnel must observe and record the drillpipe pressure. you must hold drill pipe pressure constant in order to maintain constant bottom hole pressure.

When gas in drilling fluid is circulated to the surface, the gas will naturally begin to expand
because of decrease in pressure. The expansion of gas in mud will result in increasing both pit
volume and casing pressure. This time is the most critical period of the well control operation. If
personnel panic about it, the operation could be turned out from a good operation to a disaster.
Sometimes, you may have difficulty to bleed the gas off fast enough to keep the drill pipe
pressure within required limits. As you know, excessive drill pipe pressure can result in formation
breakdown. If you cannot release gas fast enough from the annulus to prevent an increase in drill
pipe pressure, you must show down pump rate to compensate the pressure.

Shut Down Pumps and Weight Up Mud in Driller’s Method
After kick has been circulated out of the well, the mud pumps can be shut down and the well
must be secured. While shutting down the pumps, it is a good practice to gradually close the
choke instead of suddenly shut in.

You must keep in mind that while shutting down pumps, you must keep casing pressure
constant achieved by manipulating the choke. This procedure is to ensure that constant bottom
hole pressure is maintained during the shutdown.
The shut-in casing pressure and the shut-in drill pipe pressure should be equal after complete
the first circulation of the driller’s method. After shutdown pumps, the Shut In Casing Pressure
(SICP) and the Shut In Drill pipe Pressure (SIDP) should be equal to the initial shut-in drill pipe

pressure observed at the first time. If SICP and SIDP are the same but they are more than the
initial shut-in drill pipe pressure, there is possibly trapped pressure on top of SICP.
If you see that the casing pressure is still higher than the drillpipe pressure, this situation means
there is still some kick in the annulus or another kick was possibly taken while circulating. If you
see this situation, you must do an additional circulation to ensure that there is no influx left in the
well before kill weight fluid is mixed and pumped.
After you ensure that there is no influx in the well, you need to weight up the active pits to desired
kill weight fluid.
Kill weight fluid is calculated by the following equation.
Kill mud weight = original mud weight + (Initial Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure ÷ (0.052 x TVD of the
well)
The ideal condition is to maintain a reasonably low active volume because when the mud is
circulated out of the hole, you will have room to weight up without having to stop circulating. At
least, you should have enough volume to displace entire volume with kill weight mud.

Circulate Kill Mud – 2nd Circulation of Driller’s Method
Once you finish weighing up your mud system to required kill mud weight, you need to do the 2
nd circulation of driller’s method. This post will describe how to do the 2nd circulation of driller’s
method.

The second circulation of the driller’s method will be started after drilling fluid is weighted-up to
required kill weight.
First, when you establish the desired pump rate you must hold casing pressure constant while
bringing the pump up to speed, killing rate +/- 2-5 bpm. Please always hold this pump rate
constant throughout the killing process.
In order to hole casing pressure constant as the kill mud goes down the drill string, you must
manipulate choke.
The casing pressure will be held constant until kill mud goes down to the bit. At this stage, you
need to know how many strokes from surface to the bit by calculating the drill pipe capacity.
Read more about annular capacity calculation and inner capacity calculation
Once the kill mud reaches the bit, you must hold this drill pipe pressure constant throughout the
remainder of the kill operation. Then you still need to continue circulation until the hole is full of
kill mud. You can estimate how many strokes and volumes based on the estimated hole size.At
this stage, you will see decreasing in casing pressure.
Practically, you must check mud weight out to confirm that you have good kill mud all way
around. For example, if you circulate total of hole volume all way around but you don’t get the
desired kill weight up completely out of hole, you need to continue circulating until good kill mud
all way around prior to shutting down pumps..

Shut Down And Perform Flow Check – Last Step of Driller’s Method
The mud pumps can be shut down after the total volume of the well has been displaced with kill
mud. Practically, you need to check mud weight out several times to ensure that the mud weight
out equates to the kill weight mud. Otherwise you may have misinterpretation once the well is
shut in and flow checked.
Once shutting down the mud pumps, the choke should be gradually closed in order to hold
casing pressure constant. The drill pipe pressure will be slowly dropped to zero as the pump
speed is reduced. Please always remember every time that you either bring the pumps up to
speed or slow down pump speed, you must hold casing pressure constant.
After the well is shut-in, both the drill pipe pressure and casing pressure should be reading zero.
Typically, you may see any trapped pressure that you account for any pressure safety factor
while circulating. You may consider trying to bleed off trapped pressure and observe if there is
pressure built up. If there is no pressure built up, you must confirm that the well is dead by
opening the choke and checking well via trip tank. At this stage, if the well is totally killed, you
must not see any increases in the trip tank.
Once you confirm that the well is dead, the BOPs can be opened. I would like to remind you that
a small gas volume may be trapped between the choke line and the BOP. Please make sure that
everybody is cleared from the rig floor before opening up the BOP.
Once the BOP is opened, you probably need to circulate and condition the mud in order to obtain
the desired mud properties. For example, if the yield point is too high, it will cause swabbing
effect while pulling out of hole and it could lead to another kick. In order to prepare for a trip after
conditioning the mud, you may raise the mud weight to an acceptable “trip margin”.
Note: This is just only guide line for well control. Before you do any well control operation, please
contact your supervisor and make good agreement about the forward plan.

Kick Tolerance Concept and Calculation for Well Design
Kick tolerance is the maximum gas volume for a given degree of underbalance which the
circulation can be performed without exceeding the weakest formation in the wellbore. This
article is the extended version of Kick Tolerance Calculation which will explain more on this topic.
It is very critical that drilling personnel understand its importance to well design and drilling
operation.
There are two important factors used for determining the kick tolerance
• Kick Intensity – It is the different between the maximum anticipated formation pressure and
planned mud weight. For example, the planned mud weight is 13.0 ppg and the possible kick
pressure is 13.5 ppg. Therefore, the kick intensity is 0.5 ppg (13.5 – 13.0).
A zero kick intensity (swabbed kick scenario) should be used for a know area where you have
less uncertainty about an overpressure zone.
• Kick Volume – It is a gas influx entering into the wellbore from the formation. Gas kick is
always used for well control calculation because it is the worst case scenario. The kick volume
should be realistic figure which personal can detect the influx on the rig. In a larger hole, it allows
bigger influx volume than a small hole.

000’MD/10.0 ppg Hole size = 8-1/2” Drill Pipe = 5” BHA + Drill Collar = 7” Length of BHA+Drill Collar = 400 ft Annular capacity between open hole and BHA = 0. MASICP is the total of kick tolerance budget.000’TVD) = 14.Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure (MAASP) and Kick Tolerance Weakest formation point in the open hole is assumed to be at the shoe depth of the previous casing.1 psi/ft LOT = 16. The well bore will be fractured if a summation of hydrostatic and surface pressure exceeds the weakest pressure (Leak Off Test pressure).0459 bbl/ft Calculation Steps . The maximum surface pressure before breaking the formation is called “Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure” (MASICP).0 ppg Planned mud weight = 14. Kick Tolerance Example Calculation Previous casing shoe (9-5/8” casing) at 6. It consists of pressure from kick intensity and hydrostatic pressure loss due to gas.0 ppg Pore pressure uncertainty = 1.0226 bbl/ft Annular capacity between open hole and 5” DP = 0.754 psi/ft) Gas gradient = 0.000’ MD/ 6. Make it simpler for your understanding.5 ppg (0.000’ TVD Predicted formation pressure at TD (10.

000 = 468 psi Kick Intensity = 15.Maximum anticipated pressure = 14.052 x Shoe TVD Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (16 – 14.5 x 0.0 – 14.5 ppg Underbalance due to kick intensity = 0.052 x 10.2 bbl . 1st case – Gas at the bottom Volume of gas kick = Annular capacity between open hole and BHA x Height of gas kick Volume of gas kick (bbl) = 0. psi ÷ (mud gradient.5 ppg kick intensity we will have 208 psi (468 – 260 = 208 psi) before shoe broken. the shoe will not be broken because the MASICP is more than underbalance pressure (468 > 260).5 = 0.1) = 318 ft. Determine gas kick volume base on height of gas kick We need to separate into two cases and compare the smallest volume. With this relationship.0 ppg Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (LOT – MW) x 0. when the well is in underbalance condition (260 psi).754 – 0. We know that 0. we can determine height of gas kick by the following equation. psi/ft – gas gradient.0 + 1 = 15.000 = 260 psi As you can see. psi/ft) Height of gas kick = 208 ÷ (0.052 x 6. It means that gas bubble can replace mud in equivalent to 208 psi before fracturing the shoe.0226 bbl/ft x 318 ft = 7. Height of gas kick = remaining pressure.5) x 0.

Volume of gas kick = Annular capacity between open hole and 5” DP x Height of gas kick Volume of gas kick (bbl) = 0. we need to convert gas at the shoe to the bottom condition by applying Boyle’s Laws.6 bbl Convert to the bottom hole condition .0459 bbl/ft x 318 ft = 14.2nd case – Gas right below casing shoe For this case.

052 x 16 x 6.8×8. 4331 = Casing Pressure + 4066 Casing Pressure = 4331 – 4066 = 265 psi . Let’s apply U-Tube concept After learning about U-tube concept.000’MD/8500’TVD.000 = 4.331 psi At casing side: BHP = 4.500 (Hydrostatic Pressure at drill pipe side) = 4.052 x 15 x 10.992 psi Formation pressure (gas kick condition) = 0.331 psi = (Casing Pressure) + 0.3 bbl We can compare the kick volume from two cases like this.000 = 7. SP (casing) + HP (casing) = BHP = SP (drill pipe) + HP (drill pipe) At drill pipe side: BHP = 0 psi (Drill pipe Pressure) + 0. The well is shut in and drill pipe pressure is equal to 0 psi.9 bbl 2nd case : kick volume = 7.Volume at the bottom = (volume of gas kick at shoe x Leak off test) ÷ formation pressure Leak off test = 0. both sides (casing and drill pipe) have the same bottom hole pressure so we can write the equation to describe the U-tube concept as shown below. According to U-tube concept.800 psi Volume at the bottom = (14.we can solve casing pressure. Determine casing pressure.8 PPG is all the way to bit and mud weight in the annulus is 9. Mud weight inside drill pipe is 9.2 bbl The smallest number must be selected to represent maximum kick volume therefore kick volume is 7. 1 st case : kick volume = 3. Hole depth is 10.052×9.2 PPG all the way to surface.2 bbl. let’s get a example in order to understand clearly about physical meaning of U-tube.6 x 4992) ÷ 7800 = 9. This is very important concept so you need to clear about it.052×9.500 (Hydrostatic Pressure at casing) With this relationship (SP (casing) + HP (casing) = BHP = SP (drill pipe) + HP (drill pipe) ).2×8.

0000445 = Dynes Pounds x 0.Power The second part of unit conversion is the conversion for Length.00001667 = Cubic meters/sec Litres/min x 0.264 = Gallons/min Impact Force Pounds x 0. you may need to convert some unit values to another unit valves.4 = Millimeters . Square inches x 6.305 = Meters Inches x 25.454 = Kilograms Pounds x 4.00155 = Square inches Circulation Rate Barrels/min x 42 = Gallons/min Cubic feet/min x 0.00000225 = Pounds Kilograms x 2.134 = Cubic feet/min Gallons/min x 3.32 = Liters/min Cubic meters/sec x 15850 = Gallons/min Cubic meters/sec x 2118 = Cubic feet/min Cubic meters/sec x 60000 = Litres/min Gallons/min x 0. Impact Force.Mud Weight. This is the first part which is the conversion of Area.0353 = Cubic feet/min Litres/min x 0. Feet x 0.79 = Litres/min Gallons/min x 0.2 = Pounds Newtons x 0. Circulation Rate.000472 = Cubic meters/sec Cubic feet/min x 7.Mud Weight and Power specially used in the oil field.155 = Square inches Square millimeters x 0.2248 = Pounds Oil Field Conversion Part 2 – Length.0238 = Barrels/ruin Gallons/min x 0.00006309 = Cubic meters/sec Litres/min x 0.448 = Newtons Dynes x0.45 = Square centimeters Square inches x 645 = Square millimeters Square centimeters x 0. Circulation Rate. I have some conversion unit specially used in the drilling and working over industry. Impact Force Working in the oil filed.Oil Field Conversion Part 1 – Area.48 = Gallons/min Cubic feel/mm x 28. I have 3 parts of the oil field conversion unit.

34 = Pounds/gallon Power Horsepower x 1. .746 = Kilowatts Horsepower x 550 = Foot-pounds/sec Horsepower (metric) x 0.006894 = Pascals Velocity Feet/sec x 0.1198 = Grams/cu cm Grams/cu cm x 8.12 = Specific gravity Pounds/gallon x 0.341 = Horsepower Foot pounds/sec x 0.48 = Pounds/cu ft Pounds/gallon x 0.986 = Horsepower Horsepower (metric) x 542. Volume and Weightspecially used in the oilfield.068 = Atmospheres Pounds/sq inch x 0.305 = Meters/sec .223 = Pounds/sq inch Kilograms/sq cm x 0.033 = Kilograms/sq cm Atmospheres x 101300 = Pascals Kilograms/sq cm x 0. Pressure Atmospheres x 14.Volume.Velocity.696 = Pounds/sq inch Atmospheres x 1.5 = Foot-pounds/sec Kilowatts x 1.Weight The last part of unit conversion is the conversion for Pressure.281 = Feet Mud Weight Pounds/gallon x 7.9678 = Atmospheres Kilograms/sq cm x 14.Velocity.9678 = Atmospheres Pounds/sq inch x 0.0703 = Kilograms/sq cm Pounds/sq inch x 0.03937 = Inches Meters x 3.347 = Pounds/gallon Pounds/cu ft x 0.134 = Pounds/gallon Specific gravity x 8.014 = Horsepower (metric) Horsepower x 0.Inches x 2.394 = Inches Millimeters x 0.54 = Centimeters Centimeters x 0.00181 = Horsepower Oil Field Coversion Part 3 Oil Field Conversion Part 3 – Pressure.

0005787 = Cubic feet Cubic inches x 0.01639 = Liters Cubic meters x 1000000 = Cubic centimeters Cubic meters x 35.2 = Gallons Gallons x 0.00508 = Meters/sec Meters/sec x 196.00003531 = Cubic feet Cubic centimeters x 0.1337 = Cubic feet Gallons x 231 = Cubic inches Gallons x 0.00001639 = Cubic meters Cubic inches x 0.000264 = Gallons Cubic centimeters x 0.000001 = Cubic meters Cubic centimeters x 0.48 = Gallons Cubic feet x 28.28 = Feet/sec Volume Barrels x 42 = Gallons Cubic centimeters x 0.8 = Feet/mm Meters/sec x 3.785 = Liters Weight Pounds x 0. This article is the extended version .02832 = Cubic meters Cubic feet x 7.001 = Litters Cubic feet x 28320 = Cubic centimeters Cubic feet x 1728 = Cubic inches Cubic feet x 0.0238 = Barrels Gallons x 3785 = Cubic centimeters Gallons x 0.003785 = Cubic meters Gallons x 3.004329 = Gallons Cubic inches x 0.39 = Cubic centimeters Cubic inches x 0.Feet/mm x 0.31 = Cubic feet Cubic meters x 264.06102 = Cubic inches Cubic centimeters x 0.0004535 = Tons (metric) Tons (metric) x 2205 = Pounds Tons (metric) x 1000 = Kilograms Kick Tolerance Concept and Calculation for Well Design Kick tolerance is the maximum gas volume for a given degree of underbalance which the circulation can be performed without exceeding the weakest formation in the wellbore.32 = Litters Cubic inches x 16.

It is very critical that drilling personnel understand its importance to well design and drilling operation. A zero kick intensity (swabbed kick scenario) should be used for a know area where you have less uncertainty about an overpressure zone.0 ppg Planned mud weight = 14.000’TVD) = 14.5 ppg. the kick intensity is 0. • Kick Volume – It is a gas influx entering into the wellbore from the formation. Therefore. The kick volume should be realistic figure which personal can detect the influx on the rig. Kick Tolerance Example Calculation Previous casing shoe (9-5/8” casing) at 6. it allows bigger influx volume than a small hole.0 ppg Pore pressure uncertainty = 1. MASICP is the total of kick tolerance budget.5 – 13.000’ TVD Predicted formation pressure at TD (10. In a larger hole. For example.0226 bbl/ft Annular capacity between open hole and 5” DP = 0.0).000’MD/10. Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure (MAASP) and Kick Tolerance Weakest formation point in the open hole is assumed to be at the shoe depth of the previous casing.754 psi/ft) Gas gradient = 0.5 ppg (13. It consists of pressure from kick intensity and hydrostatic pressure loss due to gas. There are two important factors used for determining the kick tolerance • Kick Intensity – It is the different between the maximum anticipated formation pressure and planned mud weight.1 psi/ft LOT = 16.0 ppg Hole size = 8-1/2” Drill Pipe = 5” BHA + Drill Collar = 7” Length of BHA+Drill Collar = 400 ft Annular capacity between open hole and BHA = 0. the planned mud weight is 13.0459 bbl/ft .0 ppg and the possible kick pressure is 13.000’ MD/ 6. Make it simpler for your understanding.of Kick Tolerance Calculation which will explain more on this topic.5 ppg (0. The maximum surface pressure before breaking the formation is called “Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure” (MASICP). Gas kick is always used for well control calculation because it is the worst case scenario. The well bore will be fractured if a summation of hydrostatic and surface pressure exceeds the weakest pressure (Leak Off Test pressure).

0 ppg Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (LOT – MW) x 0. . when the well is in underbalance condition (260 psi).052 x Shoe TVD Maximum Allowable Shut In Casing Pressure (MASICP) = (16 – 14. It means that gas bubble can replace mud in equivalent to 208 psi before fracturing the shoe. With this relationship.0 + 1 = 15. psi ÷ (mud gradient.5 ppg Underbalance due to kick intensity = 0.000 = 468 psi Kick Intensity = 15. psi/ft) Height of gas kick = 208 ÷ (0.5) x 0. We know that 0.000 = 260 psi As you can see. Height of gas kick = remaining pressure. the shoe will not be broken because the MASICP is more than underbalance pressure (468 > 260). Determine gas kick volume base on height of gas kick We need to separate into two cases and compare the smallest volume.5 = 0.052 x 10.1) = 318 ft.Calculation Steps Maximum anticipated pressure = 14.0 – 14. we can determine height of gas kick by the following equation .5 x 0.5 ppg kick intensity we will have 208 psi (468 – 260 = 208 psi) before shoe broken.754 – 0.052 x 6. psi/ft – gas gradient.

2009 Vertical Section is the horizontal distance of wellbore that moves in the direction of the target per each station or in total. vertical section is the distance from survey to survey point and it’s measured in the same direction of the vertical section direction. in the figure below. The two factors that affect vertical section are as follows: 1. CO M on SEPTEMBER 24. Vertical section direction (VSD) is the azimuth that is used to reference to the vertical section. VSD is the azimuth of the last target.What does the negative vertical section mean? by DRI L L I NG F O RMUL AS. The simple mathematics as Average Angle Method calculation demonstrates the relationship of the VS as below: . For instance. The Incremental horizontal displacement (? HD) 2. Normally.

slug is pumped to push mud down approximate 200 ft and slug volume can be calculated by applying a concept of U-tube (See Figure below). a well path must have difference of angle between VSD and Az avg.5 to 12 PPG. within a range of +90 to - 90 degree. For example. 2009 What is slug? Slug: It is heavy mud which is used to push lighter mud weight down before pulling drill pipe out of hole. Slug weight should be about 11. Slug is used when pipe became wet while pulling out of hole. is out of range of +90 to - 90 degree AZI. .COM on SEPTEMBER 27. (VSD – Az avg). (VSD – Az avg). Barrels of slug required for desired length of dry pipe by DRILLINGFORMULAS.VS = cos (VSD – Az avg) X ?HD VS: Vertical Section VSD: Vertical Section Direction Az avg: Average Azimuth between 2 points (Az1 + Az2) ÷2 ?HD: Delta Horizontal Displacement In order to get the Positive Vertical Section or Zero Vertical Section.5 to 2 PPG over current mud weight is a rule of thumb to decide how much weight of slug should be. 1. On the other hands. the negative Vertical Section can occur because the difference of angle between VSD and A zavg. Generally. current mud weight is 10 PPG. Normally.

016 bbl/ft Mud weight = 10.0 ppg Slug weight = 11.Volume of slug required for required length of dry pipe can be calculated by this following equations: Step 1: Determine hydrostatic pressure required to give desired drop inside drill pipe: Hydrostatic Pressure in psi = mud weight in ppg x 0.052 x ft of dry pipe Step 2: Determine difference in pressure gradient between slug weight and mud weight: Pressure gradient difference in psi/ft = (slug weight in ppg – mud weight in ppg) x 0.052 .052 Step 3: Determine length of slug in drill pipe: Slug length in ft = Hydrostatic Pressure in psi (in step 1) ÷ Pressure gradient difference in psi/ft (step 2) Step 4 Slug volume required in barrels: Slug volume in barrel = Slug length in ft x drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft Example: Determine the barrels of slug required for the following: Desired length of dry pipe = 200 ft Drill pipe capacity = 0.0 ppg x 0.5 ppg – 10.052 x 200 ft Hydrostatic Prssure in psi = 104 psi Step 2 differences in pressure gradient between slug weight and mud weight: Pressure gradient difference in psi/ft = (11.5 ppg) x 0.5 ppg Step 1 Hydrostatic pressure required: Hydrostatic Prssure in psi = 10.

3 bbl Well Control Formulas Part 1 by DRI L L I NG F O RMUL AS.333 ft Step 4 Slug volume required in barrels: Slug volume required = 1333 ft x 0. we will round it up to 13. I would like to emphasize about rounding rules that we will use for well control calculation.5 ppg. For example. I seperate into several parts for you to easy to follow.078 Slug length in ft = 1. the rounded numbers must be used in subsequent calculations. if we have the calculated kill mud density of 13.4 ppg. .57 ppg.078 psi/ft Step 3 length of slug in drill pipe: Slug length in ft = 104psi ÷ 0. 2010 I would like to share with you about well control formulas that might be advantageous for you in the future. Before going into all calculations.052 Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) – psi Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) = Mud weight (PPG) x 0.016 bbl/ft Slug volume required = 21. Well Control Course Equations Part 1 Pressure (P) – psi Pressure (psi) = Force (lb) / Area in Square Inch (in 2) Pressure Gradient (G) – psi/ft Mud Gradient ( Psi/ft ) = Mud weight ( PPG) x 0. For example if we have the theoretical LOT of 15. CO M on SEPTEMBER 16. 1. Leak Off Test (LOT): We must round down to one decimal place from a calculated Leak Off Test value.052 x TVD (ft) You may have seen this triangle before but I need to emphasize on this because it will let you see all relationship of the hydrostatic pressure . Kill Mud Density: We must round up to one decimal place from a calculated kill mud density.Pressure gradient difference in psi/ft = 0. we will round down to 15. When any of the above values have been calculated.32 ppg. 2.

Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) + Surface Pressure (SP) + Frictional Pressure (FrP) Note: Frictional pressure acts opposite way of flow direction. you can calculate the formation pressure from this following relationship.If you want to solve for MW or TVD. Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) – psi Under static condition Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) + Surface Pressure (SP) Under dynamic condition. fill in the known information in these equations below. Formation Pressure (FP) = Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) + Shut-In Drill Pipe Pressure (SIDPP) . use the following equation. Formation Pressure (FP) – psi After get Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure.

ppg = (annular pressure loss. ppg) Leak-off Test Equivalent Mud Weight (LOT).052 ÷ true vertical depth (TVD). ft + (current mud weight. mins . ppg Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) . ft)] + Original Mud Weight (ppg) Slow Circulation Rate (SCR).bbl/ft Final Circulating Pressure (FCP). ppg Leak off test (ppg) = (Leak off test pressure in psi) ÷ 0. strokes Circulating Time.Well Control Formulas Part 2 Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) .052 ÷ (Casing Shoe TVD in ft) + (Mud Weight used for LOT in ppg) Maximum Initial Shut-In Casing Pressure (MISICP). psi SCR (psi) = Initial Circulating Pressure (psi) – Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure (psi) Well Control Formulas Part 3 Annulus Capacity Factor (ACF).052 x Shoe TVD (ft) Kill Mud Weight to Balance Formation (KMW). psi Surface To Bit Strokes. MISICP (psi) = [LOT (ppg) – Current Mud Weight (ppg)] x 0. psi) ÷ 0. psi ÷ (0. psi This calculation is based on shoe fracture which is equal to Leak Off Test Pressure.052x True Vertical Depth (TVD) of the well. ppg KWM (ppg) = [Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure (SIDP).

and Boyle’s Law Height of Influx. ft Approximate gas migration rate. Pump Output. bbl/stroke . ft/hr Sacks of Barite Required For Weight-up. sx Volume Gain From Slug. Triplex Pump Output. bbl/ft Well Control Formulas Part 4 Well control formulas part 4 consists of Height of Influx. Barite Requirement For Weight-up . bbl Triplex Pump Output (volume). bbl/ft Closed end pipe displacement.Capacity Factor (CF).Volume Gain From Slug. Pump Pressure With New Pump Strokes. rate of gas migration. bbl/ft Opened End Pipe Displacement.

Pump Output. Later on. Mud Increment for Volumetric Method (MI). bbl/min New Pump Pressure With New Pump Strokes. I will show you how to apply equations to particular situation. bottle capacity required for koomey unit. and snubbing force for snubbing operation. bbl Bottle Capacity Required. gal Snubbing force for snubbing operation Snubbing Force (SF) = Force at wellhead (Fp) + Frictional Force – Buoyed weight of string(Wb) Basically. you can simply think like this. Total force to overcome pressure at wellbore is a summation of force at wellhead and frictional force minus buoyed weight of string. psi Boyle’s Law – Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship Well Control Formulas Part 5 This part of well control formula series (part#5) will show you following equations: mud increment for volumetric. volume of usable fluid. bbl Lube Increment for Lubricate and Bleed Method (LI). gal Volume of Usable Fluid. . Anyway this is part 5 and total will be 8 parts. lube increment for lubricate and bleed.

OR Well Control Formulas Part 6 This part of well control formulas will demonstrate you more about some equations frequently used in snubbing operation.lb For this formula. Buoyed Weight of Open Ended Tubulars (Wb).lb This formula below is different from the 1st formula because it is used for the closed ended pipe. there is different fluid weight in pipe and annular . Buoyed Weight of Closed Ended Tubulars without fluid in the pipe (Wb). you just use the buoyancy factor and multiply it with weight of pipe in the air. Weight in the air will be subtracted with buoyancy weight of pipe ran in hole. Buoyed Weight of Closed Ended Tubulars after filling the pipe (Wb). I show just only some snubbing formulas and this part will show the rest of them. In Well Control Formulas Part 5.Force at wellhead (Fp) can be determined by one of following equations.5 is conversion factor to make the unit in gallon.lb -> in this case. Note: 24.

The Balance Point for closed ended and unfilled pipe is the point where the weight of pipe in the fluid equates to force created by wellhead pressure. Maximum Down Force on Jacks Effective Area of Snubbing Jacks. square inch Hydraulic Pressure to Snub. Note: OR This is the second case for balance point calculation. ACF – Annular Capacity Factor AV – Annular Velocity BF – Buoyancy Factor . please feel free to add more by putting in the blog comment. If you have more than what I have. psi Oil Field Abbreviation Mostly Used in the Rig This is may not relate to drilling formula but it may be good for new people to know about oil field abbreviations. The Balance Point for closed ended pipe and the pipe is filled with fluid.

BHA – Bottom Hole Assembly BHP – Bottom Hole Pressure BOP – Blow Out Preventor BOPE – Blow Out Preventer Equipment BPUTS – Bring Pumps Up To Speed CC – Circulate and Condition mud CLF – Choke Line Friction CMW – Current Mud Weight CP – Casing Pressure DC – Drill Collar Dh – Diameter of hole in inches DP – Drill Pipe DPP – Drill Pipe Pressure ECD – Equivilant Circulating Density EOB – End of Build ESP – Estimated Stuck Point or Electical Submersible Pump FCP – Final Circulating Pressure FD – Fluid Density FIT – formation integrity test .

FOSV – Full Opening Safety Valve FP – Formation Pressure FrP – Friction Pressure FV – Funnel Viscosity GPM – Gallons Per Minute HHP – Hydraulic Horse Power HP – Hydrostatic Pressure IBOP – Inside Blow Out Preventer ICP – Initial Circulating Pressure ISICP – Initial Shut-in Casing Pressure KLF – Kill Line Friction KMW – Kill Mud Weight KOP – Kick Off Point Lbs. – Pounds LC – Lost Circulation LCM – Lost Circulation Material Len – Length in feet LOT – Leak Off Test MAASP – Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure .

MASP – Maximum Anticipated Surface Pressure MD – Measured Depth MGS – Mud Gas Separator MI – Mud Increment MISICP – Maximum Initial Shut-in Casing Pressure MOP – Margin of Over Pull MW – Mud Weight in ppg NP – Neutral Point OBM – Oil Based Mud OMW – Original Mud Weight OPT – Optimum PG – Pressure Gradient PI – Pressure Increment POH – Pull Out Hole PP – Pore Pressure PPG – Pounds Per Gallon RIH – Run In Hole ROH – Run Out Of Hole RPM – Rounds Per Minute .

Rotary Steerible System SCR – Slow Circulating Rate SG – Specific Gravity SICP – Shut-in Casing Pressure SIDPP – Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure SOBM – Synthetic Oil Based Mud SP – Surface Pressure SPM – Strokes Per Minute SPM Valve – Side Pocket Mandrel Valve SPR – Slow Pump Rate TDS – Top Drive System TIH – Trip In Hole TOC – Top Of Cement TOF – Top Of Fish TOH or TOOH – Trip Out Of Hole TOL – Top Of Liner TVD – True Vertical Depth WL – Water Loss or Wire Line WOB – Weight On Bit .RSS.

gas. Oilfield Tubing The factors must be contemplated when designing a casing and/or tubing string as listed below. or combine) • Depth of casing and tubing string . I would like to share my knowledge about the selection criteria for casing/tubing string design. • Reservoir fluid type (oil.WOC – Wait On Cement WOO – Wait On Orders WOW – Wait On Weather YP – Yield Point What factors must be considered when designing a casing/tubing string? Casing and tubing selection are one of the critical tasks that engineers must carefully decide which type of casing/tubing will be used in the wellbore in order to meet the objective of each well.

etc. . how plateau rate be maintained.• Formation Pressure gradient and fracture gradient • Reservoir temperature • How much reserves of reservoir • How long of production life of wells • Economic consideration • Strategy of completion technique as conventional completion. • Bottom hole reservoir pressure and expected surface pressure during future production plan • Level of sour gas as H2S and CO2 • Hydrocarbon zones are required to be covered by cement • Tubing size needed to achieve production and stimulation plan • Artificial lift equipment requirements • Future workover plan • Physical property of material • Clearances needed for fishing • Type of connection Weight of slug required for desired length of dry pipe with set volume of slug You can determine how much slug weight required in order to achieve desired length of dry pipe with certain slug volume that you will use. etc. monobore completion. Please follow these steps of calculation below. • Production plan as production rate. monobore horizontal completion. secondary recovery plan.

0 ppg Drill pipe capacity = 0. a trip sheet must be monitored all time.016 bbl/ft Volume of slug = 20 bbl Step 1 – Determine Length of slug inside drill pipe in ft: Slug length = 20 bbl ÷ 0.0 x 0. Pipe Displacement Calculation Pipe displacement. If the volume of displacement less than theoretical displacement value. you should know how much fluid to displace steel volume.0 Slug weight in ppg = 13. We must know how much fluid will fill the hole each stand of drill pipe pulled out. is steel volume to displace fluid volume. when we pull out of hole. This post will demonstrate how to calculate plain pipe displacement with this following formula: .052 x 200 Hydrostatic Pressure in psi = 124. we may have problem due to swabbing formation into wellbore.052 x desired length of dry pipe Step 3 Determine slug weight needed in ppg: Slug weight in ppg = (Hydrostatic Prssure (from step 2) ÷ 0. For example. in hole Example: Determine slug weight required for the following data: Desired length of dry pipe = 200 ft Mud weight in hole = 12. normally in bbl/ft. When we either pull out of hole or trip in hole for any kind of pipes such as drill pipe.92 ppg Please find the excel sheet used to calculate Weight of slug required for a desired length of dry pipe with a set volume of slug.8 ÷ 0. casing or tubing.016 Slug length = 1250 ft Step 2 – Determine hydrostatic pressure required to give desired dry pipe drill pipe Hydrostatic Pressure in psi = 12.052 ÷ 1250) + 12.Step 1 Determine Length of slug in drill pipe in ft: Length of slug in drill pipe in ft = slug volume in bbl ÷ drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft Step 2 Determine hydrostatic pressure required to give desired dry pipe drill pipe: Hydrostatic Pressure in psi = mud weight in ppg x 0.052 ÷ Length of slug in ft (step1)) + mud weight.8 psi Step 3 – Determine slug weight needed in ppg: Slug weight in ppg = (124. ppg.

4 Pipe Displacement of 9-5/8” casing 40 ppf in bbl/ft = 0. the higher expansion will be.Pipe Displacement in bbl/ft = (OD in2 – ID in2 ) ÷ 1029. For this reason. the casing pressure will increase due to gas expansion and the maximum casing pressure will be observed when the gas influx reaches surface.4 Where.625 in. This formula is good for plain pipe diplacment such as casing and tubing. the casing pressure will increase in order to maintain constant bottom hole pressure.6252 – 8. the gas will expand due to pressure decrease (refer toBoyle’s gas law P1V1 = P2V2). When gas is moved upward during circulation.01417 bbl/ft How are pressure and pit volume doing during the first circulation of the driller’s method? When we perform the first circulation of driller’s method. OD = 9. It’s not accurate enough for drill pipe because this formula does not account for tool joint displacement therefore you need drill pipe specification sheet for its displacement. OD is out side diameter of pipe in inch. The higher gas is moved up inside annulus.8352 ) ÷1029. ID = 8. ID is inside diameter of pipe in inch. Therefore. the system hydrostatic pressure will be decreased.835 in Pipe Displacement of 9-5/8” casing 40 ppf in bbl/ft = (9. Let take a look at the equation . Example: Determine pipe displacement in bbl/ft of 9-5/8” casing 40 ppf.

In addition. • Water base mud • Well bore influx (kick) = gas . When the gas in the mud starts coming out on surface. Casing pressure sometimes may be slightly more than SIDPP due to safety factor that you add while circulating. Note: you need to understand that this article is based on the following assumptions.Bottom hole pressure constant = Casing Pressure (increase to compensate for loss hydrostatic pressure) + Hydrostatic Pressure (decrease due to gas expansion). the casing pressure will continually decrease. casing pressure should be equal to Shut-In Drillpipe Pressure (SIDPP). The plot below demonstrates pressure profile of both casing pressure and tubing pressure during 1st circulation of driller’s method. the pit volume will start to decrease. When gas reaches surface. If the gas kick in the annulus is totally out of hole. pit volume will increase until gas reaches surface due to gas expansion.

casing string or logging tool is being pulled out of hole too fast. . partial mud loss and lost circulation.Surge Pressure.000ft with 12. Well information: Previous 9-5/8” casing shoe at 4000’ ft.800’ TVD with reservoir pressure of 11. casing or logging tool will possibly swab mud out of hole.1 ppg mud and the pay zone is at 9. Pressure reduction created by this situation is called “Swab Pressure”. like pulling small a piston of syringe. there is no issue while performing the cement job however once the cement is set after period of time. What is Trip Margin? Trip Margin: It is an increase in the hydrostatic pressure of mud that compensates for the reduction of bottom pressure due to stop pumping and/or swabbing effect while pulling pipe out of hole. If surge pressure is too much. This example will demonstrate you why the well is in underbalance condition while waiting on cement. Water used to mix cement is 8.500 ft in the annulus above the casing shoe. Trip Margin (PPG) = (Margin needed (Psi) – Present Margin (Psi))/ (0. hydrostatic pressure of bottom hole will be reduced. Swab Pressure and Trip margin in the drilling business. What is surge pressure? Surge Pressure: When pipe moves downward with mud circulation through drill string. If swab pressure is too much. For this reason. In many cases happened.052xTVD (ft)) Cement Transition Period in The Oil Well Can Cause Well Control Situation When cement is in transition period (forming the bond). The vertical well (8.5” hole) is drilled to TD at 10.6 ppg. What is swab pressure? Swab Pressure: If a drill string .3 ppg weight. there is a casing pressure indicating that there is hydrocarbon in the annulus . BHA/ bit. you will lose some hydrostatic pressure because cement becomes solid phase therefore water in the cement will provide hydrostatic pressure. due to bigger diameter almost same hole size. many problems will occur as formation brake down. The cement is planned to cover 3. Today. I would like to share my knowledge about these terminologies. Swab Pressure and Trip Margin You may have heard about Surge Pressure. kick (wellbore influx) may be into the hole and well control must be conducted in order to secure well. additional bottom hole pressure called “Surge Pressure” is created. Trip Margin is calculated by following equation: How do we calculate trim margin? The formula used to calculate trip margin is listed below.

500 = 4. only water in cement will provide hydrostatic pressure.6 x 9800 = 5.800 ft = 0.052 x 12.090 + 1.911 psi Total hydrostatic pressure in the annulus Hydrostatic pressure of drilling mud at 6.3 = 1.Will the well go underbalance during the cement in transition period? Formation pressure at 9.424 psi While cement is in the transition period. So we can calculate hydrostatic pressure of water in cement Hydrostatic pressure of water in cement = 0.424 = 5.052 x 11.500) x 8.514 psi .800 ft Formation pressure at 9. total hydrostatic pressure in the annulus is equal to hydrostatic pressure of mud plus hydrostatic of water in cement Total hydrostatic pressure in the annulus = 4.090 psi When cement in transition period.500 ft = 0.1 x 6.052 x (9800 – 6.

You will see that during the transition period total hydrostatic pressure in the annulus is less thanformation pressure

therefore the well. For this case, the well will flow during transition period.

Amount of cuttings produced per foot of hole and total solid generated
After learning about capacity calculation, we can apply the capacity calculation to determine how much barrels of

cutting produced per foot of hole drilled and total solid generated in pounds.
Please read and understand the following formulas:
Use formula#1 and #2 for calculating amount of cutting generated per feet drilled.
Formula#1 for BARRELS of cuttings drilled per foot of hole drilled:
Barrels of cutting per foot drilled = Dh2 x (1 – % porosity) ÷1029.4
Where: Dh is hole diameter in inch.
Example: Determine barrels of cuttings drilled for one foot of 6-1/8 inch hole with 25% (0.25) porosity:
Barrels/footage drilled = 6.1252 x (1 – 0.25) ÷1029.4
Barrels/footage drilled = 0.02733 bbl/footage drilled
Formula#2 for CUBIC FEET of cuttings drilled per foot of hole drilled:

Cubic feet of cutting per foot drilled = Dh2 x 0.7854 x (1 – % porosity) ÷144

Where: Dh is hole diameter in inch.
Example: Determine barrels of cuttings drilled for one foot of 6-1/8 inch hole with 25% (0.25) porosity
Cubic feet/footage drilled = 6.1252 x 0.7854 x (1 – 0.25) ÷144
Cubic feet/footage drilled = 0.153462 cu ft/footage drilled
Moreover, you also apply sample density and volume relationship to determine total solids generated. Use the following
formula to calculate total solid generated.

Wcg = 350 x Ch x L x (l – porosity) x Cutting density
Where;
Wcg = solids generated in pounds
Ch = capacity of hole in bbl/ft

L = footage drilled in ft
Cutting density = cutting density in gm/cc
Example: Determine the total pounds of solids generated in drilling 100 ft of 6-1/8 inch hole (0.03644 bbl/ft). Density of
cuttings = 2.20 gm/cc. Porosity = 25%:
Wcg = 350 x 0.03644 x 100 x (1 – 0.25) x 2.2
Wcg = 2104.41 pounds

How To Determine Hole Size By Fluid Caliper
This article will demonstrate you how to determine hole size by fluid caliper. First of all, you need to know what is the
fluid caliper is. The fluid caliper is one simple way to calculate hole diameter. The concept is based on hole volume,
annular capacity, and inner capacity. You pump any substance and when you seen it on surface, you back calculate the
hole size based on strokes pumped. It is quite tricky to explain so I would like you to see the example below which it will
make you clear about what I say.

7” casing shoe is set at 5000’MD/4500’TVD
7” casing 23 ppf, ID 6.33 inch
4” drill pipe is used to drill the well and its ID is 3.34 inch.
4-3/4” drill collar is used as BHA and its ID is 2.5 inch. The length of drill collar is 500 ft.
This hole section is used water based mud and the bit size is 6-1/8”
Drill to section TD at 10,000’MD/9,000’TVD then drop carbide once TD is reached.
Pump output is 0.1 bbl/stroke.
Surface line from pumps to rig floor is 20 bbl.
Carbide is detected by a gas sensor on surface after 4,000 strokes pump.

With the given information, determine what is the hole size of the open hole
section.
.
The basic drilling formulas that you need to know are inner capacity and annular capacity calculation

1st step – Determine Inner Capacity and Annular
Capacity of All Parts
Inner capacity of 4”DP

Inner capacity of 4”DP = 0.01084 bbl/ft

Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC

Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 bbl/ft

Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing

Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 bbl/ft

I assign “d” is the open hole diameter.
Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole

Annular capacity between 4 3/4” DP and open hole

2nd step – Determine Volume of All Parts
Volume in 4”DP = Inner capacity of 4”DP x length of 4” DP
Volume in 4”DP = 0.01084 x 9,500 = 103 bbl

Volume in 4-3/4”DC = Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC x length of 4-3/4”DC
Volume in 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 x 500 = 3 bbl

Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing x length of 4”
DP inside 7” casing
Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 x 5,000 = 119 bbl

Volume between 4”DP and open hole = Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole x length of 4”
DP inside open hole

Volume between 4-3/4”DC and open hole = Annular capacity between 4-3/4”DC and open hole x
length of 4-3/4”DC inside open hole

3rd step – determine hole size. The total volume pump is equal to total volume in the system.

With the pump output of 0.1 bbl/stroke, 4000 strokes equate to 400 bbl.

In the following equation, I account for the surface volume from the pump to the rig floor.

Solve the equation to get d, d is equal to 6.97”.

Answer: You will get the hole size based on the fluid caliper of 6.97 inch.

I wish this article will give you idea on how to calculate hole size based on the fluid caliper.

Please remember that if you pull many stands of drill pipe before you see washout when you make up TDS and circulate pressure may not be like what you previously have. We were pretty sure that we had washout drill pipe downhole and we decided to pull out of hole to find washout. We observed pressure gradually dropped from 4. Everything was OK then we ran back in hole to continue drilling operation. and figured out where the washout was. when we saw the pressure loss. This indication showed us that washout location was above MWD tool. This was what we found.600 psi (500 psi pressure loss) with same pumping rate 250 GPM. pressure up surface equipment with mud pump to 3000 psi and held for 5 mins. . 1. just only circulating. we need to know where pressure loss occurred. Then. Everything was OK. Internal washout at pin end of drill pipe resulted in pressure loss. At this stage. We found that the signal generated by tool was weaken at the same flow rate of 240 GPM. There was no mud weight or mud properties change at that time. we tried to switch to another pump but the same problem still occurred so there must be something wrong down hole or surface. we stopped rotating. Pressure came back close to where it should be.Washout Drill Pipe Experience I would like to share experience about washout drill pipe. We laid down washout drill pipes and made up TDS and attempted to circulate with 240 GPM to see if pressure continued dropping. 2. When we observed pressure loss. Note: It’s a good practice not to rotate while we are losing pressure because we can snap drill pipe easily due to washout.100 psi to 3. no pressure loss. Therefore. Check MWD signal: You may not see the change in signal so you need to recycle pump to ensure whether signal is good or not. there was nothing wrong with surface line and It should be down hole. Check surface equipment: Closed IBOP.

mud properties. you may need to consider following items before you decide to pull out of hole for washout. Depth of washout in ft= (strokes pumped till seeing pressure increase x pump output in bbl/stk) ÷ drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft Determine washout depth from following information: . Anyway you still need to test system again . Check drillstring: You may pump the same flow rate and see how your MWD tool down hole response. etc. You may consider finding washout depth by using two following formulas listed below: Method 1: The concept of this method is to pump plugging material to plug the wash out. If not. When we see stand pipe pressure decrease without changing any parameters as flow rate. mud motor.Depth of Washout Washout in drill string can cause big problem later such as parted drill string. Check surface line: You may need to close stand pipe valves or IBOP and then pressure up to see leaking in the surface. If y MWD tool response gets weaker signal so it means that you have washout somewhere above MWD tool. 2. you may have washout below that such as bit. If you see pressure drop. 1. you can fix the surface problem. We will count how many strokes pump till pump pressure increases then we can calculate back where the washout is by applying internal capacity concept and pump output concept. etc.

Depth of washout in ft = (strokes pumped till observed material on surface x pump output in bbl/stk) ÷ (drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft + annular capacity in bbl/ft) Determine depth of washout from following information: Internal drill pipe capacity = 0. The more you pump. more washout will be occurred.00742+0.00742 bbl/ft Pump output = 0. Depth of washout. Note: The materials can be easily observed when it comes across the shakers are as follows: carbide. you can subtract the volume out of total volume pumped. ft = (strokes pumped till observed material on surface x pump output in bbl/stk – volume (bbl) from bell nipple to shale shaker) ÷ (drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft + annular capacity in bbl/ft) Example: Internal drill pipe capacity capacity = 0. practically.0455) Depth of washout = 4039 ft If you want to subtract volume from bell nipple to shale shaker.00742 bbl/ft Pump output = 0. Volume from bell nipple to shale shaker = 10 bbl Depth of washout in ft = (2500 x 0.0855 bbl/stk Pressure increase was noticed after 400 strokes. glass beads. ft = 400 stk x 0.0855 bbl/stk Annulus capacity = 0. we need to pull out of hole ASAP after we determine washout situation. . If you know that your wash out is down hole.0855 – 10) ÷ (0. ft = (2500 x 0. Depth of washout. etc. Therefore the formula will be Depth of washout.0455) Depth of washout = 3850 ft ANYWAY PLEASE REMEMBER.0455 bbl/ft The material pumped down the drill pipe was noticed coming over the shaker after 2500 strokes.00742 bbl/ft Pump output = 0.Internal drill pipe capacity = 0. corn starch.0855 bbl/stk ÷ 0.00742+0. We can calculate the depth of washout bases on the combination volume of internal drill pipe volume and annulus volume. bright colored paint.0855) ÷ (0.0455 bbl/ft The material pumped down the drill pipe was noticed coming over the shaker after 2500 strokes.00742 bbl/ft Depth of washout = 4609 ft Method 2: The concept of this method is to pump material that can be easily observed from drill pipe pass through wash out into annulus and over the surface.0855 bbl/stk Annulus capacity = 0.

0873 bbl/ft Mud weight = 12. hydrostatic pressure will decrease. pulling wet will decrease hydrostatic more than pulling dry pipe. volume of steel will be out of hole and mud volume will replace the steel volume.0 ppg ÷ (0. Each condition is different in calculation concept because mud volume to displace pipe volume is different. If we don’t fill hole.01 bbl Step 2: Determine HP.0873 bbl/ft – 0.0 ppg Step 1: Determine of pipe displacement in Barrels = 10 stands x 91 ft/std x 0.052 x 12.0055 bbl/ft Average length per stand = 91 ft Casing capacity = 0.Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) Decrease When POOH When pulling out of hole. psi decrease = 5. there is the Excel sheet for calculating pressure decrease due to pulling out of hole.01 barrels x 0.2 psi Case#2: When pulling WET pipe When pulling wet. Therefore. Step 1: Determine Total Pipe Volume Step 2: Determine Hydrostatic Pressure Decrease Example: Determine the hydrostatic pressure decrease when pulling DRY pipe out of the hole: Number of stands pulled = 10 Pipe displacement = 0. Moreover. There are 2 cases of pulling pipe which are pull dry and pull wet.0055 bbl/ft displaced Barrels displaced = 5.0055 bbl/ft) Hydrostatic pressure decrease = 38. This topic shows you how to calculate hydrostatic pressure loss for both cases of pulling pipe. Step 1: Barrels displaced = number of stands pulled per stand in ft x average length x {pipe disp inbbl/ft + {(% volume in drill pipe out of hole ÷ 100) x pipe cap in bbl/ft)} . we will consider volume of steel out of hole only. we will consider volume of steel out of hole and volume of mud in drillpipe as well. pull dry and pull wet. Case#1: When pulling DRY pipe When pulling dry.

ppg ÷ ((casing capacity in bbl/ft) – (Pipe disp in bbl/ft + pipe cap in bbl/ft)) Example: Determine the hydrostatic pressure decrease when pulling WET pipe out of the hole: % of volume in drill pipe out of hole = 100 Number of stands pulled = 10 Pipe displacement = 0.0055 bbl/ft + (100 ÷ 100) x 0.0873 bbl/ft Step 1: Barrels displaced = 10 stands x 91 ft/std x {(.08 bbl Step 2: hydrostatic pressure in psi decrease = 22.0 ppg ÷ ((0. psi = 218.0766 barrels x 0.Step 2: Determine hydrostatic pressure in psi decrease = barrels displaced x 0. casing etc.0 ppg Casing capacity = 0. you learn how to calculate annular capacity and this post shows you how to use the same principle to calculate inner capacity of open hole / inside cylindrical objects such as tubulars.0873 bbl/ft) – (0.052 x mud weight.0055 bbl/ft Average length per stand = 91 ft Pipe capacity = 0. .01876 bbl/ft)) HP decrease.052 x 12.01876 bbl/ft)} Barrels displaced = 22. tubing. drill pipe.01876 bbl/ft Mud weight = 12.0055 bbl/ft + 0.52 psi Calculate inner capacity of open hole/inside cylindrical objects From the previous post. drill collars.

4 ÷ 6.51 ÷ (ID in.1252 Inner Capacity in ft/gal = 0.51 Example: Determine inner capacity in gal/ft of 6-1/8 in. hole: Inner Capacity in bbl/ft = 6. hole: Inner Capacity in gal/ft = 6.1252 Inner Capacity in = 27.)2 ÷24.439 ft/bbl Inner Capacity in ft/bbl = 1029.53 gal/ft Formula#4) Calculate inner capacity in ft/gal Inner Capacity in ft/gal = 24. hole: Inner Capacity in ft/bbl = 1029.4 Example: Determine inner capacity in bbl/ft of a 6-1/8 in.There are several formulas to calculate inner capacity depending on unit of inner capacity required.2 bbl. Post Shut-In Procedures while Drilling .51 ÷ 6.4 Inner Capacity in bbl/ft = 0. 0364 bbl/ft Formula#2) Calculate inner capacity in ft/bbl : Example Determine inner capacity in ft/bbl of 6-1/8 in.)2 Example: Determine inner capacity in ft/gal of 6-1/8 in.51 Inner Capacity in = 1. hole: Inner Capacity in ft/gal = 24.) Formula#3) Calculate inner capacity in gal/ft Inner Capacity in gal/ft = (ID in. Inner Volume = Inner Capacity x Lenght Example: Inner capacity = 0.)2 ÷1029.1252÷1029. Please read and understand the formulas below: Formula#1) Calculate inner capacity in bbl/ft Inner Capacity in bbl/ft = (ID in. 0364 bbl/ft Length = 3000 ft Volume = 0.6533 ft/gal Determine the volume of mud to fill up the inner of the cylindrical objects by the following equation. 0364 x 3.1252÷ 24.000 = 109.4 ÷ (ID in.

the casing gauge should be installed upstream of the closed choke. Maximum pit gain from gas kick in water based mud In water based mud. If there is no a float is in the drillstring. I will write about how to bump float to record the shut in drill pipe pressure later. but you are also be able to determine the maximum pit gain due to gas influx. the supervisor on the rig should inform his supervisor to find the proper method to kill the well. You must remember that whether you have a float in drilling string or not. Pit Gain: Read and record the pit gain. the shut in drill pipe pressure can be read directly from the standpipe manifold. In order to prevent well bore fluid leaking through BOP elements.In order to get the proper pressure reading. you can not only estimate the maximum surface casing pressure. Shut-In Drillpipe Pressure (SIDP): Read and record the shut-in drillpipe pressure.There are several figures that must be recorded after the well has been properly shut in in case of a well control situation. the closing pressure should be high enough . If there is a float in the drillstring. After the well is properly secured and all information is gathered. Time: Record the time that the well control situation is occurred and keep an accurate time log for the entire well kill operation Closing Pressure: Record the closing pressure of BOP. Pit volume gained is very critical for the maximum casing pressure calculation. Shut-In Casing Pressure (SICP): Read and record the shut-in casing pressure (casing gauge). I don’t recommend you to ask only one person to get this figure. It is better to have another data source to compare with. you need to bump the float in order to determine the correct shut in drill pipe pressure. . You should check the volume gained from mud logger and driller in order to get the accurate figure. The following formula demonstrates how to figure out the maximum pit gain from gas influx in water based mud system.

C is annular capacity in bbl/ft.5 ppg Note: Please read the following link about kill weight mud -> well control formulas Formation pressure = surface pressure + hydrostatic pressure Formation pressure = 500 + (0.5 x 4800) = 3620 psi Note: Please read the following link about formation pressure -> Formation Pressure from Kick Analysis Determine annular capacity: Annular capacity = (12. you need to figure out the Kill Mud Weight .800’TVD Hole diameter = 12-1/4 inch Drill pipe = 5 inch According to the data.000’MD/4.Where Maximum Pit Gain in bbl P is formation pressure in psi. formation pressure. Pit gain = 20 bbl Initial shut in casing pressure = 600 psi Initial shut in drill pipe pressure = 500 psi Current mud weight = 12.5 ppg Hole depth = 6. V is original pit gain in bbl. and annular capacity.5 + (500 ÷ (0.052 x 12.052 x TVD)) Kill Weight Mud = 12. Kill Weight Mud in ppg Let’s take a look at this following example in order to get more understanding regarding this topic. please check out the following links -> Annular Capacity . Drill well with water based mud.052 x 4800)) = 14.252 – 52) ÷ 1029.4 = 0. Kill Weight Mud = current mud weight + (shut in drill pipe pressure ÷ (0.1215 bbl/ft Note: if you would like to understand annular capacity.

the volume of gas influx will allow migrating and casing pressure will increase till a certain figure then a specific amount of mud will bleed off to compensate the increase in casing pressure. The volumetric method will allow the kick to surface while the bottom hole pressure is almost constant. Successful use of volumetric method requires personnel understand three basic concepts – 1. Boyle’s Law – Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature. .5 bbl Volumetric Well Control – When It Will Be Used Volumetric well control method is a special well control method which will be used when the normal circulation cannot be done.Once you get all parameters required. The illustration below demonstrates volume and pressure as per Boyle’s Law. There are several situations where you cannot circulate the well as follows: • Pumps broken down • Plugged drill string/bit • Drill string above the kick • Drill string is out of the hole completely With the volumetric method. Maximum Pit Gain = 98. It is not a kill method but it the method to control bottom hole pressure and allow influx to migrate without causing any damage to the well. you can add all of them into the equation like this. the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportional in case of constant temperature within a closed system.

Increasing in the bottom hole pressure equates to hydrostatic pressure below the bubble. Hydrostatic pressure – Hydrostatic pressure is pressure created by column of fluid.In term of mathematical relationship. Two factors affecting hydrostatic pressure are height of fluid and density of fluid. P1 = pressure of gas at the first condition V1 = volume of gas at the first condition P2 = pressure of gas at the second condition V2 = volume of gas at the second condition 2. the gas bubble in the well migrates up will act on the mud column below and increase bottom hole pressure. Pressure at the bottom hole equals to hydrostatic pressure plus surface pressure Pressure (bottom hole) = Hydrostatic Pressure + Surface Pressure We will apply this concept to see how the gas bubble will increase the bottom hole pressure. Bottom hole pressure = Gas bubble pressure + Hydrostatic pressure below the bubble . Boyle’s Law can be stated as P1 x V1 = P2 x V1 Where. If the gas bubble is not allowed to expanded.

we can determine Mud Increment (MI) which is the volume of mud bled off from the annulus to reduce the annular hydrostatic pressure by the amount of the pressure required. there are two ways to control bottom hole pressure while allowing the gas migrating up to surface. Wait and let gas migrate. Mud Increment (MI) can be calculated by this following equation: . ACF = Annular Capacity Factor in bbl/ft OD = Outside Diameter of Annular in inch ID = Inside Diameter of Annular in inch Once the ACF is know. It tells us how many bbl per foot in annulus and it can be calculated by this following formulas: Annular Capacity Factor (ACF) = (OD2-ID2) ÷ 1029. Relationship of height and fluid volume as determined by annular capacity – In order to determine volume of mud that equates to required hydrostatic pressure. mud need to be bled off the well while the gas migrating up and the casing pressure must increase to compensate loss of hydrostatic pressure from bleed off.If we don’t want increase in bottom hole pressure.4 Where. Both steps above must be carefully performed perform in a sequence. We will go to the detailed procedures in later post. 1. In the volumetric control. The migration of gas will increase bottom hole pressure and casing pressure. we need to understand annulus capacity. Mud that is bled off must be equal to the increase in bottom hole pressure. 2. Bleed off mud from the annulus. 3.

cuttings tend to set at the low side of the wellbore and form a cutting bed. PI = Pressure Increment in psi ACF = Annular Capacity Factor in bbl/ft MW = Mud Weight in the well in ppg Cutting Settling in Deviated Wells Cause Stuck Pipe Cutting settling in deviated wells – typically a well which has inclination more than 35 degree is classified as a deviated well.Mud Increment (MI) = (PI x ACF) ÷ (0. Moreover. When there is a lot of cutting bed. . How does it happen? For the deviated wells.052 x MW) Where. while pulling out of hole. it will slide down and pack the string. BHA will move some cutting bed and finally the cutting bed will pack BHA and drill string (stuck pipe).

Indications when you are stuck due to cutting bed in deviated wells • The stuck pipe can happen while drilling and tripping out of hole. Ensure that annular velocity is more than cutting slip velocity 2.Warning signs of cutting setting in deviated wells • Drilling with high angle well (more than 35 degree). • Circulation pressure is higher than normal. • Increase in torque and drag while drilling. Sometimes. What should you do for this situation? 1. 2. Check cutting at shale shakers. Most of the time. Ensure that mud properties are in good shape. Be patient. then circulate and work pipe until the wellbore is clean. cutting cannot be effectively removed due to no pipe rotation. • Increase in drag while tripping out. Apply maximum allowable torque and jar down with maximum trip load. • While drilling with a mud motor. Preventive actions: 1. torque/drag and pump pressure in order to ensure hole condition. and attempt until the pipe is free. Do not use high pump pressure because the annulus will be packed harder and you will not be able to free the pipe anymore. it will happen while POOH. Attempt to circulate with low pressure (300-400 psi). it is impossible to circulate. • Increase in torque and drag (you must have a trend to see if torque/drag is abnormal) • Increase in pump pressure without changing any mud properties. Do not continue operation until the hole is properly clean. . 3. Do not try to jar up because you will create worse situate .

Record drilling parameters and observe trend changes frequently. there is possibility to increase rate of penetration because the hold down effect is decreased . For a good drilling practice. Consider pump hi-vis pill. 6. you should not have more than one pill in the wellbore. • Increase drag and torque – Increasing in drilling torque and drag are usually noticed while drilling into overpressured shale formation because underbalanc hydrostatic pressure exerted by drilling fluid column cannot to hold back the formation intrusion into wellbore. You may try weighted or unweighted and see which one gives you the best cutting removal capability. This is very important to record frequently drilling torque and drag because it could be your well control indicator. Shale normally has low permeability so formation fluid will not come into wellbore. • Change in drilling breaks (ROP change) . Practically. If you pump sweep. Circulate 5-10 minutes before making another connection in order to clear cutting around BHA. Maximize ROP and hole cleaning. 5. ensure that sweep must be return to surface before making any connection. The possible kick indications are as follows. If the differential between formation pressure and hydrostatic pressure created by drilling mud decreases. it may indicate that your well is in underbalance condition because high pressure zones (abnormal pressure) develop within large shale section. Therefore. 4. Ensure that you have good reciprocation while circulating. density of shale must be measured frequency and plot against drilling depth. Possible Kick (wellbore influx) Indications Part1 Possible Kick Indications mean that there is possibility to get influx into wellbore. shale density will increase as we drill deeper.3. 7. 8. • Decrease in Shale Density – Typically. You need to remember that just only a single possible indicator cannot may not good enough to identify underbalanced condition in wellbore and the possible kick indicators must be used collectively. You can see from a chart if there is any deviation in trend that could be an indication of change in pore pressure. drilling team on the rig needs to closely monitor the well and prepare appropriate action plans. Anyway. Circulate hole clean prior to tripping out of hole. The indications can be either kick or just formation react while drilling. . the formation fluid will flow into wellbore resulting in kick. If we see decrease in shale density. if we drill ahead pass high shale pressure into overpressured high permeability zones such as sand or carbonate.

without a proportional increase in ROP (rate of penetration). especially while drilling into transition zones. By closely monitored d-Exponent. cutting volume coming over shale shakers will increased noticeably. when salt water enters into the wellbore and mix with drilling fluid. In addition. they will be more angular and bigger than normal cutting. There are some factors that you need to account for when you try to evaluate mud temperature changes as listed below. For some mud. In water base mud with low Ph salt saturated. Change in Mud property Without any chemical added into drilling fluid system.• Increase in cutting size and shape – Pieces of formation may break apart and fall into wellbore because of underbalance situation. • Surface temperature conditions • Elapsed time since tripping • Mud chemicals used . its property change due to increasing in water and/or chloride content indicates that formation fluid enters into the wellbore. hence. d-Exponent chart will be useful for people on the rig to notify the high pressure transition zones. there will be more hole fill and torque and drag will increase. trends of d-Exponent will increase as we drill deeper. the mud viscosity will increase. On the other hand. Because rocks pieces broken by underbalance condition are not ruined by bit. but this value will decrease to lower values than what we expect in transition zones. water contamination in oil base mud will result in viscosity increases. Larger of cutting size will be result in difficulty to circulate them out of wellbore. the mud viscosity will decrease because of water from formation mixing with mud. temperature trend showing deviation from the normal temperature trend can be an indication of abnormal pressure zones. Possible Kick (wellbore influx) Indications Part2 Decrease in d-Exponent Value Normally. Increase in Temperature from Returning Mud By observing trend of temperature coming from mud return.

shale will not be able to hold their particles together and finally falls apart into the well. Shale Instability Causes Stuck Pipe Shale instability happens when shale formation becomes unstable and finally formations break apart and fall into an annuls. all kind of gas indications as trip. I wish you enjoy reading about the possible well control indicators. flow show and PVT (pit volume total) must be closely monitored. normally called gas cut mud. . When there is a lot of water. Finally shale particles will jam a drill string. It is the best practice to monitor in a chart format because we can look for the trend changes easily than just looking at one data point. On the rig site. personnel on the rig should keep in mind as a possible kick indicator. • Pore pressure in a formation is greater than the hydrostatic pressure provided by drilling fluid in a wellbore. Nonetheless.Water in the mud absorbed by shale formations causes swelling effect on formations. connection and/or background gas. you may see it after you have been drilling for days. must be fully monitored all time. • Temporally reduce in hydrostatic pressure due to swabbing effect. Gas in the mud can come from one or more of the reasons listed below: • Drill into a formation that contains gas or hydrocarbon.• Wellbore geometry • Circulating rate • Cooling effect when drilling fluid flows through a long riser (deep water consideration) Increase in trip. Hence. The shale instability is a chemical reaction which is time dependent. It means that you may not see it on day one. does not be a sign of a well flowing because it could be gas coming from formation. connection and/or background gas Gas in mud.

The three figures below will help you get more understanding about shale instability and stuck pipe .

(Day#1: Water is absorbed by shale)

(Day#2: Shale swelling due to water and shale starts falling apart.)

(Day#4: A lot of shale falls down and causes stuck pipe)

Warning signs of shale instability

• Torque and drag increase. An over pull may be observed.

• Mud properties became worse. You will see an increase in plastic viscosity, yield point (drilling mud becomes

thicker).

• Pump pressure increases.

• Observe soft shale over shale shakers.

Indications when you stuck due to shale instability

• When it happens, you may observe very high pump pressure at small rate and sometimes circulation may be

impossible.

• Most of the time it will happen when pulling out of hole. However, it can be possibly occurred while drilling as

well.

What should you do for this situation?

1. Attempt to circulate with low pressure (300-400 psi). Do not use high pump pressure because the annulus will

be packed harder and you will not be able to free the pipe anymore.

2. If you are drilling or POOH, apply maximum allowable torque and jar down with maximum trip load.

3. If you are tripping in hole, jar up with maximum trip load without applying any torque.

4. Attempt until pipe free and circulate to clean wellbore.

Preventive actions

1. For water based mud – you may need to add some salts that compatible with a mud formula in order to reduce

chemical reaction between water and shale. Moreover, you should consider adding some coating polymers to

prevent water contact with formation.

2. Use oil based mud instead of water based mud because oil will not react with shale.

3. Keep good flow rate to ensure good hole cleaning.

4. Perform back reaming and/or wiper trip.

5. Keep good mud properties.

Mechanism of Accumulator (Koomey Unit)
This topic describes how an accumulator (Koomey Unit) works. First of all, I will start with accumulator bottles.

The accumulator bottles are used to store hydraulic pressure for closing/opening all blow out preventers. Each

bottle, which has a rubber bladder inside, has a storage volume of 10 gallons. The rubber bladder inside is pre-

charged to 1,000 psi with Nitrogen (N2). Each bottle will be pressured up 200 psi over the pressure charge

pressure. At this stage, 1.7 gal of hydraulic fluid is used in order to compress N2 to minimum system pressure of

1,200 psi (200 psi over pre charge pressure), called “minimum operating pressure”. Hydraulic oil will be pumped

into the bottle until pressure in the bladder reach 3,000 psi, called “Operating Pressure”. Volume of hydraulic fluid

used to pressure up from 1200 psi to 3000 ps,which is called “Useable Fluid”, is equal to 5 gallons,

Note: I will show you how to use Bolye’s Law to figure out usable fluid later.

Accumulator Pressure Charging System

In an accumulator unit as shown in the figure below as an example, there are one electric pump and two

pneumatic pumps, which will be automatically pumped hydraulic fluid, which is stored in a reservoir tank when

pressure in bottles is below set pressure in order to maintain bottle pressure at 3,000 psi. The electric pump is

mainly used to maintain pressure. Pneumatic pumps will be use in case of 1) the electric pump failure and 2)

helping the electric pump to increase bottle pressure quicker.

000 psi in bottles passes a pressure regulator (in the figure is a regulator “A”) in order to regulate pressure from 3. Another way is used to control rams preventers (VBR’s rams. in case of closing equipment. Hydraulic fluid under pressured is divided into two following ways: 1. All pressure activated equipment as annular preventer. This is normally called “Manifold Pressure”. On the contrary. This pressure drop is important for drilling hydraulic optimization (maximum hydraulic horse power or impact force) and hole cleaning. One is for opening equipment and another one is for closing equipment. Fluid in closing side will be pushed out and go back to a reservoir tank. blind/shear rams.000 psi in bottles passes a pressure regulator (in the figure is a regulator “B”) in order to reduce pressure from 3.000 to 1. pressured hydraulic fluid will be transmitted to the open port and hydraulic power will drive an internal mechanism inside equipment in order to open equipment.500 goes to a manifold which is used to divide hydraulic pressure in many ways to operate equipment. VBR’s and HCR valves have two hydraulic fluid ports. . The pressure drop at the nozzle area is a function of total flow area of the bit.Note: you may see different set up depending on the rig but the concept is the same. Hydraulic under pressure of 3. You can operate the BOP equipment by pushing remote switches or handles at the accumulator unit. Pressure Drop Across a Bit Pressure across a bit occurs when the drilling mud passing through the jet nozzles.000 to 500-1500 psi for operating annular preventer. The first way is used for controlling an annular preventer. The regulated hydraulic fluid under pressure of 1. Pressure used to operate the annular preventer must be less than pressure used to operate rams preventer because high pressure will damage a rubber seal inside of the annular preventer. the process is quite as same as opening process but only fluid flow direction is opposite. Hydraulic under pressure of 3. flow rate and mud density. In case of opening equipment. 2. pipe rams) and HCR valves.500 psi for operating rams preventers and HCR valves.

Pressure drop across the bit can be determined by the following equation: Where: Pb = pressure drop across a bit. The ram preventers were invented by James Smither Abercrombie and Harry S. square inch Please use the following information to determine pressure drop across a bit Flow rate = 800 gpm Mud weight = 9.0 ppg Total Flow Area = 0. . ppg A = total flow area. gpm W = mud weight. Cameron in 1922.3728 square inch Pb = 3446 psi Ram Preventers as Well Control Equipment In the previous topic. we discuss about the annular preventer and today we would like to give you more details regarding ram preventers. psi Q = flow rate.

In order to provide the wellbore sealing. Variable Bore Rams (VBR). With both top seals and packer. The ram preventers can be hydraulically or manually operated. (Courtesy of Cameron) When the well is shut in. the rams must compose of top seals and packers which are made of the special elastomer. the well is securely shut in when In the drilling industry. there are four types of rams preventers which are Pipe Rams. When people would like to shut the well in using the ram preventer. .This preventer consists of two rams which extend into the center of the wellbore in order to shut the well in (see the image below). please take a look at the diagram of Cameron BOP below. If the hydraulic is not properly operated. blind rams and blind-shear rams. they will go to the hydraulic option first. the packer will seal around drillstring or tubular and the top seal will be pushed against the BOP body. For more understanding. the manual system will be utilized.

Personnel should not close the ram in tool joint or open hole (closing without pipe in the well) (Pipe Rams – Courtesy of Cameron) Variable Bore Rams (VBR) – It is similar to the pipe rams but it can use with a wider range of outside diameter of pipe. Most operators and drilling contractors don’t consider using this rams but they prefer blind-shear rams because the blind-shear rams can cut the pipe. . The rams are designed to hold pressure from the bottom only.Pipe Rams – it closes around the drill string or tubular in order to restrict the flow. (Variable Bore Rams (VBR) – Courtesy of Cameron) Blind Rams – This rams are used to close the wellbore when there is no drilling string in the wellbore and the blind rams cannot shear the pipe. The size of the rams must match with drill string size in order to properly shut the well in. Please see the image below for more understanding. You can see that the packer can be varied depending the force push against the rams.

(Blind Shear Rams – Courtesy of Cameron Buoyancy Factor Calculation Buoyancy Factor is the factor that is used to compensate loss of weight due to immersion in drilling fluid.Blind Shear Rams – The blind shear rams have two applications – 1 seal the wellbore without pipe in the wellbore. Before explaining any further. 2 cut the pipe prior to shutting the well in . I will explain you about the basic concept of Buoyancy. Buoyancy is the upward force that keeps things afloat. The net upward buoyancy force equals to the amount of the weight of fluid .

8015 The bouyed weight of drill string in 13. we feel ourselves lighter when we are in swimming pool because this is the effect of buoyancy.5 – 13. Q stands for flow rate in gallons per minute. we need to know how much weight of string of drill pipe. The buoyancy factor for a 13.5 – 13. and 1714 is a conversion factor necessary to yield HHP in terms of horsepower. For example.5 BF = 0.8015 Buoyancy Factor using mud weight in lb/ft3 Buoyancy Factor (BF) = (489 – mud weight in lb/ft3) ÷489 Example: Determine the buoyancy factor for a 100 lb/ft3 fluid: BF = (489 – 100) ÷489 BF = 0. Buoyancy Factor using mud weight in ppg Buoyancy Factor (BF) = (65. for example 2. Air weight of string is 350 klb. For example . Therefore.0 ppg mud. completion string. where P stands for pressure in pounds per square in. ppg and lb/ft 3. determine the string weight in 13.8ydraulic Horse Power Calculation Hydraulic Horse Power is a measure of the energy per unit of time that is being expended across the bit nozzles. the air weight of drilling string times the buoyancy factor equal to actual weight in mud.5 – mud weight in ppg) ÷65. etc in drilling fluid. Buoyancy Factor is value that we need to know and be able to calculate this value. It is commonly calculated with the equation HHP=P*Q/1714.0 ppg fluid: BF = (65. to ensure adequate bit tooth and bottom-of-hole cleaning . Bit manufacturers often recommend that fluid hydraulics energy across the bit nozzles be in a particular HHP range.0 ppg fluid: BF = (65. This force will make objects lighter when it immerses in fluid.0 ppg mud = 350 x 0.0) ÷ 65.0) ÷ 65.7955 How to use the Buoyancy Factor In order to figure out the actual weight of drilling string in mud.5 Example: Determine the buoyancy factor for a 13. called buoyed weight. Please follow the formulas below to calculate Buoyancy Factor in different mud weight units.0 to 7..5 BF = 0. In drilling operation.displaced by the body volume.0 HHP.

however.glossary. Mud weight is measured and reported in pounds per gallon (PPG).oilfield. pound per cubic feet (lb/ft3). When you press mud sample in the cup. Therefore.(the minimum HHP) and to avoid premature erosion of the bit itself (the maximum HHP). Moreover. the most accurate method to measure the mud weight is with a pressurized mud balance. it also helps wellbore stability. but it has a pressurized sample cup.5 Klb. or grams per milliliter (b/ml). if you have some air inside a fluid phase. . psi Q = circulating rate. reading from the conventional mud balance will give you an inaccurate number. Conventional Mud Balance The pressurized mud balance looks like the convention one.com Hydraulic Horse Power (HPP) formula as follow: HHP= (P x Q) ÷1714 where HHP = hydraulic horsepower P = circulating pressure. any gas in fluid phase is compressed to very small volume so the mud weight measurement is more accurate. Mud weight is normally measured by a conventional mud balance. Ref: http://www.slb. You can learn about how to covert pressure into mud weight here.6 015 = 280. Mud Weight or Mud Density Mud weight or mud density is one of the important drilling fluid properties because it balances and controls formation pressure. gpm Example : Determine Hydraulic Horse Power with these following data: circulating pressure = 3500 psi circulating rate = 800 gpm HHP= (3500 x 800) ÷1714 HHP = 1633.

The invaded mud will cause damage to formation rocks.0. the more mud filtration invades into porous formations. the less ROP will be.5 F (21 C +/. if the hydrostatic pressure provided by a mud column is below formation pressure.5 seconds . while drilling. The Marsh funnel is dimensioned so that the outflow time of one quart of freshwater (956 cc) at a temperature of 70 F +/. Decrease in rate of penetration – The more density you have while drilling. Wellbore collapse (wellbore instability) – the wellbore will possibly become unstable. Stuck pipe – Since there are differences between the formation pressure and the hydrostatic pressure. 3. What will be happened if the mud weight is too high? 1. oil. Once the formation is broken. and water. 2.The well will be in an underbalance condition What will be happened if there is insufficient drilling so any formation fluids – gas. 4. Well control .3 C) in 26 +/. Funnel Viscosity The funnel viscosity is time in second of drilling mud flowing through the Marsh Funnel Viscosity. Practically.will enter into the wellbore. low mud weight is used at the beginning and weight will be increased as the well is drilled deeper in order to optimize ROP. Pressurized Mud Balance fluid density? 1. there will be a lot of chances that a drill string will get differentially stuck across permeable rocks. it will cause formation to break. 2. the drilling fluids will lose into the induced formation fractures. Lost circulation – If the hydrostatic pressure from mud column exceeds formation strength. Marsh Funnel . Formation damage – The more mud weight is in the well.

personnel must record the values frequently. This following information is determined by the rheological measurements from a mud test. You can determine the Plastic Viscosity (PV) by this formula. and yield point (YP). Please remember that only single point of the funnel viscosity cannot tell you anything about a condition of drilling mud. you can calculate the YP by this following formula. You can simply say that the Yield Point (YP) is the attractive force among colloidal particles in drilling mud. especially oil base mud. There are several rheology values such as gel strength. mud weight has more effect on PV than YP. Yield Point (YP) Yield Point (YP) is resistance of initial flow of fluid or the stress required in order to move the fluid. On the drilling rig. Rheology You may have heard people talking about “Rheology” but you don’t have an ideal what it is. • Equivalent circulating density • Hydraulic efficiency • Hole cleaning efficiency • Surge and Swab pressure • Pressure loss in the system • Pressure required to break circulation • etc Typically. Practically. temperate always affects on the viscosity of base fluid. In addition. you have these values from the viscometer. It means that the funnel viscosity will decrease. . PV and YP will increase as mud weight increases. In order to use the funnel viscosity effectively. The funnel viscosity measures at only one rate of shear but the temperature each time of measurement is not constant. The base fluid will be less thick when the temperature increases.For all drilling mud. Let I explain you about it. Yield Point (YP) = Reading from a viscometer at 300 rpm – Plastic Viscosity (PV) A unit of YP is lb/100 ft2. Rheology is the study of flow and deformation of fluid. plastic viscosity (PV). Plastic Viscosity (PV) = Reading at 600 rpm – Reading at 300 rpm For example. This is the reason why the viscosity measured fromthe Marsh Funnel does not represent the true drilling mud viscosity. this measurement of the mud viscosity is still useful because it is a quick and simple test for observing trends of drilling mud.

Reading at 600 rpm = 56 Reading at 300 rpm = 35 Plastic Viscosity (PV) = 56 – 35 = 21 CP Yield Point (YP) = 35 – 21 = 14 lb/100 ft2. • Low temperature – in the oil base system. The YP indicates the ability of the drilling mud to carry cuttings to surface. The API fluid loss testing equipment is shown below. Please keep in mind that this is opposite to the water base system. frictional pressure loss is directly related to the YP. API Fluid Loss Test for Drilling Mud API Fluid Loss Test (low-pressure. the YP will be increased with following items. the YP in the drilling mud must be high in order to help hole cleaning efficiency. • Treatment CO2 in the mud with lime (CaO) – The lime (CaO) will chemically react with CO2 to form Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) which will increase the YP. the more YP will be. In water-based mud. Moreover. It is very difficult to say how high of PV should be because it depends on several factors. • Drill solid – the more drill solid you have. In order to get the most optimized valve of PV for each a particular drilling campaign. and then you will learn once you have experience in a particular field . and anhydrite in the drilling fluids • Over treatment the drilling mud with lime or caustic soda In oil-based mud. low-temperature filtration test) is a test to measure a filtration of drilling mud with ambient temperature and 100 psi differential pressure. the low temperate will increase the viscosity and the YP.When you drill a large diameter hole. • Contaminants such as carbon dioxide. you may need to start with general YP values. Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) – The ECD typically increases when the YP increases. • High temperature – the high temperature environment tends to increase the YP in the water base mud. Operational impacts of the YP are as follows. you will have high pressure loss while the drilling mud is being circulated. If you have higher YP. if you are drilling in the new field. salt. the causes of increasing in YP are listed below. Especially. Hole Cleaning . .

wellbore temperature and pressure will change the fluid property dramatically. I will give you short brief about it. The API fluid loss test can lead you to the wrong conclusion because at the surface condition. the test demonstrates very good fluid loss and very thin filter cake. and it will be discussed in the HPHT fluid loss late Filter Cake of Drilling Mud Filter cake is a layer formed by solid particles in drilling mud against porous zones due to differential pressure between hydrostatic pressure and formation pressure and it is always occurred while drilling the wells. and it may be error because it does not simulate downhole conditions. When the drilling mud is in downhole condition. . you will get a thin and impermeable mud cake. The best way to test the fluid loss is to simulate wellbore temperature and pressure. Please keep in mind that this test is based on the surface condition. The filter cake is solid particles. If the drilling mud has good fluid loss property. which are deposited against permeable zones due to differential pressure between hydrostatic pressure and formation pressure.How will you test the drilling mud? • Place a filter • Add the sample in the testing chamber • Place the chamber in the testing kit • Apply 100 psi pressure • Record volume for 30 minutes at the end of the test the volume of filtrate will be recorded. • Record thickness of filter cake If you don’t know what the filter cake (mud cake) is.

your drilling string will have high chance to get differentially stuck across them. it must be under pressure and the test should be conducted at 500 psi differential pressure.. with thick wall filter cake. Therefore. a contact area between drilling string or any kind of tubular will be increased. you will possibly face with a stuck pipe situation and high torque/drag. etc. you will see the increase in torque. is created in order to simulate the downhole condition. which results in a thick filter cake in the wellbore. The HTHP test is performed for 30 minutes. if your mud is not in good shape. How will the filter cake impact on drilling operation? Differential sticking – If you have the thick filter cake. and you know that the API fluid lost test does not represent the down hole condition. For the HTHP test. Torque and drag – Under dynamic conditions such as drilling. the logging tool may be differentially stuck across the permeable zones as well. Typically. not only can the drilling string get stuck. we would like to have the filter cake that is impermeable and thin. Practically. and it causes the thick filter cake across the wall of the wellbore. The new fluid loss test. Moreover. If you have bad drilling fluid. with the recommended temperature. You don’t want the testing temperature too high or low because it will not represent downhole condition very well. you can vary both temperature and pressure to represent your expected downhole condition. named “HTHP fluid loss test”. like the API fluid lost test. working pipe. When drilling into permeable zones that are severely overbalance.For our drilling operation. Let’s analyze about a drag issue. the recommended temperature in the heating jacket should be above the estimated temperate about 25F to 50F. HTHP Fluid Loss Test for drilling mud You have learned about the API fluid loss test from the previous topic. while performing the test. you will face with high drag while tripping out of hole or logging . . Just for your information. HTHP stands for “High Temperature High Pressure” The HTHP test is similar to the API test because it tells us about drilling mud filtration into the formation under a static condition over certain period of time. the filter cake should be less than or equal to 1/16 inch. Moreover. the drilling mud will not be over or under treated. You can see the HTHP test kit as a figure below: HTHP filter lost kit The HTHP testing equipment has a heating jacket so you can heat up the drilling fluid sample to the expected wellbore temperature.

and they will stay in the mud forever. Since the drilled solid content is very important. . Moreover. pH in drilling mud pH is a value representing the hydrogen ion concentration in liquid.) .8 or higher.Solid Content in Drilling Mud Solid content is a fraction total solid in drilling mud. the pH of 7 means neutral.2. The pH is presented in a numerical value (0-14) which means an inverse measurement of hydrogen concentration in the fluid. Another value besides the LGS and HGS that you must contemplate is the average density of solids in the drilling fluid.Insoluble high gravity solid (HGS) as weighting agents (barite. and it always increases while drilling ahead because of drilling solid (cuttings). If you see this value below 3. pH = -log10[H] Where: H is the hydrogen ion concentration in mol. According to the pH formula. calcium carbonate. The average solid density means the relative concentrations of both the weighting agent and the drilled solid. There are three types of solid contents as listed below. etc have a specific gravity value about 4. the drilled solid should be tested twice a day by retorting. we always mean soluble and insoluble solid content in the drilling fluid system. The upper limit of the drill solid faction should be 6-7 % by volume or approximately 55 – 60 lb/bbl. mud chemical additives and weighting material. We use it to indicate acidity or alkalinity of drilling mud especially water base mud. if its particle size is less than 5 microns. The weighting materials as barite. Please remember that this figure is general rule of thumb. it indicates that there may be too much low gravity solid in the mud. the drilled solids as clay and silt have a less specific gravity about 2. . On other hand. the more acidity of substance is but the pH valve decreases. The pH formula is listed below. Fluids with a pH above 7 are considered as alkaline. you can drill with more solid content for a while but over all performance will be down. it must be checked daily. I will explain why this figure is important and what it tells us. Let’s talk about general of the pH. the more hydrogen atoms present. When we talk about the solid content. Practically. the fluids with pH below 7 are defined as acidic.Soluble material such as salt . Normally. Generally.8. For good drilling practices. the drill solids will take 6-7 percent of total mud volume.6.Insoluble low gravity solid (LGS) or drilled solid as solids particles from cuttings The drill solids are the worst solid content in the drilling fluid because it gradually deteriorates mud properties. Generally speaking. Calcium Carbonate. etc. hematite. However. these drill solids could not be removed by mechanical methods. the acceptable value of the average solid density is about 3.

hydroxyl ions (OH-). there are three main chemical components involving in Alkalinity of drilling fluid which are bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). The Alkalinity means ions that will reduce the acidity. Note: In order to clean annulus effectively. When pumps are off. Indications when you are stuck due to cutting bed in vertical well . • You may see over pull when picking up and pump pressure required to break circulating is higher without any parameters changes. Finally. However. the annular velocity must be more than cutting slip velocity in dynamic condition. Cutting Settling in a Vertical or Near vertical Wellbore Causes Stuck Pipe Cutting settling in vertical or near vertical wellbore – typically the wells classified as vertical or near vertical wells has inclination less than 35 degree. it results in stuck pipe. So as to get accurate measurements for the pH. you need to use a pH meter instead of using a pH paper because it can give you more accurate figures. Moreover. you need to ensure that the pH meters should be calibrated frequently. Warning signs of cutting setting in vertical well • There are increase in torque /drag and pump pressure. How does it happen? Cuttings in the wellbore are not removed from the annulus enough because there is not enoughcutting slip velocity in and/or drilling mud properties in the wellbore is bad. mud properties must be able to carry cutting when pumps on and suspend cutting when pumps off. and carbonate ions (CO3-2). cuttings fall down due to gravitational force and pack and annulus.In the drilling mud. As you may not know about what is the Alkalinity.

Circulate 5-10 minutes before making another connection in order to clear cutting around BHA. Circulate hole clean prior to tripping out of hole. Do not use high pump pressure because the annulus will be packed harder and you will not be able to free the pipe anymore. Attempt to circulate with low pressure (300-400 psi). Check cutting at shale shakers. Ensure that annular velocity is more than cutting slip velocity. 5. Maximize ROP and hole cleaning. 6. 3. It most likely happens when pump off (making connection) or tripping in/out of hole. you should not have more than one pill in the wellbore. Consider pump hi-vis pill. 2. What should you do for this situation? 1. For a good drilling practice. then circulate and work pipe until the wellbore is clean. ensure that sweep must be return to surface before making any connection. circulation is restricted and sometimes impossible. 3. torque/drag and pump pressure in order to ensure hole condition. 2. Ensure that you have good reciprocation while circulating. 4. Apply maximum allowable torque and jar down with maximum trip load. Ensure that mud properties are in good shape. Record drilling parameters and observe trend changes frequently. Do not try to jar up because you will create worse situate. You may try weighted or unweighted and see which one gives you the best cutting removal capibility. .• When this stuck pipe caused by cutting settling is happened. If you pump sweep. Attempt until the pipe is free. 7. Preventive actions 1. 8.

With this situation. . you cannot fix flow rate to drill all the way to TD because the system pressure loss is changed because of hole depth. the flow rate must be reduced to maintain the pressure. Drilling Hydraulics Optimized at the Beginning of the Run If the system is designed to meet the maximum hydraulic horsepower at the beginning of the well and the pump pressure is maintained constant at the designed value. it will cause the jet velocity and hydraulic horsepower dropping (see the curve below) at the end . the hydraulic horsepower will not be at the maximum point (see the curve below). There are two ways of optimizing drilling hydraulics which are optimization at the beginning of the run and at the end of the run. drilling hydraulics optimizations (maximum jet impact and maximum hydraulic horsepower) are based on an assumption of a fixed system. drilling mud properties. the end of the run (the deepest depth) is the condition where we design to maximize hydraulic horse power. Drilling Hydraulics Optimized at the End of the Run For this case. In real operation. when the well is getting deeper. etc. We know the pressure which we will maintain to get the best hole cleaning at the end.Differential Sticking Causes Stuck Pipe Differential Sticking is one of the most common causes of pipe stuck. At the beginning of the run. wellbore conditions. Point To Optimize Drilling Hydraulics Typically. It can happen when there is differential pressure (overbalance pressure) pushing a drillstring into filter cake of a permeable formation.

Decide the Optimum Point of the Bit Run for drilling hydraulics optimization First of all. etc. Pipe movement – if the drillstring is station for a period of time. the filter cake will tend to develop around permeable zones and the drillstring. Stuck identification for differential sticking • Drill string is in station for a period of time. Therefore. Four factors causing the differential sticking are as follows: Permeable formation as sand stone. you need to work within a certain range. the best point to optimize hydraulics is at the end of the bit run because it gives the best hole cleaning at the deepest depth and makes the best performance of the bit. pick up and slack off weight increase when the drill string is being moved. Warning signs when you get stuck due to differential sticking • There are high over balance between wellbore and formation. More overbalance in the wellbore. Therefore. Moreover. The differential sticking is happened when there is no pipe movement for long time. when there is highly depleted formation. lime. Overbalance – typically mud weight in the well is more than formation pressure. Filter cake – Poor and thick filter cake increases chances of sticking the drill string. more chance of getting differential sticking. potential of getting differentially stuck is increased. carbonate. Practically. you need to keep in mind that the calculation for drilling hydraulics optimization is valid only for a fixed depth. . operating within 15 – 20 % deviation from the theoretical value is acceptable because either hydraulic horsepower or impact force will not be changed significantly. you may not be able to pull or rotate pipe. Especially. the chance of getting differentially stuck is so high. • Torque. Once it happens.

Cross section area is in square inch. Differential pressure is in psi.• Circulation can be established without increasing in pressure. . Let’s see how much differential force from this situation Formation pressure = 3800 psi Hydrostatic pressure =4500 psi Cross area of stuck pipe = 1500 square inch You can determine how much differential force based on a following formula: Force = Differential Pressure x Cross Section Area Where Force is in lb. • BHA is across the permeable zone.

Otherwise. Preventive actions are as follows: 1. 3. N is equal to differential force. when the BHA is across formations.5 x 1. Jar up without apply torque in the drill string.000 = 525. This is still massive What should you do for this situation? 1. Spot light weight pill to decrease hydrostatic pressure.050. Do not use too high mud weight 2. especially. you must ensure that the overall hydrostatic pressure is more than formation pressure. 3.000 lb to fee the pipe from this situation. Do not stop moving string for a period of time. For this scenario.000 lb You need overpull of 525. N is reactive force.5. Apply torque into drill string and jar down with maximum allowable trip load 2. you can determine how much tension you need to free the pipe by this following formula: From the basic of physic. F= coefficient friction x N where: F is force to pull. F = 0. Minimize length of BHA and use spiral drill collar and heavy weight drill pipe to reduce contact area.Force = (4500 – 3800) x 1500 Force = 1.000 lb This is massive !!! If we assume a coefficient friction of 0. you will face with a well control situation. Under specification drilling mud will create thick mud cake which can be a big impact for the differential sticking. If you want to the light weight pill. . 4.050. Keep mud in good shape.

increase in overall formation fracture gradient and elimination of fracture elongation. This effect creates a plastic-like sealant at the wall of wellbore that helps prevent the wellbore collapse. 4. even you already pump slug but you still have wet pipe instead of dry pipe. 2. Wellbore-strengthening techniques are very important because they will prevent the lost circulation. Why Slug Does Not Work? Slug is typically used to push mud in the drill string down therefore pipe will dry while pulling out of hole. While rotating. Rigid-plug forming treatment – This is a special liquid chemical and when it is mixed with drilling mud. 3. You may wonder why the slug does not work very well. 1.7 Ways to Strengthen a Wellbore Strengthen a wellbore while drilling is the most effective technique to do to the wellbore before bad losses will be happened. When it is pumped into the wellbore. etc. you need to understand all concepts to achieve drilling free operation. With properly adding into drilling fluid. 6. 7 effective ways to strength the wellbore are as follows. The solid will be pushed into fracture spaces and create impermeable zones. Ultra-low fluid loss chemical – This particular chemical is mostly utilized to prevent lost circulation in permeable zones. The impermeable filter cake around the wellbore will prevent losses into permeable formations. the slurry will easily lose liquid component into the formation and leave solid behind. it will create cross-linked polymer just like latex rubber which will plug wellbore fractures in order to prevent lost circulation problem. 5. . one of critical problems in drilling operation. In the drilling industry. The wellbore-strengthen techniques emphasize on lost circulation prevention. Sometimes. Chemical sealant – It acts like an epoxy. the chemical component will go inside pore spaces and create walls across the fractures in the wellbore therefore the overall formation strength will be greater and loss circulation will be ceased. the well becomes stronger. the material in the drilling fluid will plug off fractures that will result in higher formation strength and stop mud loss. 7. Therefore. Granular loss-circulation material – By adding the granular loss-circulation material ahead of the time. Dry pipe while pulling out has some advantages as minimizing crew to expose to drilling mud when breaking a connection. Smear effect – You are able to see this effect when drilling with casing. Recommended volume is around 25.40 bbl. Heating the wellbore – By heating up formation around the wellbore. the casing smears filter cake and cutting into the borehole wall. the lost circulation concepts focus on preventing losses of drilling fluid. The following reasons why the slug does not do its job are as follows: • Slug volume is not enough to slug the pipe. However. High fluid loss slurry – with high fluid loss slurry. the chemical will reduce the initial spurt loss of mud therefore a filter cake will be almost impermeable. the formation will be expanded and it will increase rock stress. reducing time to handle the drill string. Therefore. Techniques of wellbore-strengthen are similar to lost circulation concepts.

5 to 12 PPG.5 to 2 PPG over current mud weight is a rule of thumb to decide how much weight of slug should be. slug is pumped to push mud down approximate 200 ft (+/2 stands) and slug volume can be calculated by applying a concept of U-tube (see a figure below) Volume of slug can be calculated by this following equation: This equation expresses that the higher slug volume. As a normal practice. you will not get desired slug volume in the drillstring because it is still left in the surface volume. • There is something inside the drill string so the slug could not push mud in the drill string down. What is slug mud? How much volume and weight of slug mud should be? Slug Mud: It is heavy mud which is used to push lighter mud weight down before pulling drill pipe out of hole. Normally. As per the above equation. the deeper of dry in drill pipe is met. 1. • Weight of slug is not sufficient. Normally. Slug is used when pipe became wet while pulling out of hole. length of dry pipe can be substituted by 200 ft.• You should chase slug by pumping mud at least surface volume from mud pump to a rotary table. Slug weight should be about 11. the slug weight should have at least 2 ppg over your current mud weight. current mud weight is 10 PPG. For example. Otherwise. .

Drill Capacity 4.Slug weight = 14.In normal practice. Drilling Formula – Slug Calculation in Barrels for Length of Dry Pipe 4 steps in finding a slug calculation in bbls for a Length of Dry Pipe. slug volume bbls = 1725 ft x .052 x 276 feet = 179.4 psi 2.53 barrels Stuck Pipe Introduction This topic will give you overview of stuck pipe and how people classify stuck pipe.052 3 – Calculate length of slug in drill pipe.052 x length of DRY pipe in feet 2 – Find the difference in pressure gradient between slug weight and mud weight. Pressure Gradient Change psi = (slug weight ppg – mud weight ppg) x 0. HP psi = Mud Weight ppg x 0.5 ppg 1. Pressure Gradient Change psi = (14.01422 bbl/ft . .5 ppg x 0.01422 bbl-ft = 24. Slug Length ft = pressure in psi / change in pressure gradient psi-ft 4 – Calculate the slug volume in barrels. it also depends on situations because sometime mud in annulus side may be heavier than measured MW due to cutting. slug volume bbls = slug length ft x drill pipe volume bbl-ft Let’s complete an example given the following information: . Definition of stuck pipe Stuck pipe is a situation when the drill string cannot be moved from the well.5 ppg – 12. Personnel on the rig must be able to identify the cause of stuck pipe in order to figure out the right way to free the pipe.104 psi 3. Slug Length ft = 179.052 = .Desired length of dry pipe.5 ppg) x 0. 3 stands = 276 ft . hence more slug volume is needed.Mud weight = 12. The drill string may be partially moved and you may be able to circulate and rotate the pipe. HP psi = 12. 1 – Find the hydrostatic pressure it takes to drop inside the drill pipe. drilling solid contaminated in mud. slug volume pumped to clean drill pipe is around 15-25 bbl depending on drillpipe size.5 ppg .5 in = 0. Moreover.104 psi-ft = 1725 feet 4.4 psi / .

if Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) exceeds formation fracture. It is quite a tough job to free the pipe in case of packoff or bridging and the chance of success is lower than differential or wellbore geometry sticking mechanism. Therefore. this stuck mechanism almost always happens when the drill string has been stopped moving for a long time. You may hear several terms besides well ballooning as wellbore breathing or micro fracturing phenomenon.Stuck pipe categories There are 3 categories of stuck pipes as follows: 1. Well ballooning (wellbore breathing or micro fracture) This topic describes about well ballooning. The micro fractures can be propagated and it may cause a lot of mud volume losses down hole. The differential sticking tends to easily happen when drilling through depleted reservoir is conducted. 2. Moreover. Differential sticking: Differential sticking happens when drill string is pushed against permeable formations by differential pressure between hydrostatic and formation pressure. According to statistics around the world. You should remember that either big or small debris can stick the pipe. Wellbore geometry: Wellbore geometry stuck pipe mechanism occurs when the shape of the well and the bottom hole assembly (BHA) don’t match each other. The frictional force between drillstring and formation is so high that you will not be able to move the pipe. Pack off and bridging: Pack off and bridging are occurred when there is something in the wellbore as formation cutting. pack off and bridging is the most frequent cause of stuck pipe situation in the world. junk. the drill string are not able to pass through that section. It normally occurs when the mud pumps are off for an extended period of time such as when pulling out of hole. What is well ballooning? The well ballooning effect is a natural phenomenon occurring when formations take drilling mud when the pumps are on and the formations give the mud back when the pumps are off. . 3. Micro fracture will not cause severe losses or totally losses. What is mechanism of well ballooning? While pumps are on. etc accumulating around drilling string/BHA and that stuff blocks the annulus between drill string and the wellbore. micro fractures are created and drilling mud will lose into small induced formation fractures.

• Drilling mud losses – you must have mud loss into formation in order to have mud flow back when pumps off.When pumps are off. not only at the casing shoe. The induced micro fractures will close and the drilling mud will flow back into a wellbore. These following guidelines will help you identify ballooning. this topic describe how to identify well ballooning and important rules when you face with well ballooning situation. the ECD will reduce because annular pressure loss becomes zero. How to Identify Well Ballooning It is not simple to identify well ballooning because the well acts almost like well control situation (taking kick). Sometimes. . Therefore. mud flow back from formations can bring gas or formation water with the mud therefore you may see gas peak or mud contaminated with water while circulating bottom up. The ballooning can happen into any weak formations.

flow back rate will increase over time. How to determine kill weight mud? With the following equation. The well takes influx. • Mud flow back from formations can bring gas or reservoir water with the mud therefore you may see gas peak or mud contaminated with formation water at the same depth while circulating bottom up. you can determine this figure.5 ppg mud and current depth at 9500’MD/9000’TVD. this is not ballooning. Bull head. Monitoring well takes time and personnel must be patient. Kill Weight Mud Kill Weight Mud or Kill Drilling Fluid Density is the mud weight required to balance formation pressure. . etc). You can read more detail about it via this > float bumping procedure. If you have flow back but you don’t lose any mud. flow back rate will decrease over time but in a well control well. • The more mud you lose. Well TVD is true vertical depth of the well in ft. you will have well control situation instead. The key thing is “flow back rate must reduce over time”. Kill Weight Mud (KWM) in ppg Current Mud Weight in ppg SIDP stands for “Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure” in psi. you will not be able to read SIDPP right away. If your drilling string has a solid float. There are important rules that you should know about well ballooning as listed below. Wait and Weight. So you need to bump the float to get SIDPP. • Treat the well as kick until you are 100% sure that the ballooning occurs. Operation is stopped and the well is shut in. If not. • Mud loss into formations must be happened first before you can have flow back. • In a ballooning well. Tracking volume flow back every minutes help you understand if flow back trend decreases.• Flow back when pump off and flow rate decrease over time – you must line the well up into a trip tank and monitor well. Example Drilling with 9. Kill Weight Mud (KWM) = Current Mud Weight + (SIDPP ÷ 0.052 ÷ Well TVD) Where. the faster flow back is and the longer time will take before the well is static (flow completely stop). The kill weight mud may be pumped into the well at different time depending on kill methods (Driller’s method.

shut in casing pressure will increase over time.7854 OD and ID are inch unit 2) Determine depth of stuck pipe by this following formula: .*** The steps of calculation are as follows: 1 ) Determine the free point constant (FPC) by this following formula: FPC = As x 2500 where: As = pipe wall cross sectional area. you don’t know exactly what the density in the annulus is.5 + (550 ÷ 0. As = (OD2-ID2) x 0.7 (round up number) Why do we need to use SIDPP? When you take a kick (wellbore influx). Moreover if you take gas kick. *** This calculation is based on vertical well assumption. Looking at the drill pipe side.Shut in drill pipe pressure = 550 psi. The kill weight mud required to balance formation pressure: KWM = 9. Therefore. Shut in casing pressure = 700 psi. and you will NOT be able to identify the right shut in pressure to determine formation pressure. sq in.052 ÷ 9000) KWM = 10. there is only one pure fluid column so you know exactly its density. the density of fluid in the annulus is very hard to predict because it is a mixture between drilling mud and influx. you can apply hydrostatic pressure concept in order to get the formation pressure and kill weight mud (the equation is showed at the beginning of the topic Determine how many feet of free pipe without free pipe constant table You may sometimes find the table for Free Point Constant for your stuck pipe calculation so you use the formula from the previous post to determine Free Point Constant and apply it into free pipe formula to determine where the depth of stuck pipe is. With the precise mud density.

Dp = pipe diameter. .5) ÷ 25 ** 25 is the kilo-force to pull to 20 inch ** Feet of free pipe (ft) = 5. Let’s take a look at the example below and understand how to determine pressure required to break circulation in the annulus by using following information .5 lb/ft 3-1/2” tubing ID = 2. gel strength of drilling fluid. we learn about how to determine break circulating pressure inside drill string. in. lb/100 sq ft Dh = hole diameter. ft y = 10 mm. in.9922) x 0.180 ft Pressure Required to Break Circulation in Annulus From the previous post.5 b) Determine the depth of stuck pipe: Feet of free pipe (ft) = (20 inch x 6475.Depth of stuck pipe = (Pipe stretch in inch x free point constant (FPC)) ÷ Pull force in thousands of pounds Please see the example below to demonstrate you how to apply those 2 formulas above into real drilling operation. in. Formula to calculate pressure required overcoming the mud’s gel strength in the annulus as follow: Pgs = y ÷ [300 x (Dh. psi L = length of drill string.7854 x 2500 FPC = 6475.Dp.992 inch 20 inch of stretch with 25 Klb of pulling force a) Determine free point constant (FPC): FPC = (3.52 – 2. Example#2: Determine the free point constant (FPC) and the depth the pipe is stuck using the following information: 3-1/2” tubing # 9. in.)] x L where Pgs = pressure required to break gel strength. This post we will learn about how to calculate pressure required to break circulation in annulas.

As you may know from the previous topic. all parameters can simply input into the formula to get the break circulation pressure in the annulus.0 in. you must have downhole losses. Try to keep mud properties in good shape and treat mud ahead of the time if needed .500 ft y = 12 lb/100 sq ft Dh = 6.0 psi How to Prevent Well Ballooning This topic will you describe how to prevent well ballooning.L = 11. • Drilling mud properties – do not have high rheology mud while drilling.5 in. Then.0)] x 11. well ballooning basic. Referring to the formula above. Trying not to lose fluid or to minimize drilling mud loss into formation is the best way to prevent well ballooning. Moreover. good mud cake will seal porous formation and minimize losses down hole. flow back will occur when pumps are off. Pgs = 12 ÷ [300 x (6.4. before ballooning will happen.5 . There are several items that you can manage in order to prevent or minimize well ballooning . There are several ways that can help you on this issue as listed below: Manage Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) • Develop pumping schedule to minimize ECD and still have good hole cleaning • Select proper BHA and drill size – this directly affects annular pressure loss. • Utilize pressure while drilling (PWD) to monitor downhole pressure .500 ft Pgs = 184. Dp = 4.

working pipe. etc. Example for the balanced cement calculation The operator plans to set abandonment plug in the open hole across the pay sand. you will have the balance set properly like this. Let’s start with the concept so you can imagine how the calculation should be. Balanced Cement Plug Calculation You already learn about balance cement plug and I would like to show how to calculate balance cement plug. 1. Determine volume of cement that you need. • Know where depleted zones are – the depleted zones have more chance of drilling mud to lose. You can see the figure below for more understanding.Understand Formations and Rocks • Understand formation strength and how much – this point will affect you how to design the well. You don’t want to drill with high mud weight to control formation pressure down below but take a chance to break formation at the top. When the displacement is completed. When you pull cement stinger. 4. Determine displace volume to balance the hydrostatic both sides.  Slowly rotate drill string for few seconds to break gel prior to slowly bringing pumps up to speed. you should have equal height of cement/spacer/mud. Minimize overbalance and keep good mud properties will help to minimize losses Good Drilling Practices  Bring pumps up slowly and stage-by-stage increment  Don’t try to surge wellbore while tripping in hole. . Determine height of cement and spacer when pipe in hole. 2. 3.

• Drilling fluid: 10.5 ppg. Hole capacity of the well = 6.44 inch. • Cement stinger: 1200 ft of 2-7/8” tubing. • Spacer: 50 bbl of spacer and weight of spacer 10.000’TVD • Pay sand is from 9000 – 9500 ft • The planned cement length is 1. • The planned bottom of cement plug is 9. • Drill pipe size: 4” DP and ID of drill pipe is 3.4 = 0.9 bbl .000’MD/10.25” based on caliper log.Well information is listed below: • 7” casing shoe is set at 6000’MD/5500’TVD.0379 bbl/ft Volume of cement = length of cement x hole capacity Volume of cement = 1000 x 0.600 ft. ID = 6. How much cement do we need for this job? 2. • Hole TD = 12.0 ppg Determine how much cement that we should need and how the displacement plan should be. • 7” casing grade 23 ppf BTC. • 2-7/8” tubing ID is 2.0 ppg oil based mud • Hole size = 6.35 inch. 1.0379 = 37. • Use 0% excess • Cement weight 16.366 inch.000 ft.252 ÷ 1029.

8752) ÷ 1029.0058) = 1.059 ft.4412 ÷ 1029.23 bbl.77 (50-4. Height of spacer while the cement string in the well The plan is to pump 50 bbl of spacer.252 – 2. Annular capacity in bbl/ft.03 bbl/ft Since there is pipe in the hole.03+0. How height of cement while the cement string in the well? Cement stringer (2-7/8” tubing) capacity = 2.03 x (8541-8400) = 4.4 = 0. therefore TOC when pipe in hole is 8541 ft (9600-1059). Drill pipe capacity in bbl/ft. 3.2. Volume of spacer from top of cement to top of cement stinger (Spacer volume1) Spacer volume1 = annular capacity between hole and cement stinger x length of cement stinger from TOP to top of stinger.4 = 0. Length of spacer between drill pipe and hole = spacer volume ÷ annular capacity between hole and 4” DP . therefore.9 ÷ (0. Cement Volume in bbl.23) bbl is in between drill pipe and hole. Spacer volume1 = 0. the top of cement (TOC) will be higher.059 ft It means that height of cement is 1. Length of cement with pipe = 37. there might be some spacer up above the cement stinger. Length of cement with pipe is in ft. The rest of spacer which is 45. The TOC is calculated by the following formula: Length of cement with pipe = Cement Volume ÷ (Drill pipe capacity + Annular capacity) Where.0058 bbl/ft Annular capacity between hole and cement stinger= (6.

. Volume of spacer in cement stinger = cement stinger capacity x length from top of stinger to top of cement Cement stringer (2-7/8” tubing) capacity = 2.4412 ÷ 1029.4 = 0.4 = 0.0224 bbl/ft Length of spacer between drill pipe and hole = 45. 4. Volume of space to that has equal height of spacer in the annulus The volume of spacer inside string is equal to volume of spacer in cement stinger plus volume of spacer in 4” DP. Top of spacer = 8400 – 2043 = 6357 ft.0058 bbl/ft Volume of spacer in cement stinger = 0.77 ÷ 0.0224 = 2043 ft So the top of spacer is equal to top of stinger minus length of spacer between drill pipe and hole.252-42) ÷ 1029.8178 bbl.Annular capacity between hole and 4” DP = (6.0058 x (8541-8400) =0.

** You may under displace 2-3 bbl to create cement falling effect in drill pipe. Final cement in place after pulling the cement stinger out of hole is below. ** 5. Pump 37.b bbl of drilling mud.8178 = 23. Volume of mud displacement In order to balance hydrostatic pressure. volume of mud displacement is volume from surface to top of spacer. Volume of mud displacement = capacity of 4” DP x top of spacer Volume of mud displacement = 0. Circulate bottom up 7.0109 x (8400 – 6357) = 22.Volume of spacer in 4” DP = 4”DP capacity x length from top of stinger to top of spacer 4” DP capacity = 3. 5. 4. Pull out of hole to surface.27 bbl Total spacer volume in the string = 22. .1 bbl of spacer.0109 bbl/ft Volume of spacer in 4” DP = 0. Pump 23.1 (round up figure) bbl.27 + 0.352 ÷ 1029. Pumping steps for balanced cement plug are as follows: 1.9 bbl of cement. Pump 50 bbl of spacer. 3.3 bbl. 2.4 = 0. Pump 69. Pull slowly above TOC 6.0109 x 6357 = 69.

Good Practice To Tag Top Of Cement After complete the cement balanced plug job. 2. You should be careful when you try to find the top of cement otherwise you may not have a big problem. you should need to go back in hole and attempt to tag to see where the actual TOC is. you need to know where the calculated TOC is. Trip in hole to approximately 1-2 stands above TOC. 1. First of all. These procedures are good drilling practice which you can adapt for your operation. .

This example below demonstrates you how this situation could happen . is planned to drill into the gas cap. I cannot specific flow rate. Abnormal Pressure from Anticline Gas Cap I got a question about how an anticline gas cap can create the abnormal pressure. the cement will flash set. Because of reservoir connectivity between fluid underneath gas and gas reservoir. Wash down until you see solid weight tagged on a driller gauge. well#2. 4. What will be happened if you don’t wash down to tag the top of cement? The BHA may be in the green cement (cement is not properly set up) and when the pump is turn on. it can generate abnormal pressure. Make up top drive or kelly depending on the rig set up. 6. This depends on how the BHA is set up. The second well. at 5400’MD/4800’ TVD and a geologist estimates gas cap thickness of 950 ft and pressure gradient is 0. Well#1 was already drilled into oil reservoir at 6500’MD/6000’ TVD and its formation pressure is 0. Slowly wash down and monitor the weight.3. Finally.52 psi/ft. the drill string will get stuck. 5. What is minimum mud weight to be able to successfully drill well#2? . Bring pump up to slow rate.1 psi/ft. The anticline with gas cap can be the potential high pressurized zone. which has reservoir connectivity to the well#1.

500’MD/6.0 ppg You may think that 10. EMW of well#2 = 2895 ÷ (0.1×950) = 2895 psi Since we know the formation pressure. we can calculate to equivalent mud weight (EMW). I would like to share which basic concepts I will use for this case . –> Wrong answer.052 x 4800) = 11.52 x (6000 – 5750) = 2990 psi Determine the reservoir pressure at the top of gas cap: Pressure at the top of gas cap = Pressure at the bottom of gas cap – hydrostatic of gas gradient Pressure at the top of gas cap = 2990 – (0.52 x 6000 = 3120 psi Convert pressure to equivalent mud weight = 3120 ÷ (0.0 ppg should be good mud weight to drill well#2.6 ppg .052 x 6000) = 10.Firstly. Let’s take a look at the well#2. Well#1: Well depth: 6.000’TVD and Pressure gradient: 0.52 psi/ft Formation pressure of well#1 = 0. Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure gradient Convert pressure to equivalent mud weight Equivalent Mud Weight You need to determine formation pressure of well#1. Pressure at the bottom of gas cap = formation pressure of well 1 @ 6000’TVD – hydrostatic pressureof reservoir fluid Pressure at the bottom of gas cap = 3120 psi – 0.

COM on AUGUST 25. but it is more expensive than lead cement. 2010 In order to get the correct value of drill pipe pressure. it is also cheaper than Tail cement. Lead cement: Lead cement is in the top section of cement. normally called “Lead Cement” and “Tail Cement”. however. Conclusion: This case clearly shows you that the anticline gas cap can be high pressurized zone and you may not be able to drill the well with the same mud weight as the adjacent drilled into the same reservoir. Both lead and tail cement have pro and con as described below. where has lower both pressure and temperature (see figure above). Float Bumping Procedures To Get Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure by DRILLINGFORMULAS. In this section. These following procedures will demonstrate you how to bump the float correctly in order to get SDPP.You need mud weight at least 11. It has lower density and strength than Tail cement.6 ppg to drill well#2 successfully. It has higher strength than lead cement. you need to have the correct floating bumping procedure. Tail cement: Tail is pumped after lead cement because it must be settled at the lower section of well bore. operators will pump 2 cement slurries. I will show you how to bump the float correctly. where needs high strength cement (see figure above) . . What are Lead and Tail Cement? In some cementing operation.

You really need to know about the lag time otherwise you can get confused a lot when you attempt to adjust drill pipe pressure. Check the shut-in casing pressure again. Record shut in casing pressure (SICP) 3. It should happen very quickly after the lull was seen on the drillpipe gauge. Shut in drill pipe pressure = shut in drill pipe pressure after bumping the float – Shut in casing pressure increase while bumping float Lag Time and Its Importance for Well Control Operation Drilling personnel need to fully understand about the lag time. Shut down the pumping operation as soon as increase in casing pressure is detected. . When you adjust a choke position. If you see trapped pressure on drill pipe after bumping the float. The drillpipe pressure showing when the lull is first seen is your shut in drill pipe pressure (SIDPP). Does it sound confuse? Let’s me explain more about it. you need to monitor carefully for a “lull” in the drillpipe pressure.1. If there is any excess casing pressure. Pump as slowly as possible (5-10 stroke per minute) at constant pumping speed down into the drill pipe and keep monitoring the drill pipe pressure and the casing pressure. At this stage. How can we know how many seconds for the lag time? We can roughly estimate the lag time about 2 seconds per 1. No leak or whatever. This number is just a rule of thumb. If you want the actual lag time. 2. you can determine it by performing a choke drill. The Driller’s Method of well control requires two complete and separate circulations of drilling fluid in the well. 7. You also need to verify that the float has been opened by continuing to pump down the drillpipe slowly until you see an increase in the casing pressure. which will occur when the float is opened. You will see the drill pipe pressure increase while pumping. Driller’s Method in Well Control Driller’s method is one of several methods to kill the well. Ensure well is properly shut in. you can calculate the actual shut in drill pipe pressure with this following formula. you will not be able to see changes on the drill pipe gauge right away because drilling fluid is compressible so you need to be patient and wait a little bit until you see the changes on the drill pipe gauge.000 MD. Lag time is time delay from pressure adjustment made on a choke valve or a choke HCR to show up on the drill pipe pressure gauge. 6. 4. you may bled-off some pressure in small increments until it equates or a little bit above SCP in steps no 2. The main idea of driller method is to kill the well with constant bottom hole pressure. 5.

and oil water ratio will decrease. there is some influx still in the well.The first circulation removes influx with original mud weight. all the responses as bottom hole pressure. Second circulation kills well with kill mud. The calculation part will be discussed as in next section. electrical stability will decrease. If the well is successfully killed. casing pressure must be held constant until kill rate is reached. we need to hold drill pipe pressure constant then continue circulating with constant drill pipe pressure until kill mud weight reaches at surface. it will expand when it comes close to surface therefore you will see an increase in pit volume and casing pressure. When starting to bring pumps up to speed. If the wellbore influx is gas. Drillpipe pressure will be held constant until influx is removed from annulus. it means that there is influx still left in the wellbore or trapped pressure. After that. casing pressure will not increase too high because water and oil don’t expand like gas. Then drillpipe pressure is held constant to maintain constant bottomhole pressure which is normally equal to. and gas expansion. Then shut down pumping operation and observe drillpipe and casing pressure. surface pressure. If not. viscosity will increase. If not. both drillpipe and casing pressure will be zero. If the influx is water. etc are influenced by gas expansion and gas migration. After the kick is totally removed from the well. While circulating with the kill mud. Actually. To confirm if this kick is water kick. The following indications showing water or oil kick are listed below: • When the well is shut in. In reality. Therefore. When the required kill mud weight is mixed. . drillpipe and casing pressure will be the same value. when the well is shut-in. dealing with water kick or oil kick is a lot easier than gas kick because you don’t need to deal with gas migration. you need to collect mud sample at the bottom and perform mud check. Water Kick and Oil Kick Indications All of well control articles in this website are based on gas kick assumption. gas volume. casing pressure must be held constant until kill mud reaches the bit. Moreover. you may face with water influx or oil influx which is quite different than gas influx. it is the time to start the second circulation of driller method. it is quite clear to see where the float is opened in order to obtain shut in drill pipe pressure. we need to know kill mud weight which can be calculated from initial shut- in drillpipe pressure. Before going to the second circulation. or slightly greater than pore pressure. casing pressure will not increase because water and oil don’t migrate. We start with bringing pumps to kill rate by holding casing pressure constant. • When bumping the float. maximum pit gain. surface equipment will not be exposed to high pressure. • While circulating influx out of the wellbore.

Data Given Reverse circulate total of 3 time bottom up from annulus to tubing with 12. and crude oil sample may be seen in the drilling mud. Pressure Loss and Equivalent Circulating Density Review.000×12. and see how much pressure and equivalent circulating density at bottom hole. circulating from annulus to tubing . We still apply the concept of frictional pressure so reverse circulation is calculated by this following equation: Pressure at bottom hole (reference at annulus side) = Hydrostatic Pressure + Pressure from pump.052×10.On the other hand.000’ = 1000 + (0. if the oil influx is suspected. Pump pressure = 1000 psi Annulus friction loss = 50 psi Inside tubing friction loss = 925 psi Surface line friction loss = 25 psi Determine pressure at bottom hole.7 ppg mud at 10. you should treat all of well control as gas kick because it is the worst case scenario. Pressure in the well at 10. you should see the following indications from the mud check: oil water ratio will increase.7) – 50 = 7554 psi OR you can referrence to the tubing side as well. . For a good well control practice. electrical stability may increase. Pressure Loss and Equivalent Circulating Density Review – Reverse Circulation We still have the same question as the previous post.Annular Pressure Loss Note: Hydrostatic pressure and pressure from pump force downward to bottom hole but annulus pressure forces upward direction.000′MD/10. but this case we will do reverser circulation.000 TVD.

depleted zones. is about the different of bottom hole pressure and ECD between forward circulation and reverse circulation.000) = 14. Charge zones can occur by nature or man-made. Hence. ECD = Current mud weight in PPG + (annular pressure loss /(0. Charged Zones: Charged zones are shallow formations that have pressure connectivity from abnormal pressure zones below.000×12. faults.53 PPG. massive shale and Salt formations. Currently. new geophysical methodologies can be applied for find where the charged zones are prior to drilling.052xTVD) ECD =7554 / (0. The point that I want you to think of between this example and the previous example. Pressure Loss and Equivalent Circulating Density Review.052xTVD)) = Total Pressure at Bottom Hole /(0.052×10. Anticlines: Anticlines is the geological structure that looks like a dome. you must keep in mind this concept and try to figure out how much pressure at bottom hole should be for both forward circulation and reverse circulation. Pressure at bottom hole (reference at tubing) = (0. The subsurface structures associated with abnormal pressure characteristics are anticlines. Geological Data Geological information demonstrates condition that possibly causes abnormal pressure zones. Seismic Data Seismic is the way to predict formation types by sending sound waves that penetrate into subsurface structure. charged zones are normally abnormal pressure. the pressured zones are accurately predicted. charged zones. .Pressure at bottom hole (reference at tubing) = Hydrostatic Pressure + Annular Pressure Loss in tubing + surface line pressure loss Note: All pressure force downward to bottom hole so all pressure term must be sum together. you can accidentally break wellbore due to high ECD. Otherwise. abnormal pressured zones are expected. You will see that reverse circulation results in a lot of pressure at bottom hole.052 x 10. How to Predict Formation Pressure Prior to Drilling Formation pressure can be predicted from 3 information sources prior to drilling as follows. Then. Determine Equivalent Circulating Density at bottom hole. 2. With current 3D seismic modeling. sound waves reflected back from formation are recorded as raw data. Because of upward movement of reservoir fluid from deeper zones. Anticlines with cap rock on top are good geological structure because hydrocarbon can possibly trapped below it.7) + 925+25 = 7554 psi. While drilling into top structure of anticlines. 1. Geologists are able to predict geological structures and potential pressured zoned by interpreting the sound waves.

Depleted Zones: Depleted zones are formations that have less pressure than original formation pressure because some formations have been produced. it does not allowed pore fluid to come out therefore formation pressure caused by formation fluid becomes over pressured. This kind of pressure can create well control problem. therefore. subnormal pressure shows least pressure in comparison to others. Salt Formations: There are several parts of the world where pure and thick layers of salt are present.2 PPG) based on salt concentration in water. abnormal pressure and subnormal pressure. Understand About Formation Pressure Formation pressure is the pressure of fluid contained in pore space of rock and there are 3 categories of the formation pressure which are normal pressure. drilling problem associated with pressure such as well control problem or lost circulation may possibly happen. Normal Pressure: Normal pressure is the hydrostatic of water column from the surface to the subsurface formation. it demonstrates the comparison of formation pressure when drilling into each pressure regime. the abnormal pressure zones are good reservoir which oil companies are looking for. Typically. When a lot of overburden formation layers are accumulated over massive shale. Logging While Drilling (LWD). At the same True Vertical Depth (TVD). 1. 2. the normal pressure can vary from slightly salt 0. Using historical data in conjunction with geological techniques can determine where the possibly depleted zones are. 3. However. Historical Data The historical data from adjacent area is good information for prediction formation pressure. The concentration of salt in water affects the normal pressure. shale is compacted and reservoir fluid naturally tries to come out from the pore space. drilling reports. Pressure While Drilling (PWD). mud logging reports. it does not allow formation fluid pass through it. formations below a salt formation are normally abnormal pressure. Generally.33 PPG) to highly concentrated salt 0. Massive Shale: Shale is non permeable formation therefore it restricts movement of formation fluid.478 psi/ft (9. salt formations are laterally and upwards forced causing salt domes. Abnormal Pressure: The abnormal pressure is the pressure greater than the pressure column of water. Subnormal Pressure: The subnormal pressure is the pressure that is less than normal pressure and it possibly causes lost circulation problems. impermeable formation. Faults: Because each fault block may has different pressure gradient. Historical information can be obtained from formation pressure. Higher salt concentration in water. Therefore. while drilling across a fault. However. abnormal pressure gives the highest pressure at the same level of TVD.433 psi/ft (8. . higher specific gravity of water will be. due to shale property. Because salt is impermeable. Looking at the drawing below. etc. drilling fluid reports. 3.

You may think about other load supporting casing as compressive loading at coupling areas or thermal movement. Generally. 40 ppf (pound per foot). Let’s take a look into the detailed calculation for more understanding.3 (1000 x 1/12) psi. They are the part of the supporting force as well but the most support is from the cement shear strength. The information given is listed below Casing 9-5/8”. (Diagram above shows how shear strength of cement supports casing string) We don’t normally measure shear strength of cement but we can apply knowledge from Civil engineer to estimate the shear strength from the compressive strength. cement has the shear strength approximately 1/12 of compressive strength. its shear strength is 83. if the cement 1000 psi compressive strength. ID of casing = 8.Minimum strength to support casing string One function of cement is to support casing string and the shear strength of cement holds casing string once cement is set. For instant.835” .

420 square inch. Π (called pi) =22/7 D is diameter in inch.Casing is set at 3. The outer surface area of casing covered with cement is equal to circumference of casing multiplied by length of cement covering casing. L is length of cement in inch Area = Π x 9. . 1.000’TVD Top of cement at 600’MD/550’TVD Previous casing shoe (13-3/8”) = 1000’MD/900TVD (The diagram shows all figures as per the data) We will use the pressure and force concept (Force = Pressure x Area).625 x (2600 x 12) Area = 943.200’MD/3. Area = Π x D x L Where Area in square inch.

How the annular preventers work? Close .000 lb 3.420 = 0.136 psi We can estimate the compressive strength of cement based on 1/12 figure. The illustration below demonstrates the drawing of an annular preventer . Shear Strength ÷ Compressive Strength =1/12 Compressive strength = 12 x 0.000 ÷ 943. Shear force is required to support whole weight of casing Shear strength (lb/square inch) = Casing weight ÷ Area of casing covered by cement Shear strength (psi) = 128. etc.63 psi The figure tells us that you need only 1. Ps. a cap. wireline. Casing weight = weight in ppf x total length of casing Casing weight = 40 x 3200 = 128. . etc. or spherical preventers.When the hydraulic oil is pumped into the extend port. thermal movement.2. tubing. a piston and a rubber packing element. the element inside will be lifted and squeezed the pipe/tubular. Annular Preventers – Well Control Equipment Annular preventers are the most versatile well control equipment and there are many names referring it as bag preventers.63 psi compressive strength to support whole casing string. work string. This is rough estimation without any consideration regarding complex load. There are some models which can utilize wellbore pressure to provide additional sealing capability. The annular preventers are able to seal around several size of drill pipe/drill collar. The annular preventer consists of a body.136 = 1.

Open . The models available in the market based on the manufactures are listed below: . NOV (Shaffer) and Cameron.On the other hand. if the hydraulic fluid is pumped into the retract port. there are several manufactures providing this equipment such as Hydril. Nowadays. the element will be pushed down resulting in releasing the tubular.

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Personnel must strictly follow the operating manual to prevent the premature failure.nov.aspx In the market.Cameron – Cameron DL Cameron DL http://www. Shut-In Procedure while Drilling .com/Drilling/Drilling_Pressure_Control/Blowout_Preventers/Spherical_BOPs.c-a-m.aspx?prodID=ecd6ef4e-19dc-4ea9-ad47-94689e36b61c NOV (Shaffer) – SPHERICAL BOPS SPHERICAL BOPS http://www. It is very important that personnel must know how to operate and maintenance the annular preventers properly.com/forms/Product. the annular preventers have wide range of size and operating pressure and you can see from the technical specification from the link that we provide.

Line up to trip tank to confirm that the well is shut-in and flow has been stopped. you need to go back to bottom and circulate bottom up to confirm wellbore condition. Wellbore monitoring and hole filling equipment and must be working properly so that the kick can be quickly detected. which drilling team must keep close eye on well control situation that can occur anytime. Shut Down – Stop mud pumps 3. called “3S” shut- in procedures. Space Out: Space out to ensure that tool joint must no locate in BOP element. Open the upper choke line valve against a fully closed manifold valve at a choke manifold. Use trip tank to verify that the flow is totally stopped and the well is completely shut in. You must be aware of and prepared for the well control situation every tripping operation. pick up drilling sting off bottom and space out to ensure that tool joint is not located at BOP elements. Shut-In Procedure while Tripping Tripping out of the hole is a critical operation. Space Out – Stop drilling. The steps below. a drilling team must be carefully check for well control indicators and if the positive kick indicator(s) indicated. it can cause swabbing effect that may allow formation fluid entering into wellbore. Stab Valve: Install Full-Open Safety Valve (FOSV) that must be in an open position in drill string. The well may not start to flow since the swabbing effect is just started. If the well is continually swabbed-in until the hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore less than formation pressure. Then inform supervisors as drilling representative. Any time that you see short fill while tripping out. the drilling crew must shut the well in right away using the following “3 S” shut-in procedures. 2. crew must instantly know how to shut in the well in correct manner. Make up to drilling string and close the safety valve. OIM. the well will start flowing. Drilling shut in procedures (3S) – HARD SHUT IN PROCEDURE- 1. Shut-in well: Close the annular preventer or uppermost pipe rams. demonstrate how to properly shut the well in while drilling. tool pusher. The swabbing effect will result in reducing the overall hydrostatic pressure. How to Identify Stuck Pipe Mechanism .Close an annular preventer or an uppermost pipe rams. While tripping. When the well control situation is happened during tripping operation.While drilling. Shut In .

2) Circulating pressure after sticking? – The circulation can be done without any pressure changes = Circulation Free (0. This is the stuck pipe table. The highest score indicates the stuck pipe mechanism Let’s see the example Pipe motion prior to sticking? – The pip can be moved down before sticking = Move down (1. 2. 0. However. you drill string may be in the hole forever!!! Many people in the oil field including me use the guideline from the famous stuck pipe prevention book. How can you use the table? 1. if you cannot correctly identify a root cause of stuck pipe. 0. 2.When a stuck pipe situation is happened. you will be able to free you pipe correctly. Add all figures for each column 3. 2) Pipe rotation after sticking? – The pipe can be rotated freely after sticking = Rotate Free (0.2. personnel on the rig must correctly identify a stuck pipe mechanism.8) . Select the situations that you see and circle all the figures in the same row. 2) Pipe motion after sticking? – The pipe has restriction while moving down= Down Restricted (1. 2) Total score = (2. Why is it so important to determine the mechanism of stuck pipe? If you know cause of stuck pipe. 0. named “TRUE”. It is extremely useful and so easy to understand. which is belong to Amoco.

Boyle’s Gas Law and Its Application in Drilling Understand Boyle’s Gas Law Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature. It may sound pretty hard to understand what it is. P = Pressure and V = Volume It sounds easy a little bit to understand. Well. we can describe the statement above into simple mathematics as following formula: Boyle’s Gas Law: P x V = constant Or express Boyle’s law in another term: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Where. the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportional in case of constant temperature within a closed system. .

Boyle’s Gas Law: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 P1= 3000 psi (reservoir pressure) V1 = 1 bbl (volume at bottom hole) P2 = 14. You need to follow your company policy to shut in the well. The shut in procedure is the company specific procedure. The soft shut in procedure allows fluid to flow through the surface choke line before the well will be completely shut in. there are 2 types of shut in which are Hard Shut-in and Soft Shut-in. The hard shut-in is the fastest method to shut in the well. This is the bad part of the soft shut in procedure because it doesn’t minimize the size of the wellbore influx. it will be opened after the well is shut in.000 psi.7 x V2 V2 = 204 bbl 2 Types of Shut-In (Hard Shut In and Soft Shut In) For the drilling industry especially when we talk about well control.7 psi (atmosphere pressure) V2 = ? (volume at surface) P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 3000 x 1 = 14. What is Tertiary Well Control? . When the well control situation is occurred. the less problem you will see when you attempt to kill the well. you shut in BOP and then close choke valves to shut in the well. This post will describe both shut in types and I wish I would be helpful for you all Hard shut in: It means that while drilling choke line valves (HCR) are in the closed position.Let’s apply Boyle’s law into our drilling business Calculate the volume of gas you will have on the surface.7 psi for atmospheric pressure. Soft Shut In: It means that while drilling. therefore. Please also remember that less volume of kick you have in the well bore. 14. when 1 bbl of gas kick is circulated out from reservoir where has formation pressure of 3. it will minimize volume of kick allowed into wellbore. the choke line valves (HCR) are in the opened position. Anyway. I personally recommend “HARD SHUT IN PROCEDURE” because it allows me to shut well in as quickly as possible and kick volume entering into a well bore will be minimized.

Tertiary Well Control is specific method used to control well in case of failure of primary and secondary well control. running casing/completion. tripping. etc). you must use Tertiary Well Control. primary well control is hydrostatic pressure bore that prevents reservoir influx while performing drilling operations (drilling. this situation needs special equipment which is called “Blow Out Preventer” or BOP to control kick. When primary well control is failed. Therefore. They use this method to control the well that was firing on the platform.Can you imagine if primary and secondary well control are failed? Well is flowing all the time so how can we deal with this situation? For this situation. it causes kick (wellbore influx) coming into wellbore. Note: this case you can study from PTTEP Austraila Blow Out Incident. Shut in Procedures and Their Importance .  Dynamic kill by rapidly pumping of heavy mud to control well with Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)  Pump barite or gunk to plug wellbore to stop flowing  Pump cement to plug wellbore What is Secondary Well Control? Referring to the previous section. These following examples are tertiary well control:  Drill relief wells to hit adjacent well that is flowing and kill the well with heavy mud.

the gas unit should represent changes in drilling rate (rate of penetration) through porous formation. etc. In addition. • Shut in while performing workover operation • Shut in while logging • Shut in while performing drill stem test What is the main reason why we need to have the shut in procedure and frequently practice it? The main reason to have the specific shut in procedure is to minimize kick volume entering into wellbore when well control situation occurs. the faster to recognize kick and shut in a well. . After that. they must shut in the well first and confirm whether the well is correctly shut in or not. Even though we have overbalance hydrostatic pressure exerted by mud column. gas showing on the surface by this mechanism always happens. hence. they must inform supervisors on the rig. If any positive kick indications are observed. Drilled gas should be recorded in mud log chart against formation identification. completion. generally called underground blowout. there will be a certain amount of the gas in cuttings entering into drilling fluid when we drill through porous formations that contain gas. What is “Drilled Gas”? While drilling. The gas showing on the surface due to drilling through formations is called “Drilled Gas”.Shut in Well Procedures The shut in procedure must be developed and practiced for every rig activity such as: • Shut in while drilling • Shut in while tripping • Shut in while running casing. tubing. Basically. It is not good practice if they see the positive kick indication and then he lets supervisors know instead of shutting in the well because the kick will be allowed to come into wellbore a lot. What’s more. It is the fact that a small amount of kick entering into wellbore will result in lower initial shut-in casing pressure and lower casing pressure while circulating. you will see the gas from the monitors at the flow line. the lower pressure at surface will reduce the chance of breaking down hole formation. it will expand as it is circulated out of hole. it is the better to manage a well control situation. You cannot rise mud weight up to make it disappear. When gas from the cutting comes into drilling fluid. The amount of wellbore influx that enters the wellbore are minimized when personnel respond quickly to shut the well in. Who is responsible for shutting the well in? Drillers are responsible for shut in the well.

BOP is ready for work • Get more practices when attempting to bring the pump up to kill speed. The advantages from the choke drill are as follows: • Get more familiar to practice controlling the pressure via a choke on the rig • Get more understanding about lag time • Practice the procedure to obtain the shut-in drill pipe pressure • Ensure the surface well control equipment as pressure gauges. Trip in hole above top of cement 2. The background gas always shows every time while drilling and it is not a sign of considerable risk to well control situation. there is a stable gas reading that is not connected with either bottoms up gas ordrilled gas is generally called “Background Gas”.Practically. Pump slowly to bump the float and obtain shut in drill pipe pressure 7. Pressure up annulus to 200 psi (the pressure may be different depending on the company policy. especially drilling into high pressure zone. if we see a lot of drilling gas.) 5. Nevertheless. slow the pump down and change the pump rate Choke Drill Steps are listed below: 1. Remember – PLEASE ALWAYS KEEP TRACKING YOUR BACKGROUND GAS level prior to drilling ahead Importance of Choke Drill and Its Procedure Choke drill is one of well control drills that will improve crew competency in driller’s method. Line up the pump 6. we should stop drilling and attempt to circulate gas until it reaches to an acceptable What is “Background Gas”? While we are drilling. we must always check changes in background gas value because it is able to help recognize underbalance situation while drilling. Measure lag time for the drill pipe gage after the adjustment of choke is made. Bring the pump to kill rate by holding casing pressure constant – personnel need to adjust the choke 8. . Close annular preventer or upper rams preventer 4. Fill the pipe and circulate seawater or mud around for few minutes 3. choke.

Crew needs to adjust choke to achieve this. blind or pipe. There are following BOP component from bottom to top Rams – Spool – Rams – Rams – Annular ( see the figure below) . 11. Rt = triple ram type preventer with three sets of rams. blind or pipe. Let’s take a look at the following example: 15M 13-5/8” – RSRRA This BOP stacks has pressure rating of 15. Bleed off pressure and line up for drilling operation BOP Stack Organization and BOP Stack Arrangement Blow Out Preventor (BOP) is a very important part of well control equipment and the first thing which we would like to discuss in this article is the BOP stack organization. blind or pipe. The BOP stack can be configured in various configurations which must be suitable for the operation. Rd = double ram type preventer with two sets of rams.9. CH = high remotely operated connector attaching well head or preventers CL = low pressure remotely operated connector attaching.000 psi with a bore size of 13-5/8” inch. the marine riser to the BOP S = spool with side outlet for choke and kill lines M = 1000 psi How can I know the BOP configuration and rating from the codes? When you see the code. you need to read upwards from the bottom of BOP stack. Change circulation rate by holding casing pressure constant. 10. Shut the pump down by holding casing pressure constant. API has the recommended component codes for BOP as listed below: A = Annular Preventer G = Rotating Head R = single ram type preventer with one set of rams.

. • Pressure rating must be higher than expected surface pressure on surface when the well control situation is happened. Additionally. Then we run the logging and we got stuck. Considerations of how to arrange the BOP stack are as follows: • The BOP stack must be suitable for the drilling operation. • The stack should be able to serve the stripping operation not just only shut the well in. • Sour gas and temperature on surface directly affects the element in the BOP’s/ • The best BOP stack arrangement is the one that is suite for the operation w Do you have too much slug in the well? Slug is heavy drilling mud that is used to pump when you want to pull pipe dry. We pulled out 10 stands wet and hole was taking proper fill. We picked the fishing gear and grabbed the fish. We pumped same amount of slug 40 bbl of 15. However. excessive volume of slug in the well can create higher mud weight and cause the problem. The situation happened on the drilling rig like this. After that we pull 10 stands wet and pumped 40 bbl of 15.0 ppg and came out of hole. You need to keep in mind that the BOP stack is able to shut the well in and allow you to perform well control operations with the greatest flexibility.0 ppg mud and circulation was conducted until the shale shakers. The decision was made by town to trip in hole to do the wiper trip.0 ppg slug and came out of hole without any problem. Today I would like to share my experience regarding slug in the well. the cost of BOP stack is more expensive. • Excessive BOP rams cause difficulty to handle and maintenance. The well was TD with 13.

etc. How do you know that? Let’s do the math. Do you know what went wrong? The two slugs in the well cause us trouble. While we were circulating. we made up top drive and slowly washed down to TD. etc. gal.) D1 = density of fluid 1 (ppg. Prior to TD 100 ft. Additionally. we start losing mud while circulating. The following formula is used to determine the final mud weight in the system.00 pgg of slug. gal.) V2 = volume of fluid 2 (bbl. V1 = volume of fluid 1 (bbl.Tripping was done with caution and break circulation was conducted every 3000 ft to break the gel.lb/ft3.2 ppg to 14. the mud weight out was varied from 13. (V1 x D1) + (V2 x D2) = VF x DF Where. We have total volume in the system (downhole volume and surface volume) of 700 bbl and we have total of 80 bbl of 15.2 ppg. etc.) .

This is the reason why we have losses while circulating.) VF = volume of final fluid mix DF = density of final fluid mix V1 = 80 bbl (Total volume of slug in the well) D1 = 15. Both lead and tail cement have pro and con as described below.D2 = density of fluid 2 (ppg. . etc.lb/ft3.0 ppg (density of drilling mud) VF = V1 + V2 = 80 + 700 = 780 (80 x 15) + (700 x 13) = 780 x DF DF = 13. operators will pump 2 cement slurries.2 ppg From the equation above. The increment of mud density will directly affect the equivalent circulating density. normally called “Lead Cement” and “Tail Cement”. it tells us that we have too much slug in the well which can increase 0. Conclusion: Always ensure that you don’t have a lot of slug in the system or you need to prepare to dilute to maintain the mud weight. What are Lead and Tail Cement? In some cementing operation.0 ppg (density of slug) V2 = 700 bbl (Total system volume) D2 = 13.2 ppg of total mud weight.

you must add those weight into calculation as well not just only drill collar weight. Round trip ton-miles Calculation All types of ton-mile service should be calculated and recorded in order to obtain a true picture of the total service received from the rotary drilling line. ** 2000 = number of pounds in one ton 5280 = number of feet in one mile Example: Round trip ton-miles . etc) and HWDP. however. but it is more expensive than lead cement. RTTM = (Wp x D x (Lp + D) + (2 x D) x (2 x Wb + Wc)) ÷ (5280 x 2000) where RTTM = Round Trip Ton-Miles Wp = buoyed weight of drill pipe in lb/ft D = hole measured depth in ft Lp = Average length per stand of drill pipe in ft Wb = weight of travelling block in lb Wc = buoyed weight of BHA (drill collar + heavy weight drill pipe + BHA) in mud minus the buoyed weight of the same length of drill pipe in lb ** If you have BHA (mud motor. MWD. where has lower both pressure and temperature (see figure above). There are several types of ton miles as follows. where needs high strength cement (see figure above) . Tail cement: Tail is pumped after lead cement because it must be settled at the lower section of well bore. I will show how to calculate round trip ton-mile. Drilling or “connection” ton-miles 3. it is also cheaper than Tail cement. Round Trip Ton-Miles Calculation The formula for round trip ton-miles is listed below. 1. It has higher strength than lead cement. Coring ton-miles 4. It has lower density and strength than Tail cement. Round trip ton-miles 2. Ton-miles setting casing 5.Lead cement: Lead cement is in the top section of cement. Short-trip ton-miles For this time.

In order to figure out connection or drilling ton-miles.75 ton-mile Drilling or Connection Ton-Miles Drilling or Connection ton-miles is ton-miles of work in drilling operations.31 ft.866 lb Round trip ton-miles = [(11.3 lb/ft Hole measure depth = 5500 ft Drill collar length = 120 ft Drill collar weight = 85 lb/ft HWDP length = 49 lb/ft HWDP weight = 450 ft BHA weight from directional driller = 8. usually around +/.0 ppg Average length per stand = 94 ft Drill pipe weight = 13. .847] Wc = 26. The formula for calculating drilling ton mile is listed below. Td = Ton-miles for drilling T2 = Ton-miles for one round trip of last depth before coming out of hole. lb/ft (Wp): Wp = 13.3x 0.5 BF = 0.847 b) Buoyed weight of drill pipe in mud. plus picking up. These are the actual ton-miles of work in drilling down the length of a section of drill pipe.000 lb Solution: a) Buoyancy factor: BF = (65. and starting to drill again.Mud weight = 10.27 lb/ft c) buoyed weight of BHA (drill collar + heavy weight drill pipe + BHA) in mud minus the buoyed weight of the same length of drill pipe in lb (Wc): Wc = {[(120x85) + (49x450) + (8300)] x 0.3 lb/ft x 0. connecting.847} – [(120+450+94) x13.0) ÷ 65. T1 = Ton-miles for one round trip of first depth that drilling is started.866)] ÷ (5280 x 2000) RTTM = 258. it takes 3 times of ton-miles for current round trip minus ton-miles for previous round trip.300 lb BHA length = 94 ft Travelling block assembly = 95.5 – 10. Td = 3 x (T2 – T1) Where.27 x 5500 x (94+ 5500)) + (2 x 5500) x (2 x 95000 + 26.847 Wp = 11.

Please determine drilling tome-miles from 8000 ft to 9000 ft.5 ÷ (5280 x 2000) . Ton-miles for trip @ 9000 ft = 230 Ton-miles for trip @ 8000 ft = 195 Td = 3 x (T2 – T1) Td = 3 x (230 – 195) Td = 3 x 35 Td = 105 ton-miles Ton-miles while making short trip The ton-miles of work performed in short trip operation is also in term of round trips. The formula for short trip ton-miles is listed below. buoyed weight of the casing will be used into calculation instead of buoyed weight of drill pipe and with the result will be multiplied by 0. Please determine short trip ton-miles from 8000 ft to 8050 ft Ton-miles @ 8050 ft = 200 Ton-miles @ 8000 ft = 190 Tst = (200 – 190) Tst = 10 ton-miles Ton-Miles for Setting Casing For the setting casing operation.Example. Tst = T6 – T5 Where. Tst = ton-miles for short trip T6 = ton-miles for one round trip at the deeper depth T5 = ton-miles for one round trip at the shallower depth Example. because setting casing is just only one-way operation (1/2 round trip).5. The ton-miles of work done in making a short trip is equal to the difference between round ton-miles of end depth and starting depth. Ton-miles for setting casing can be determined from the following formula: Tc = {Wp x D x (Lcs + D) + D x Wb} x 0. Nevertheless. the ton-miles calculation of this operation is similar to round trip ton-miles calculation.

0) ÷ 65.0 lb/ft x 0.18 x 5.0 lb/ft Depth of casing = 5200 ft Travelling block assembly = 95.5 – 10. In oil field especially drilling business.200 x (42 + 5.Where. lb/ft (Wp): Wp = 25.5 ÷ (5280 x 2000) Tc = 50.8473 b) Buoyed weight of casing in mud. The figure below demonstrates “U Tube” in our drilling business.200 x 95.8473 Wp = 21.0 ppg Casing weight = 25.000 lb Length of one joint of casing = 42 ft Solution: a) Buoyancy factor: BF = (65. this situation is simply described in common oil filed name as “U Tube”.200) + 5. Tc = ton-miles setting casing Wp = buoyed weight of casing in lb/ft Lcs = length of one joint of casing in ft Wb = weight of travelling block assembly in lb D = depth of casing in ft 2000 = number of pounds in one ton 5280 = number of feet in one mile Example: Ton-Miles for Setting Casing Mud weight = 10. .73 tone-miles Understand U-Tube Concept and Importance of U-Tube We can likely use the behavior of one of the fluid columns to describe behavior regarding what is happening in another side of fluid column.18 lb/ft c) Casing ton-miles Tc = {21. if two fluid columns are connected at bottom.000} x 0. “U Tube” can be considered as a string of pipe (drill pipe and tubing) is in a wellbore and fluids are able to pass inside of string of pipe (drill pipe and tubing) and the annulus (area between wellbore and string of pipe). Basically.5 BF = 0.

If the system is closed. pressure must be the same at the bottom point where both sides of U-tube are connected. fluids always flow from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure. lighter fluid will be flown out and it will be stopped when system pressure is stabilized (see figure below). If the system is NOT closed. . drill pipe pressure and casing pressure (annulus pressure) will be responded based on fluid in each side and formation pressure at bottom hole (see figure below). If there are two different fluids between inside of string and annulus.Why is U-Tube very important? It is very vital to keep a basic concept of U-Tube in mind. Therefore.

this situation is called “Balance”.Please always remember that U-Tube concept can be widely applied in many drilling and workover application such as well control. SP and HP. Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Surface Pressure (SP) + Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) . Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) = Surface Pressure (SP) + Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) The image below demonstrates the relationship of bottom hole pressure. this situation is called “Underbalance”. Note: BHP created by hydrostatic column of drilling fluid is the primary well control in drilling. If BHP is equal to FP (formation pressure). If BHP is less than FP (formation pressure). If BHP is more than FP (formation pressure). The bottom hole pressure is sum of all the pressure acting on the bottom hole. Looking more into details. Bottom Hole Pressure Relationship This post will show you Lean about bottom hole pressure relationship because this concept is very important for well control concept. etc. this situation is called “Overbalance”. please follow this example below demonstrating the relationship of BHP. For more understanding. We can describe the statement before as the following equation. cementing.

we need Surface Pressure (SP) of 2. it will create a lot of vibration that can cause failure in your drilling equipment such as drill pipe.465 psi/ft = 3720 psi.35 psi/ft) which is lower density than water gradient (0. TDS.465 psi/ft).465 psi/ft). in order to balance BHP. you may need high-tech simulation but sometimes you don’t really have that information supplied from town.920 psi (SP = 3720 – (0. If you rotate pipe more than the critical RPM. etc.35 x 8000)). Click here to learn how to calculate hydrostatic pressure in oilfield. Therefore. So you really need to be able to roughly estimate how much critical RPM is ( at least you get a idea for this limitation). The third case: BHP is still be water gradient but fluid column is gas (0. you may need to know critical RPM that you can go. Surface Pressure (SP) will compensate the lack of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in order to balance formation pressure (FP). The first case: Hydrostatic column is water which is equal to formation pressure gradient so SP is equal to 0 psi The second case: BHP is still be water gradient but fluid column is oil (0.465 psi/ft) so formation pressure at 8000’ TVD = 8000 ft x 0.We assume that formation pressure is normal pressure gradient of water gradient (0. This formula below shows you how to estimate the critical RPM and it has accuracy of 15% roughly.055 x (OD2 + ID2) 1/2 ÷ (L)2 Where. OD = drill pipe outside diameter in inch . Critical RPM to Avoid Excessive Vibration When you operate top drive. we need Surface Pressure (SP) of 920 psi (SP = 3720 – (0. In order to find out how much critical RPM. in order to balance BHP. According to the example. Therefore.1 psi/ft) which is even lower density than water gradient (0. Critical RPM = 33.1 x 8000)).

you really need to understand and be able to calculate how much light weight fluid you can put in hole that it will not create a well control situation by accidentally underbalance formation pressure.0 ppg .5 in. a) Determine the difference in pressure gradient in psi/ft between the mud weight and light weight spot fluid: Difference pressure in pressure gradient in psi/ft = (current mud wt in ppg – light weight spot pill in ppg) x 0. Critical RPM = 33. Example: Use the following data to determine the height in ft of light weight spot pill that will balance formation pressure in the annulus: Mud weight = 13.055 x (42+ 3.0 in. please use the value from those programs because it should consider many parameters than this simple formula. USE IT IN CASE OF YOU HAVE NOTHING AVAILABLE TO CALCULATE THE CRITICAL RPM Determine height of light weight spot pill to balance formation pressure When you get differentially stuck. Please follow the steps below to determine how height of light weight spot pill in the annulus to balance formation pressure. you may consider spotting light weight fluid to reduce force created by differential pressure between mud in wellbore and formation pressure.ID = drill pipe inside diameter in inch L = length of one joint of drill pipe in feet Example: Determine critical RPM from these following information L = length of one joint of drill pipe = 32 ft OD = drill pipe outside diameter = 4.52)1/2 ÷ (32)2 Critical RPM = 172 RPM Please remember this is ONLY estimation of the critical RPM. If you have higher length of light weight spot pill in the annulus.052 b) Determine height in ft of light weight spot fluid that will balance formation pressure in the annulus: Height ft in vertical = overbalance pressure with current mud weigh in psi ÷ difference in pressure gradient in psi/ft This height is the maximum allowable height of light weight spot pill in the annulus. However. it may create well control situation. ID = drill pipe inside diameter = 3. If you have your service companies or you have specific programs to determine it.

3 ppg) x 0. The examples below will show the Dh as hole size and Dp is drill pipe OD .2444 b) Determine the height in ft of light weight spot liquid that will balance formation pressure in the annulus: Height = 300 psi ÷ 0. This post demonstrates you how to calculate annular capacity between casing or hole and drill pipe. or casing.244 psi/ft Height = 1227 ft You must ensure than height of light weight pill in the annulus must less than 1227 ft in order to prevent wellcontrol situation . Calculate Annular Capacity Annular capacity is one of basic values that you really need to understand.3 ppg Amount of overbalance = 300 psi a) Difference in pressure gradient in psi/ft: Difference pressure in pressure gradient in psi/ft = (13 ppg – 8. Note: Dh is bigger ID and Dp is smaller OD.052 Difference pressure in pressure gradient in psi/ft = 0. tubing.Light weight spot pill = 8. There are several formulas as shown below to calculate annular capacity depending on unit of annular capacity required.

51 ÷ (Dh2 – Dp2) Example: Hole size (Dh) = 6-1/8 in.125 2 – 3.4 ÷ (Dh2 – Dp2) Example: Hole size (Dh) = 6-1/8 in. Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 3.51 Annular capacity = 1. Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 3. Example: .5 in.5 2) ÷1029.1252 – 3. Annular capacity in ft/gal = 24.51 Example: Hole size (Dh) = 6-1/8 in.4 ÷ (6.52) ÷24. Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 3.125 2 – 3.5 2) Annular capacity = 40.4 Example: Hole size (Dh) = 6-1/8 in.97 ft/gal Annular volume can be determined by this following formula.031 gal/ft d) Calculate annular capacity in ft/gal Annular capacity. Annular volume in bbl = annular capacity (bbl/ft) x length of annulus (ft) Note: annular volume can be expressed in several unit depending on unit that you use in the calculation.0245 bbl/ft b) Calculate annular capacity in ft/bbl Annular capacity in ft/bbl = 1029. Annular capacity in ft/bbl = 1029.4 Annular capacity = 0. ft/gal = 24.5 in.5 in.743 ft/bbl c) Calculate annular capacity in gal/ft Annular capacity in gal/ft = (Dh2 – Dp2) ÷ 24.a) Calculate annular capacity in bbl/ft Annular capacity in bbl/ft = (Dh2 – Dp2) ÷1029. Annular capacity in bbl/ft = (6. Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 3.5 2) Annular capacity in ft/gal = 0.5 in. Annular capacity in gal/ft = (6.51 ÷ (6.125 2 – 3.

higher pump pressure requires to maintain pump rate.Annular capacity = 0. ** Please remember that if you have several annular profile. higher pump pressure is required to maintain the pump rate. gel strength and yield point. It is a function of fluid property (density. viscosity. characteristic of flow path (hole size/drill string size). Frictional Pressure Loss Components in the Rig Circulating System Frictional Pressure Loss: Frictional Pressure Loss is pressure loss created by fluid flowing through the flow path. . The Diagram of Frictional Pressure Loss in Circulation System Parameters.5 bbl. Frictional pressure loss affects on pump pressure because higher frictional pressure loss. viscosity. the diagram below describes pressure loss each flow path of drilling fluid in the total rig circulation system. In order to clearly demonstrate the pressure loss component in the drilling rig system. you must calculate volume based on each annular profile in order to get total annular volume.0245 bbl/ft Length of annulus = 1000 ft Annular volume = 1000 x 0. which affect pump pressure. Higher mud weight. Fluid properties especially mud weight. velocity of fluid.0245 = 24. gel strength and yield point affects directly on pump pressure. gel strength). viscosity. are as follows: 1.

Frequent Mud Motor Stall – Motor stall happens when the rotor of the mud motor has stopped moving.2. BHA and Bit: Due to small inner area. BHA and bit can cause majority of pressure loss. differential pressure it a set parameter while rotating down. a mud motor normally drills at 400 psi differential pressure. The questions that are usually raised are things like “How do I know if the mud motor fails down hole?” and “What indications will I see that this has happened?” etc. 4. not based on the weight on bit (WOB). It means we need more pump capacity to achieve the drilling goal. Depth of the well is based on geological targets underneath the earth by geologists. However. Pump rate is another factor that affects directly on pump pressure. This is a basic concept when higher pump rate is needed. Well Depth: The deeper of the well is. the motor stalls only with a high differential of pressure. Higher velocity creates more frictional pressure loss. High pump pressure is required in order to maintain pump rate because there is additional pressure loss due to smaller hole size and drill string. higher velocity of fluid flow is created at same pump rate. . BHA design/selection and bit nozzle selection are critical for hydraulic design. 5. Due to this. it will get stalled with by a small amount of differential pressure. 3. This part will influence on how to select the proper rig capacity in order to meet hydraulic proposes of the wells How to Determine Mud Motor Failure Mud motor failure downhole may be happened from time to time. the more pressure loss will occur . The following signs indicate that you may be faced with downhole mud motor breakdown. but if the motor is stalled out with only 100 psi you can suspect the problem is with the motor. higher pump pressure is required. I would like to share my personal experience regarding mud motor failure and its symptoms. Hole size/drill string size: Smaller internal diameter of both hole and drill string. For instance. Pressure fluctuation while rotating – As you know. Hence. if the motor doesn’t perform as normal. Rotating with a good mud motor won’t create pressure fluctuations. Typically.

the decreasing in ROP (Rate of Penetration) may be caused by failure of the down hole tool. Reduction in Rate of Penetration – If there are no changes in formation and drilling parameters. Please follow these steps to determine new circulating pressure 1. you need to figure out an exact figure. There are 2 formulas used to determine pump pressure as shown in the detail below: 1st formula for estimating new circulating pressure (simple and handy for field use) New circulating pressure in psi = present circulating pressure in psi x (new pump rate in spm ÷ old pump rate in spm) 2 Example: Determine the new circulating pressure. Determine the factor ”n” and the formula to determine factor “n” is below: . Abnormally high surface pressure – A stator is made of rubber. psi using the following data: Present circulating pressure = 2500 psi Old pump rate = 40 spm New pump rate = 25 spm 2 New circulating pressure in psi = 2500 psi x (25 spm ÷ 40 spm) New circulating pressure = 976. With the mentioned indicators of mud motor failure above. Moreover. you should be able to identify your suspected problem and begin troubleshooting as soon as possible to minimize non-productive time on a drilling rig. It is almost impossible to drill with a damaged mud motor unless you only have a few feet to the well target depth. This situation also results in high stand pipe pressure. If you want more accurate figure. small parts of rubber can jam the flow path in the motor.whereas a bad mud motor will show fluctuation in stand pipe pressure and you may not be able to maintain constant pressure. Pump Pressure and Pump Stroke Relationship There is relationship between pump pressure and pump stroke that you really need to understand and be able to determine pump pressure after adjusting new pump stroke. So the 2nd formula has one additional formula to calculate the factor based on 2 pressure readings at different pump rate. if the took is severely damaged. What should you do if the problem is clearly identified? The only thing you can do is pull out of the hole and change a new tool. you will be able to drill any footage. the factor “2” is used but it’s just the round up figure. When the stator rubber is worn out and breaking into pieces.6 psi 2nd formula for estimating new circulating pressure (more complex) For the 1st formula.

The most worn area is the end of drilling line where is constantly spooled over the draw works drum. If you see the worn out line. Determine new circulating pressure with this following formula. When the predetermined ton-mile limit is reached. drilling contractors will perform slip and cut drilling line to prevent drilling line fatigue. you need to cut the drilling line even though the drilling line does not reach ton-mile limit yet. is cut then the drilling line is re-attached to the draw works drum and the amount cut off is spooled back on the drum. .872 Example: Determine new circulating pressure by using these following information and the factor “n” from above example: Present circulating pressure = 2500 psi Old pump rate = 40 spm New pump rate = 25 spm New circulating pressure. This operation is called “slip and cut drilling line”. coring. psi = 2500 psi x (25 spm ÷ 40 spm) 1. typically around 100 ft. running casing. etc. the most important is to visually inspect drilling line all time to see if there is any worn out wire.The drilling line get worn out. Note: Ton-mile is the important figure that must be recorded correctly. Example: Determine the factor “n” from 2 pump pressure reading Pressure 1 = 2700 psi at 320 gpm Pressure 2 = 500 psi at 130 gpm Factor (n) = log (2700 psi ÷ 500 psi) ÷ log (320 gpm ÷ 130 gpm) Factor (n) = 1. New circulating pressure in psi = present circulating pressure in psi x (new pump rate in spm ÷ old pump rate in spm) n Note: factor “n” comes from the first step of calculation. A section of drilling line.872 New circulating pressure = 1037 psi What is Drilling Ton-Mile (TM)? Drilling Ton-Mile is the work of drilling line that is commonly measured as the cumulative of the load lifted in tons and the distance lifted or lowered in miles. When drilling line is spooled on and off a drawworks drum during operation as drilling a well. drilling contractors must cut old section and replace with new section of drilling line at specific period based on ton mile calculation.Factor (n) = log (pressure 1 ÷ pressure 2) ÷ log (pump rate 1÷pump rate 2) 2. therefore. However.

o If flow check indicates wellbore influx. Ton-miles setting casing 5. 1. If drilling fluid volume is less than theoretical pipe displacement while tripping out or more return fluid while running in. increasing in flow show without adjusting flow rate in will cause pit gain in a pit system. with high technology sensors. 3. etc).All types of ton-mile service should be calculated and recorded in order to obtain a true picture of the total service received from the rotary drilling line. With utilizing that system. 1. drill collar. we can compare fluid that is filled in or returned from wellbore with steel volume of tubular (drill pipe. it is very important to have a filling system via trip tank that provides continuous hole fill all time. 2. There are several types of ton miles as follows. However. Sometimes. it indicates formation influx into wellbore. If there is any flow coming after pumps off. Nowadays. you need to flow check and monitor the well. tubing. Positive Kick Indicators While drilling 1. For tripping operation. change in pit level may be detected after the increase in flow show because it takes more time to accumulate volume enough to be able to detect by pit sensors. Drilling or “connection” ton-miles 3. detecting change in pit level is easily accomplished at the rig site. casing. visually check the pit level is importance as well for double checking figure from the sensors. Trip log deviation such as short fill up while tripping out and excess pit gain while tripping in. Coring ton-miles 4. flow show instrument provided by the rigs or service companies must be checked and calibrated frequently. Positive Kick Indicators While Tripping There are 2 positive kick indicators while tripping as listed below. BHA.Because drilling fluid system on the rig is a closed system. Continue flowing while the pumps are off – When pumps are turned off. Increase of active pit system (Pit gain) . crew must quickly shut the well in. Therefore. bottom hole pressure will decrease due to loss of equivalent circulating density (ECD). increase in return flow indicates something coming into wellbore while drilling. Short-trip ton-miles Positive Kick (Wellbore Influx) Indications Positive kick (wellbore influx) indications mean indications showing almost 100% kick (wellbore influx) into wellbore. Round trip ton-miles 2. Increase in flow show – Without any increasing in flow rate in. .

applied to determine loss of hydrostatic pressure. Loss of Hydrostatic Pressure due to Lost Return In case of totally lost return. This post demonstrates how to determine hydrostatic pressure reduction due to fully filling water into annulus.052 x (ft of water added) Equivalent Mud Weight at TD EMW in ppg = current mud weight in ppg – (BHP decrease in psi ÷ 0. Mud weight = 13.o If flow check does not show any influx. If volume in trip tank increases. we assume the column of water in annulus is true vertical depth. Please follow concepts below. as fast as we can.5 ft Bottomhole (BHP) pressure reduction .1422 bbl/ft Feet = 984.1422 bbl/ft Hole TVD = 6. Number of feet of water in annulus Feet of water in annulus = 140 bbl ÷ 0. There are two main concepts. please adjust water weight to your mud weight. 2. BHP decrease in psi = (current mud weight in ppg – weight of water in ppg) x 0. personnel must confirm flow check and prepare to shut the well in. Number of feet of water in annulus Ft of water added = water added in bbl ÷ annular capacity in bbl/ft Bottomhole (BHP) pressure reduction In order to calculate bottom hole pressure reduction. the annulus must be fully filled with fluid. drill string must be run back to bottom in order to circulate at least bottom up to ensure hole condition.000 ft ** If you fill lighter mud in hole instead of water. Every time that pipe in static condition.6 ppg ** Annular capacity = 0. Trip tank with correct filling system must be monitored all time by both rig personnel and mud logger. Positive flow when pipe is static. normally water.052 ÷ TVD ft of hole) Example: Determine bottom hole pressure loss and equivalent mud weight at TD due to filling up water into annulus. annular capacity and hydrostatic pressure. Water filled in annulus causes loss of hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore.0 ppg Water added = 140 bbl required to fill annulus Weight of water = 8.

3 ppg Pressure and force relationship and applications Pressure is force divided by cross section area (see an image below). In drilling operation. We plan to bullhead well and we still have drill string in the hole.0 – (225.5” Drill pipe size = 5″ .5 ft BHP reduction = 225. etc.052 x 6.052 x 984.143 x (radius)2) or force ÷ (0.3 psi Equivalent mud weight at TD EMW in ppg = 13.BHP reduction = (13.7857 x (diameter)2 Pressure = force ÷ (3. kg/m3.000 lb Mud weight in hole = 12.3 psi ÷ (0. Pascal. We normally use pressure in many units such as psi (pound per square inch).7857 x (diameter)2) Let’s try to apply pressure and force relationship in drilling operation.6 ppg) x 0. so we can write a formula above in easy way Area = 3. Area = ¶ x (radius)2 or ¶ x (diameter)2÷ 4 Where ¶= 22/7 = 3.143 x (radius)2 or 0.143.0 ppg Bit size = 8.000 ft)) EMW = 12.0 ppg – 8. we mostly use circular area so area can be calculated by this formula. Drill string weight in the air = 45.

the moving speed is lower at location where the cross section area is bigger. it can create hole wash out and excessive equivalent circulating density.5)2= 56.77 square inch= 647 psi. However.0) ÷ 65. you need to apply bullheading pressure less than 647 psi on surface.5 = 0. if the annular velocity is too high. Buoyancy factor = (65.000 x 0.817 = 36. . When the drilling mud is circulated through a system. Conversely.77 square inch Pressure = 36. The cross section area around drill collar and BHA has the smallest area so the annular velocity is the highest. the annular velocity at that point is higher.5 – 12. when the fluid flows through the small cross section area. Annular Velocity and Its Importance to Drilling Hydraulics Annular velocity is the speed of fluid moving up the annulus and it must be high enough to transport cuttings generated while drilling from the wellbore.817 Buoyed weight of drill string = 45.What is the maximum pressure at surface you can apply before drilling string will be blow out due to bullheading pressure.765 lb Area = 0.765 lb ÷ 56.7857 x (diameter)2= 0.7857 x (8. In order to perform safe bullheading operation with drill string in hole.

The size of drill collars and BHA should be reduced if the flow rate can cause excessive wellbore erosion. (Annular velocity around drill collar and BHA) On other hand. (Annular velocity around drill pipe) The annular velocity around drill pipe must be used to determine if it is good enough for hole cleaning because it is the lowest velocity in the wellbore. the annular velocity is affected by mud properties. If you have some formations which can be easily washed out. mud types. size of cuttings. formation types. hole angle. it will definitely be sufficient for hole cleaning around drill collars. the area around drill pipe has the biggest cross sectional area. you need to look at the annular velocity around drill collars. rate of penetration. BHA and tool joints. To adequately transport the cuttings from the wellbore. hence. . etc. BHA and tool joints. If the annular velocity around the drill pipe is good enough for hole cleaning purpose. the speed of fluid around the drill pipe area is smallest.

A formula for the annular velocity in an oilfield unit is shown below: Where Va = annular velocity.d2] .104976 bbl/stk Adjust the triplex pump output for 97% efficiency: Decimal equivalent = 97 ÷ 100 = 0.101827 bbl/stk Duplex Pump Output Formula Duplex Pump Output in bbl/stk = 0. etc. Triplex Pump Output Formula Triplex Pump Output in bbl/stk = 0. wash out depth.000243 x 62 x 12 PO @ 100% = 0. of mud pumps on the rig is important figures that we really need to know because we will use pump out put figures to calculates many things such as bottom up strokes. gallon per minute Dh = hole diameter. normally in bbl per stroke.97 PO @ 97% = 0. ft/min Q = flow rate. inch Dp = outside diameter of drill pipe. tracking drilling fluid.000162 x S x [2(D)2 . you will learn how to calculate pump out put for triplex pump and duplex pump. In this post. inch Pump Output Calculation for Duplex Pump and Triplex Pump Rig pump output.000243 x (liner diameter in inch) 2 X (stroke length in inch) Example: Determine the pump output in bbl/stk at 100% and 97% efficiency Linner size = 6 inch Stroke length = 12 inch Triplex pump output: PO @ 100% = 0.104976 bbl/stk x 0.97 PO @ 97% = 0.

0 in.052 x 4000 = 1102 psi Formation Integrity Test (FIT) guideline is listed below: (note: this is just only guide line.11236 bbl/stk Formation Integrity Test (FIT) Procedure and Calcualtion Formation Integrity Test is the method to test strength of formation and shoe by increasing Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) to designed pressure.5-9. drilling engineers in town will design how much formation integrity test pressure required mostly in ppg.2) x 0. Normally.000162 x 12 x [2 (6) 2 -122 ] PO @ 100% = 0. Duplex pump efficiency = 100 %.5 Current mud weight (ppg) = 9. Drill out new formation few feet. FIT is normally conducted to ensure that formation below a casing shoe will not be broken while drilling the next section with higher BHP or circulating gas influx in a well control situation. You may need to follow your standard procedure in order to perform formation integrity test): 1. . Pressure required for FIT (psi) = (Required FIT in ppg – Current Mud Weight in ppg) x 0.052 x True Vertical Depth of shoe in ft Example: Required FIT (ppg) = 14.13219 bbl/stk Adjust pump output for 85% efficiency: PO @ 85% = 0. The formula below demonstrates you how to calculate required FIT pressure.85 PO @ 85% = 0. circulate bottom up and collect sample to confirm that new formation is drilled to and then pull string into the casing.Whrere: D = liner diameter in inch S = stroke length in inch d = rod diameter in inch Example: Determine the duplex pump output in bbl/stk at 100% and 85% efficiency Liner diameter = 6 inch Stroke length = 12 inch Rod diameter = 2. PO @ 100% = 0.132192 bbl/stk x 0.2 Shoe depth TVD (ft) = 4000 TVD Pressure required for FIT = (14.

Valves and BOP component. This template was created by Benny Mason. and circulate through an open choke line to ensure that surface line is fully filled with drilling fluid. Gradually pump small amount of drilling fluid into well with constant pump stroke. Spool . Record total pump strokes.2. Annular Preventer. Hold pressure for few minutes to confirm pressure. RAMs BOP. Pump until casing pressure reaches the pressure required for formatin integrity test. Then proceed drilling operation. 3. normally a cement pump. line up a pump. Riser. Free BOP Drawing Template I’ve found the free BOP drawing template which might be advantageous for you all. 5. Close annular preventer or pipe rams. 4. drill pipe pressure and casing pressure.Stop the pump and close a choke valve. Bleed off pressure and open up the well.

Small BOP for wireline and riser .BOP stack.

33 Example: Fluid = 13.50 psi/ft ÷ 0. Calculate Specific Gravity (SG) in oilfield unit You may need to calculate specific gravity from different density or pressure gradient units. 1.0 ppg SG = 13.50 psi/ft SG = 0. Calculate specific gravity using pressure gradient in psi/ft Specific gravity formula : SG = pressure gradient in psi/ft ÷ 0. Calculate specific gravity using mud weight in PPG Specific gravity formula : SG = mud weight in ppg ÷ 8.433 SG = 1.0 ppg ÷ 8.433 Example: pressure gradient = 0.Manifold and series of valves.33 SG = 1.56 2. This post demonstrates you about specific gravity calculation and specific gravity formulas frequently used in oilfield business.15 .

I will talk about BOP categories later. you may need to check the following conditions. lubricate and bleed and bull heading. wait and weight. Calculate specific gravity using mud weight in lb/ft 3 Specific gravity formula : SG = mud weight in lb/ft3 ÷ 62.4 SG = 1. • Tight clearance between hole and tool joint • Tool joint at the top of fish is in a good condition . Fishing Drill Pipe Procedure – Screw in Drill Pipe Sometimes drillpipe is accidentally dropped into the well and you need to fish it out of the well. Before going into a detailed procedure.4 Example: Mud weight = 90 lb/ft3 SG = 90 lb/ft3÷ 62. we can call that “Blow Out Preventer” or BOP is Secondary Well Control. it will just be only heavy equipment on the rig.44 Well.3. There are several types of “Blow Out Preventer” (BOP) which have different applications. One easy option that may be feasible to perform is to use a drill string to screw into the drill pipe in the well. Without well control practices for using BOP’s. Please also remember that BOP must be used with specific procedures to control kick such as driller method.

Run in hole to xxx MD (200 ft above the Top Of Fish) 4. Record pick up and slack off weight without rotation 7. Slowly run in hole without rotation . 9. Break circulate with 160 GPM using current drilling fluid in the well • Record pressure 6. you will get the base line values when the drill string does not engage with another part. Count the actual turn of drill pipe 3. Record pick up and slack off weight with 20 RPM 8. Make up top drive 5. Trip in hole 1 stand 2. Record torque with 20 RPM .In the steps 5-8.Data that you need to know before going to fish the drill string • Fish length • Top of fish • Weight of fish in the mud • Actual turn to fully engage when screw in Detailed procedure for fishing drill pipe by screwing into the fish Fish length = xxx ft Expected TOF = xxx ft Weight of the fish (BHA + DP) = xx Klb 1.

Slowly run in hole with 20 RPM 13. Attempt to screw into the top of fish (tool joint) 14. increment of pick up weight should close to buoyed weight of the fish (dropped drill string).Increase in pumping pressure. . Tag top of fish while pumping with 160 GPM 11. Pull out of hole to surface. weight on bit and pick up weight. . Pick up 5 ft 12. 15. torque. Indicators if the fish is engaged. . Flow check 16.When picking up drill string.10.